Embedded System Project Abstracts_ IEEE 2012 - Handoff Performance Improvements in MIMO-Enabled Communication-Based Train Control Systems by ncctstudentprojects

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      Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts

  HANDOFF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN MIMO-
  ENABLED COMMUNICATION-BASED TRAIN CONTROL
                  SYSTEMS
Communication-based train control (CBTC) is an automated control
system for railways using data communications. CBTC systems have
stringent communication latency requirements. For rail transit
systems, wireless local area network (WLAN)-based CBTC is a
popular approach due to the wide availability of commercial -off-the-
shelf WLAN equipment.
However, WLANs were not originally designed for high-speed
environments with frequent handoffs, which may result in
communication interrupt and long latency. In this paper, we propose a
handoff scheme in CBTC systems based on WLANs with multiple -
input-multiple-output (MIMO) technologies to improve the handoff
latency performance.
In particular, we consider channel estimation errors and the tradeoff
between MIMO multiplexing gain and diversity gain in making handoff
decisions.
The handoff problem is formulated as a partially observable Markov
decision process (POMDP), and the optimal handoff policy can be
derived to minimize the handoff latency. Simulations results based on
real field channel measurements are presented to show the
effectiveness of the proposed scheme.



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     Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts
Abstract of the Project


Proposed System Advantages


Architecture Diagram


Block Diagram



Explanation of Block Diagram



Components usage Details



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  NCCT, 109, 2 nd Floor, Bombay Flats, Nungambakkam High Road,
                 Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600034.
        Near Ganpat Hotel, Above IOB, Next to ICICI Bank

      Projects in Embedded Systems * Embedded
 Microcontrollers, VLSI * DSP * Matlab * Power Electronics *
                Java * .NET * Android * NS2
NCCT
                                                             www.ncct.in
                                                       ncctchennai@gmail.com
Smarter way to do your Projects                      044-28235816, 98411 93224

        Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts
EMBEDDED HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
   Microcontroller, Atmel 89c51 / 52
   Embedded Active components
   Embedded Passive components
   Electromechanical components
   Electrical components


SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
   Assembly Language
   Embedded C
   KEIL Compiler


HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

                 If PC is used, for Independent Kits, this will not applicable

System        : Pentium Dual Core Processor + Board
RAM           : 1 GB
Hard Disk     : 80 GB
Monitor       : 17” Color Monitor
Mouse         : Logitech Mouse
Keyboard      : Multimedia Keyboard


SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Operating System       :    Windows XP
Front End              :    Visual Basic / Java
Database               :    Access


  NCCT, 109, 2 nd Floor, Bombay Flats, Nungambakkam High Road,
                 Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600034.
        Near Ganpat Hotel, Above IOB, Next to ICICI Bank

      Projects in Embedded Systems * Embedded
 Microcontrollers, VLSI * DSP * Matlab * Power Electronics *
                Java * .NET * Android * NS2
NCCT
                                                             www.ncct.in
                                                       ncctchennai@gmail.com
Smarter way to do your Projects                      044-28235816, 98411 93224

        Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts
ABOUT EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
An embedded system is a computer system designed for specific control functions within a
larger system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete
device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general -purpose computer,
such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wid e range of end-
user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today
Embedded systems contain processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital
signal processors. The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to h andle a particular
task. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize
it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance.
Embedded systems are designed to do some specific t ask, rather than be a general-purpose
computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real -time performance constraints that must be
met, for reasons such as safety and usability
Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of
small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. The
program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored
in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run with limited comp uter hardware
resources: little memory, small or non-existent keyboard or screen.




                                      PERIPHERALS
      Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as:
   Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc.
   Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced
   Synchronous Serial Interface)
   Universal Serial Bus (USB)
   Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc.)
   Networks: Ethernet, LonWorks, etc.
   Fieldbuses: CAN-Bus, LIN-Bus, PROFIBUS, etc.
   Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units
   Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO)
   Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)
   Debugging: JTAG, ISP, ICSP, BDM Port, BITP, and DP9 ports.




  NCCT, 109, 2 nd Floor, Bombay Flats, Nungambakkam High Road,
                 Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600034.
        Near Ganpat Hotel, Above IOB, Next to ICICI Bank

      Projects in Embedded Systems * Embedded
 Microcontrollers, VLSI * DSP * Matlab * Power Electronics *
                Java * .NET * Android * NS2
NCCT
                                                              www.ncct.in
                                                        ncctchennai@gmail.com
Smarter way to do your Projects                       044-28235816, 98411 93224

        Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts
MICROCONTROLLERS
A microcontroller (sometimes abbrev iated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single
integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output
peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on
chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM.
Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors
used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices , such as automobile
engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines,
appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost
compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices,
microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes




ATMEL 89C51 MICROCONTROLLERS
The Atmel AT89 series is an Intel-8051-compatible family of 8 bit microcontrollers (µCs)
manufactured by the Atmel Corporation. Based on the Intel 8051 core, the AT89 series remains
very popular as general purpose microcontrollers, due to their industry standard instruction set,
and low unit cost. This allows a great amount of legacy code to be reused withou t modification in
new applications
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of
Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured
using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-
standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out.
The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in -system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8 -bit CPU with Flash on
a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly -
flexible and cost-effective applications solution to many embedded control




  NCCT, 109, 2 nd Floor, Bombay Flats, Nungambakkam High Road,
                 Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600034.
        Near Ganpat Hotel, Above IOB, Next to ICICI Bank

      Projects in Embedded Systems * Embedded
 Microcontrollers, VLSI * DSP * Matlab * Power Electronics *
                Java * .NET * Android * NS2

								
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