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									2012
2013       Career Manual
           for Career Planning and Campus Recruiting




                                            Get Noticed.

       Engineering Career Resource Center
                                                              Develop Your Career with Us
                                                              I’ve been a part of Lutron for 3 ½ years.
                                                              Jamie McMahon (Electrical Engineering Major)
                                                              Design and Development Engineer




                                                              At Lutron, we’ve been designing and manufacturing
                                                              energy-saving light control solutions since 1961.

                                                              Our success depends on your success. Join Lutron’s
                                                              Innovation Leadership Program and you’ll develop the skills
                                                              and knowledge needed to win in the world of innovation.

                                                          •   Immediately join an engineering development team
                                                          •   Receive formal mentor support
                                                          •   Collaborate regularly with business unit managers
                                                              and directors
                                                          •   Acquire real-world experience through field assignments
                                                          •   Foster relationships with Lutron’s global customers

                                                              Key opportunities include:
                                                              Engineering—Electrical, Mechanical,
                                                                           Computer, Software,
                                                                           Manufacturing,
©2012 Lutron Electronics Co., Inc. | P/N 368-2717 REV B




                                                                           Industrial, Architectural
                                                              Science—Physics, Chemistry, Math

                                                              Opportunities are also available in sales leadership and
                                                              field engineering leadership—hiring all majors.




                                                                                                                            Dynamic keypad in Black
                                                              To learn more about how you
                                                              can be a part of our future visit
                                                              www.lutron.com/careers                                                         @lutronjobs
Welcome Students:

On behalf of the entire staff of the Engineering Career Resource Center (ECRC), I want to
welcome Michigan Engineering and Computer Science students to our center. The ECRC
continues to evolve in our efforts to provide a variety of services to assist you with your career
planning. I encourage each of you to take full advantage of the services we have to offer.

The 2012-2013 recruiting season begins with renewed recruiting energy. We have seen an
increase in the number of opportunities for engineers and computer scientists and we expect that
trend to continue. Whether you are seeking employment or information about furthering your
education, we are available to assist you. We utilize the online recruiting system ENGenius.Jobs,
which provides you with exclusive access to job listings and campus interviews. ENGenius.Jobs
is flexible, easy to use and your best link to the career services’ employment information for
Michigan engineers and computer scientists.

Now is the best time to learn more about the many areas you can explore with your engineering
and/or computer science education. We will help you make contact with those already working
in the field and the numerous employers that seek Michigan engineers and computer scientists.
Internship and cooperative education positions are also available to help you gain valuable
experience before you graduate.

We look forward to working with you and hope you will take the time to give us feedback
through email to ecrc-info@umich.edu or by visiting our office.

Sincerely,




Kerri Boivin
Director
                                                                                                                                                          CAREER
                                                                                                                                                          MANUAL
                  Table of Contents                                                                                                                       2012-2013
Services
  Student Services  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .        3      The University
  Job Search Code of Ethics .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                     4
                                                                                                                                                       of Michigan
  Create Your Story ➠ Build Your Brand  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                             6
  Getting Started on ENGenius .Jobs  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                 7
                                                                                                                                                      Engineering
Resumes and Cover Letters
  Resume Writing for Impact  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 8
                                                                                                                                                    Career Resource
  Resume Tips  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 9           Center
  Power Verbs for Your Resume  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 10
  Sample Resume  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 12
  Sample Resume  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 13                    Chrysler Center
  The Curriculum Vitae  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 14                             2121 Bonisteel Blvd.
  Cover Letter Format  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 15                       Suite 230
     Sample Cover Letter  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 16          Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2092

                                                                                                                                                    Telephone: 734-647-7160
Job Search
                                                                                                                                                       Fax: 734-647-7141
  Job Search Strategies and Networking  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                          17
                                                                                                                                                    http://career.engin.umich.edu
  Career Fairs  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   18
                                                                                                                                                       ecrc-info@umich.edu
  Social Networking Websites  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                            19
  International Students  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                 20

Interviews                                                                                                                                                 Hours:
   The Interview Gets You the Job  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 21                                  Monday-Friday
   What the Employers Are Saying  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 21                                 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.
   On-Campus Recruiting  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 22
   Types of Interviews  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 23
   A Closer Look at Responding to Interview Questions  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 24
   Questions Asked By Employers  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 26
   Guide to Appropriate Pre-Employment Inquiries  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 27
   Dealing With Rejection in the Job Search  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 28

Evaluating Offers
  You Have an Offer, Now What?  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 29
  Cost of Living Index  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 30

Graduate School
  Graduate School: Is It for You?  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 31

Advertiser Index  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 31
                                                             SERVICES




                                      Student Services
  Recruiting Services                                                 Cooperative Education Program
     The Engineering Career Resource Center (ECRC)                       The Cooperative Education Program (Co-op) is for
  manages ENGenius.Jobs, a password-protected, online                 students who wish to gain significant work experience
  system designed to connect students with companies for              before they graduate. A co-op is similar to an internship,
  employment opportunities. ENGenius.Jobs is a job posting            but is typically longer in duration. Often, a student in the
  and interview scheduling system powered by NACElink/                Cooperative Education Program will alternate work semes-
  Symplicity. Employers use the system to post jobs, view             ters with school semesters. You can apply to co-op positions
  resumes, and set up campus interviews. Students can use             on ENGenius.Jobs. You can also discuss your co-op job
  ENGenius.Jobs to apply to jobs and schedule interviews.             search with a Career Counselor.


  Career Advising                                                     Workshops and Employer Presentations
     Professional staff and peer advisors are available in the          Workshops on topics including Job Search Strategies,
  ECRC to assist you with resume writing, interviewing skills,        Resume Writing, Interview Skills, and Career Fair
  job search techniques, negotiating offers, and navigating           Preparation are routinely offered. Employer representatives
  ENGenius.Jobs. Be sure to make use of their expertise.              may also visit campus and conduct presentations on various
  Counseling appointments can be scheduled on ENGenius.               aspects of engineering or on career-related topics. Check the
  Jobs. One-on-one resume critiques and mock interviews are           calendar on the ECRC website for information on upcoming
  some of the most sought after services offered by our career        events.
  counselors. The ECRC also maintains career resources in
  the form of books, handouts, and other reference materials
  for your use.                                                       On-Campus Interviews
                                                                         Hundreds of companies visit the College of Engineering
                                                                      every year to interview engineering and computer science
  Internships                                                         students. The interviewing season is typically mid-
     Summer internships provide an opportunity to learn               September through early December, and January through
  more about what engineers do on the job, gain meaningful            March. Use ENGenius.Jobs to apply to positions and sign
  experience, and earn money in the process. Many of the              up for interviews if you are selected. If you are graduating
  companies that come on campus to interview are seeking              in April, keep in mind most interviews for permanent posi-
  interns to fill summer positions. The earlier you begin             tions take place in the fall. It is not uncommon for students
  looking for an internship, the better. It is not unusual for        to know by December or January where they will be
  some companies to fill internship positions in the fall             working after graduation.
  semester for the following summer.




                                 Check the ECRC website at http://career.engin.umich.edu or stop
                                 by the ECRC in 230 Chrysler Center for more information. Additional
                                 services can be obtained from The Career Center on central campus in
                                 room 3200 Student Activities Building. Contact them by telephone at
                                 (734) 764-7460 or visit their website at www.careercenter.umich.edu.




http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                     The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 3
                                                              SERVICES




      Job Search Code of Ethics
  P
      lease read this page carefully. It states the policy               interview date. The recruiter’s address may be obtained
      for use of ENGenius.Jobs, our online recruiting                    from ENGenius.Jobs or can be forwarded on your
      system powered by NACElink/Symplicity. By using                    behalf by the ECRC. Failure to send an apology to the
  ENGenius.Jobs, you are indicating your acceptance of the               recruiter and provide a copy to the ECRC will result in a
  terms of the Job Search Code of Ethics.                                suspension of your ENGenius.Jobs privileges.

  User Eligibility                                                       No-Show
  Employer contact information included in ENGenius.Jobs                 Failing to attend a scheduled interview without noti-
  is provided for the use of University of Michigan College              fying our office to cancel the interview is unprofessional
  of Engineering and Computer Science students/alumni at                 and discourteous conduct. Individuals who do not show
  the Ann Arbor campus. Employer representatives expect                  for a scheduled interview will have their ENGenius.
  that any correspondence (e.g., email messages, telephone               Jobs account suspended.
  inquiries) will only be from engineering and computer                    To regain access to your ENGenius.Jobs account, you
  science applicants who are enrolled or alumni of the Ann               must send an apology letter via email to the recruiter
  Arbor campus. Maintain the confidentiality of your pass-               that explains the circumstances that caused you to miss
  word and use caution and common sense when using the                   your interview and either deliver a copy in person to the
  website.                                                               Engineering Career Resource Center in 230 Chrysler
                                                                         Center, North Campus or email a copy to ecrc-info@
  Falsification of Data                                                  umich.edu. This apology letter must be sent within
  Providing inaccurate information in order to meet the                  three business days of your interview date. The recruit-
  eligibility requirements for a specific company schedule               er’s address may be obtained from ENGenius.Jobs or
  is inappropriate. Review your ENGenius.Jobs profile                    can be forwarded on your behalf by the ECRC.
  information and resume for accuracy. Students who falsify
  information on their resume and within their ENGenius.            Second Late Cancellation or No-Show
  Jobs profile will not only be removed from interview              Interview appointments must be kept to maintain integ-
  schedules, but will be blocked from the system for the            rity and professional conduct. A Late Cancellation or a
  remainder of the academic year. Any further violation will        No-Show for an interview is taken very seriously; there-
  result in a permanent deactivation of your ENGenius.Jobs          fore, a second violation of this policy will result in the
  account.                                                          suspension and possible permanent deactivation of your
                                                                    ENGenius.Jobs account. If a second violation occurs, you
  Interview Cancellation and No-Show                                must send an apology to the recruiter within three business
  Interviewing on or off campus is a privilege granted to           days of the missed interview, provide a copy to the ECRC
  you by employers who have provided their staff, financial         at ecrc-info@umich.edu, and meet with the Director of the
  resources, and time to meet you at your convenience. Only         ECRC or his/her designee. Your ENGenius.Jobs account
  request interviews for positions that seriously interest          may or may not be reinstated, depending on the situation.
  you. If you find that you must cancel an interview, you are
  required to abide by the following ECRC policy.                        Note: When a student is blocked from further use of the
                                                                         system, the student is still responsible for attending all previ-
      Cancellation                                                       ously scheduled interview appointments.
      If the interview is more than three (3) business
      days away, you may cancel it without penalty using                   On-campus interviewing is very competitive and
      ENGenius.Jobs. If you need help canceling your inter-              highly sought after by all students. It is a privilege and
      view via ENGenius.Jobs, please contact the ECRC                    not a right. A wasted interview slot represents a lost
      immediately.                                                       opportunity for another student and an enormous loss
                                                                         for the employer. Additionally, it reflects very poorly
      Late Cancellation                                                  on the University of Michigan, which in turn, reflects
      Canceling an appointment three (3) business days or                poorly on you. Show that you are a person of integrity who
      less before the interview date is considered a late cancel-        keeps commitments.
      lation. Late cancellations should only occur because of
      unforeseen circumstances such as a serious illness or         Offers and Acceptance of Employment
      death in the family. To cancel an interview within three      We strongly encourage students to inform the ECRC of
      business days of the interview date, you must call the        offers and acceptances of employment. Once an offer has
      ECRC at 734-647-7160.                                         been accepted, discontinue campus interviews and cancel
         After notifying the ECRC, you must send an apology         any remaining interviews in accordance with the cancel-
      letter via email to the recruiter that explains the circum-   lation policy stated above. Students should also make
      stances that caused you to miss your interview and            every effort to avoid reneging on job offers. Gather infor-
      either deliver a copy in person to the Engineering Career     mation, ask plenty of questions, anticipate other offers,
      Resource Center in 230 Chrysler Center, North Campus          determine your career goals and needs, meet with an
      or email a copy to ecrc-info@umich.edu. This apology          ECRC advisor, and request an extension on the deadline,
      letter must be sent within three business days of your        all in an attempt to make an informed decision regarding



4 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                        http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                            SERVICES




                 Job Search Code of Ethics                                                       continued
  an offer of employment. Once that commitment is made,           ECRC Career Counselor and the ECRC Director. In this
  reneging on an offer has a very negative impact. It not only    meeting, you will consider your options and outline an
  tarnishes your reputation but also damages the reputation       apology letter to any affected employers. This letter will be
  of Michigan Engineers. Building a campus presence, iden-        forwarded to the employer(s) with the ECRC’s notification.
  tifying suitable candidates and participating in campus         Failure to contact the ECRC with a retracted agreement will
  recruiting are time-consuming and expensive under-              result in the revocation of your ENGenius.Jobs account.
  takings for employing organizations. Take your offers
  seriously and plan to honor your commitments. Because of          Please visit http://career.engin.umich.edu/studalums/
  this, before you retract a committed offer, you must contact    CodeofEthics.pdf for the most up-to-date version of the
  the ECRC Office and set up an appointment with both an          Job Search Code of Ethics.




http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                  The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 5
                                                             SERVICES




     Create Your Story ➠ Build Your Brand
  The Job Search Process                                             suggest that you minimally summarize each experience at
     A job search is a fluid process. The tools you use in           its culmination. Waiting too long may cause you to lose some
  your search will be modified and shaped over time as you           of the detail and the results you achieved.
  continue to grow and develop as a student, a professional             As you gather information, focus on telling your story, i.e.,
  and a life-long learner.                                           who you are, what you are capable of, and how your efforts
     To be most effective in the job search process, you’ll want     impacted the group, organization or activity you supported.
  to take time for self-reflection. Understanding “you”—your         You’ll want to communicate these results in clear, concise,
  unique strengths, natural abilities, passions, and successes—      relevant messaging about you (also known as your BRAND).
  will help you develop and articulate your value to others in       Simply stated, this is what you can offer the employer.
  your network and to potential employers.                           Understanding your value and expressing it confidently
     What do we recommend? START EARLY. Seek out                     allows you to shine in every interaction you have, whether
  opportunities to develop and demonstrate transferable              in person or in writing. Ultimately, it is the demonstration of
  skills. Capture your accomplishments in writing as you             your strengths and their relevance to your target role/career
  experience them. While this may not always be practical, we        that will lead to a successful search.




                Guide to the ECRC—Through the Years
                   Below are recommendations on how to utilize the ECRC’s resources during your time as a
                University of Michigan student. While the timeline has been designed with the undergraduate student
                in mind, graduate students can also use this timeline—think of the “freshman” activities as things to
                do when you first come to campus and aspire to move up to the “senior” activities before you graduate.




6 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                    http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                                SERVICES




      Getting Started on ENGenius.Jobs
  T
        he Engineering Career Resource Center (ECRC)                    ENGenius.Jobs is the database of opportunities available
        manages ENGenius.Jobs, our web-based recruiting               specifically to University of Michigan CoE/LS&A Computer
        program. Students and alumni of the University of             Science students and alumni.
  Michigan - Ann Arbor College of Engineering, as well as
                                                                           	
                                                                      	 •	 Search	for	full-time,	internship	and	co-op	
  the LS&A Computer Science program, are eligible to use the               opportunities.
  system.
                                                                           	
                                                                      	 •	 Search	by	geographic	location,	position	type,	and	many	
                                                                           other criteria. Try saving your search criteria under the
  Setting up Your Account                                                  Search Agents tab, which can save you time during
  	 •	 An	email	from	ECRC	containing	your	username	and	
       	                                                                   frequently used searches and allow you to receive noti-
       password was sent to every eligible student’s UMICH.                fications of new opportunities.
       EDU email account. If you did not receive this informa-             	
                                                                      	 •	 Follow	the	instructions	in	the	How to Apply section of
       tion, please email ecrc-info@umich.edu.                             each individual job profile. The employer may ask that you
  	 •	 Go	to	engineering-umich-csm.symplicity.com/
       	                                                                   submit your resume through both ENGenius.Jobs and their
                                                                           website. Failure to follow instructions may lead to elimination
       students or use the quick-link on the ECRC homepage
                                                                           from consideration.
       to log in.
                                                                           	
                                                                      	 •	 To	withdraw	an	application	or	update	attached	docu-
       	
  	 •	 Click	the	Profile button at the top of the page, and                ments for a non-OCU job, go to the Applications tab
       update any editable information. Be sure to place a                 within Job Postings. There you will see a list of all
       check mark in the Policy Affirmation boxes in the                   pending applications and a withdrawal option for each.
       Personal Information and Privacy tabs.                              You will need to simply resubmit your application with
  	 •	 Click	the	Documents button at the top of the page and
       	                                                                   the proper attachments to update that application. To
       upload a resume(s). You will need an uploaded resume                withdraw an application or update attached documents
       in your account to begin applying for jobs.                         for a job associated with on-campus interviews, go to the
                                                                           Interview Requests tab within the Interviews section.

                                                                         NACElink Network connects you to a national database
  Main Menu Tabs                                                      of job opportunities.

  Profile                                                                  	
                                                                      	 •	 Search	based	on	keyword	or	location.
    Please Note: Your profile cannot be viewed by employers.               	
                                                                      	 •	 You	may	also	search	specifically	for	international	
  They can only see the documents you submit to their job                  opportunities.
  posting. This information is used for eligibility criteria only.
                                                                      Employers
       	
  	 •	 Continue	to	keep	your	personal	information	updated	                 	
                                                                      	 •	 Search	for	companies	of	interest,	save	your	favorites,	
       (address, phone number, etc.).                                      and keep track of key contacts.
       	
  	 •	 Check	out	options	such	as	calendar	synchronization	                 	
                                                                      	 •	 Search	by	name,	location,	and	industry.
       and text message alerts for upcoming interviews and
       workshops.                                                     Interviews
  	 •	 Refer	to	the	Activity Summary to verify your applica-
       	                                                                   	
                                                                      	 •	 You	can	accept	and	decline	employer	invitations	for	
       tion and interview statuses.                                        interviews.
                                                                           	
                                                                      	 •	 This	is	also	where	you	would	cancel	or	reschedule	
  Documents                                                                interviews.
       	
  	 •	 Upload	and	manage	up	to	30	documents.
                                                                      Calendar
       	
  	 •	 Use	the	Resource Library to find helpful documents
                                                                           	
                                                                      	 •	 View	personal	events,	ECRC	workshops,	appointments,	
       like the Student User Guide and Job Search Code of
                                                                           and any other CoE-related activities.
       Ethics.
                                                                           	
                                                                      	 •	 Sign	up	to	meet	with	our	career	counselors	in	the	
  Job Postings                                                             Counseling Appointments tab. This can also be found
    Under this tab, you can access two job posting databases:              on the home page. You will be sent an email upon
  ENGenius.Jobs and NACElink Network.                                      appointment confirmation.


                                     Did you know?
                                     You can use ENGenius.Jobs to:
                                          	
                                     	 •	 Sign	up	for	a	counseling	appointment
                                          	
                                     	 •	 RSVP	to	ECRC	workshops
                                          	
                                     	 •	 Apply	to	full-time,	internship,	and	co-op	opportunities
                                          	
                                     	 •	 Schedule	on-campus	interviews	when	selected


http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                       The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 7
                                                  RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                   Resume Writing for Impact
  How Do I Write a Resume That Captures Employers’                 done, they are likely to pass you by! Show them why you’re
  Attention?                                                       the best candidate for them. Create a visual representa-
     Before we answer this question, it’s helpful to point out     tion of your story through words. Understand what they
  that a resume is not a comprehensive composition of your         are looking for, and then match your achievements to their
  life experiences. It is made up of key experiences, described    needs.
  in succinct, action-oriented, achievement statements that           Recognize that many employers seek common traits.
  demonstrate your skills and motivation to perform the job.       Top among them are teamwork, motivation, work ethic,
                                                                   communication (verbal and written), analytical abilities,
  How Do I Convey That I am the Ideal Candidate?                   problem-solving skills, and initiative. As you craft your final
     You present yourself as the obvious choice by articulating    resume, choose words and phrases that allow you to demon-
  your value proposition. Describe your skills, knowledge and      strate evidence of these skills.
  abilities that satisfy the posted requirements. Then, explain       While many students may be tempted to omit “unrelated”
  how you have achieved successful results. You need to be         (non-engineering) work experience from their resumes,
  clear about the problems you’ve solved, the impact you have      these experiences convey character traits, skills and moti-
  made and how you made a difference.                              vation that are extremely important to employers. As you
     Hiring Managers and HR Reps love this language. It            analyze your experiences, draw out things that distinguish
  makes their jobs easier—they don’t need to pull it out of        you from other candidates. Be sure to highlight what is
  you in the interview because you’ve stated it clearly on         unique about you—relative to what the employers are
  your resume. In addition, clearly stating your contribu-         looking for.
  tions demonstrates your awareness of the value you bring.
  You’ve shown that you understand organizations hire              How Do You Uncover Your Impact?
  people who will solve their challenges, ease their burden,       For each of your main accomplishments ask:
  and improve operations. You will make their lives easier if           	
                                                                   	 •	 What	was	different	or	better	when	you	finished?	
  they hire right.                                                      	
                                                                   	 •	 What	got	in	your	way	as	you	performed	this	role?	How	
     You have probably heard this many times before.                    did you get around it?
  Employers don’t read resumes; they quickly scan them,                 	
                                                                   	 •	 How	did	you	improve	yourself	in	this	process?	(Did	
  spending roughly 30-60 seconds looking for evidence of                you increase your technical skills or creativity? Learn
  skills, abilities and achievements related to their needs. If         from others? Improve your interpersonal skills?
  they have to spend too much time figuring out what you’ve             Remember—think transferable skills!)




                Examples of Impact Statements
                Summer Camp Counselor
                Before                                            After
                Planned activities for summer youth camp.         Recruited and trained additional volunteers to
                                                                  improve camp operations and expand scope of
                                                                  offerings.

                Supervised junior counselors.                     Developed and implemented orientation
                                                                  program for new volunteers to ensure safety and
                                                                  learning goals were achieved for all campers.


                Tennis Instructor
                Before                                            After
                Taught beginner through advanced tennis           Developed individualized skill-based instruc-
                lessons to children and adults.                   tion (for adults and children) to achieve optimum
                                                                  skill development and prepare students for team
                                                                  competition.

                                                                  Coached 90% of students to achieve advanced
                                                                  level within 3 months.




8 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                  http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                 RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                                            Resume Tips
  A
         resume is your opportunity to explain to an organiza-       GPA
         tion why you are the ideal candidate for a position.           Most employers are going to want to know your GPA
         The following tips will assist you in putting your best     eventually. If your GPA is above a 3.0 on a 4.0 GPA scale, you
  foot forward!                                                      should list it on your resume. It may be a good idea to list
                                                                     it even if it is under a 3.0. Please contact the ECRC to speak
                                                                     with a career counselor about your personal GPA situation to
  Grammar                                                            receive the best advice for you.
       B
  	 •	 	 e	consistent	with	your	punctuation.	                           It is also preferred that you list all of your academic
       D
  	 •	 	 o	not	switch	verb	tenses.	Write	in	the	present	tense	for	   institutions’ GPAs on the 4.0 scale. If your GPA is not on a
       duties you are currently performing.                          4.0 scale, you can use the following list of numerical grade
       S
  	 •	 	 pell-out	numbers	between	one	and	nine.	Use	numerals	        equivalencies to assist you in your conversion:
       for numbers 10 and above unless it appears at the begin-
       ning of a sentence.                                                  A+, A = 4.0
       C
  	 •	 	 apitalize	all	proper	nouns.                                         A-    = 3.7
       P
  	 •	 	 erform	spell	check	on	your	finished	document	to	avoid	              B+ = 3.3
       misspellings.                                                         B     = 3.0
                                                                             B - = 2.7
                                                                           And so on. . .
  Word Choice
       L
  	 •	 	 imit	technical	terms	to	ensure	a	general	audience	will	       For each graded course, multiply the numeric equivalent
       understand your achievements.                                 grade by the number of credit hours. Add the products
       U
  	 •	 	 se	a	variety	of	actions	verbs	to	start	descriptions	of	     together, and then divide this sum by the total number of
       jobs and/or tasks (e.g., designed, increased, developed).     graded credit hours. Do not include pass/fail courses. This is
                                                                     your GPA on a 4.0 scale.

  Verify
  	 •	 	 ates	of	all	prior	employment.
       D                                                             Omit
       Y
  	 •	 	 our	address,	phone	number,	and	email	addresses.                  P
                                                                     	 •	 	 ersonal	information	such	as	a	photo,	gender,	race,	age,	
                                                                          sexual orientation, religion, political affiliation, marital
                                                                          status, number of children (see “potentially sensitive
  Design                                                                  information” below).
       U
  	 •	 	 se	appropriate	margins	(0.5	-	1	inch).                           “
                                                                     	 •	 	 References	Available	Upon	Request”—The	employer	
       P
  	 •	 	 lace	name,	address,	phone	number,	and	email	address	             will assume they are available.
       at the top.
       U
  	 •	 	 se	one,	easy-to-read,	and	professional	font	(no	less	
       than 11 point).                                               Carefully Consider
       A
  	 •	 	 pply	highlighting	techniques	(bold,	italics,	underline)	         Y
                                                                     	 •	 	 our	subheadings—How	do	you	want	to	classify	your	
       consistently throughout.                                           experiences to be most effective?
       D
  	 •	 	 o	not	over-use	capitalization,	italics,	underlines,	or	          P
                                                                     	 •	 	 otentially	sensitive	information—Not	all	employers	
       other emphasizing features.                                        will share the same opinion as you about specific
       U
  	 •	 	 se	one	bullet	style	throughout	your	resume.                      groups, organizations, and/or lifestyles in which you
       E
  	 •	 	 nsure	consistent	alignment	of	bullet	points	and	head-            are a member or in which you participate. If you are
       ings (same indention for each category throughout).                involved in a group and have gained applicable skills
       L
  	 •	 	 ist	experiences	in	reverse	chronological	order	within	           through the group, it is appropriate to identify it on
       each section.                                                      your resume. However, you should carefully consider
                                                                          whether it is worth listing.
                                                                          M
                                                                     	 •	 	 edical/Health	information—Although	it	could	justify	
  What to Include                                                         specific things in your resume (time gap, GPA), an
       E
  	 •	 	 ducational	information	including	degree,	graduation	             employer may become concerned that your health prob-
       date, and GPA if over a 3.0                                        lems will affect your job performance.
       T
  	 •	 	 echnical	skills
       P
  	 •	 	 revious	work	experiences
       E
  	 •	 	 ngineering	course	projects
       S
  	 •	 	 tudent	organizations	or	other	activities	




http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                      The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 9
                                                  RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




              Power Verbs for Your Resume
   accelerated                 compared                   excelled                   maintained                  repaired
   accommodated                compiled                   executed                   marketed                    reported
   accomplished                composed                   exercised                  measured                    represented
   achieved                    computed                   expanded                   mediated                    researched
   acquired                    conceptualized             expedited                  minimized                   reserved
   acted                       concluded                  explained                  mobilized                   resolved (problems)
   activated                   confirmed                  extended                   modeled                     restored
   adapted                     consented                  extracted                  moderated                   retrieved
   added                       consolidated                                          modernized                  revamped
   addressed                   constructed                fabricated                 modified                    reviewed
   adjusted                    contracted                 facilitated                monitored                   revised
   administered                contributed                familiarized               motivated                   revitalized
   admitted                    converted                  fashioned                  multiplied                  revived
   advanced                    convinced                  figured
   advised                     cooperated                 finalized                  negotiated                  sanctioned
   aided                       coordinated                forecasted                                             satisfied
   alleviated                  correlated                 formulated                 officiated                  scheduled
   allocated                   corresponded               fostered                   operated                    screened
   allowed                     counseled                  founded                    orchestrated                scrutinized
   altered                     created                    fulfilled                  organized                   secured
   ameliorated                 critiqued                                             originated                  served
   amended                     customized                 generated                  overhauled                  set goals
   analyzed                                               grew                                                   settled
   appointed                   debugged                   guaranteed                 performed                   shaped
   apportioned                 deciphered                 guided                     persuaded                   smoothed
   appraised                   dedicated                                             pioneered                   solicited
   apprised                    delegated                  hired                      planned                     solved
   approved                    deliberated                                           polished                    sought
   approximated                demonstrated               identified                 prepared                    spearheaded
   arbitrated                  designated                 illustrated                prescribed                  specified
   arranged                    designed                   implemented                prioritized                 spoke
   ascertained                 determined                 improved                   processed                   stimulated
   assembled                   devaluated                 improvised                 procured                    streamlined
   assessed                    developed                  increased                  produced                    strengthened
   assigned                    devised                    indexed                    programmed                  studied
   assisted                    diagnosed                  indicated                  projected                   submitted
   attained                    directed                   inferred                   promoted                    substantiated
   attested                    disbursed                  influenced                 publicized                  suggested
   audited                     dispatched                 informed                   purchased                   summarized
   augmented                   displayed                  initiated                                              supervised
   authored                    drafted                    innovated                  queried                     supplemented
   authorized                                             inspected                  questioned                  surveyed
                               eased                      inspired                                               sustained
   balanced                    eclipsed                   instituted                 raised                      synthesized
   bolstered                   edited                     instructed                 rated                       systematized
   boosted                     educated                   integrated                 realized
   brainstormed                elevated                   interceded                 recommended                 tabulated
   budgeted                    elicited                   interpreted                reconciled                  tailored
   built                       employed                   interviewed                recorded                    traced
                               empowered                  introduced                 recruited                   trained
   calculated                  enabled                    invented                   rectified                   transacted
   catalogued                  encouraged                 investigated               reduced (losses)            transformed
   centralized                 endorsed                   involved                   refined                     translated
   certified                   engineered                 issued                     referred                    transmitted
   chaired                     enhanced                                              reformed
   charted                     enlarged                   judged                     regarded                    updated
   clarified                   enlisted                   justified                  regulated                   upgraded
   classified                  enriched                                              rehabilitated
   coached                     enumerated                 launched                   reinforced                  validated
   collaborated                envisioned                 lectured                   rejuvenated                 valued
   collected                   established                led                        related                     verified
   commissioned                estimated                  licensed                   relieved                    visualized
   committed                   evaluated                  lightened                  remedied
   communicated                examined                   linked                     remodeled                   wrote

                       Adapted with permission from the Career Resource Manual of the University of California, Davis.


10 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                      http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                   RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                                         Sample Resume
                                                               Ann Powers
           734-555-7160                                                                                             19 Main Street
           annpowers@umich.edu                                                                                 Ann Arbor, MI 48103

           OBJECTIVE
                 To obtain a summer 2013 environmental engineering internship specializing in water waste management.

           EDUCATION
                 University of Michigan                                                                              Ann Arbor, MI
                 B.S.E. Civil and Environmental Engineering                                                             April 2014
                 GPA: 3.6/4.0

                     Technische Universität Berlin                                                                 Berlin, Germany
                     Study Abroad                                                                             May 2011-August 2011
           	            	
                     •	 Completed	classes	in	environmental	engineering	and	German	language
           	            	
                     •	 Participated	in	numerous	cultural	and	industrial	excursions	in	order	to	better	understand	German	culture	
                        and industry
           	            	
                     •	 Volunteered	in	a	local	underprivileged	elementary	school,	gaining	cross-cultural	and	teamwork	skills

           EXPERIENCE
                 Research Assistant                                                                        May 2012-Present
                 University of Michigan, Environmental Engineering Department
           	        	
                 •	 Analyzing	impacts	of	biofuels	on	environmental	and	health	situations
           	        	
                 •	 Conducting	experiments	with	a	small	team	to	better	comprehend	different	alternative	energy	sources
           	        	
                 •	 Researching	past	situations	that	have	been	affected	by	alternative	energy	sources
           	        	
                 •	 Modeling	different	biofuels	and	their	emissions	to	find	possible	future	dangers

           COURSE PROJECTS
                 Analysis of Solar Power                                                          September 2012-December 2012
           	        	
                 •	 Researched	the	use	of	solar	power	in	residential	areas	
           	        	
                 •	 Compared	the	costs	of	different	solar	cells,	taking	into	consideration	tax	refunds	and	different	energy	
                    outputs
           	        	
                 •	 Compiled	results	in	a	formal	report	and	presented	findings	to	a	local	company

                     Water Remediation                                                                      January 2012-April 2012
           	            	
                     •	 Researched	pollution	leakage	into	local	water	systems	after	a	local	heavy	storm		
           	            	
                     •	 Presented	plans	ensuring	pollution	spill	prevention	for	the	future	
           	            	
                     •	 Worked	with	a	team	to	implement	cleanup	of	affected	waterways

           LEADERSHIP
                 Vice President                                                                       September 2011-April 2012
                 Hopps Research Scholars Program
           	        	
                 •	 Developed	corporate	relationships	to	establish	first	private	corporate	scholarship	for	Hopps	Scholars
           	        	
                 •	 Improved	program	efficiency	by	leveraging	best	practices	across	similar	campus	organizations	nationwide

           COMPUTER SKILLS
           	       	
                •	 Languages:	C++,	Matlab,	Fortran
           	       	
                •	 Applications:	Microsoft	Office,	AutoCad,	RISA	3D

           ACTIVITIES
           	         	
                  •	 Society	of	Women	Engineers	                                                            September	2010-Present
           	         	
                  •	 Civil	and	Environmental	Engineers	Student	Advisory	Council	                            September	2011-Present
           	         	
                  •	 BLUElab	                                                                                 January	2012-Present	




12 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                           http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                   RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                                        Sample Resume
                                                                Joe Schmoe
                           (734)	555-4713	 •	 joeschmoe@umich.edu	 •	 190	Fosco	Drive	 •	 Ann	Arbor,	MI	48103

           OBJECTIVE	            Seeking	a	full-time	position	as	an	electrical	engineer	specializing	in	digital	signal	processing

           PROFILE	              V
                                 	 aried	experience	in	electrical	engineering	and	communications	applications.	Graduate	
                                 concentration in communications. Primary strengths include biosystems, mobile satellite systems,
                                 data	imaging,	and	high	frequency	circuits.	Strong	written	and	verbal	communication	skills	and	
                                 extensive	teamwork	experience.

           EDUCATION             University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI                                                April 2013
                                 M.S.E. in Electrical Engineering: Systems                                        GPA: 3.74/4.00
           	                     Major:	Communication,	Minor:	Biosystems
           	                     	 elevant	Coursework:	Advanced	Digital	Signal	Processing,	Wavelets	and	Time-Frequency	
                                 R
                                 Distribution,	Communication	Networks,	Estimation,	Filtering	and	Detection,	Digital	Image	
                                 Processing

                                 Virginia Commonwealth University,	Richmond,	VA	                                     April	2011
                                 B.S.E. in Biomedical Engineering and Instrumentation                           GPA: 3.81/4.00
           	                     	 elevant	Coursework:	Microprocessor	System	Design,	High-frequency	Circuit	Design,	
                                 R
                                 Automatic Control

           EXPERIENCE            University of Michigan Biomedical Ultrasonics Lab, Ann Arbor, MI September 2012-Present
                                 Graduate Research Assistant
           	                        	
                                 •	 Developed	real-time	DSP	algorithms	for	motion	tracking
           	                        	
                                 •	 Wrote	simulation	programs	using	C/C++	for	ultrasonic	imaging	systems
           	                        	
                                 •	 Participated	in	a	team	effort	to	develop	a	VXI	memory	board	using	Altera	FPGAs	for	capturing	
                                    real-time	RF	data	from	ultrasound	scanners	and	interface	it	to	workstations
           	                        	
                                 •	 Assisted	in	Windows	system	administration	and	lab	website	maintenance

                                 General Electric Medical Systems (GEMS),	Waukesha,	WI	               April	2012-August	2012
                                 Safety & Regulatory Engineering Intern
           	                        	
                                 •	 Performed	EMC	testing	on	X-Ray,	Ultrasound,	MR,	Nuclear,	CT	and	IIS	modalities	in	order	to	
                                    ensure	proper	functionality
           	                        	
                                 •	 Eliminated	or	reduced	RF	emissions	of	medical	equipment
           	                        	
                                 •	 Assisted	with	setup	of	equipment	in	an	Open	Air	Test	Site

           PROJECTS              Iterative Decoding of Product Codes:	Simulated	the	performance	of	a	sup-optimal	iterative	
                                 receiver	for	product	codes	and	compared	it	to	the	theoretical	upper	bound

                                 Implementation of the Generic Viterbi Algorithm:	Implemented	the	generic	Viterbi	Algorithm	
                                 in	C	and	used	it	for	the	performance	evaluation	of	soft	and	hard	decision	decoding	of	convolution	
                                 codes	over	AWGN	channels

           COMPUTER	             Platforms:	         Windows	Vista/7,	Mac	OS,	UNIX:	Solaris,	HP-UX
           SKILLS	               Languages:	         	 /C++,	Matlab,	Assembly	(incl.	Real-time	DSP),	HTML,	JavaScript,	Perl,	Java,	
                                                     C
                                                     Visual	Basic,	Shell	Scripts,	LabView,	x86/8051/8098
           	                     Applications:	      Microsoft	Office,	Altera	MAX+PLUS	II,	Spice,	Protel,	SPSS

           AWARDS	               University	of	Michigan,	EECS	Department	Summer	Fellowship,	2011
           	                     Virginia	Commonwealth	University,	Russell	Scholar,	2009-2011

           LANGUAGES	            Fluent	in	German	and	Spanish



http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                            The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 13
                                                  RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                             The Curriculum Vitae
  What Is It?                                                                G
                                                                        	 •	 	 raduation	date
  	 A	curriculum	vitae,	also	called	a	CV,	is	a	job	search	docu-              A
                                                                        	 •	 	 ny	minors,	concentrations,	or	other	types	of	
  ment that gives extensive information on the applicant’s                   specialization
  qualifications and background. Whereas a resume should                     D
                                                                        	 •	 	 issertation	or	title	of	thesis	(optional)
  be	limited	to	one	to	two	pages,	a	CV	can	be	many	pages	in	
  length.                                                                    A
                                                                        	 •	 	 dvisor’s	name	(optional)

  Who Needs One?                                                        Experience
  	 A	CV	is	used	most	often	by	PhD	students	who	are	                    This	section	is	one	of	the	most	important	on	your	CV.	
  applying for either positions in academia or research posi-           Include:
  tions in industry. For most bachelor’s and master’s degree                  T
                                                                        	 •	 	 itle	of	position
  students,	a	resume	is	more	appropriate	than	a	CV.	                          N
                                                                        	 •	 	 ame	of	organization	and	location
                                                                              D
                                                                        	 •	 	 ates	
  What to Include?
  	 All	CVs	should	begin	with	your	contact	information.	                      D
                                                                        	 •	 	 escription	of	your	responsibilities	(this	can	be	
  What follows will depend on your background and the type                    in a bullet point format)
  of position you are seeking. Here are some common sections                  R
                                                                        	 •	 	 esearch	experience	can	go	in	this	section
  to	include	in	a	CV:                                                         T
                                                                        	 •	 	 ip:	You	can	also	include	unpaid	experiences	
                                                                              under your experience section. Just because you
         Education                                                            didn’t get paid for it, doesn’t mean it isn’t valu-
         List your degrees in reverse chronological order.                    able experience!
         Include:
               D
         	 •	 	 egree                                                   Teaching Experience
         	 •	 	 nstitution	and	location
               I                                                        This is an especially valuable section if you are inter-
                                                                        ested in a career in academia.

                                                                        Publications and Presentations
                                                                        Depending on how many presentations or publica-
                                                                        tions you have, you may want to list the most relevant
                                                                        ones first or divide this section into categories.

                                                                        Activities
                                                                        In addition to extracurricular activities, be sure to
                                                                        include membership in any professional associations.

                                                                        Skills
                                                                        Highlight your technical skills and language skills in
                                                                        this section.

                                                                        References
                                                                        References should be included on the final page of
                                                                        your	CV.

                                                                    Do not feel as if you need to include every section listed
                                                                  above. Also, feel free to add additional sections that make
                                                                  sense given your experiences and the positions you are
                                                                  applying to. For example, you may consider adding a
                                                                  Leadership section or an Academic Projects section. Finally,
                                                                  be sure to schedule an appointment with an ECRC Career
                                                                  Counselor	for	a	professional	review	of	your	CV.




14 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                 RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                                 Cover Letter Format
       General: Cover letters should not exceed one page in length and should be written for a specific position. Utilizing a
       generic cover letter to apply to multiple positions is not recommended.

       When emailing: Insert your cover letter as page one of your resume and identify this in your brief email. Your email
       can simply state that you are interested in a specific position, you appreciate their consideration, and attached is your
       resume and cover letter.



                                     Your name and address as they appear on your resume
             Date

             Contact Person, Title
             Company Name
             Address
             City, State Zip

             Dear Mr./Ms./Dr./Hiring Representative (Contact Person):

             First Paragraph—Introduction
             Establishes the purpose of your letter, explains why you are interested in the position, and why the employer
             should be interested in you for the position (interests, previous experience).
                   S
               •    tate why you are writing by naming the specific position or larger career aspirations.
                   E
               •    xplain how you heard about the position/employer and why you are interested in working with their 
                   group in this role.
                   I
               •   nsert a brief sentence that gives your degree, major, college affiliation and graduation date.
                   M
               •    ention the contact person from who you learned about the position (if applicable).

             Middle Paragraph(s)—Body (1-2 paragraphs depending on background)
             Generate interest with content that demonstrates you have researched the company, and that you are able
             to align your skills and interests with the company as well as its offered position. 
                    I
               •   ndicate how you can help the employer achieve organizational goals in your specialty. Focus on what 
                    you can do for them rather than why you want the position.
                    H
               •    ighlight your most significant accomplishments, abilities and experiences that are specifically 
                    relevant to the employer and job requirements.
                    D
               •    O NOT SIMPLY RESTATE YOUR RESUME. Rather, elaborate and explain important experiences 
                    and personal qualities that cannot be indicated on a resume.

             Final Paragraph—Closing
             State your commitment to action.
                  T
               •    ake the initiative to make clear what happens next. For example, indicate that you will be contacting 
                  them to ensure that they received your resume and/or that to clarify any additional questions.
                  I
               •   ndicate that you are grateful for their consideration, and look forward to hearing back from him or her.

             Sincerely,

             Your name

             Enclosure(s)




http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                      The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 15
                                                    RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS




                                Sample Cover Letter
                                                          JACKSON BARBER
              734-555-7160                                                                                        4512 Church St.
              barberja@umich.edu	                                                                            Ann	Arbor,	MI		48103



              September 24, 2012

              Ms. Brenda Jones
              New	Computer	World	
              77 College Blvd.
              San	Francisco,	CA	94132

              Dear Ms. Jones:

              I	am	applying	for	the	System	Engineer	position	at	New	Computer	World	I	saw	posted	in	ENGenius.Jobs.	Currently	
              I	am	a	student	at	the	University	of	Michigan,	Ann	Arbor	obtaining	a	Bachelor	of	Science	in	Electrical	Engineering	
              Degree.	I	am	graduating	in	April	2013.	After	attending	New	Computer	World’s	Corporate	Information	Session	
              and	listening	to	recruiter	Jose	Cabrera	discuss	New	Computer	World’s	mission,	I	have	become	very	interested	in	
              supporting	NCW’s	commitment	to	delivering	innovative	commuting	platforms	to	its	clients.	I	am	confident	my	
              background	in	electrical	engineering,	including	three	electrical	engineering	internships,	makes	me	particularly	well	
              suited	for	this	opportunity.	

              My	thorough	electrical	engineering	coursework	and	previous	industry	experience	will	provide	a	solid	foundation	
              for	the	work	of	a	System	Engineer.	I	have	experience	developing,	implementing,	and	testing	code	in	both	assembly	
              languages	and	C/C++	in	my	internships	at	Hewlett-Packard	and	Advanced	Micro	Devices.	I	successfully	led	a	
              reliability	verification	process	on	a	McKinley	microprocessor,	and	designed	a	32	adder	on	a	K8	microprocessor.	
              I	have	strong	familiarity	of	computer	architecture,	logic	design,	and	bus	protocols,	and	have	been	fortunate	
              to	implement	my	knowledge	completing	two	major	academic	projects	where	I	decoded	Product	codes	and	
              implemented a generic viterbi algorithm.

              Not	only	do	I	have	strong	technical	skills,	but	I	also	have	excellent	communication	skills	as	evidenced	by	my	
              leadership	roles	in	team	projects	and	in	the	National	Society	of	Black	Engineers	(NSBE).	I	have	supervised	the	
              activities	of	four	to	five	teammates	in	completing	projects	on-time	and	submitting	well-written	technical	reports.	In	
              NSBE	I	am	currently	the	Programs	Chair.	In	this	position	I	use	my	mentoring	and	engagement	skills	to	manage	four	
              committee	chairs	in	finding	and	promoting	service	opportunities	for	our	members.	In	my	tenure,	I	have	effectively	
              launched three new programs aimed at connecting our members to over 200 high school students.

              I	believe	my	unique	combination	of	skills	and	experience	makes	me	a	great	fit	for	New	Computer	World.	I	would	
              look	forward	to	an	opportunity	to	participate	in	an	on-campus	interview	and	may	be	reached	at	734-555-7160	or	
              barberja@umich.edu	to	schedule	an	interview	or	answer	any	questions.	

              Sincerely,

              Jackson Barber
              Jackson	Barber




16 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                              http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                             JOB SEARCH


                     Job Search Strategies and
                            Networking
   I
      t is never too early to begin looking for potential                  informational interview with someone employed
      employment opportunities. Even if you are not inter-                 with a company where you would like to work.
      ested in enrolling in an internship, co-op or full-time
   job in the near future, you should take the proper steps           4.   Effectively Communicate with Employers—Well-
   to ensure success when you are active in the job market.                constructed resumes, cover letters, letters of inquiry
   Begin by reading job postings, attending career fairs and               and thank-you notes are key tools. Ask mentors and
   speaking with peers, professors and professionals about                 friends for feedback about your written communi-
   your area of study. This will not only help you narrow your             cation. Additionally, face-to-face communication
   job search, but it will also assist in the development of your          at events and interviews is also essential. Be thor-
   network. As a University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, College                 oughly prepared and portray confidence in every
   of Engineering student or declared computer science major               interaction.
   in the College of LS&A, your access to ENGenius.Jobs can
   be a great asset to you when searching for positions and           5. Keep Your Search Organized—Keeping track of
   reaching out to members in your profession.                           your job search is essential. Try keeping a job log
                                                                         where you organize company names, dates of appli-
   Top Five Tips for Securing Employment                                 cation submissions, contact information, interview
      1.   Utilize a Diverse Approach—Visit	corporate,	                  dates/times and when you followed up.
           research, educational, government as well as other
           employing organization’s websites in your area(s) of     Consider International Opportunities
           interest. The key is to use a variety of resources and      An international internship is a work experience located
           means to find positions. While ENGenius.Jobs is a        outside of the United States. The work is usually within a
           valuable resource, keep your search broad and use        company, government entity, research group or other orga-
           other resources as well.                                 nization that provides hands-on experience in your major
                                                                    or area of interest. There are many ways to find interna-
      2. Network, Network, Network!—Many jobs are                   tional internships, including searching in ENGenius.Jobs.
         found through personal connections. Connect with           Organizations like AIESEC and CDS International can
         faculty, staff, family associates, friends and former      help students find international internships, though they
         colleagues for the chance to learn more about hiring       do charge a fee.
         practices, trends and opportunities in your field. One
         networking resource is the Professional Network            Why an international internship?
         in ENGenius.Jobs, but others include online social              D
                                                                    	 •	 	 evelop	cross-cultural	skills
         networks (LinkedIn, InCircle, and Facebook, etc.),              	
                                                                    	 •	 Enhance	your	language	skills
         student groups, and national organizations.                     	
                                                                    	 •	 Develop	your	network
                                                                         	
                                                                    	 •	 Gain	professional	experience
      3. Do Your Research—Research the organization                      	
                                                                    	 •	 Experience	personal	enrichment	and	fun!
         where you would like to work. Make sure you know
         their competitors, challenges, financial outlook,            For more information about international opportunities,
         mission and values. Review their website and               take a look at the CoE Work Abroad page: www.engin.
         look for them in the news. If possible, schedule an        umich.edu/workabroad.

                             The Informational Interview—A Great Way to Network

   What Is It?                                                           	
                                                                    	 •	 What	do	you	like	most	about	your	job?	
      The informational interview is a great way for job                 	
                                                                    	 •	 What	do	you	like	least	about	your	job?	
   seekers and students exploring career options to obtain
   information from professionals working in their fields of             	
                                                                    	 •	 What	advice	do	you	have	for	job	seekers	interested	in	
   interest. In an informational interview you are the inter-            this field?
   viewer, asking the professional several questions about               	
                                                                    	 •	 What	are	the	trends	in	this	field,	and	where	do	you	
   what they do, the industry they are in, the strengths and             think this industry is headed?
   challenges in their jobs as well as industry trends. The
   interviewee may also have excellent information to share              	
                                                                    	 •	 What	are	some	current	challenges	you	encounter	in	
   on the job market in their industry, and what geographic              the work you do?
   areas to target.                                                      	
                                                                    	 •	 Who	can	I	contact	to	learn	more	about	this	field?	
   Sample Questions                                                 Questions Not to Ask
                                                                         	
                                                                    	 •	 Do	you	have	a	job	for	me?	
   Questions to Ask
   	 •	 Where	did	you	start	your	career?	
        	                                                                	
                                                                    	 •	 Do	you	have	an	internship	for	me?	
        	
   	 •	 What	does	a	typical	work	day	look	like	for	you?	                 	
                                                                    	 •	 How	much	do	you	make?	

http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                  The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 17
                                                             JOB SEARCH




                                               Career Fairs
                              What Is a Career Fair?
                                 Career fairs allow employers and job candidates to meet one another.
                              Attending a career fair is often the first step to finding an internship,
                              co-op, or full-time position. There are two large engineering fairs held
                              at the University of Michigan: one in the fall semester and the other in
                              the winter semester. These two fairs are located in several buildings
                              on North Campus. Hundreds of companies and thousands of students
                              attend these career fairs. Typically, each company sets up a display
                              with brochures, banners, and giveaways. Students go from company to
                              company, speaking with recruiters and passing out their resumes. Plan
                              your strategy ahead of time and expect long lines.




                                       Career Fair Prep
   Top 10 Tips                                                            9. When you are at the fair, do not monopolize a compa-
      1. Make sure you research the companies attending                      ny’s time. Not only will you frustrate your fellow
         the fair. Researching will help inform your strategy,               students, but you will also damage your reputation
         demonstrate preparedness and ensure that you                        with the employer.
         make a positive first impression. You do not want to
         spend your time walking up to every table saying,              10. Follow-up with a thank-you note via email to the
         “What does your company do?”                                       recruiters you conversed with. Reiterate your enthu-
                                                                            siasm for specific positions or general interest in the
      2. Form your strategy based on those companies you                    company.
         really want to see. Make sure you start with the
         companies at the top of your list.                            Dos And Don’ts
      3. Recruiters are impressed with students who demon-             Do
         strate familiarity with their organization, ask                    	
                                                                       	 •	 Maintain	a	positive	attitude	
         intelligent questions and explore fit. Use these guide-
         lines to inform your strategy.                                     	
                                                                       	 •	 Use	eye	contact	and	active	listening	
                                                                            	
                                                                       	 •	 Allow	enough	time	to	fulfill	your	schedule
      4. Having a well-written resume is critical for any
         career fair. Ensure that you have a concise and clear              	
                                                                       	 •	 Be	patient	and	expect	long	lines	
         objective under the resume header so companies                     	
                                                                       	 •	 Ask	for	recruiters’	business	cards	
         know what kind of opportunities you are looking for.
                                                                       Don’t
         P
   	 5.	 	 lanning	on	what	to	wear	to	the	career	fair	is	essen-             	
                                                                       	 •	 Go	with	your	friends	
         tial. We recommend professional attire. For men:
         Clean dress pants, button-down shirt, tie and suit                 	
                                                                       	 •	 Arrive	towards	the	end	of	the	fair	
         jacket. For women: Clean dress pants/skirt, blouse                 	
                                                                       	 •	 Respond	to	employers	you	are	willing	to	do	
         and suit jacket. Remember to look polished!                        “anything”
      6. When you introduce yourself to a recruiter, you will
         almost always start with a handshake. Practice your           The Elevator Pitch
         handshake with a friend. A firm (but not painful!)               An elevator pitch is a short (30 second), succinct and
         and relaxed shake is best.                                    memorable introduction. It highlights your strengths and
                                                                       what distinguishes you from others. It provides employers
      7. Preparing and executing your pitch is vital to career         with quality information about who you are, and what
         fair success. For more information on perfecting your         you can offer them. When creating your pitch, think care-
         pitch, refer to our Elevator Pitch information (below).       fully about what you want each individual employer to
                                                                       know about you, and how you can help them. After you
      8. Prepare questions to ask the recruiters. Asking good          formulate your pitch, practice it often. The goal is to sound
         questions shows genuine interest.                             confident, sincere and engaging.



18 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                     http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                        JOB SEARCH



                 Social Networking Websites
   C
          areer professionals—and parents—are warning
          young job seekers that using social networking         Strategies for Safe and Strategic
          sites such as Facebook and Twitter, may be             Social Networking
   hazardous to your career. After all, do you want your          1. Be aware of what other people can see on your
   potential employer to see photos of you at last weekend’s         page. Recruiters use these sites or ask their
   party? Certainly, those photos could diminish your                colleagues to do searches on candidates.
   prospects of landing a job. However, more job seekers
   are using social networking to enhance their prepara-          2. Determine access intentionally. Some career
   tion for interviews, garner an advantage over less-wired          counselors advocate deactivating your Facebook
   peers, and even gain an edge with recruiters.                     or Twitter accounts while job searching.
      One example of a constructive use of social
   networking websites is gathering background infor-             3. Set a standard. If anything appears on your page
   mation about the recruiters with whom you will                    that you wouldn’t want an interviewer to see,
   interview. By finding out about topics that will interest         remove the offending content.
   the recruiter, you may gain an upper hand in the inter-
   view process. In addition, stronger connections with           4. Use social networking to your advantage. Use
   a potential employer can be made by talking about the             these sites to find alumni in the companies that
   clubs he or she belongs to and even friends you have              interest you and contact them before you inter-
   in common—information that can be discovered on                   view in your career center or before a site visit. In
   Facebook.                                                         addition, use social networking sites and Internet
      Research on professional sites like LinkedIn can also          searches to learn more about the recruiters who
   be used to prepare for site visits. By using the alumni           will interview you before the interview.
   connections available through LinkedIn, you can gain
   added insight into potential employers. If you are inter-
   viewing with a company, search for alumni who are
   working there. You can have conversations with alumni
   via LinkedIn that you wouldn’t have in an interview,
   such as, “do you like it at the company” or “can you
   negotiate salary?”                                          so why would they allow employers to see party photos
                                                               on a Facebook page? Students often respond that most
   Networking Rules                                            employers do not even use social networking sites and
      When you seek and maintain professional connec-          that employers already know that college students
   tions via social networking sites, follow the same          drink.
   etiquette you would if you were networking by phone            While it may be true that senior managers are less
   and in person. Remember that every contact is creating      likely to be on Facebook, young recruiters may be active,
   an impression. Online, you might tend to be less formal     and in many cases, employers ask younger employees to
   because you are communicating in a space that you typi-     conduct online searches of candidates. Why risk losing
   cally share with friends. Just as you would not let your    a career opportunity because of a photo with two drinks
   guard down if you were having dinner with a potential       in your hand?
   employer, you must maintain a positive and profes-             It’s easy to deduce that if an employer is comparing
   sional approach when conversing with networking             two candidates who are closely matched in terms of GPA
   contacts online. Ask good questions, pay attention to the   and experience, and one has questionable photos and
   answers, and be polite—this includes sending at least a     text on his or her online profile and the second does not,
   brief thank-you note anytime someone gives you advice       that the second student will get the job offer.
   or assistance.
                                                               Identity—Public or Private?
   If It’s OK for Mom, It’s OK for Facebook                       Identity and affiliations are the second area where
      The more controversial aspect of the interplay           social networking and privacy issues may affect your
   between social networking and job searching is the          job search and employment prospects. Historically, job-
   privacy debate. Some observers, including career            seekers have fought for increased protection from being
   counselors, deans, and parents, worry that students         asked questions about their identity, including religious
   put themselves at a disadvantage in the job search by       affiliation and sexual orientation, because this informa-
   making personal information available on Facebook and       tion could be used by biased employers to discriminate.
   Twitter pages. More and more companies are using such       Via	social	networking	sites,	employers	can	now	find	
   websites as a screening tool.                               information that they are not allowed to ask you.
      Concern about privacy focuses on two areas: social          Employers can no longer legally ask these questions in
   life and identity/affiliations. Parents and career coun-    most states, however, some students make matters like
   selors argue that job-seekers would never show photos       religion, political involvement, and sexual orientation
   of themselves at a party in the middle of an interview,     public on their Web pages.




http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                             The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 19
                                                           JOB SEARCH



       Social Networking Websites                                                                        continued

       You would never include religious and political            potential employers thoroughly and pay special atten-
    affiliations as well as sexual orientation or transgender     tion at site visits to evaluate whether the company would
    identity (GLBT) on your resume, so do you want this           be welcoming. This strategy is based on two perspec-
    information to be available via social networking sites?      tives shared by many career professionals. First, as a
    There are two strategies to consider. One approach            job-seeker, you want to present only your relevant skills
    is that if you wish to only work for an employer with         and experience throughout the job search; all other
    whom you can be openly religious, political, or GLBT          information is irrelevant. Second, if you provide infor-
    then making that information available on your Web            mation about your identity and affiliations, you may be
    page will screen out discriminating employers and             discriminated against by one person in the process even
    make it more likely that you will land with an employer       though the company overall is a good match.
    open to your identity and expression.
       A second approach though, is to maintain your              Written by Harriet L. Schwartz.
    privacy and keep more options open. Investigate




                           International Students
         	
    	 •	 International	students	have	much	to	offer	employers	          	
                                                                  	 •	 Pursue	professional	experiences	that	demonstrate	
         including cross-cultural skills, diversity, a global          an immersion into U.S. culture as well as daily use
         perspective, perseverance and language/communica-             of the English language. Some experiences include
         tion skills. There are many employers who will (and           intramural sports, resident hall activities, student
         do) hire international employees.                             organizations and leadership positions.

         	
    	 •	 Make	sure	to	take	advantage	of	CoE	resources	such	            	
                                                                  	 •	 Use	a	diverse	approach	when	looking	for	opportuni-
         as ENGenius.Jobs to find qualifying positions. Each           ties. Include companies with international locations,
         position in ENGenius.Jobs will indicate whether               and seek out occupations where international
         international students may apply based on work                employees may be needed. Try to gain experience in
         status.                                                       internships and co-ops.

         	
    	 •	 Just	like	any	job	search,	networking	is	essential.	           	
                                                                  	 •	 Because	some	employers	may	be	less	knowledgeable	
         Many, if not most, jobs are found this way. Make sure         of international hiring practices, you must be the
         you develop networking skills, take advantage of              expert. Having thorough and complete knowledge of
         networking opportunities and understand how your              CPT, OPT, AT and visa status will help you as well as
         cultural norms may impact your utilization of these           the employer.
         skills. In the U.S., self-promotion in communication
         is considered a strength, and is often necessary when         	
                                                                  	 •	 T he	UM	International	Center	regularly	sponsors	
         networking.                                                   workshops for international students on finding
                                                                       internships and full-time jobs in the U.S.
         L
    	 •	 	 anguage	barriers,	real	or	perceived,	and/or	other	          For more information, see their website at
         concerns about communication skills may exist. For            www.internationalcenter.umich.edu.
         assistance, go to the University of Michigan’s English
         Language Institute website (www.lsa.umich.edu/eli),
         and amongst other resources, look at “Conversation
         Circles” and “English Learning Links.”




20 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                               http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                             INTERVIEWS



           The Interview Gets You the Job
   T
        his saying in career services is popular, and more                highlighting your unique educational and profes-
        importantly, largely true. If you have reached the                sional background.
        interview stage, congratulations! It means your               4. It is necessary for you to come prepared with several
   resume is working. Still, much of the hard work is just                questions to ask the employer. The absence of ques-
   beginning as you start interview preparation.                          tions demonstrates a lack of preparedness.
                                                                          A
                                                                    	 5.	 	 fter	your	interview,	remember	to	send	a	thank-you	
   Sometimes It Is More Than What You Say                                 email within 24 hours. Use the email to reiterate your
      Nonverbal communication has the ability to convey a                 enthusiasm for the position, skills you neglected to
   stronger message than verbal communication.                            mention and your strong fit for the position.
        S
   	 •	 	 tand	tall
   	 •	 Sit	up	straight                                             Questions to Ask Employers
   	 •	 Use	a	firm	handshake                                           During the interview process, be sure to ask the
   	 •	 Keep	eye	contact                                            employer specific questions about the job and organiza-
   	 •	 Smile                                                       tion. This allows the employer to see the research you have
                                                                    conducted on their company, as well as your enthusiasm
   Arrive Early                                                     for the position. Below are some examples you can use
   	 Being	on	time	to	your	interview	means	arriving	15	             during the interview process. However, in addition to
   minutes early. This gives you time to relax, and also shows      these, it is very important that you formulate your own
   the employer you are serious about the position.                 questions based on your research of the company!

   Top 5 Tips                                                       	 •	 What	are	the	daily	responsibilities	of	this	position?
      1. Schedule a mock interview at the ECRC and have                  	
                                                                    	 •	 What	type	of	employees	fit	well	within	the	
         one of our career counselors evaluate your perfor-              organization?
         mance through practice and feedback.                            	
                                                                    	 •	 What	type	of	work	could	I	expect	to	do	within	my	first	
      2. Avoid the use of verbal filler words when you                   year?
         answer questions. Words such as “um,” “ah,” “like,”        	 •	 Who	is	your	ideal	candidate?
         “you know” and “I think” should be avoided.                	 •	 What	is	the	organizational	structure	of	this	company?
      3. Spend time reviewing your experiences, formu-              	 •	 What	is	your	role	within	the	company?
         lating responses to typical interview questions, and       	 •	 What	are	the	next	steps	in	your	hiring	process?




          What the Employers Are Saying
   Students should…
        	
   	 •	 Research	the	company	that	they	are	interviewing	with	(example:	their	mission	statement),	and	thoroughly	
        understand the industry.
        	
   	 •	 Be	able	to	offer	compelling	reasons	as	to	why	they	want	to	work	for	the	company.
        	
   	 •	 Be	able	to	prove	fit,	and	reflect	on	how	their	desires	and	skills	match	that	of	the	company.
        	
   	 •	 Have	energy	and	passion	for	the	field	they	are	studying.
        	
   	 •	 K now	their	strengths	and	weaknesses,	as	well	as	examples	of	challenges	they	have	overcome.
        	
   	 •	 Bring	all	requested	materials	such	as	transcripts,	resumes	and	necessary	job	forms/applications.
        A
   	 •	 	 ctively	listen	to	the	recruiter	and	the	questions	asked.
        	
   	 •	 Give	examples	demonstrating	leadership,	initiative,	innovation	and	problem-solving	skills.

   Recruiter Tips                                                  Areas Where Students Can Improve Their Skills
        	
   	 •	 Research	the	company	by	visiting	their	website,	
        connecting with alumni who work at the organization
        and reading about recent industry developments.
        	
   	 •	 Prepare	questions	that	are	specific	to	the	position	and	
        organization.
        	
   	 •	 Review	your	resume	and	be	prepared	to	answer	inter-
        view questions with specific examples that highlight
        your skills and accomplishments.
        	
   	 •	 Practice	interviewing	strategies	by	meeting	with	an	
        ECRC Career Counselor for a Mock Interview or using
        the Optimal interviewing tool (through the Central
        Career Center).
        	
   	 •	 Be	confident	about	what	you	have	to	offer.	
        	
   	 •	 Relax	and	enjoy	the	process.	As	one	recruiter	noted,	
        “Remember that the person on the other side of the table                         Taken from the 2008-2009 Recruitment Evaluation
        is human, and probably a little nervous too.”

http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                  The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 21
                                                                               INTERVIEWS




                                                                On-Campus
                                                                 Recruiting
                                                        Y   ou have applied for a position via ENGenius.Jobs.
                                                            Now what?
                                                          If the company is participating in on-campus recruiting,
                                                        the interview schedule type will be listed in the job
                                                        posting. There are several different types of interview
                                                        schedules that recruiters can choose from. They are
                                                        described below:

                                                        Preselect
                                                           This is the most common type of interview schedule.
                                                        After the job posting’s application deadline passes, the
                                                        employer will choose a group of students to interview.
                                                        Interview invitations will be sent by email to these “prese-
                                                        lects,” who will be able to sign up for an interview slot as
                                                        soon as preselect sign-up begins. The employer may also
                                                        select a group of students called “alternates.” These are
                                                        students who may have a chance to sign up for an inter-
                                                        view once alternate sign-up begins, if interview times
                                                        are still available after preselect sign-up. Interviews are
                                                        awarded on a first-come, first-served basis, and interview
                                                        schedules fill up quickly. If you get an email that says you
                                                        have been selected as a preselect or an alternate for an
                                                        interview, read it carefully and pay close attention to when
                                                        sign-up opens. There is an advantage to signing up imme-
                                                        diately after it opens, which is often at midnight.

                                                        Open Schedule
                                                           This schedule allows any student who qualifies for the
                                                        position to sign up for an interview slot beginning two
                                                        weeks prior to the interview date. Interviews are awarded
                                                        on a first-come, first-served basis, and interview schedules
                                                        fill up quickly.

                                                        Room Only
                                                          This method allows a company to build its own interview
                                                        schedule. The ECRC will reserve interview space. Students
                                                        will not be signing up for interview slots on ENGenius.Jobs.
                                                        Instead, the employer will contact selected students directly
                                                        and schedule interviews with them.




22 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                     http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                            INTERVIEWS



                                 Types of Interviews
                The Behavioral Interview                                       The Technical Interview

   What Is It?                                                     What Is It?
                                                                      In the engineering world the technical interview is
      The behavioral interview is a common interview format
                                                                   quite common because it enables employers to assess your
   used by many employers. This is because the behavioral
                                                                   technical skills through a demonstration of how you solve
   interview assesses how past behavior predicts future
                                                                   problems, reach conclusions and whether you incorporate
   behavior. It is assumed that you will address a situation
                                                                   novel thinking into your approach. Some technical inter-
   in the future similarly to how you dealt with it in the past.
                                                                   views are general, meaning you may be asked to solve math
   Remember, you have to give specific examples from your
                                                                   problems or brain teasers. Others may be specific based on
   past.
                                                                   the type of work you will be doing with the company.
   Strategies for Success                                          Technically Speaking
        	
   	 •	 Responses	in	behavioral	interviews	must	be	specific	
                                                                     1. When answering technical interview questions,
        and detailed. In fact, employers often indicate
                                                                        make sure to think out loud.
        students are not specific enough in describing their
                                                                     2. Pay attention to the information that the interviewer
        answers. Be sure to address all aspects of the STAR
                                                                        provides to you throughout the process. In many
        formula in your response. (An example of a STAR
                                                                        instances the interviewer will provide clues and
        response can be found on page 24.)
                                                                        direction to help you find the answer.
        	
   	 •	 Make	sure	you	identify	a	variety	of	examples	from	           3. Do not be afraid to ask questions in the technical
        past experiences—the more recent, the better. Be                interview. If you are stuck or need more information
        sure you use a diverse number of examples and do                to determine the answer, ask!
        not forget to have positive and negative situations to       4. If they provide tools like a whiteboard, use them.
        share.                                                          Show them visually how you are conceptualizing
                                                                        your answer.
   Sample Questions
   	 •	 Give	me	a	specific	example	of	when	you	used	good	
        	                                                          Sample Questions
        judgment and logic to solve a problem.                          	
                                                                   	 •	 Why	are	manhole	covers	round?	
                                                                        	
                                                                   	 •	 Name	five	ways	to	retrieve	a	needle	from	a	haystack.	
        	
   	 •	 Describe	a	situation	where	you	used	persuasion	to	
                                                                        	
                                                                   	 •	 Please	explain	the	concept	of	polymorphism	in	object	
        successfully convince someone to see things your
                                                                        oriented development.
        way.
                                                                        	
                                                                   	 •	 Why	do	we	need	to	do	PCC?	
        	
   	 •	 Tell	me	about	a	time	when	you	needed	to	be	                     	
                                                                   	 •	 What	is	Petrol	Calorific	Value?
        resourceful to finish a project on time.
                                                                                   The Case Interview
                                                                   What Is It?
                                                                      In a case interview you are asked to analyze a business
                                                                   question or case. However, unlike most other interview
                                                                   formats, the case interview is an interactive process. Case
                                                                   interviews are most often used by consulting compa-
                                                                   nies. In a case interview, the interviewer is assessing
                                                                   your thought process—both analytical and creative—in
                                                                   answering the question(s) posed. Typically, the more
                                                                   specific and quantitative your process is, the better!

                                                                   Tips
                                                                      1. Many consulting firms have interview preparation
                                                                         sections on their Careers webpage.
                                                                      2. Connect with alumni who may be employed with
                                                                         the company where you are interviewing. Check the
                                                                         Professional Network in ENGenius.Jobs or the UM
                                                                         Alumni Association to find a Michigan graduate
                                                                         who is working where you plan to interview.
                                                                      3. Because the case interview is designed to be
                                                                         interactive, be sure to listen carefully and ask for
                                                                         clarification.
                                                                      4. When working through the case, make sure you let
                                                                         the interviewer know how you are conceptualizing
                                                                         the problem, what evidence you are weighing (or
                                                                         missing) when formulating recommendations, and
                                                                         the recommendations themselves.

http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 23
                                                                INTERVIEWS



          A Closer Look at Responding to
                Interview Questions
                                            How to Present Your Best Self

   Know What You Want to Convey                                           Actions (Describe specific actions you took):
     Carefully craft answers to frequently asked questions                 1. I asked my teammate to help me understand his
   and practice them so they will come across naturally in the                solution, including positive attributes of the plan
   course of your conversation with the interviewer(s).                       and potential negative outcomes.
                                                                           2. I listened carefully and considered his point of
   Be Proactive                                                               view.
      You’ve examined the job description; you know your                   3. I shared my recommendation with him in the
   strengths (and areas of development) relative to the job                   same way, pointing out both the positives and
   requirements. Enter the interview prepared to highlight                    the potential negatives of the plan.
   the match between your strengths and their needs, and                   4. We discussed the pros and cons of each scenario,
   candidly address your areas of development. When you                       and then we agreed that my plan offered the
   discuss the latter, be sure to focus on the conscious steps                greater potential return while minimizing nega-
   you’ve taken to overcome the weakness so that it no longer                 tive impact on the overall project.
   interferes with your progress.                                         Result (Answers the question, how did it turn
                                                                          out?): With full team support we moved forward to
   Be Prepared for Behavioral-Based                                       carry out the project objectives and earned an A.
   Questions
      Your resume provides a snapshot of what you’ve accom-            What’s the Best Way to Respond?
   plished, but it doesn’t tell the reader how you’ve done it.         Provide evidence that you possess the skill they are
   Interviewers need to understand “the how” to determine              looking for!
   whether your approach is a good match for their environ-               In this example, they want to know that you can work
   ment. They also want to understand the degree to which              through conflict, while maintaining focus on the goal
   the desired skill is your strength.                                 and moving the process forward. In addition, they prob-
      Behavioral questions are based on the assumption that            ably want to know that you will place team goals above
   past behavior predicts future performance. Employers are            personal objectives. Conversely, employers recognize that
   interested in learning how you’ve demonstrated critical             getting stuck in conflict can create time delays, cause the
   skills in the past because they believe this will predict           project to stall, or detract from team morale. Evidence of
   how you will perform similar tasks within their organiza-           behaviors that interfere with progress can cause concern.
   tion. They probe to understand your skills and abilities in         As you respond to the question, recognize that the inter-
   order to determine how well you are likely to transition            viewer is listening for evidence of your ability to work
   into the position and how much support you may require              through conflict collaboratively.
   to perform effectively. In other words, they are examining            A good answer demonstrates the candidate’s ability to
   whether your style resembles the manner in which work                    L
                                                                       	 •	 	 isten	and	seek	to	understand	another’s	point	of	view.	
   gets done within their organization.                                     C
                                                                       	 •	 	 onvey	one’s	own	perspective	in	a	diplomatic	way.	
      Remember, the interview gives you a chance to provide                 F
                                                                       	 •	 	 acilitate	a	healthy	discussion	and	analysis	of	pros	
   context for your experiences. Choose examples wisely                     and cons of both sides.
   to ensure your scenario matches the need and environ-                    C
                                                                       	 •	 	 ollaborate	effectively	to	achieve	the	project	goals.	
   ment where you would like to work. Hiring managers are
   looking for evidence of required skills AND the manner                A poor response demonstrates less desirable behaviors
   in which they were carried out. For example, if you are             such as the candidate’s propensity to
   asked a question about managing conflict with a colleague                M
                                                                       	 •	 	 aintain	a	singular	focus	on	his/her	individual	
   or team-member, the interviewer is not only interested                   solution.
   in hearing about the project result, he or she will want to              D
                                                                       	 •	 	 emonstrate	a	lack	of	respect	for	team	member(s)	
   know if you reached agreement in a collaborative manner                  and/or their ideas.
   that allowed for ongoing partnership.                                    L
                                                                       	 •	 	 ose	sight	of	the	project	goal	due	to	his/her	inability	
                                                                            to resolve the conflict.
   A STAR Response
      Let’s take a look at a sample answer to the following            What’s in the Result?
   interview question:                                                   Contrary to what you may think, the “result” does not
                                                                       necessarily need to be a successful outcome. Sometimes
   Tell me about a time you were engaged in conflict with another      the experience leads to a learning opportunity. In the case
   individual. How did you resolve it?                                 where a result was less than optimum, the interviewer
       Situation/Task (Provide overview of the situation):             may ask, “What would you do differently if presented
       I was assigned to a team project. Our team met to               with a similar situation in the future?” This gives him or
       brainstorm different approaches to the problem. Our             her insight into your willingness to learn and adjust your
       team was divided between two solutions. My team-                approach to achieve a more desirable result. This willing-
       mate and I each felt strongly that we held the more             ness to learn and adapt to meet the needs of a situation is a
       viable solution. We found ourselves at a stalemate.             desirable trait!

24 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                    http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                        INTERVIEWS



           Questions Asked by Employers
   Personal                                                      18. Where do you want to be in five years? Ten years?
      1. Tell me about yourself.                                 19. Do you plan to return to school for further
      2. What are your hobbies?                                      education?
      3. Why did you choose to interview with our
          organization?                                        Education
      4. Describe your ideal job.                                20. Why did you choose your major?
   	 5.	 What	can	you	offer	us?                                  21. Why did you choose to attend your college or
      6. What do you consider to be your greatest strengths?          university?
      7. Can you name some weaknesses?                           22. Do you think you received a good education? In
      8. Define success. Failure.                                     what ways?
      9. Have you ever had any failures? What did you learn      23. In which campus activities did you participate?
          from them?                                             24. Which classes in your major did you like best?
     10. Of which three accomplishments are you most proud?           Least? Why?
     11. Who are your role models? Why?                               W
                                                               	 25.	 	 hich	elective	classes	did	you	like	best?	Least?	
     12. How does your college education or work experi-              Why?
          ence relate to this job?
                                                                 26. If you were to start over, what would you change
     13. What motivates you most in a job?
                                                                      about your education?
     14. Have you had difficulty getting along with a former
          professor/supervisor/co-worker and how did you         27. Do your grades accurately reflect your ability? Why
          handle it?                                                  or why not?
   	 15.	 	 ave	you	ever	spoken	before	a	group	of	people?	
          H                                                      28. Were you financially responsible for any portion of
          How large?                                                  your college education?
     16. Why should we hire you rather than another
          candidate?                                           Experience
     17. What do you know about our organization (prod-          29. What job-related skills have you developed?
          ucts or services)?                                     30. Did you work while going to school? In what
                                                                      positions?
                                                                 31. What did you learn from these work experiences?
                                                                 32. What did you enjoy most about your last employ-
                                                                      ment? Least?
                                                                 33. Have you ever quit a job? Why?
                                                                 34. Give an example of a situation in which you
                                                                      provided a solution to an employer.
                                                                      G
                                                               	 35.	 	 ive	an	example	of	a	time	in	which	you	worked	
                                                                      under deadline pressure.
                                                                 36. Have you ever done any volunteer work? What
                                                                      kind?
                                                                 37. How do you think a former supervisor would
                                                                      describe your work?

                                                               Career Goals
                                                                 38. Do you prefer to work under supervision or on your
                                                                      own?
                                                                 39. What kind of boss do you prefer?
                                                                 40. Would you be successful working with a team?
                                                                 41. Do you prefer large or small organizations? Why?
                                                                 42. What other types of positions are you considering?
                                                                 43. How do you feel about working in a structured
                                                                      environment?
                                                                 44. Are you able to work on several assignments at
                                                                      once?
                                                               	 45.	 How	do	you	feel	about	working	overtime?
                                                                 46. How do you feel about travel?
                                                                 47. How do you feel about the possibility of relocating?
                                                                 48. Are you willing to work flextime?
                                                                      Before you begin interviewing, think about these
                                                               questions and possible responses and discuss them with a
                                                               career advisor. Conduct mock interviews and be sure you
                                                               are able to communicate clear, unrehearsed answers to
                                                               interviewers.



26 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                          http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                                           INTERVIEWS



  Guide to Appropriate Pre-Employment Inquiries
                    ACCEPTABLE                                              SUBJECT                                   UNACCEPTABLE
  “Have you worked for this company under a different name?”                   NAME           Former name of applicant whose name has been changed by court
  “Have you ever been convicted of a crime under another name?”                               order or otherwise

  Applicant’s place of residence                                           ADDRESS OR
  How long applicant has been a resident of this state or city             DURATION OF
                                                                            RESIDENCE

                                                                           BIRTHPLACE         Birthplace of applicant
                                                                                              Birthplace of applicant’s parents, spouse or other relatives
                                                                                              Requirement that applicant submit a birth certificate, naturalization
                                                                                              or baptismal record

  “Can you, after employment, submit a work permit if under 18?”                AGE           Questions that tend to identify applicants 40 to 64 years of age
  “Are you over 18 years of age?”
  “If hired, can you furnish proof of age?” or Statement that hire is
  subject to verification that applicant’s age meets legal requirements

                                                                            RELIGION          Applicant’s religious denomination or affiliation, church, parish,
                                                                                              pastor or religious holidays observed
                                                                                              “Do you attend religious services or a house of worship?”
                                                                                              Applicant may not be told “This is a Catholic/Protestant/Jewish/
                                                                                              atheist organization.”

  Statement by employer of regular days, hours or shift to be worked       WORK DAYS
                                                                           AND SHIFTS

                                                                             RACE OR          Complexion, color of skin or other questions directly or indirectly
                                                                            ETHNICITY         indicating race or ethnicity

  Statement that photograph may be required after employment               PHOTOGRAPH         Requirement that applicant affix a photograph to the application form
                                                                                              Request applicant, at his/her option, to submit photograph
                                                                                              Requirement of photograph after interview but before hiring

  Statement by employer that if hired, applicant may be required to        CITIZENSHIP        Whether applicant, parents or spouse are naturalized or native-born
  submit proof of authorization to work in the United States                                  U.S. citizens
                                                                                              Date when applicant, parents or spouse acquired U.S. citizenship
                                                                                              Requirement that applicant produce naturalization papers or first papers
                                                                                              Whether applicant’s parents or spouse are citizens of the United States

  Languages applicant reads, speaks or writes fluently                      NATIONAL          Applicant’s nationality, lineage, ancestry, national origin, descent or parentage
                                                                            ORIGIN OR         Date of arrival in United States or port of entry; how long a resident
                                                                            ANCESTRY          Nationality of applicant’s parents or spouse; maiden name of
                                                                                              applicant’s wife or mother
                                                                                              Language commonly used by applicant, “What is your mother tongue?”
                                                                                              How applicant acquired ability to read, write or speak a foreign language

  Applicant’s academic, vocational or professional education; schools      EDUCATION          Date last attended high school
  attended

  Applicant’s work experience                                              EXPERIENCE         Applicant’s military experience (general)
  Applicant’s military experience in armed forces of United States, in a                      Type of military discharge
  state militia (U.S.) or in a particular branch of U.S. armed forces

  “Have you ever been convicted of any crime? If so, when, where and       CHARACTER          “Have you ever been arrested?”
  what was the disposition of case?”

  Names of applicant’s relatives already employed by this company           RELATIVES         Marital status or number of dependents
  Name and address of parent or guardian if applicant is a minor                              Name or address of relative, spouse or children of adult applicant
                                                                                              “With whom do you reside?”
                                                                                              “Do you live with your parents?”

  Name and address of person to be notified in case of accident or          NOTICE IN         Name and address of relative to be notified in case of emergency
  emergency                                                                  CASE OF
                                                                           EMERGENCY


  Organizations, clubs, professional societies or other associations of which ORGANIZATIONS List all organizations, clubs, societies and lodges to which you belong
  applicant is a member, excluding any names the character of which indicate
  the race, religious creed, color, national origin or ancestry of its members
  “By whom were you referred for a position here?”                         REFERENCES         Requirement of submission of a religious reference

  “Can you perform all of the duties outlined in the job description?”       PHYSICAL         “Do you have any physical disabilities?”
  Statement by employer that all job offers are contingent on passing a     CONDITION         Questions on general medical condition
  physical examination                                                                        Inquiries as to receipt of workmen’s compensation



http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                                         The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 27
                                                                               INTERVIEWS




    Dealing With Rejection in the Job Search
   A
           fter meticulously preparing your cover letters                               2. Don’t make it all or nothing.
           and resumes, you send them to carefully selected                                Don’t set yourself up for a letdown: “If I don’t get this
           companies that you are sure would like to hire you.                             job, I’m a failure.” Tell yourself, “It could be mine. It’s
   You even get a few job interviews. But all of your return                               a good possibility. It’s certainly not an impossibility.”
   correspondence is the same: “Thanks, but no thanks.” Your
   self-confidence melts and you begin to question your value                           3. Don’t blame the interviewer.
   to an employer.                                                                         Realize interviewers aren’t in a hurry to think and
      Sometimes, we begin to dread the BIG NO so much that                                 behave our way. Blame your turndown on a stone-
   we stop pursuing additional interviews, thereby shutting                                hearted interviewer who didn’t flatter you with
   off our pipeline to the future. We confirm that we couldn’t                             beautiful compliments, and you will learn nothing.
   get a job because we stop looking. Remember, fear of rejec-
   tion doesn’t have to paralyze your job search efforts. Let                           4. Don’t live in the past.
   that fear fuel your determination; make it your ally and                                When you dredge up past failures, your nervous
   you’ll learn a lot.                                                                     system kicks in and you experience all the feelings
                                                                                           that go with failure. Unwittingly, you overestimate
   Eight Guidelines to Ward Off Rejection                                                  the dangers facing you and underestimate yourself.
      1. Depersonalize the interview.
         Employers	may	get	as	many	as	500	resumes	for	one	
         job opening. How can you, I and the other 498 of us be
         no good?


                                                                                             Remember, fear of rejection
                                                                                         doesn’t have to paralyze your job
                                                                                                         search efforts.


   Grow your
   own way                                                                              5. Don’t get mad at the system.
                                                                                           Does anything less pleasurable exist than hunting for
                                                                                           a job? Still, you must adjust to the world rather than
                                                                                           make the world adjust to you. The easiest thing is to
                                                                                           conform, to do what 400,000 other people are doing.
                                                                                           When you sit down to play bridge or poker or drive a
                                                                                           car, do you complain about the rules?

                                                                                        6. Take the spotlight off yourself.
                                                                                           Sell your skills, not yourself. Concentrate on what
                                                                                           you’re there for: to find out the interviewer’s prob-
                                                                                           lems and to show how you can work together to solve
                                                                                           them.

                                                                                        7. See yourself in the new role.
                         Every career path is different.                                   Form a mental picture of the positive self you’d like to
                         That’s why we help you design your own.                           become in job interviews, rather than focusing on what
                         We’ll provide the training, coaching                              scares you. All therapists agree on this: Before a person
                         and experiences that allow you to build                           can effect changes, he must really “see” himself in the
                         relationships and take advantage of                               new role. Just for fun, play with the idea.
                         career opportunities. You decide what
                         happens next—at PwC or beyond. Find
                                                                                        8. Keep up your sense of humor.
                         out how you can grow your own way at
                         www.pwc.com/campus                                                Nobody yet has contracted an incurable disease from
                                                                                           a job interview.
                         © 2012 PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, a Delaware
                         limited liability partnership. All rights reserved.          Written by Roseanne R. Bensley, Career Services, New Mexico
                         We are proud to be an Affirmative Action and Equal           State University.
                         Opportunity Employer.




28 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                                     http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                       EVALUATING OFFERS




                You Have an Offer, Now What?
   F
         irst, congratulations on your offer! Take some time       Accepting an Offer
         to think about the offer and perhaps explore the pros        Accepting an offer of employment, whether verbally or
         and cons of accepting it. Is the compensation what        in writing, represents your (good faith) commitment to
   you are looking for? Where is it located, and is this a place   join the employing organization and to honor the terms of
   you want to live? What kind of work will you be doing,          the employment agreement. Once you have accepted an
   and is it what you want to do? If the offer does not meet       offer, you should discontinue all further interviewing and
   one or more of the things you want, consider negotiating.       search activities, including withdrawing from previously
   Not every company may be willing to negotiate, but you          scheduled interviews.
   can certainly try. Companies do not typically revoke offers        The ECRC maintains a strong relationship with many
   when candidates negotiate. When negotiating, be positive,       employers, and this relationship is damaged when
   polite and reasonable. If you decide to negotiate, plan a       students retract committed offers. Reneging on offers can
   strategy after speaking with a Career Counselor and using       also damage your reputation in the industry, as well as
   the tips in this manual.                                        the reputations of the University of Michigan, the College
                                                                   of Engineering, and the ECRC. We expect all students to
   It’s Not Just About the Salary                                  conduct themselves professionally and ethically in their
      Other topics you can negotiate include:                      job search. Please see the Job Search Code of Ethics for
   	 •	 Vacation,	Paid	Time	Off	(PTO)	                             more on the consequences of retracting committed offers.
   	 •	 Shorter	probationary	period
   	 •	 Professional	development	opportunities	
   	 •	 Training	or	certifications	
   	 •	 Moving	expenses
   	 •	 Signing	bonuses/annual	bonuses	
   	 •	 Stock	options/profit	sharing	
   	 •	 Retirement	plans	or	contributions	




         Always maintain a positive and
        productive tone in negotiation.




   Tips
        	
   	 •	 Do	your	homework	before	entering	into	a	negotiation.	
        Conduct research using ECRC salary data, websites
        such as Salary.com, cost of living calculators, etc.
        These tools will help you in determining how much
        to ask for and why.
        	
   	 •	 Plan	your	strategy	around	your	research,	your	lever-
        aging tools, and who you are communicating with.
        We recommend negotiating with the company repre-
        sentative you have had the most contact with/are the
        most comfortable speaking to.
        	
   	 •	 Make	sure	to	practice	before	negotiating.	Practicing	
        will decrease nervousness and increase your ability
        to articulate your desires.
        	
   	 •	 ALWAYS	maintain	a	positive	and	productive	tone	in	
        the negotiation. You do not want to jeopardize your
        reputation or relationship with the employer.


http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 29
                                                        EVALUATING OFFERS



                       The Cost of Living Index
   T
         he following is a selection of cities where many graduating
         students accept offers. The cost of living index is based on the
         composite price of groceries, housing, utilities, transportation,       Salary Comparison Equation
   health care, clothing and entertainment in each city listed.                  City #1 x Salary = $_______
   Use the calculation to compare salaries in different cities.                  City #2
   For further information about the data below, please refer to
   www.bestplaces.net/cost_of_living.                                            What is the New York City equivalent of a
     To compare information from other sources, refer to these                   $50,000	salary	in	Pittsburgh?
   websites: www.salary.com and www.homefair.com/real-estate/                    New York City 159 x	 $50,000	=	$91,379
   salary-calculator.asp.                                                        Pittsburgh       87


   Average City, USA          100     Idaho                           Montana                       Pennsylvania
                                      Boise                   104     Billings               100    Philadelphia             106
   Alabama                                                            Missoula               114    Pittsburgh                87
   Birmingham                  82     Illinois
   Montgomery                  89     Chicago                 116     Nebraska                      South Carolina
                                      Springfield              84     Lincoln                 93    Charleston                110
   Alaska                                                             Omaha                   89    Columbia                   99
   Anchorage                  132     Indiana
                                      Bloomington              93     Nevada                        South Dakota
   Arizona                            Indianapolis             91     Las	Vegas	             109    Sioux Falls               94
   Flagstaff                 122      South Bend               81
   Phoenix                   102                                      New Jersey                    Tennessee
   Tucson                     94      Iowa
                                                                      Atlantic City          112    Chattanooga               91
                                      Des	Moines	              85
   Arkansas                           Iowa City                99     Princeton              182    Memphis                   82
   Little Rock                 91                                     Newark                 127    Nashville	                95
                                      Kansas
   California                         Kansas City              87     New Mexico                    Texas
   Fresno                     109                                     Albuquerque            100    Austin                   102
   Irvine                     173     Kentucky                        Santa Fe               118    Dallas                    94
   Los Angeles                147     Lexington                91                                   Houston                   89
   Sacramento                 114     Louisville	              85     New York                      San Antonio               83
   San Diego                  139                                     Albany                 106
   San	Francisco	             185     Louisiana                       Buffalo                 81    Utah
   San José                   172     Baton Rouge              90     New	York	City	         159    Salt Lake City           103
                                      New Orleans              97     Syracuse                87
   Colorado                                                                                         Vermont
   Boulder                    139     Maine                           North Carolina                Burlington	              115
   Colorado Springs            97     Portland                110     Chapel Hill            129
   Denver                     110                                     Charlotte               98    Virginia
                                      Maryland                        Raleigh                106    Richmond                 104
   Connecticut                        Baltimore                97                                   Virginia	Beach	          115
   Hartford                   109                                     North Dakota
   New Haven                  117     Massachusetts                                                 Washington
                                                                      Fargo                   91
   Stamford                   171     Boston	                 154
                                                                                                    Seattle                  149
                                                                      Ohio
   Delaware                           Michigan
                                      Ann Arbor               101     Cincinnati              91    Washington, DC	          135
   Wilmington                 103
                                      Detroit                  80     Cleveland               90
   Florida                            Lansing                  82     Columbus                89    West Virginia
   Miami Beach                121                                     Dayton	                 85    Charleston                 91
   Orlando	                   105     Minnesota
                                      Minneapolis             108     Oklahoma                      Wisconsin
   Georgia                            St. Paul                108     Oklahoma City           84    Madison                  109
   Atlanta	                   105                                     Tulsa                   90    Milwaukee                 89
                                      Missouri
   Hawaii                             Kansas City              93     Oregon                        Wyoming
   Honolulu                   194     St. Louis                90     Portland               119    Cheyenne                  93

30 The University of Michigan, College of Engineering                                                 http://career.engin.umich.edu/
                                                                                             GRADUATE SCHOOL



                  Graduate School: Is It for You?
    A
            ttending graduate school at the masters or PhD level                                               The Dos and Don’ts of
            can reap many rewards. Graduate students continue                                                  Graduate School Essays
            to advance their education, expand their knowledge
    and experience, and develop specific expertise. If you are                                                 Do
    interested in developing advanced knowledge in specific                                                         	
                                                                                                               	 •	 Be	honest	and	direct.	Good	essays	blend	confidence	
    subject areas, desire to work in research or envision your-                                                     with potential.
    self in leadership roles, graduate school may be a great                                                        	
                                                                                                               	 •	 Be	personal.	Essays,	and	especially	personal	state-
    option for you.                                                                                                 ments, enable you to let admissions committees know
       The graduate school admissions process can seem                                                              who you are beyond GPA and test scores.
    intimidating and difficult, but can be made easier with                                                         	
                                                                                                               	 •	 Be	interesting.	Committees	read	many	essays.	You	
    adequate planning and preparation. First, explore                                                               want yours to stand out, maintain their attention, and
    the graduate programs/degrees you are interested in                                                             say something meaningful about you.
    pursuing. Do you want to obtain a masters degree or PhD?
    What about research, internship or international options?                                                  Don’t
    What are the admissions requirements, such as GPA, GRE                                                          	
                                                                                                               	 •	 Emphasize	the	negative.	If	you	have	weaknesses	to	
    scores and essays? These questions and others will guide                                                        address, do so (such as a bad grade that impacted
    your decision making.                                                                                           your GPA). However, make it concise and move on.
                                                                                                                    	
                                                                                                               	 •	 Use	gimmicks,	vague	language,	clichés,	quotations	
    Top Three Tips                                                                                                  from dead people.
       1. Most graduate school programs require that you
          take a standardized test as part of the admissions                                                   The Personal Statement
          process. The GRE is the most common for engi-                                                        A personal statement is a commonly requested essay used
          neering programs. Take the test early so you have                                                    by graduate school admissions committees. A personal
          time to evaluate your scores. If they are low, you may                                               statement enables you to elaborate on your background, to
          consider taking the test again.                                                                      explore your personal motivations for attending graduate
       2.      An interview may also be a part of the admissions                                               school and often to highlight your unique life experiences
               process. Interviewing is a skill. Make sure you                                                 or challenges you have overcome.
               practice and use our resources if you need help
               preparing.                                                                                      The Statement of Purpose
                                                                                                               The statement of purpose is another very common essay
       3.      Strong recommendation letters can help you achieve                                              requested by graduate school admissions. The statement
               admission to graduate programs. To obtain these,                                                of purpose differs from the personal statement, as its major
               try to build strong relationships with faculty in your                                          function is in describing how you are prepared, what you
               department.                                                                                     hope to accomplish and how graduate school will help you
                                                                                                               to meet your short- and long-term career goals.




                                                             Advertiser Index
   ArcelorMittal  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Inside Back Cover                             MathWorks  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .36
   Bosch  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 11    Newport News Shipbuilding, A Division of
   Capital One  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .29              Huntington Ingalls Industries  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 32
   CCC Information Services Inc .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 26                              PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 28
                                                                                                               Shell  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 25
   Cisco .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .33
                                                                                                               TechSmith  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .34
   CNA  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .36
                                                                                                               U .S . Department of State  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .35
   Consumer Information Catalog  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .35                                    Walmart  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 14
   Earth Share  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .36           Wolverine Trading  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .35
   ITT Exelis  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .5    Worcester Polytechnic Institute  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 32
   Lutron  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Inside Front Cover                    ZF  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 22

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http://career.engin.umich.edu/                                                                                                        The University of Michigan, College of Engineering 31
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