The Industrial Revolution - PowerPoint 1

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					         Warm Up

• What was the Industrial
• What do you think made the
  Industrial Revolution
• Why was it so important?
          The Industrial

Europe and America from 1750-1914
               Great Britain
• The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain for
  several reasons:
   – The application of science to agricultural practices made it
     easier to produce more food at lower prices.
   – The enclosure movement of the 18th century caused many
     farmers to move to towns, increasing the number of people
     without permanent homes or jobs.
   – Government policies favored Entrepreneurs, or business men,
     making it easier to make money and take risks with new types
     of businesses.
   – The wealthy merchant class of Britain had a ready supply of
     capital to invest in the new industrial machines and factories.
   – Britain had plentiful natural resources, such as water, coal, and
     iron ore.
   – Britain’s vast colonial empire gave British manufacturers a
     ready outlet for goods.
 Important Technologies in
  the Industrial Revolution
• New technological
  advances, such as
  the spinning jenny
  and flying shuttle,
  gave Britain an
  advantage in
  inexpensive cotton
The Steam Engine
       • The cotton industry
         became more
         productive when
         Scottish engineer
         James Watt modified
         his steam engine to
         drive machinery.
       • First used to pump
         water out of mines,
         the steam engine
         eventually was used
         for trains, electricity,
         ships, and factory
Effects of the Steam Engine

   •   The steam engine was crucial to Britain’s Industrial Revolution, leading to
       an expansion of the coal and iron industries.
   •   Puddling was a process used to make high quality iron for the production
       of new machines, especially trains.
   •   Railroads moved and manufactured goods more efficiently.
   •   The first commercial railroad connected the cotton-manufacturing town of
       Manchester to the port of Liverpool.
   •   In 1807, Robert Fulton built the first paddle-wheel steamboat, improving
       transportation on the waterways. Eventually, railroads provided the most
       effective means of transportation.
George Stephenson (1781–1848) invented the locomotive in 1814, but the
“Rocket,” his improved design shown here, did not win out over other
competitors until 1829. In the following two decades the spread of railways
transformed the economy of Western Europe.
Image Works/Mary Evans Picture Library Ltd.
Map 21–1 EUROPEAN RAILROADS IN 1850 A mid-century Britain had the
most extensive rail network, and the most industrialized economy, in Europe,
but rail lines were expanding rapidly in France, the German states, and Austria.
Southern and eastern Europe had few railways, and the Ottoman Empire had
Spread of the Industrial
                • Governments in
                  Belgium, France, and
                  the German states
                  industrialization and
                  provided funds to
                  build roads, canals,
                  and railroads.
                • When the Industrial
                  Revolution spread to
                  the United States,
                  thousands of miles of
                  roads and canals
                  were built to link East
                  and West.
Social Changes
 • Factory owners wanted
   to use their machinery
   constantly, so laborers
   worked in shifts and
   machines ran
 Cities during the Industrial
• As farmers and immigrants filled the cities, a
  labor force became available to the factory
• In rural areas serfdom is abolished in Prussia,
  Austria and Russia
• European cities and towns grew dramatically by
• Factories were built in towns and cities to take
  advantage of their increasing populations.
• The rapid growth of cities led to overcrowding,
  disease, and poverty.
     New Social Groups
• Industrial capitalism
  rose during the Industrial
  Revolution and produced
  a new middle class that
  built the factories, bought
  the machinery, and
  developed the markets.
• Men who bought and
  owned these factories
  had great influence in
  their societies all over the
  Industrial Working Class
• The Industrial Revolution also
  led to the development of an
  industrial working class.
• The working class had little
  protection from factory and
  mine owners and faced
  dangerous working conditions.
• Women and children made up
  a significant portion of the labor
  force due to their low wages.
• The transition to an
  industrialized society was hard
  on the workers, who often
  worked dangerous jobs for
  poor wages and lived in
  crowded slums.
   Early Factory System
      and the Family
• in the early factory system, roles in the
  family stayed mainly the same / fathers
  employed their wives and children
• newer, easier to use machines lead to the
  employment of unmarried women and
  children in the factories
• wages for skilled laborers becomes high
  enough that some children are able to
  leave the factory and go to school
            Child Labor
• The English Factory Act of 1833 –
  forbade employment of children under
  nine and limited work day to nine hours for
  children between 9-13.
• education requirement (factories had to
  provide two hours of education) starts the
  process of nurturing children from the
  home to the classroom
• 1847 – Parliament passes a ten-hour
• due to finding wage employment in the
  same city as their parents, children
  remained living at home longer than
     The Industrial
  Revolution / Women’s
• could be associated with domestic
  duties as housekeeping, food
  preparation, child rearing and
  nurturing and household
• or in unskilled cottage industries
  (mostly single or widowed women0
    The Industrial Revolution /
    Opportunities for Women in
• women in the factories – women mostly
  young, unmarried, or widows working low-
  skilled jobs, who would leave of they got
• women at home or on the land
  – in France – largest group of women work on
    the land
  – in England – largest group of women work as
    domestic servants
  – many due to low wages turn to prostitution as
    a second job
As textile production became
increasingly automated in the
nineteenth century, textile factories
required fewer skilled workers and
more unskilled attendants. To fill
these unskilled positions, factory
owners turned increasingly to
unmarried women and widows, who
worked for lower wages than men
and were less likely to form labor
Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz
    The Working Class
• women would leave the workforce to
  live on her husband’s earnings once
• marriage less of an economic
• married women only worked outside
  the home when forced to
• women took care of the home, not
  just for the wage-earning husband,
  but the children as well
• split of work force – some held steady jobs with good
  wages, others were the working poor who held jobs
  with low wages and poor conditions
• wage-labor force – proletarianization – workers
  labor becomes a commodity of the labor marketplace
   – the factory owner supplies the materials, while the workers
     contribute their labor for a wage
   – laborers subjected to rules, punishments, and scoldings
     (lateness, drunkenness etc)
• guild system – an association of merchants or
  craftsmen that offered protection to its members and
  set rules for their works and products
• confection – goods, such as shoes, are produced in
  standard sizes rather than specifically for one
   – led to more division of labor
   – sometimes less wages and worker unrest
So many people starved in the Irish Famine that the workhouses could not shelter
them all.
Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library
      British Chartism
• Chartism – workers in Britain
  looking for social reform
  – Six Points of the Charter – never
    passed by Parliament
  – split of Chartists between those who
    advocated violence and those who
    wanted to use peaceful means
• movement ends in 1848, when
  economy improves drastically in
In the 1830s and 1840s, the Chartists circulated petitions throughout Britain
demanding political reform. Here the petitions are being taken to Parliament in
a vast ceremonious procession.
Museum of London

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