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Teacher Quality-Teacher Preparation Affect Student Achievement

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					                   Teacher Quality:
         Does Teacher Preparation Affect Student
                      Achievement?


                                     June 9, 2010


                                                       Gary T. Henry, UNC at Chapel Hill
                                           Charles L. Thompson, East Carolina University
Kevin C. Bastian, C. Kevin Fortner, David C. Kershaw, Kelly M. Purtell, & Rebecca A. Zulli,
                                                                        UNC at Chapel Hill
                            Alan R. Mabe & Alisa Chapman, UNC General Administration


                                                                  Carolina Institute
                                                                  for Public Policy
             Can colleges & universities help improve K-12
                          education? How?

The situation in North Carolina in 2008‐09:
    –     about 63.90% of 3rd‐8th graders were proficient in both reading and mathematics, far 
          fewer of the poor students (48.3%) were proficient, when the state’s standards for 
          proficiency are used
    –     using national (NAEP) standards, 43% of 4th graders & 36% of 8th graders were proficient 
          in mathematics & 32% of 4th graders & 29% of 8th graders were proficient in reading
    –     about 71.4% of the high school students passed  their End of Course examinations in 
          math, science, English 1, & social studies (58.0% of poor students), and 
    –     only 71.7% of high school students graduated in 4 years.


        What role for colleges & universities in improving student achievement & 
                                         graduation? 



                                                                        Carolina Institute
                                                                        for Public Policy
                                                                                                      2
    Thinking inside the box: Preparing the teacher workforce

 In 2007-08, 104,424 teachers were employed in North Carolina public schools




Portals are combinations of formal education and formal preparation to teach …




                                                           Carolina Institute
                                                           for Public Policy
                                                                                 3
         High concentrations of teachers from 3 portals in high
            school math & science courses (<5 years exp.)
                                 All Tested 
   Teacher Portals                             Math   Math (%)     Science    Science (%)
                                  Subjects
       UNC Undergraduates          1297        730      28%          307         20%

                UNC Masters         220        114      4%           73           5%

       NC private undergrad         328        188      7%           59           4%

         NC private Masters          52         30      1%           17           1%

Out of state undergraduate          719        406      15%          210         14%

        Out of state Masters        185         98      4%           70           5%

         UNC Licensure only          78         26      1%           22           1%

        Other Licensure only         14         4       0%            8           1%

          Teach For America          78         35      1%           20           1%

Visiting International Faculty       79         48      2%           34           2%

                Lateral Entry      1840        928      35%          665         44%
                                                                 Carolina Institute
               Unclassifiable        70         25      1%       for Public Policy
                                                                     25           2%

                                                                                            4
              BUT … Does teacher preparation matter?


    One common but highly stylized interpretation of current research –
           Teachers Matter but Teacher Preparation Doesn’t
1. The impacts of individual teachers are sizable, significant, & reasonably reliable
2. Measured characteristics of teachers including aspects of formal education &
   preparation are often not significant & when they are significant, practically
   meaningless
     •   For example, National Board Certification & Masters Degrees

                         Another common perspective –
Teaching is So Complex that Effects of Teacher Preparation are NOT
                             Detectible
1. Assessments weren’t designed to measure effectiveness of teaching
2. Other influences on student achievement, e.g. families, homes, neighborhoods,
   schools are so strong, the “noise” overwhelms the teacher preparation “signal”
3. Correlation is not causation

                                                                       Carolina Institute
                                                                       for Public Policy
                                                                                            5
                   Study Purpose, Data & Methods

We set out to answer:
 How does the performance of teachers prepared by UNC system compare to
  the performance of teachers who enter North Carolina classrooms with other
  types of preparation, for example, out of state, lateral entry, Teach For
  America, and NC private & independent colleges?
• For the report, we analyzed 1,556,982 million test scores, 939,016 students,
  and 19,940 teachers with less than 5 years of experience from all school
  districts in North Carolina.
• Value-added effects were estimated using multi-level models with 16 student,
  8 classroom/teacher, & 7 school covariates
We are grateful to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, NC
Public School Forum, Teach For America, and our partners, the UNC General
Administration, for providing data and expert advice that were essential for this
report.


                                                           Carolina Institute
                                                           for Public Policy
                                                                                    6
           Teacher preparation matters if student achievement counts

                                            UNC UG Outperform      Teachers from Other 
             Teacher Portals                Teachers from Other    Portals Outperform 
                                                  Portals               UNC UG
                          UNC Masters                0                        0
              NC private undergraduate               1                        0
                    NC private Masters               0                        3
            Out of state undergraduate               5                        0
                  Out of state Masters               1                        0
                    UNC Licensure only               1                        0
                  Other Licensure only               0                        0
                    Teach For America                0                        5
                    Visiting Intl Faculty            2                        1
                          Lateral Entry              3                        0
                         Unclassifiable              1                        0

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                     Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                           7
                   Where do out of state teachers come from?
                       NY, PA, OH, VA, SC, MI, FL, …




                        – Second largest source of NC teachers (23%
                        – Perform worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers in 5 out of 11
                          comparisons, including elementary mathematics and reading
                        – Elementary math student taught by Out of State teachers lose 6.1 days of
                          schooling

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                     Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                           8
             High School: Preparation Matters for HS Math, Science,
                                    & Overall

     Teacher Portals                    Overall                  Math                   Science
                                                                                                                Poor Performance:
                 UNC Masters                ‐‐                      ‐‐                      ‐‐
                                                                                                                Lateral entry teachers
        NC private undergrad                ‐‐                  Worse                       ‐‐                  – Third largest source of
                                                                                                                  North Carolina teachers
          NC private Masters             Better                     ‐‐                  Better                    (15% of the teacher
                                                                                                                  workforce)
      Out of state undergrad             Worse                  Worse                       ‐‐                  – Even higher concentrations
                                                                                                                  in middle and high schools
         Out of state Masters               ‐‐                      ‐‐                      ‐‐                    (in HS they teach 36% of
                                                                                                                  the students taking End Of
          UNC Licensure only                ‐‐                     NR                       ‐‐                    Course subjects)
                                                                                                                Visiting International
        Other Licensure only                ‐‐                     NR                      NR                      Faculty; Unclassifiable;
                                                                                                                   Out of State
           Teach For America             Better                 Better                  Better

           Visiting Intl Faculty         Worse                  Worse                       ‐‐                  Excellent Performance:
                                                                                                                Teach For America; NC
                  Lateral Entry          Worse                  Worse                       ‐‐                    private Masters
                 Unclassifiable             ‐‐                  Worse                       ‐‐
Dashed line ( ‐‐ ) indicates that the teachers in portal performed neither better not worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers.



The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                                                        Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                                                               9
                       Effectiveness of
              Teach For America Corps Members
     
                            Teach for America    Teach for America as Compared 
                               Coefficient             to UNC Traditional 

    HS Overall                   0.172*                    better
    HS Math                      0.139*                    better
    HS English                   0.085*                    better
    HS Science                   0.222*                    better
    HS Social Studies            0.079                  no difference
    MS Math                      0.148*                    better
    MS Reading                   0.024                  no difference
    MS Algebra                     NR                        NR
    MS Science                     NR                        NR
    Elementary Math              0.042                  no difference 
    Elementary Reading           0.040                  no difference 
 

What are the effects of TFA corps members?
–       TFA corps members increase student test scores for middle school
        mathematics by approximately ½ year of learning.
–       TFA corps members increase HS pass rates for their students by
        approximately 3 percentage points.

                                                                   Carolina Institute
                                                                   for Public Policy
                                                                                        10
                    NC Teaching Fellows: Calling the state’s best &
                               brightest into teaching
                                          Comparisons with UNC Undergraduate 
                                                   Prepared Teachers
                                                                   Non‐TF Scholarship 
                                    Teaching Fellows to 
                                                                 Holders**  to Other UNC         Differences in TFA & Teaching 
                                  Other UNC Traditionally 
                                                                  Traditionally Prepared 
                                    Prepared Teachers
                                                                         Teachers
                                                                                                 Fellows (TF)
                                                                                                 TF selected as HS Seniors for 4 year 
High School Overall                        0.019*                          ‐0.014                fellowship; TFA selected as college 
High School Math                            0.020                          ‐0.012                seniors for 2 years of service
High School English                                                                              TF selected based on GPA, SAT, & 
                                            0.005                          ‐0.013
                                                                                                 interview; TFA selected bases on 
High School Science                         0.020                          0.010                 college GPA, service, “soft skills”, 
High School Social Studies                  0.021                          ‐0.021                e.g. perseverance, leadership, 
                                                                                                 ability to engage students
Middle School Math                         0.024*                          0.019                 TF provided PD during college; TFA 
Middle School Reading                     ‐0.021*                          ‐0.022                provided PD on grade & subject 
                                                                                                 summer before teaching &during 
Middle School Algebra 1                     0.026                          ‐0.067                teaching
Middle School Science                      ‐0.110                          ‐0.035                TFA observed & given immediate 
                                                                                                 feedback in their assigned 
Elementary Math                            0.032*                         0.072*
                                                                                                 classrooms
Elementary Reading                          0.000                         0.029*
†Note:  “Other Teachers” include Lateral Entry (including TFA & VIF), Out of State, Licensure 
Only, and Unclassifiable Teachers
** Non‐TF Scholarships include NC Millennium Teacher Scholarship, Future Teachers of NC 
Scholarship, and Prospective Teacher Scholarship.

                                                                                                                                         11
         Using Evidence to Improve K-12 Education
1. Inexperienced teachers
   •   first year teachers are less effective in 9 out of 11 comparisons
   •   second and third year teachers are less effective in 5 out of 9 comparisons
   •   elementary reading teachers are less effective until 5th year as teachers
   •   elementary school math students lose the equivalent of 21 days of schooling
   •   middle school math students lose the equivalent of 47 days of school
2. TFA from a “boutique” to an industrial model.
   •   Scale up: Top college graduates across the U.S. apply & selection of top 10% of
       applicants that have traits related to successful teaching (persistence; ability to engage
       students; leadership)
   •   Transfer technology: Summer teaching and planning to teach NC Standard Course of
       Study; corps members assigned to schools in clusters; continuing professional
       development throughout tenure as corps members
3. Out of State teachers
   •   Little knowledge of or exposure to the NC Standard Course of Study
   •   Less understanding of NC students & schools
   •   Fewer classroom experiences in schools similar to those in which they teach
   •   May over-represent teachers without option to teach in home state
4. Increasing UNC teacher production to replace teachers from less effective
   portals

                                                                       Carolina Institute
                                                                       for Public Policy
                                                                                                    12
 Using Evidence to Improve K-12 Education




                 Thank you!

More details on the research & findings at 1:15
                       or
             publicpolicy.unc.edu/
                       or
              gthenry@unc.edu



                                    Carolina Institute
                                    for Public Policy
                                                         13
More Details on Research Findings




      Additional Information




                               Carolina Institute
                               for Public Policy
                                                    25
                      Teaching Fellows and Other Scholarships
     3,125 Teaching Fellows in North Carolina Classrooms in 2008 (3% of NC Teacher Workforce)

              Level                                    Teaching Fellows                                  Other Scholarships**
High School Overall                              578                       10.16%                          150                      2.64%
High School Math                                 223                        3.92%                           76                      1.34%
High School English                              151                        2.65%                           28                      0.50%
High School Science                              71                         1.25%                           26                      0.46%
High School Social Studies                       140                        2.46%                           20                      0.35%
Middle School Math                               149                        4.88%                           78                      2.55%
Middle School Reading                            183                        4.85%                           56                      1.48%
Middle School Algebra 1                          40                         8.00%                           14                      2.81%
Middle School Science                            14                         4.02%                           11                      3.12%
Elementary School Math                           357                        4.65%                          150                      1.96%
Elementary School Reading                        364                        4.68%                          150                      1.93%


** Non‐TF Scholarships include NC Millennium Teacher Scholarship, Future Teachers of NC Scholarship, and Prospective Teacher Scholarship.

                                                                                                             Carolina Institute
                                                                                                             for Public Policy
                                                                                                                                            16
                                     Preview of Findings

 UNC Undergraduates
   – Largest single source of NC teachers (32% of the teacher workforce).
   – Performance in the middle of the pack (better in 14 comparisons, worse in 9 & no different in 73).
 Out of state undergraduates
   – Second largest source of NC teachers (23% of the teacher workforce)
   – Perform worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers in 5 out of 11 comparisons, including
     elementary mathematics and reading
 Lateral entry teachers (other than Teach For America & Visiting International Faculty)
   – Third largest source of North Carolina teachers (15% of the teacher workforce)
   – Even higher concentrations in middle and high schools (in HS they teach 36% of the students
     taking End Of Course subjects)
   – Perform worse than UNC UG prepared in 3 of 11 comparisons, notably in high school overall
 Teach For America teachers
   – Smallest source of NC teachers (0.3% of the teacher workforce)
   – TFA corps members serve in Charlotte & 12 eastern North Carolina school districts
   – Outperform UNC traditionally prepared in 5 out of 9 comparisons (no different in 4).
 Teaching Fellows
   – Comprise 3% of NC teacher workforce
   – State carefully selects HS seniors and provides scholarships in exchange for 4 years of teaching
   – Perform slightly better than UNC UG teachers in 3 out of 11 comparisons & worse in 1 out of 11.
 Inexperienced teachers, particularly in their first year, are much less effective


The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                      Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                            9
                               Focus for Today’s Briefing


        1.     How effective are teachers that are imported from
               other states?
        2.     Are Teach For America corps members effective in
               North Carolina classrooms?
        3.     Do North Carolina Teaching Fellows make effective
               teachers?
        4.     What are the costs of inexperienced teachers?
        5.     Middle school malaise – slowing gains from earlier
               years.




The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill      Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                            11
                    Sources of Teachers in North Carolina:
                          Teacher Portal Definitions
      Teacher Portal                                              Definition
1. UNC undergrad prepared    A North Carolina public school teacher who completed the requirements for initial 
                             licensure at a UNC institution by earning (a) a bachelors degree in education or (b) a 
                             bachelor’s degree in another major while simultaneously completing the necessary 
                             education‐related coursework, before beginning teaching, including Teaching Fellows

2. UNC graduate degree       A North Carolina public school teacher who earned a graduate degree from a UNC 
                             system institution and qualified for an initial license before beginning teaching, 
                             including Teaching Fellows 

3. NC private undergrad      A North Carolina public school teacher who completed the requirements for initial 
                             licensure at a private (independent) institution in North Carolina by earning (a) a 
  prepared                   bachelors degree in education or (b) a bachelor’s degree in another major while 
                             simultaneously completing the necessary education‐related coursework, before 
                             beginning teaching, including Teaching Fellows

4. NC private graduate       A North Carolina public school teacher who earned a graduate degree from a private 
                             (independent) North Carolina institution and qualified for an initial license before 
  degree                     beginning teaching 

5. Out of state undergrad    A North Carolina public school teacher who completed the requirements for initial 
                             licensure at an out of state institution by earning a bachelors degree before beginning 
  prepared                   teaching 

6. Out of state graduate     A North Carolina public school teacher who earned a graduate degree from an out of 
                             state university and qualified for an initial license before beginning teaching 
  degree

                                                                                  Carolina Institute
                                                                                  for Public Policy
                                                                                                                        28
                      Sources of Teachers in North Carolina:
                        Teacher Portal Definitions (cont.)

       Teacher Portal                                             Definition
7. UNC licensure only         A North Carolina public school teacher who, after earning a bachelor’s degree at any 
                              public or private institution in any state, then separately completed the education‐
                              related requirements for teacher licensure at a UNC system institution, before 
                              beginning teaching 

8. Other licensure only       A North Carolina public school teacher who, after earning a bachelor’s degree at any 
                              public or private institution in any state, then separately completed the education‐
                              related requirements for initial teacher licensure at a non‐UNC system institution, 
                              before beginning teaching

9. Teach For America          A North Carolina public school teacher who began teaching in NC after earning a 
                              bachelors degree but before completing the remaining requirements for initial licensure 
                              and did so through the Teach for America program 

10. Visiting International    A North Carolina public school teacher who entered teaching in NC through the Visiting 
                              International Faculty program 
   Faculty 
11. Lateral Entry             A North Carolina public school teacher who entered the profession prior to completing 
                              requirements for initial licensure (Teach For America corps members excluded)

12. Unclassifiable            A North Carolina public school teacher who cannot be classified into one of the portals 
                              above on the basis of available evidence 




                                                                                  Carolina Institute
                                                                                  for Public Policy
                                                                                                                         29
                              Study Process

Chronology:
    11/08        Analytical model for Individual teacher preparation programs
    discussed with Education Deans
    12/08 – 2/09 Models refined & estimated
    3/09         High school & middle school results to Education Deans
    Spring 09    Meetings with 15 campus teams (A&S, Ed School, Provost)
    9/09         Elementary results to Education Deans
    12/09        All results to NC General Assembly
    12/09        Model specification presented to Education Deans
    2/10         Portal results to Education Deans
    3/10         Portal results to A&S Deans
    4/10         Portal results to Governor & UNC Board of Governors




                                                        Carolina Institute
                                                        for Public Policy
                                                                                3
                                   Models

Value Added Models
    •Common characteristic: includes prior year test score
    •Three approaches:
         1. Multi-level models with extensive covariates
         2. Fixed effects to control for influences on test scores that do not
             vary over time
         3. Multiple test scores without individual, classroom, or school
             covariates
    •Advantages & disadvantages
    •Criteria
         1. Consistency across levels of schooling
         2. Fairness (minimize effects of factors beyond control of prep prgms)
         3. Transparency (relatively easy to understand)
         4. Feasibility




                                                         Carolina Institute
                                                         for Public Policy
                                                                                  3
           What are the trends in the way teachers are prepared to enter
                 NC classrooms? (All NC public school teachers)

  40.00%
                               UNC Undergrad
  35.00%


  30.00%


  25.00%

                     Out of State Undergrad
  20.00%

                NC private Undergrad
  15.00%


                        Lateral Entry
  10.00%
                                                                             Unclassifiable
   5.00%                                       Out of State Masters
                                                                         UNC Masters
   0.00%     2001       2002         2003
                                                 VIF
                                                2004       2005       2006           2007      2008
                                                                                                      UNC Licensure Only TFA
                                                                                                      NC Private Masters
                                                                                                      Other Licensure Only




The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                                   Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                                             5
          What are the trends in the way recently hired teachers are prepared to enter
                      NC classrooms? (less than 5 years of experience)




              UNC Undergrad



                                                                            Lateral Entry



                                             Out of State Undergrad



               NC private Undergrad

               Unclassifiable
                                                            Out of State Masters
                                                                                   VIF
                   UNC Masters                                                              UNC Licensure Only TFA
                                                                                            NC Private Masters
                                                                                            Other Licensure Only




The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                          Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                                   6
                                    Overview of Findings

   UNC Undergraduates
     – Largest single source of NC teachers (32% of the teacher workforce).
     – Performance in the middle of the pack (better in 15 comparisons, worse in 9 & no different in 76).
   Out of state undergraduates
     – Second largest source of NC teachers (23% of the teacher workforce)
     – Perform worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers in 4 out of 11 comparisons,
       including elementary mathematics and reading
   Lateral entry teachers (other than Teach For America & Visiting International Faculty)
     – Third largest source of North Carolina teachers (15% of the teacher workforce)
     – Even higher concentrations in middle and high schools (in HS they teach 37% of the students
       taking End Of Course subjects)
     – Perform worse than UNC UG prepared in 2 of 11 comparisons, notably in high school overall
   Teach For America teachers
     – Smallest source of NC teachers (0.3% of the teacher workforce)
     – TFA Corps members serve in Charlotte & 12 eastern North Carolina school districts
     – Outperform UNC traditionally prepared in 5 out of 9 comparisons (no different in 4).
   Teaching Fellows
     – Comprise 3% of NC teacher workforce
     – State carefully selects HS seniors and provides scholarships in exchange for 4 years of teaching
     – Perform slightly better than UNC UG teachers in 3 out of 11 comparisons & worse in 1 out of 11.
   Inexperienced teachers, particularly in their first year, are much less effective


The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                      Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                            9
                Where do out of state teachers come from?




The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill   Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                         12
Top 10 Out of State Teacher Sources (undergraduate)


             Source         Teacher Count
      New York                   2,714
      Pennsylvania               2,395
      Ohio                       2,237
      Virginia                   1,996
      South Carolina             1,993
      Michigan                   1,441
      Florida                    1,322
      West Virginia              1,138
      Tennessee                    864
      Indiana                      728


                                         Carolina Institute
                                         for Public Policy
                                                              13
                How does the performance of
               out of state teachers compare?


 23 % of North Carolina teachers come from out of state
  with undergraduate preparation
 Out of state teachers perform worse than UNC
  undergraduates in elementary school mathematics and
  reading; in high school mathematics and social studies
 How much does being taught by an out of state teacher
  affect elementary mathematics students?
   – Students taught by out of state teachers lose the equivalent 

      of 6.1 days of schooling




                                               Carolina Institute
                                               for Public Policy
                                                                     14
                           Guiding Principles for
                     Transforming Research into Action
 UNC will take ownership and responsibility for “evidence based” policies and program
  improvements, including:
   – Improve existing UNC teacher preparation program
   – Develop, pilot & evaluate innovations in UNC teacher preparation programs
   – Increase UNC productivity where other large portals perform worse

 Identify specific remedies for gaps (e.g. training to teach the NC Standard Course of Study or
  providing frequent & rigorous feedback to beginning teachers) in lower performing portals that
  could be addressed through UNC programs

 Coordinate with K-12 education partners to develop, pilot & evaluate innovations

 Identify aspects of TFA that are “portable and scalable” to UNC programs:
    – Selection based on “soft skills” e.g. perseverance, engaging audience and leadership
    – More focus on preparation to teach specific objectives in assigned course/grade based on
      NC Standard Course of Study
    – Intensive observation, collaboration & feedback during pre-service preparation & first year
    – Institute “evidence based approach” to teacher preparation




                                                                       Carolina Institute
                                                                       for Public Policy
                                                                                                    24
            Current Findings: Finer-Grained “Routes”


   12 “Portals” through which North Carolina teachers entered classrooms:
    combinations of formal education and formal preparation to teach
–   Type of degree: Bachelors or Masters
–   Source of degree: UNC, Private Colleges & Universities in North Carolina, and
    Out-of-State Colleges and Universities
–   Completion of stand alone certification by UNC or others with prior college
    degree
–   Not licensed: Teach For America, Visiting International Faculty & Other Lateral
    Entry
–   Unclassifiable
   Focus of analysis: students’ gains; teachers with less than 5 year of
    experience; adjusts for differences in students, classrooms & schools




                                                               Carolina Institute
                                                               for Public Policy
                                                                                      26
                       Sources of North Carolina Teachers
                                     Certified Personnel            Teachers
              Portals                 2001‐02 through  Percentage   2007‐08    Percentage
                                           2007‐08                   Count
1. UNC undergrad prepared                 54,103          28%       33,031        32%
2. UNC graduate degree                    7,862           4%         2,792        3%
3. NC private undergrad prepared          22,257          12%       12,793        12%
4. NC private graduate degree              988            .5%         479         .5%
5. Out of state undergrad 
prepared
                                          43,954          23%       24,101        23%

6. Out of state graduate degree           12,583          7%         5,780        6%
7. UNC licensure only                      961            .5%         671         .6%
8. Other licensure only                   1,414           .7%         647         .6%
9. Teach For America                       535            .3%         310         .3%
10. Visiting International Faculty        1,925           1%          867         .8%
11. Lateral Entry                         27,008          14%       15,268        15%
12. Unclassifiable                        17,102          9%         7,685        7%
               TOTAL                     190,692                    104,424
                                                                                            27
                     Middle Grades Teacher Counts by Portal
                                (<5 years exp.)
  Teacher Portals                Math   Reading   Algebra I      Science

       UNC Undergraduates        692     811        123            64

                UNC Masters       25      58         3              6

       NC private undergrad      174      180        14             9

         NC private Masters       4        7         3              1

 Out of state undergraduate      605     728        106            65

        Out of state Masters     102      155        20            14

         UNC Licensure only       19      38         3              2

        Other Licensure only      7        8         0              0

          Teach For America       38      65         8              1

Visiting International Faculty   100      81         15             6

                Lateral Entry    1121    1425        Carolina
                                                    149        Institute
                                                                   126

               Unclassifiable     46      87         8
                                                      for Public Policy
                                                                    8
                                                                           31
Elementary Grades Teacher Counts by Portal
              (<5 years exp.)
  Teacher Portals                  Math   Reading

          UNC Undergraduate        2183    2204

                  UNC Masters      105      113

         NC private undergrad      908     914

           NC private Masters       14      14

   Out of state undergraduate      2161    2179

          Out of state Masters     391      397

           UNC Licensure only       76      80

          Other Licensure only      26      26

            Teach For America       42      46

  Visiting International Faculty   162      161

                  Lateral Entry    556      569

                 Unclassifiable    183      185

                                                    32
                 Findings presented today:
         Assessment of Impacts of Teacher Preparation

   Teachers with fewer than five years of experience in NC classrooms
   High School: Overall, Math, English I, Science, and Social Studies
   Middle School: Math, Reading, Algebra I, and 8th Grade Science
   Elementary School: Math and Reading
   Teacher value added models including prior test scores
   Models compare gains for teachers prepared in each portal with UNC
    undergraduate prep programs
   Additional models assess marginal effects of:
     –   Teaching Fellows Program and Other Teacher Scholarships
     –   NBC, Supplemental Masters, Praxis II scores
   Models account for numerous variables that are beyond the control of
    the teacher prep programs (list updated from prior models)


                                                       Carolina Institute
                                                       for Public Policy
                                                                            33
                 Control Variables Used in the Impact Model

           Other factors in the model to isolate the effect of teacher portals
                 Student                           Classroom & Teacher                      School
1.    Prior test scores (reading & math)      1. Years of experience              1. School size (ADM)
2.    Classmates prior test scores (peer      2. Teaching infield                 2. Suspension rate
      effects)                                3. Number of students               3. Violent acts per 1,000
3.    Days absent                             4. Advanced curriculum                 students
4.    Structural mobility                     5. Remedial curriculum              4. Total per pupil expenditures
5.    Other between year mobility             6. Heterogeneity of prior           5. District teacher supplements
6.    Within year mobility                       achievement within classroom     6. Racial/ethnic composition
7.    Race/ethnicity                          7. Additional: Teaching Fellows &   7. Concentration of poverty
8.    Poverty                                    Other Teacher Scholarships
9.    Parental education                      8. Supplemental Masters, NBC,
10.   Gifted                                     Praxis II
11.   Disability
12.   Currently limited English proficient
13.   Previously limited English proficient
14.   Overage for grade (held back or
      retained at least once)
15.   Underage for grade (promoted two
      grades)
16.   Grade level



                                                                                  Carolina Institute
                                                                                  for Public Policy
                                                                                                                    34
             Where are out of state teachers concentrated?




                                                  Highest concentrations:
                                                  Polk County, Kannapolis, Dare
                                                  County, Charlotte-Mecklenburg,
                                                  Mooresville City, Union County
                                                  & Wake County

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill            Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                  7
                            Where are newly hired lateral entry
                           middle school teachers concentrated?



                                                                                          *




                                                                  Highest concentrations:
                                                                  Gates County, Scotland County,
                                                                  Pasquotank County, Halifax County,
                                                                  Anson County & Bertie County
          *Excludes Teach For America & Visiting International Faculty 

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill                                Carolina Institute for Public Policy
                                                                                                                      8
Where are NCICU undergraduate teachers concentrated?




                                      Carolina Institute
                                      for Public Policy
                      Teaching Fellows and Other Scholarships
     3,125 Teaching Fellows in North Carolina Classrooms in 2008 (3% of NC Teacher Workforce)

              Level                                    Teaching Fellows                                  Other Scholarships**
High School Overall                              529                       10.67%                          138                      2.78%
High School Math                                 327                       12.42%                           87                      3.31%
High School English                              191                       11.51%                           42                      2.53%
High School Science                              129                        8.54%                           32                      2.12%
High School Social Studies                       191                       11.87%                           33                      2.05%
Middle School Math                               147                        5.01%                           75                      2.56%
Middle School Reading                            181                        4.97%                           54                      1.48%
Middle School Algebra 1                          37                         8.19%                           14                      3.10%
Middle School Science                            14                         4.64%                           11                      3.64%
Elementary School Math                           339                        4.98%                          135                      1.98%
Elementary School Reading                        346                        5.02%                          135                      1.96%
** Non‐TF Scholarships include NC Millennium Teacher Scholarship, Future Teachers of NC Scholarship, and Prospective Teacher Scholarship.



                                                                                                             Carolina Institute
                                                                                                             for Public Policy
                                                                                                                                            16

				
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