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									The Affect Common Chemicals
May Have on Women’s Hormone

   Presented By: Sean Snowden
What Is Hormone Therapy?
   Provides women with the hormones that
    decrease with age
   ERT vs. HRT
   Estrogen and progesterone
   During menopause these hormone levels start
    to fluctuate, causing some uncomfortable
   Hormone therapy is used to combat these
    symptoms and make the transition into
    menopause easier
The Benefits of Hormone Therapy
   Hormone therapy is used to relieve short-
    term symptoms
   Preliminary evidence shows that HRT may be
    helpful in preventing colon cancer, and
    macular degeneration
   Hormone therapy can help slow bone loss
    after menopause
The Detriments of Hormone
   Long-term risks
       Cancer- endometrial, breast, and ovarian
          Estrogen taken alone raises the risk of

           endometrial cancer so progestin is added to
           combat this risk
          Breast and ovarian cancer

       Heart disease
          Recent studies have shown that hormone

           therapy could increase women’s risk of heart
           disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism
The Detriments of Hormone
Therapy (Continued)
   Short-term side effects
       Side effects include vaginal discharge and
        bleeding, headaches, nausea, and fluid retention
       Short-term benefits or side-effects become
        apparent within weeks or months after treatment
Cost to Benefit Analysis
   For patient to decide
   Patient history taken into account
   Obviously involves weighing the benefit of the
    relief that hormone therapy provides with the
    risks that are associated to it
   There are natural alternatives available
   So why is hormone therapy still used in spite
    of the risks of cancer and heart disease?
  The Study – Duke University
                                           Research team led by Donald
                                            P. McDonnell
                                           Team examined and found
                                            certain everyday chemicals
                                            that caused the levels of
                                            estrogen in the body to reach
                                            hazardous levels
                                           Study was based on cultured
                                            human cells and mice
                                           The Chemical in Question
                                           Research Findings
                                           Future goal: identify other
                                            chemicals with the same effect
                                            and prompt caution for
Donald P. MCDonnell – Duke University
The Effects of Estrogen Overdose
   Estrogen produces effects inside cells in a very tightly controlled
    manner, so skewing that process by accelerating transcription
    can produce a variety of problems
   Estrogen overdose is poisoning from exposure to more than the
    recommended amount of estrogen hormones in medications
   May be administered orally, injected, or absorbed into the skin
   Excessive vaginal bleeding, fluid retention, breast tenderness,
    discoloration of urine, rash, nausea and vomiting, headache,
    drowsiness, mental changes
   Discontinue the estrogen, the poisoning is unlikely to be life
   Serious symptoms are very unlikely
The Solution
   Patient Awareness
   Patient Screening
   A decrease in exposure, by removing the
    chemicals that cause this damage or
    developing new chemical that is not as
The End

 Thank You, I Hope You Enjoyed
             Back to: The Study – Duke University

The Chemical in Question
   Ethylene glycol methyl ether
    is used as a solvent for types in drugs Ethylene Glycol
                    Valproic acid is found
    of resins, agriculturalused to treat migraines
                   that are                     Monomethyl Ether
    formulation, lacquers, paints which is a
                       and headaches
    and varnishes. It is used in effect of the
                      common side                   (EGME)
    cleaning products, therapy, this leads to a
                    fixative dangerous drug-drug
    preservatives,potentially for              Molecular formula:
    perfumes, germicides,                           C3H8O2
    bactericides, insect
    repellents and antiseptic. It
    is used as an additive for jet
    fuel to prevent ice buildup.
   Valproic acid is used among
    the top 100 drugs prescribed
    in the united states *
Research Findings
   McDonnell and his research team suggest that for
    some women part of their complications with HT
    prior to the research conducted is attributed to the
    findings of the research
   It was found that both of the chemicals significantly
    increased the action of hormones in the body
   Boost of activity was eight- to ten-fold
   McDonnell focused his study on two similar chemicals
    that were known to affect the reproductive system
           Back to: The Study – Duke University

Research Findings (Continued)
   It was feared that these chemicals were mimicking
    estrogen and that it was causing illnesses
   What was found was not that the chemicals mimic
    estrogen, but rather they sensitized the cell to it by
    inhibiting enzymes inside cells that normally slow the
    process of gene transcription
   The result is to speed up cell activity, which
    potentially can fuel cell growth beyond what is

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