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					List of Tables - Non-monetary aspects of well-being

Production for own consumption
Table 1: The value of production for own consumption, by level of household
income, 2006 (mean % disposable income)
Table 2: Value of production for own consumption by type of area, 2007
(average % of disposable income)
Table 3: Proportion of population at risk of poverty, excluding and
including production for own consumption, 2007 (% population in
each category)


Childcare
Table 1: Value of childcare subsidies, 2009
Table 2: Use of childcare, 2009
Table 3: Distribution of childcare subsidies, 2009
Table 4: Income share of childcare subsidies, 2009
Table 5: Impact of childcare subsidies on risk of poverty, 2009
Table 6: Impact of childcare subsidies on inequality, 2009
Table 7: Impact of childcare subsidies on redistribution, 2009
Table A.1: Distribution of children aged 0-5 in the population, 2009
Table A.2: Distribution of children aged 0-5 by type of childcare, 2009

Health
Table 1: Public healthcare benefits in kind (2004)
Table 2: Unmet need for medical care 'because too expensive' (2007)
Table 3: Out-of-pocket spending on health by persons aged 50+ (2006-07)
Table 4: Large out-of-pocket health spending by persons aged 50+ (2006-07)
Table 5: Out-of-pocket spending on health by persons aged 50+ (2004)
Table 6: Large out-of-pocket health spending by persons aged 50+ (2004)
Table 7: Out-of-pocket spending on health at household level (2005)
Table 8: Perceived unaffordability of healthcare (2007)


Access to essential services
Table 1: Proportion of people in densely populated areas with income above and below the at-risk-of-
poverty threshold reporting difficulty of access to more than one essential service, 2007 (% those at
risk/not at risk)
Table 2: Proportion of people in sparsely populated areas with income above and below the at-risk-of-
poverty threshold reporting difficulty of access to more than one essential service, 2007 (% those at
risk/not at risk)



Access to decent housing
Table 1: Proportion of people with income above and below the poverty threshold with housing problems
me above and below the at-risk-of-
sential service, 2007 (% those at

me above and below the at-risk-of-
sential service, 2007 (% those at




 erty threshold with housing problems
List of Tables

         Table 1: The value of production for own consumption, by level of
         household income, 2006 (mean % disposable income)

                                                At-risk-of-poverty        At-risk-of-poverty
                                   Total       threshold of 60% of       threshold of 40% of
                                                 median income             median income
                                                Above       Below         Above       Below
                                              threshold threshold       threshold threshold
                   BG                 3.0           2.5        4.9            2.9        4.2
                   CZ                 1.2           1.0        2.5            1.1        4.6
                   DE                 0.2           0.1        0.4            0.1        0.7
                   EE                 1.1           0.7        2.9            0.8        6.0
                   IE                 0.0           0.0        0.0            0.0        0.1
                   EL                 1.1           0.5        3.3            0.8        5.8
                   ES                 0.3           0.2        0.9            0.2        1.8
                   IT                 0.6           0.3        1.7            0.4        3.5
                   CY                 0.0           0.0        0.1            0.0        0.1
                   LV                 3.9           2.0        9.6            2.7       14.2
                   LT                 3.3           1.6       10.2            2.3       17.4
                   LU                 0.0           0.0        0.0            0.0        0.0
                   HU                 0.3           0.2        0.5            0.2        1.1
                   AT                 0.1           0.1        0.2            0.1        0.0
                   PL                 1.7           1.0        5.1            1.3        9.4
                   PT                 1.9           1.1        5.4            1.4        9.8
                   RO                25.7         19.7        44.7          22.3        51.7
                   SI                 2.3           1.9        5.3            2.1        9.2
                   SK                 0.6           0.5        1.2            0.5        1.4
                   Total              2.4           1.6        5.9            1.9        9.8
                   Note: No data for BE, DK, NL FI, SE and UK
                   Source: EU-SILC 2008
                   European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
List of Tables

         Table 2: Value of production for own consumption by type of area, 2007
         (average % of disposable income)

                                         Poverty threshold:
                           Less than 60% of            Less than 40% of
                            median income               median income
                       Urban             Rural         Urban     Rural
                       areas             areas         areas     areas
         BG                   1.6           6.3           0.4       5.8
         CZ                   2.1           3.1           3.5       6.0
         DE                   0.3           0.7           0.6       1.3
         EE                   0.7           4.3           1.3       8.2
         IE                   0.0           0.1           0.0       0.3
         EL                   0.4           5.1           0.5       8.9
         ES                   0.4           1.7           0.9       3.5
         IT                   1.4           3.3           2.6       7.1
         CY                   0.1           0.1           0.1       0.0
         LV                   1.5          14.2           1.9      19.6
         LT                   0.3          13.0           0.2      20.6
         LU                   0.0           0.0           0.0       0.0
         HU                   0.1           0.8           0.0       1.8
         AT                   0.1           0.5           0.0       0.0
         PL                   2.6           6.7           4.7      12.9
         PT                   3.9           8.8           6.5      16.9
         RO                  25.2          47.0          34.6      53.5
         SI                      .             .             .         .
         SK                   0.9           1.5           1.1       1.8
         Total                1.4          12.8           2.5      20.4
         Note: No data for BE, DK, NL, FI, SE and UK
         No data on type of location for SI
         Source: EU-SILC 2008
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
List of Tables


         Table 3: Proportion of population at risk of poverty, excluding and including
         production for own consumption, 2007 (% population in each category)


                        At risk of poverty threshold,       At risk of poverty threshold,
                           60% of median income                40% of median income

                                              Incl.                              Incl.
                         As usually       production for     As usually      production for
                         measured             own            measured            own
                                          consumption                        consumption
         BG                      21.4             20.1               8.4               8.1
         CZ                       9.1               9.0              2.3               2.2
         DE                      15.3             15.2               5.0               4.9
         EE                      19.5             19.2               5.5               5.3
         IE                      15.5             15.5               2.9               2.9
         EL                      20.1             19.9               6.7               6.6
         ES                      19.6             19.6               6.8               6.8
         IT                      18.7             18.6               6.7               6.6
         CY                      16.3             16.3               3.1               3.1
         LV                      25.6             24.6              10.7               9.6
         LT                      20.0             18.8               7.0               5.9
         LU                      13.4             13.4               2.5               2.5
         HU                      12.3             12.3               2.7               2.8
         AT                      12.4             12.3               2.4               2.4
         PL                      16.9             16.3               5.2               4.7
         PT                      18.5             18.1               5.6               5.4
         RO                      23.4             19.9              11.2               8.7
         SI                      12.3             11.3               2.8               2.5
         SK                      10.9             10.7               3.1               3.2
              Total              17.3             16.9               5.9               5.6
         Note: No data for BE, DK, NL, FI, SE and UK
         Source: EU-SILC 2008
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
List of Tables

         Table 1: Value of childcare subsidies, 2009


                                            Subsidies per child (€)


                                                       std
                                    average                             max
                                                    deviation
           Austria                      3,753          1,160              7,798
           Belgium                      3,988          1,189              8,464
           Czech Republic               1,613              513            2,820
           Germany                      3,901           1,747             9,083
           Denmark                      7,074           1,591            11,093
           Estonia                      1,028              182            1,990

           Spain                        3,586           1,153             7,678


           Finland                      7,813           2,616            12,468

           France                       4,213           1,401             8,708
           Greece                       2,870             897             5,316
           Hungary                      2,066             651             3,159
           Ireland                      4,652           2,021            10,151
           Italy                        4,867           2,974            49,427
           Luxembourg                   7,202           2,778            15,511
           Netherlands                  3,247           2,815            10,062
           Poland                       1,825             365             3,061
           Portugal                     2,340             539             3,967
           Sweden                      10,102           3,783            22,138
           Slovenia                     4,032           3,280            50,680
           Slovakia                     1,083             185             1,188
           UK                           5,312           2,975            26,010




         Notes: Subsidies in € per annum per child attending childcare (incl. pre-
         primary education). In Austria, Ireland and Portugal amounts include only
         pre-primary education. Broadly-defined childcare is defined on the basis
         of variables RL010 and RL040 in EU-SILC: RL010 gives number of hours
         per week in pre-primary education (ISCED level 0); RL040 refers to
         number of hours per week in day care centres (hence, excluding child
         minders). EU-SILC does not differentiate between private and public
         childcare, nor does it contain information on childcare fees. In view of
         this, we assumed that total public expenditure on childcare (per child and
         per hour) is equally shared by all users. There are no data for Bulgaria,
         Malta and Romania. No amounts of childcare or pre-primary education
         were available for imputation for Cyprus, Lithuania and Latvia.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and
         living conditions
List of Tables

         Table 2: Use of childcare, 2009


                                                child’s age?          poverty status?               parents working?                   mother working full-time or part-time?

                                    all                                                                                                             mother
                                                                                                                                  father works                 father          father
                                                                                                                                                      sole
                                                0-2        3-5        poor      non-poor       none         one        both          mother                    works           works
                                                                                                                                                    earner
                                                                                                                                     doesn’t                  mother f-t      mother p-t
                                                                                                                                                   f-t or p-t
           Austria               43.2%         6.8%      76.2%       34.4%        44.9%       29.6%       33.3%       72.1%             29.6%       62.1%       72.2%            71.5%
           Belgium               69.5%       40.1%       99.2%       54.9%        72.8%       57.6%       63.6%       75.6%             58.5%       74.6%         75.9%          75.3%
           Czech Republic        43.8%         2.1%      84.4%       40.1%        44.5%       35.9%       34.8%       77.5%             33.0%       62.2%         77.5%          77.5%
           Germany               63.7%       18.7%       97.8%       66.5%        63.2%       58.8%       52.8%       80.1%             48.7%       80.6%         78.6%          87.3%
           Denmark               84.1%       70.2%       96.3%       78.4%        84.8%       73.1%       75.5%       90.1%             71.3%       85.2%         90.3%          90.0%

           Estonia               52.0%       13.9%       87.2%       53.2%        51.8%       38.6%       35.3%       83.3%             23.6%       86.7%         74.0%          85.5%


           Spain                 67.6%       36.3%       99.1%       63.9%        68.5%       65.4%       59.8%       74.8%             56.9%       78.3%         72.3%          75.7%

           Finland               54.0%       24.4%       84.8%       40.7%        55.8%       44.7%       31.0%       84.3%             25.6%       73.1%         76.7%          86.2%
           France                63.7%       28.0%       99.7%       66.1%        63.3%       56.3%       57.6%       69.4%             49.9%       82.7%         68.3%          70.3%
           Greece                41.1%        9.4%       66.2%       34.0%        42.8%       26.5%       31.2%       50.9%             30.4%       43.0%         50.3%          51.0%
           Hungary               54.5%        7.5%       90.2%       54.2%        54.6%       49.0%       40.7%       93.3%             36.3%       78.4%         96.5%          93.0%
           Ireland               49.5%       16.0%       79.8%       38.4%        51.5%       32.8%       51.0%       55.9%             43.5%       73.7%         55.9%          55.9%
           Italy                 63.1%       24.5%       99.3%       59.5%        64.1%       51.1%       62.3%       65.8%             61.0%       70.6%         70.2%          63.3%
           Luxembourg            61.8%       24.4%       90.6%       55.7%        63.2%       43.3%       55.5%       67.4%             52.4%       72.8%         60.9%          75.2%
           Netherlands           69.4%       41.9%       94.0%       64.7%        70.1%       77.3%       60.3%       73.0%             59.1%       66.9%         73.4%          69.8%
           Poland                21.8%        2.7%       40.5%       17.1%        23.0%       12.5%       17.3%       30.7%             13.7%       32.1%         25.7%          31.6%
           Portugal              56.9%       22.2%       85.3%       50.0%        58.1%       45.4%       46.0%       62.5%             39.9%       57.0%         57.0%          63.0%
           Sweden                71.2%       45.9%       98.8%       66.7%        71.8%       66.9%       65.4%       74.0%             60.6%       76.0%         81.8%          68.4%
           Slovenia              60.5%       32.9%       85.5%       45.7%        62.1%       39.1%       54.2%       64.3%             43.6%       69.2%         59.1%          64.6%
           Slovakia              43.2%        1.5%       74.7%       29.9%        45.9%       28.9%       27.8%       55.9%             24.0%       42.6%         48.5%          56.1%
           UK                    63.0%       36.8%       89.5%       50.7%        66.8%       52.5%       62.7%       69.3%             57.8%       72.9%         69.2%          69.6%



         Notes: Share of children aged 0-5 attending broadly defined childcare by at-risk-of-poverty status of household and employment status of parents. Childcare includes pre-primary
         and primary education for children aged below 6. At-risk-of-poverty status refers to whether the household’s equivalised net disposable income is above or below the standard at-
         risk-of-poverty line (60% of median). The number of observations is below 40 in households where no parent works in Greece and the Netherlands, where the mother is sole earner
         in Greece and Slovakia, and where both parents work but the mother works part time in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Portugal and Slovakia. See notes to Table 1.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
List of Tables

         Table 3: Distribution of childcare subsidies, 2009


                                                poverty status?             parents working?                mother working full-time or part-time?


                                     all                                                                               mother
                                                                                                           father
                                                                                                                         sole     father     father
                                                            non-                                           works
                                                poor                    none         one        both                   earner     works      works
                                                            poor                                          mother
                                                                                                                      (f-t or p- mother f-t mother p-t
                                                                                                          doesn’t
                                                                                                                           t)
           Austria                100.0%       13.5%       86.5%        8.0%       44.8%       47.2%       33.3%       11.5%       34.3%      12.9%
           Belgium                100.0%       15.1%       84.9%       12.8%       27.3%       59.9%       16.7%       10.6%         30.6%         29.3%
           Czech Republic         100.0%       13.3%       86.7%       10.7%       48.5%       40.7%       42.3%        6.3%          4.5%         36.3%
           Germany                100.0%       13.8%       86.2%        9.6%       38.7%       51.7%       29.3%        9.4%         38.4%         13.2%
           Denmark                100.0%        9.2%       90.8%        8.8%       24.5%       66.7%       16.0%        8.5%         18.9%         47.8%

           Estonia                100.0%       15.2%       84.8%        6.5%       38.6%       54.9%       20.0%       18.6%          8.4%         46.5%


           Spain                  100.0%       17.2%       82.8%        5.6%       35.9%       58.6%       29.4%        6.4%         15.2%         43.4%

           Finland                100.0%        8.2%       91.8%        9.0%       23.5%       67.5%       15.8%        7.7%         10.3%         57.3%
           France                 100.0%       12.3%       87.7%        7.5%       33.7%       58.8%       21.1%       12.7%         23.7%         35.0%
           Greece                 100.0%       13.0%       87.0%        2.5%       32.8%       64.7%       29.6%        3.2%         11.2%         53.4%
           Hungary                100.0%       19.5%       80.5%       12.9%       42.4%       44.7%       32.9%        9.5%          3.6%         41.1%
           Ireland                100.0%       14.4%       85.6%       16.4%       38.3%       45.4%       24.2%       14.0%         20.3%         25.1%
           Italy                  100.0%       22.3%       77.7%        5.1%       50.0%       45.0%       40.0%       10.0%         17.7%         27.3%
           Luxembourg             100.0%       18.4%       81.6%        3.3%       35.2%       61.5%       27.5%        7.7%         25.4%         36.1%
           Netherlands            100.0%       16.1%       83.9%        6.7%       28.9%       64.4%       24.8%        4.1%         57.0%          7.4%
           Poland                 100.0%       14.7%       85.3%        8.6%       34.3%       57.1%       21.4%       12.9%          6.7%         50.4%
           Portugal               100.0%       14.1%       85.9%        6.3%       22.6%       71.0%       11.4%       11.3%          4.3%         66.7%
           Sweden                 100.0%        9.4%       90.6%        4.6%       24.1%       71.3%       14.3%        9.8%         31.1%         40.2%
           Slovenia               100.0%        7.1%       92.9%        3.1%       19.0%       77.8%        8.3%       10.8%          4.8%         73.1%
           Slovakia               100.0%       11.8%       88.2%        7.2%       21.9%       70.9%       15.1%        6.7%          1.4%         69.6%
           UK                     100.0%       18.7%       81.3%       17.6%       38.9%       43.5%       21.6%       17.3%         26.4%         17.1%
         Notes: Percentage of total non-equivalised public subsidies to broadly defined childcare by at-risk-of-poverty status of household and employment
         status of parents. See notes to Tables 1-2.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
List of Tables

         Table 4: Income share of childcare subsidies, 2009


                                              poverty status?              parents working?               mother working full-time or part-time?

                                                                                                                     mother
                                    all                                                                  father
                                                                                                                       sole     father     father
                                                          non-                                           works
                                               poor                   none         one        both                   earner     works      works
                                                          poor                                          mother
                                                                                                                    (f-t or p- mother f-t mother p-t
                                                                                                        doesn’t
                                                                                                                         t)
           Austria                 5.5%      10.4%         5.1%        5.2%       4.6%        7.4%        3.9%       11.5%        7.8%       6.3%
           Belgium               10.8%       22.1%         9.8%      16.2%       13.4%        9.2%       11.6%       17.5%         10.0%            8.5%
           Czech Republic          7.7%      15.1%         7.1%        9.8%       6.2%       10.8%        5.8%       12.3%           9.5%           11.0%
           Germany                 9.1%      21.9%         8.3%      13.9%        7.6%       10.0%        6.4%       18.4%           9.2%           13.2%
           Denmark               17.9%       40.4%       16.9%       25.9%       18.6%       16.8%       16.8%       23.1%         18.7%            16.2%

           Estonia                 5.4%      18.6%         4.8%        7.2%       4.1%        7.2%        2.6%       16.6%           6.2%           7.4%


           Spain                 11.0%       27.9%         9.8%      14.8%       12.1%       10.2%       11.9%       13.1%         11.2%            9.9%

           Finland               14.4%       23.7%       13.8%       13.4%        8.2%       20.6%        6.5%       23.3%         20.1%            20.7%
           France                10.5%       22.1%        9.8%       16.9%       11.2%        9.6%        9.5%       16.7%          9.8%             9.4%
           Greece                 6.6%       12.3%        6.2%        8.5%        6.1%        6.8%        6.0%        8.0%          8.4%             6.6%
           Hungary               17.7%       38.4%       15.6%       23.6%       13.8%       23.9%       12.3%       27.4%         19.8%            24.3%
           Ireland                5.7%       13.2%        5.2%        9.9%        5.8%        4.8%        5.1%        8.4%          4.6%             4.8%
           Italy                 12.3%       32.6%       10.4%       17.8%       16.2%        9.4%       14.8%       24.0%         11.2%             8.6%
           Luxembourg             9.7%       20.2%        8.7%       16.9%       10.6%        9.1%        9.6%       16.7%          7.4%            10.8%
           Netherlands            8.0%       21.1%        7.2%       18.3%        9.3%        7.2%        9.5%        8.0%          7.3%             6.5%
           Poland                 5.7%       11.5%        5.3%        3.6%        5.0%        6.8%        4.4%        7.1%          5.1%             7.1%
           Portugal               6.0%       14.4%        5.5%        6.1%        7.0%        5.7%        6.2%        8.0%          5.7%             5.7%
           Sweden                26.9%       48.5%       25.8%       35.2%       28.9%       25.9%       23.9%       42.0%         29.2%            23.8%
           Slovenia              14.5%       25.8%       14.0%       12.3%       15.7%       14.4%       13.4%       18.5%         20.2%            14.1%
           Slovakia               6.3%       13.0%        5.8%        8.9%        4.9%        6.7%        4.7%        5.6%          3.4%             6.9%
           UK                    10.1%       23.6%        8.7%       12.6%       10.6%        8.8%        8.1%       16.2%          9.1%             8.5%
         Notes: Subsidies to broadly defined childcare as a share of household equivalised net disposable income by at-risk-of-poverty status and
         employment status of parents. See notes to Tables 1-2.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
List of Tables

         Table 5: Impact of childcare subsidies on risk of poverty, 2009

                                  FGT(1) normalised poverty gap              FGT(0) headcount poverty rate
                                   excl.      incl.                           excl.      incl.
                                                        change                                    change
                                 subsidies subsidies                        subsidies subsidies
           Austria                    4.7        4.0       -15%                 16.0       14.0      -13%
           Belgium                    4.5        2.7       -41%                 18.3       11.6      -37%
           Czech Republic             3.7        2.6       -32%                 15.5       12.9      -17%
           Germany                    4.1        2.8       -33%                 13.9       10.1      -28%
           Denmark                    3.1        1.8       -43%                 10.5        5.2      -51%
           Estonia                    4.6        3.3       -30%                 14.9       12.4      -17%
           Spain                      6.1        3.7       -38%                 19.1       12.8      -33%
           Finland                    1.9        1.2       -34%                 12.1        8.1      -33%
           France                     2.4        1.2       -48%                 12.6        7.2      -42%
           Greece                     6.6        5.7       -15%                 18.7       17.3       -8%
           Hungary                    4.6        2.0       -57%                 20.1        9.8      -51%
           Ireland                    3.1        2.0       -34%                 15.0       11.0      -27%
           Italy                      7.6        4.5       -41%                 23.1       15.0      -35%
           Luxembourg                 3.5        1.8       -50%                 18.9       11.6      -39%
           Netherlands                2.8        1.6       -42%                 12.8        6.9      -46%
           Poland                     6.3        5.3       -15%                 20.8       19.0       -8%
           Portugal                   4.7        3.7       -20%                 15.8       12.3      -22%
           Sweden                     2.9        1.4       -50%                 11.3        5.5      -51%
           Slovenia                   2.2        1.3       -41%                  9.9        6.7      -32%
           Slovakia                   5.1        4.1       -19%                 16.9       12.9      -24%
           UK                         6.4        4.2       -34%                 23.7       16.7      -30%
         Actual and counterfactual value of the FGT (0) index (i.e. the headcount risk-of-poverty rate) and FGT(1)
         index (i.e. the normalised risk-of-poverty gap) for children aged 0-5 (excluding or including subsidies to
         broadly defined childcare respectively). The at-risk-of-poverty line (at 60% of median equivalised net
         disposable income) is allowed to rise when childcare subsidies are treated as income. See notes to Tables 1-
         2.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table 6: Impact of childcare subsidies on inequality, 2009

                                                          S80/S20 index
                                        actual             counterfactual
                                                                                      change
                                  (excl. subsidies)       (incl. subsidies)
           Austria                             3.77                   3.71                  -1.4%
           Belgium                             3.85                   3.78                  -1.7%
           Czech Republic                      3.51                   3.45                  -1.5%
           Germany                             4.70                   4.63                  -1.6%
           Denmark                             3.50                   3.47                  -0.9%
           Estonia                             5.54                   5.47                  -1.3%
           Spain                               5.25                   5.14                  -2.1%
           Finland                             3.70                   3.71                   0.3%
           France                              3.81                   3.74                  -1.8%
           Greece                              5.96                   5.91                  -0.8%
           Hungary                             3.69                   3.57                  -3.3%
           Ireland                             4.75                   4.69                  -1.2%
           Italy                               5.45                   5.29                  -2.9%
           Luxembourg                          3.96                   3.87                  -2.3%
           Netherlands                         3.89                   3.80                  -2.2%
           Poland                              5.26                   5.23                  -0.6%
           Portugal                            6.46                   6.39                  -1.0%
           Sweden                              3.35                   3.35                   0.0%
           Slovenia                            3.23                   3.23                   0.0%
           Slovakia                            3.46                   3.44                  -0.7%
           UK                                  5.44                   5.32                  -2.2%
         Actual and counterfactual value of the S80/S20 index (i.e. the quintile income share ratio)
         for the entire population (excluding or including subsidies to broadly defined childcare
         respectively). See notes to Tables 1-2.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table 7: Impact of childcare subsidies on redistribution, 2009

                                                           Gini index                                  Reynolds-
                                       actual             counterfactual                               Smolensky
                                                                                    change
                                 (excl. subsidies)       (incl. subsidies)                               index
           Austria                          0.261                   0.259                 -1.0%             -0.003
           Belgium                          0.260                   0.258                 -1.0%             -0.003
           Czech Republic                   0.252                   0.249                 -1.1%             -0.003
           Germany                          0.295                   0.292                 -1.0%             -0.003
           Denmark                          0.241                   0.238                 -0.9%             -0.002
           Estonia                          0.332                   0.330                 -0.7%             -0.002
           Spain                            0.309                   0.306                 -0.9%             -0.003
           Finland                          0.261                   0.260                 -0.3%             -0.001
           France                           0.263                   0.259                 -1.3%             -0.003
           Greece                           0.339                   0.338                 -0.3%             -0.001
           Hungary                          0.257                   0.252                 -2.0%             -0.005
           Ireland                          0.312                   0.309                 -0.8%             -0.002
           Italy                            0.317                   0.312                 -1.4%             -0.004
           Luxembourg                       0.273                   0.269                 -1.6%             -0.004
           Netherlands                      0.268                   0.265                 -1.3%             -0.004
           Poland                           0.321                   0.320                 -0.2%             -0.001
           Portugal                         0.368                   0.366                 -0.5%             -0.002
           Sweden                           0.232                   0.231                 -0.5%             -0.001
           Slovenia                         0.228                   0.228                 -0.1%                  0
           Slovakia                         0.244                   0.243                 -0.3%             -0.001
           UK                               0.326                   0.322                 -1.3%             -0.004
         The Reynolds-Smolensky index of residual progression is given by the arithmetic difference between the actual
         and the counterfactual values of the Gini index for the entire population (excluding or including subsidies to
         broadly defined childcare respectively). See notes to Tables 1-2.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table A.1: Distribution of children aged 0-5 in the population, 2009


                                                     poverty status?                      parents working?                                 mother working full-time or part-time?

                                      all                                                                                       father
                                                                                                                                              mother      mother           father       father
                                                                                                                                works
                                                    poor         non-poor         none            one            both                       sole earner sole earner        works        works
                                                                                                                               mother
                                                                                                                                                                          mother f-t   mother p-t
                                                                                                                               doesn’t           f-t            p-t
           Austria                    100%            16%             84%            13%            61%             27%            54%              5%            1%          20%           7%
           Belgium                    100%            18%             82%            15%            28%             57%            19%              4%              5%        28%          29%
           Czech Republic             100%            16%             84%            14%            65%             21%            61%              1%              3%         3%          18%
           Germany                    100%            14%             86%            11%            51%             37%            45%              4%              3%        31%           7%
           Denmark                    100%            10%             90%            11%            28%             61%            20%              1%              7%        18%          43%

           Estonia                    100%            15%             85%             9%            57%             34%            46%              0%              10%        6%          28%


           Spain                      100%            19%             81%             6%            44%             50%            38%              2%              4%        14%          36%

           Finland                    100%            12%             88%            13%            47%             40%            42%              1%              4%         8%          32%
           France                     100%            13%             87%             9%            39%             52%            30%              4%              6%        22%          30%
           Greece                     100%            19%             81%             3%            45%             51%            42%              0%              3%         9%          42%
           Hungary                    100%            20%             80%            15%            61%             24%            54%              0%              6%         2%          22%
           Ireland                    100%            15%             85%            19%            40%             41%            30%              6%              4%        20%          21%
           Italy                      100%            23%             77%             7%            50%             43%            43%              1%              5%        16%          28%
           Luxembourg                 100%            19%             81%             4%            39%             57%            33%              2%              4%        31%          26%
           Netherlands                100%            13%             87%             4%            30%             66%            25%              3%              1%        59%           7%
           Poland                     100%            21%             79%            16%            45%             39%            36%              1%              7%         6%          33%
           Portugal                   100%            16%             84%             7%            27%             66%            17%              2%              8%         5%          61%
           Sweden                     100%            11%             89%             6%            27%             67%            19%              3%              5%        28%          39%
           Slovenia                   100%            10%             90%             6%            23%             71%            13%              1%              9%         4%          68%
           Slovakia                   100%            17%             83%            11%            35%             54%            28%              0%              6%         2%          53%
           UK                         100%            24%             76%            22%            41%             38%            27%              8%              5%        25%          13%

         Notes: Distribution of children aged 0-5 attending broadly defined childcare by at-risk-of-poverty status of household and employment status of parents.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table A.2: Distribution of children aged 0-5 by type of childcare, 2009


                                                      no child care                   day care                    pre-primary              primary
                                      all
                                                  age 0-2        age 3-5        age 0-2        age 3-5        age 0-2        age 3-5        age 3-5

           Austria                     100           46.8           14.1             0.0            0.0            0.8          38.3             0.0
           Belgium                     100           30.1             0.4          15.8             0.0            4.3          49.1             0.3
           Czech Republic              100           48.3             7.9            0.2            0.0            0.9          42.8             0.0
           Germany                     100           35.1             1.3            7.9          46.7             0.1            8.1            0.9
           Denmark                     100           13.9             2.0          32.6           40.0             0.0          11.2             0.3

           Estonia                     100           41.4             6.6            0.0            0.0            6.7          45.3             0.0


           Spain                       100           32.9             0.7            0.0            0.0          17.2           49.2             0.0

           Finland                     100           38.5            7.5           12.4           33.0            0.0            8.6            0.0
           France                      100           36.2            0.1           13.2            1.9            0.9           47.0            0.7
           Greece                      100           40.1           19.1            0.0            0.0            4.1           36.4            0.4
           Hungary                     100           39.9            5.6            2.7            2.2            0.6           48.8            0.4
           Ireland                     100           45.6           12.7            0.0            0.0            1.9           18.7           21.1
           Italy                       100           36.6            0.3            0.3            0.0           11.5           46.2            4.9
           Luxembourg                  100           32.9            5.3           10.2            9.5            0.4           41.3            0.3
           Netherlands                 100           27.4            3.2           19.8           15.7            0.0           33.9            0.0
           Poland                      100           48.3           30.0            1.3            0.9            0.0           19.6            0.0
           Portugal                    100           43.0           10.5            0.0            0.0            2.1           43.8            0.6
           Sweden                      100           28.2            0.6           23.9           34.3            0.0           12.8            0.3
           Slovenia                    100           31.9            7.6            0.4            1.5           15.3           43.3            0.1
           Slovakia                    100           42.5           14.4            0.0            0.0            0.7           42.5            0.0
           UK                          100           31.8            5.2            3.1            0.7           15.4           23.8           20.0

         Notes: In Denmark, Germany and Sweden, the number of children in day care is likely to be overestimated, while that in pre-primary education
         is likely to be underestimated. In France, about 4% of children aged 0-5 attend both day care and pre-primary education.
         Source: EU-SILC 2009
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table 1: Public healthcare benefits in kind (2004)

                                                                             B. health benefits in kind as a
                           A. relative per capita public spending
                                                                               percentage of household
                                on health per income quintile
                                                                                  disposable income
                                          Poorest       Richest                           Poorest       Richest
                               All                                             All
                                          quintile      quintile                          quintile      quintile
         BE                          1       1.17          0.84                 16.6         36.4           8.3
         DE                          1       1.05           0.96                16.7          36.6            8.6
         EL                          1       1.11           0.88                11.5          34.9            5.2
         IT                          1       0.98           0.96                14.9          38.4            7.5
         UK                          1         1.1          0.85                13.2          35.3            5.5
         Note: Quintile points are defined for individuals on the basis of equivalised household disposable income
         using the modified OECD equivalence scale.
         Source: Paulus et al. (2010).
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table 2: Unmet need for medical care 'because too
         expensive' (2007)

                                        All households        Poor households
         Belgium                                  0.5                    1.6
         Bulgaria                                11.6                   25.1
         Czech Republic                           0.3                    1.1
         Denmark                                  0.0                    0.0
         Germany                                  1.5                    5.0
         Estonia                                  0.9                    2.5
         Ireland                                  1.2                    0.9
         Greece                                   4.2                    7.1
         Spain                                    0.1                    0.2
         Italy                                    3.9                    8.9
         Cyprus                                   2.9                    5.1
         Latvia                                   6.7                   15.5
         Lithuania                                1.7                    3.9
         Luxembourg                               0.5                    2.2
         Hungary                                  2.4                    6.6
         Netherlands                              0.1                    0.1
         Austria                                  0.5                    1.5
         Poland                                   2.6                    5.4
         Portugal                                 0.9                    2.4
         Romania                                  9.7                   15.1
         Slovenia                                 0.1                    0.1
         Slovakia                                 0.5                    1.2
         Finland                                  0.6                    1.1
         Sweden                                   0.7                    1.9
         United Kingdom                           0.0                    0.1
         EU                                       2.2                    5.2


         Notes: Total self-reported unmet need for medical care in terms of
         proportion of individuals who reported that at least once in the previous
         12 months they felt they needed medical care and did not receive it
         because they could not afford to ('it was too expensive'). The number of
         unweighted observations reporting unmet need below the poverty
         threshold was low for statistical reliability in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland
         and Finland, while it was clearly insufficient in the Netherlands and
         Slovenia. No data for France and Malta.
         Source: EU-SILC 2008.
         European Social Situation Observatory -
         Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table 3: Out-of-pocket spending on health by
         persons aged 50+ (2006-07)


                              All households       Poorest quintile
         Belgium                           5.6                  14.5
         Czech Republic                    2.2                   5.3
         Denmark                           2.0                   4.5
         Germany                           2.6                   7.3
         Greece                           11.0                  36.6
         Spain                             3.3                  11.1
         France                            1.1                   3.5
         Italy                             6.4                  19.5
         Netherlands                       0.9                   2.3
         Austria                           2.8                   5.1
         Poland                            9.8                  18.0
         Sweden                            2.5                   5.6
         Notes: Average out-of-pocket spending on healthcare as a
         percentage of household income. Households headed by
         persons aged 50+ only.
         Source: Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and
         Retirement in Europe (http://www.share-project.org).
         European Social Situation Observatory -
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         Table 4: Large out-of-pocket health spending
         by persons aged 50+ (2006-07)

                                   % of households spending in
                                   excess of x% of their income
                                         10%                    25%
                              All households
         Belgium                         11.2                    4.1
         Czech Republic                   3.1                    1.0
         Denmark                          3.1                    0.4
         Germany                          4.0                    1.7
         Greece                          19.0                   10.0
         Spain                            6.0                    3.2
         France                           1.2                    0.6
         Italy                           10.8                    5.3
         Netherlands                      1.4                    0.4
         Austria                          4.8                    1.7
         Poland                          32.2                    8.6
         Sweden                           3.6                    1.0
                              Poorest quintile
         Belgium                         29.4                   14.2
         Czech Republic                  11.6                    3.7
         Denmark                          7.7                    1.8
         Germany                         13.5                    7.2
         Greece                          51.4                   38.6
         Spain                           16.2                   12.0
         France                           4.0                    2.5
         Italy                           28.8                   19.9
         Netherlands                      4.4                    2.2
         Austria                          7.8                    5.6
         Poland                          50.4                   18.6
         Sweden                          12.6                    2.9


         Notes: Proportion of households spending out-of-pocket more
         than 10% and more than 25% respectively of their income on
         healthcare. Households headed by persons aged 50+ only.
         Source: Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and
         Retirement in Europe (http://www.share-project.org).
         European Social Situation Observatory -
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         Table 5: Out-of-pocket spending on health by
         persons aged 50+ (2004)

                                                  Poorest 20%
                            All households
                                                   (quintile 1)
         Belgium                        7.2                14.5
         Denmark                        2.6                  5.2
         Germany                        2.4                  5.8
         Greece                         7.4                13.8
         Spain                          3.1                  7.2
         France                         1.8                  3.9
         Italy                          6.1                14.4
         Netherlands                    1.9                  3.5
         Austria                        2.2                  5.2
         Sweden                         2.5                  5.8
         Switzerland                    3.4                 7.1
         Notes: Average out-of-pocket spending on healthcare as a
         percentage of household income. Households headed by
         persons aged 50+ only.
         Sources: Lambrelli and O’Donnell (2008); data from the
         Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe
         (http://www.share-project.org).
         European Social Situation Observatory -
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         Table 6: Large out-of-pocket health
         spending by persons aged 50+ (2004)

                                 % of households spending
                                  in excess of x% of their
                                          income
                                      10%             25%
         Belgium                        13.7             5.2
         Denmark                         3.3               1
         Germany                           3             1.3
         Greece                         14.2             4.8
         Spain                           5.5             2.5
         France                          3.2             1.1
         Italy                          11.1             3.3
         Netherlands                     3.2             1.3
         Austria                         3.2             0.8
         Sweden                          2.7             0.6
         Switzerland                     5.7            2.2

         Notes: Proportion of households spending out-of-pocket
         over 10% and 25% of their income on healthcare.
         Households headed by persons aged 50+ only.
         Sources: Lambrelli and O’Donnell (2008); data from the
         Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe
         (http://www.share-project.org).
         European Social Situation Observatory -
         Income distribution and living conditions
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         Table 7: Out-of-pocket spending on health at household level (2005)

                                                        Single parent       Two adults with
                                   Single person       with dependent         dependent
                                                           children            children
         Belgium                                4.3               4.7                 4.2
         Bulgaria                               5.8               2.6                 2.5
         Czech Republic                         2.6               1.8                 1.5
         Denmark                                2.7               1.7                 1.8
         Germany                                3.8               2.3                 2.6
         Estonia                                3.7               2.1                 1.8
         Ireland                                2.1               1.4                 2.3
         Greece                                 6.7               4.9                 5.5
         Spain                                  2.1               2.4                 2.2
         France                                 4.2               3.7                 3.7
         Italy                                  3.7               3.5                 3.5
         Cyprus                                 5.1               3.6                 4.5
         Latvia                                 5.9               2.8                 2.7
         Lithuania                              6.4               3.1                   3
         Luxembourg                             2.4               2.7                 2.6
         Hungary                                6.7               2.4                 2.4
         Malta                                  3.3               2.7                 2.6
         Netherlands                            1.1               1.1                   1
         Austria                                3.7               2.6                 2.5
         Poland                                 6.6               3.2                 3.1
         Portugal                               7.5               5.1                 4.2
         Romania                                6.1               2.4                 1.9
         Slovenia                               1.7               1.1                 1.2
         Slovakia                               3.7               1.7                 2.4
         Finland                                4.3               2.4                 2.6
         Sweden                                   3               2.1                 1.5
         United Kingdom                         1.5               0.7                 0.9
         EU15                                   4.3               3.7                 3.6
         EU25                                   4.8               3.4                 3.2
         EU27                                   4.8               3.4                 3.2
         Notes: Out-of-pocket spending on health services as a share of household disposable
         income. Figures for the Netherlands are from the year 1999. EU averages are not
         weighted for population.


         The HBS methodology has been harmonised with the EU-SILC methodology in terms of
         replicating household records according to household size, then dividing household net
         monetary income by equivalised household size. Out-of-pocket spending on health was
         calculated at individual level using equivalised income and the household sample
         weights. [For more information, see 'Quality report of the Household Budget Surveys
         2005'. Directorate F: Social Statistics and Information Society Unit F-3: Living
         conditions and social protection statistics (DOC LC-HBS/07/08/EN)
         http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/ Annexes/hbs_esms_an4.pdf]
         Source: European Household Budget Survey, Eurostat.
         European Social Situation Observatory -
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         Table 8: Perceived unaffordability of healthcare (2007)

                                                                Medical or
                                                                                    Family doctors
                                           Hospitals             surgical
                                                                                       or GPs
                                                                specialists
         Belgium                                      31                  38                       8
         Bulgaria                                     52                  63                      16
         Czech Republic                                8                  15                       5
         Denmark                                       1                   7                       1
         Germany                                      24                  28                      10
         Estonia                                      25                  37                       6
         Ireland                                      33                  53                      33
         Greece                                       45                  71                      43
         Spain                                        10                  22                       7
         France                                       17                  48                       8
         Italy                                        23                  49                      16
         Cyprus                                       10                  66                      39
         Latvia                                       24                  25                       5
         Lithuania                                    33                  40                      10
         Luxembourg                                   11                  14                       4
         Hungary                                      48                  45                      18
         Malta                                        57                  54                       9
         Netherlands                                  19                  21                       6
         Austria                                      11                  39                      14
         Poland                                       21                  31                       8
         Portugal                                     40                  78                      37
         Romania                                      48                  60                      24
         Slovenia                                     23                  39                      16
         Slovakia                                     13                  24                      14
         Finland                                      22                  59                      17
         Sweden                                        7                   7                       4
         United Kingdom                                8                  13                       4
         EU                                           21                  35                      11
         Croatia                                      47                  56                      17
         Turkey                                       32                  41                      29
         Notes: Proportion responding 'not very affordable' or 'not at all affordable'.
         Sources: European Commission Special Eurobarometer 283 (December 2007) 'Health
         and long-term care in the European Union', QA5.1, QA5.3 and QA5.4 ('Thinking now
         about the affordability of healthcare services in [COUNTRY], please tell me if for you
         personally, or for your close ones, each of [hospitals / medical or surgical specialists /
         family doctors or GPs] are very affordable, fairly affordable, not very affordable or not at
         all affordable').
         http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_283_en.pdf
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         Table 1: Proportion of people in densely populated areas with income above and below the at-risk-of-
         poverty threshold reporting difficulty of access to more than one essential service, 2007 (% those at
         risk/not at risk)

                          2 services                         3 services                        4 services                         5 services
                  Not at risk        At risk        Not at risk         At risk        Not at risk        At risk        Not at risk
         LU              10.6             9.4                6.3             5.7               4.1             2.5                1.8
         UK               6.2             9.6                2.7             5.6               1.7             3.5                0.5
         CY               8.7            27.0                4.3            17.7               2.1            10.4                0.8
         AT               9.6             9.3                5.7             4.4               3.5               =                1.7
         IE              10.4            19.7                4.6             8.8               2.1             5.8                0.9
         DE              13.2            13.4                5.5             5.0               2.5             1.9                1.1
         DK              11.0            11.3                4.8               =               2.3               =                1.0
         BE              14.4            18.3                7.1             9.9               3.8             5.8                1.3
         SE               8.4            13.4                2.9               =               1.0               =
         FR               7.1             8.5                1.3             2.1                                 =
         FI              10.6            12.0                5.2             8.3               2.3               =                0.8
         IT              28.8            44.1               20.8            33.2              14.7            22.9                8.8
         ES              12.1            11.5                5.9             4.0               2.5             1.7                0.4
         EL              16.8            20.6               11.7            16.5               7.5            11.8                4.1
         PT              11.9            14.5                6.1             8.9               3.4             4.7                0.8
         CZ              14.0             9.3                8.2             5.5               5.5               =                3.1
         SK              24.6            21.7               12.9               <               6.1               =                3.4
         EE              13.4            21.3                7.5            15.3               4.4             7.2                1.7
         HU              18.1            27.2               10.7            17.7               5.6            11.1                3.0
         LT              18.2            27.7                8.9            16.8               4.8            10.8                2.9
         PL              15.0            16.6                9.2             9.7               6.3             7.2                4.3
         LV              19.0            29.4               13.7            17.7              10.3            12.8                5.2
         EU              13.1            16.7                6.9             9.7               4.1             6.0                2.1

         Notes: In many cases, the number of observations is too small for the data to be reliable. These relate mainly to those at risk of poverty. In
         these cases, an indication is given of whether the figure is lower (<) than those with higher income, or similar - within 5 percentage points -
         (=). In the UK and France for public transport and the UK and Belgium for primary care, the observations are too small to be reliable for both
         those at risk and not at risk of poverty in rural areas.
         Figures in italics are uncertain because of the small number of observations.
         Source: EU-SILC 2007.
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
below the at-risk-of-
 , 2007 (% those at


         5 services
                     At risk
                            =
                            =
                            =
                            =
                            =
                            =
                            =
                          2.8
                            =
                            =
                          3.3
                         14.7
                            =
                          6.5
                            =
                            =
                            =
                            =
                          6.7
                          6.9
                          4.0
                            =
                          3.1

 to those at risk of poverty. In
- within 5 percentage points -
oo small to be reliable for both
List of Tables

         Table 2: Proportion of people in sparsely populated areas with income above and below the at-risk-of-
         poverty threshold reporting difficulty of access to more than one essential service, 2007 (% those at
         risk/not at risk)

                           2 services                         3 services                         4 services                          5 services
                  Not at risk         At risk         Not at risk         At risk        Not at risk         At risk        Not at risk
         LU               26.3             28.6              21.7             27.2                8.5            15.0                3.9
         UK                6.4             23.1               3.3                >                                  >
         CY               13.3             33.7               7.4             25.9               4.3             17.2               1.8
         AT               33.2             45.2              27.2             37.1              22.7             30.8              14.8
         IE               32.7             38.7              23.9             30.3              18.4             25.0              14.3
         DE               33.9             35.3              19.6             21.1              11.8             12.3               5.8
         DK               22.6             27.8              13.7             15.6               8.4             12.7               3.8
         BE               67.3             62.0              53.9             51.5              39.7             40.0              19.9
         SE               14.1             14.4               5.4              6.2               2.1              2.8               0.7
         FR                9.2             10.1               1.5              7.6                                  =
         FI               14.6             22.5               6.2             16.4               4.1             11.8               2.1
         IT               35.0             44.1              27.4             33.2              22.8             27.8              13.9
         ES               22.8             23.3              14.4             13.3               7.3              6.0               1.3
         EL               38.6             50.6              29.9             42.6              19.6             31.4               8.6
         PT               13.9             21.2               9.0             13.2               6.9              7.8               2.6
         CZ               31.7             32.9              23.8             25.5              16.5             18.6               8.7
         SK               36.9             40.9              23.8             25.0              12.6             11.2               5.2
         EE               31.9             46.6              23.5             37.6              15.5             28.3               8.6
         HU               24.4             30.1              13.0             16.3               6.7             10.6               3.6
         LT               30.3             45.4              17.2             33.8               9.1             24.8               3.9
         PL               36.0             48.7              28.1             39.5              21.0             29.8               9.6
         LV               31.4             44.6              25.2             35.7              19.7             25.9               9.1
         EU               26.8             35.0              17.9             25.3              12.1             17.8               6.2

         Note: In some cases, the number of observations is too small for the data to be reliable. In these cases, an indication is given of whether the
         figure for those at risk of poverty is higher (>) or lower (<) than those with higher income or similar - within 5 percentage points - (=). Blanks
         indicate that the figure is too small to be reliable for those not at risk of poverty as well.
         Figures in italics are uncertain because of the small number of observations.
         Source: EU-SILC 2007.
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions
below the at-risk-of-
, 2007 (% those at


          5 services
                     At risk
                         11.5
                            =
                          6.3
                         21.4
                         22.1
                          6.2
                         10.1
                         31.4
                          0.7
                            =
                          7.1
                         17.9
                            =
                         15.6
                          3.8
                         10.0
                          4.9
                         19.2
                          5.2
                         12.4
                         12.6
                         12.9
                          9.4

 ication is given of whether the
ercentage points - (=). Blanks
List of Tables

         Table 1: Proportion of people with income above and below the poverty
         threshold with housing problems, according to different measures, 2007 (%
         people at risk/not at risk of poverty)

                       Deprived of 1 of 3           Reporting 3 of 5 'module'         Overall dissatisfied with
                       and overcrowded                     problems                           housing
                   Not at risk        At risk        Not at risk        At risk       Not at risk        At risk
         LU               1.1              8.4             2.9             13.0              4.3             15.5
         UK               1.5              3.5             3.3              5.3              5.8              8.6
         CY               0.6              2.2            10.2             16.7             13.1             22.7
         AT               3.0              9.3             1.0              5.0              7.0             20.0
         IE               1.0              2.3             1.4              4.9             14.6             27.0
         NL               0.4              3.2             1.7              3.9              2.8              6.8
         DE               0.6              2.8             3.5              8.5             16.0             21.3
         DK               1.2              5.7                :                :             5.2             14.9
         BE               0.9              5.1             1.7              8.3              9.6             22.5
         SE               0.7              3.6             1.8              2.8              4.2              9.2
         FR               2.4              8.1             5.0             11.9              7.8             22.1
         FI               0.5              2.3             3.0              6.8              6.2             10.1
         IT               5.4             13.8             5.6             16.4             12.2             28.8
         SI              10.7             22.3             1.0              3.3             10.5             19.3
         ES               1.2              3.9             3.2              9.6             10.1             16.6
         EL               6.6             14.1             6.4             12.6             11.3             18.6
         PT               6.2             13.3            15.0             26.8             16.2             25.9
         CZ               6.2             25.3             4.3             11.1             13.1             31.9
         SK               3.4             12.3             5.9             11.3             22.4             36.1
         EE              12.2             23.8             5.9             10.4             29.1             34.5
         HU              12.0             29.3             5.4             10.8             36.6             50.6
         LT              18.3             35.3             8.9             10.2             37.2             41.7
         PL              21.5             45.9             7.4             16.5             19.6             32.2
         LV              24.8             34.5            10.0             19.5             30.2             39.6



         Notes: 'Deprived of 1 of 3 and overcrowded' indicates having at least one of a leaking roof, damp walls, no bath and
         indoor toilet, too dark a house plus a shortage of space as measured by the number of rooms relative to the number of
         people - the indicator of severe housing deprivation adopted at the EU level.
         'Reporting 3 of 5 'module' problems' indicates having at least 3 out of 5 of the aspects covered by the EU-SILC
         housing module - inadequate electrical installation, inadequate plumbing/water installations, dwelling not comfortably
         warm during winter, dwelling not comfortably cool during summer, shortage of space in dwelling.
         'Overall dissatisfied with housing' indicates those reporting being either greatly dissatisfied or somewhat dissatisfied
         with their dwelling.
         Source: Own calculations based on EU-SILC 2007.
         European Social Situation Observatory - Income distribution and living conditions

				
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