The Enlightenment by wuyunyi


									The Enlightenment

Reason • Natural Law • Hope •
• What comes to your mind when you think
  of enlightenment?
• Movement of intellectuals who were greatly
  impressed with the achievements of the Scientific
• How can we understand all life? REASON
• Thinkers hoped to make PROGRESS toward
  a better society than the one they had inherited
Before We Travel Back to the
       18th century . . .

Let’s experience
   The Enlightenment:

     The Role of Ideas
Nature: Peace or War?; Nature vs Nurture
 The Role of Individuals
   A Few Good Men … & a Woman!!
             Thomas Hobbes
1. Wrote the Leviathan
    - Dealt w/ problem of disorder
2. Before society organized: state of WAR
    - solitary, poor, nasty, brutish & short
    - Humans guided NOT by reason &
     morals, but self-preservation
3. To save selves: made a social contract
    - Agreed to form a st., Leviathan; owe peace &
    - Ruled by an absolute ruler w/ unlimited power
    - Subjects cannot rebel; crushed if they do
John Locke
   1. Wrote Two Treatises of
   2. Argued AGAINST
      absolute rule of one
   3. Before society
      - st. of freedom &
      - humans had inalienable
      natural rights: life,
      liberty, & property
             John Locke (cont.)
                     5. Agreed: est. govt. to
                       protect rights (protect
                     6. Contract of mutual
                       - Govt protected rights of
                       - People would act
                       reasonably towards govt
                     7. If govt broke contract:
                       people might form new
                   Laid foundation for US
 Where Do They Differ?

Write: Title your paper, “Locke v
1. Create a flow chart w/ me for Locke
   & Hobbes using primary sources
2. On which points do Locke & Hobbes
   disagree? Where do they agree?
3. Which philosopher do you agree
   with in terms of how a government
   forms and what the ideal type of
   government should be?
    Locke: An Essay Concerning
       Human Understanding
1. Tabula Rasa
     - Every person is born w/ a
     blank mind
2. Knowledge comes from
     environment, not heredity
3. Learn from reason, not faith
4. If you  environment, you can
      people
         Tabula Rasa … Do you
Debate: Nature vs Nurture
• One Side: believes your genetics shapes who you
• Other side: believes your
  environment/experiences shape who you are
Related Issues: Homosexuality, intelligence,
  schizophrenia, eating disorders, cancer, obesity,
  child development/parenting, handedness,            Vs.
  depression (serotonin)
      Daily Response
Mankind has a “perpetual and
  restless desire for power after
  power… a man hopes for more…
  because he cannot assure the
  power and means to live well, which
  he hath present, without the
  acquisition of more.”
• Do you agree?
• Examples to support and/or oppose
  this contention?
Goals of the Enlightenment
1. By using reason, a perfect society
    could be created
   (EX: Using a step- by-step theory)
2. Reason & rationality leads to
    progress & human happiness
3. Cast off chains of superstition,
    bigotry & religious fanaticism (why
4. Rejection of revelation & traditional
French Enlightenment Thinkers
 • Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot
 • Key Ideas
   - Religious toleration &
   secularization (Voltaire)
                        Democrats: For
                        Religious Toleration

  - Observation & criticism are
  essential (Diderot)
     Intellectuals: Philosophes
1. Literary people,
   professors, journalists,
   economists, pol.
   scientists, social
2. Nobility & middle class
3. Role of phil. =  world
  (not just discuss it)       Q: How did they
                              spread their ideas??
4. The Republic of            …………..
   Letters: an informal
       •   Salons
       •   Academies
       •   Masonic Lodges
       •   Newspapers
       •   Coffee Houses
       •   “Public Opinion”
       •   Forbidden Literature

      18th century English coffee
       3 French Giants
1. Montesquieu
• Idea: Separation of Powers
2. Voltaire
• Idea: Deism/Religious Freedom
3. Diderot
• Idea: Encyclopedia
1.  Wrote, “The Spirit of the Laws”
2.  3 types of govt:
•   Despotism (for lg states)
•   Republics (for sm states)
•   Monarchy (for med. States)
    **Favored const’l monarchy
3. Importance of checks &
• Need a separation of powers
• Need checks & balances
      Montesquieu Analysis
On your own paper, identify to the following:
1. Author, Title of work
2. Document Information
• 3 things the author said that you think are
• Why you think the document was written
• Evidence in the document that helps you know
    why it was written (2 quotes, highlight/underline
• What audience you think the document was
    intended for
• Two things the document tells you about life in
    Europe             at the time the document was
Voltaire: The Major Figure
 Criticized   1. Wrote, “Treatise on
              2. **Stressed rel. toleration
              3. “All men are brothers under
              4. Deism: denies interference
                 of the Creator w/ the laws of
                 the universe
              5. Universe is a clock: God is
                 clockmaker who created it,
                 ppl act according to natural
  Voltaire, “A Plea For Tolerance &
WRITE & PARAPHRASE (underline unfamiliar words,

“Of all religions, the Christian ought
 doubtless to inspire the most tolerance,
 although hitherto the Christians have been
 the most intolerant …”

“Is each citizen to be permitted to believe and
  to think that which his reason rightly or
  wrongly dictates? He should indeed,
     Ok, … So What’s Deism??
1. God created world, but, religion must be
    moral, rationalistic, & natural; denies
    interference of the Creator w/ the laws of
    the universe.
2. Moral argument for the existence of God,
    … without God morality is not possible,
    therefore, God must exist.
    - “If God did not exist, we must invent
3. Voltaire: It’s not possible to theoretically
    demonstrate the immortality of the soul,
    and yet without the immortality of the soul,
1. Condemned Christianity
   (fanatical & unreasonable)
2. Created the Encyclopedia
• Purpose: To  the general
   way of thinking
• Intended as a compilation of
   all knowledge                    Note: Attention to
• Many articles in it attacked
   religious superstition &
   supported religious toleration
• Sold to many; spread ideas
Adam Smith: Discuss
• What does “survival of the
  fittest” mean to you??
• Examples??
  Adam Smith
1. Father of modern
2. Laissez-faire: “to let
    - Govt should leave the
    economy alone
3. Wrote, “The Wealth of
    Nations,” 1776
4. The state shouldn’t
    interfere with
    economic matters
Q: Is this more
    ‘republican’ or
• Identify & list the ways in which your
  government does not follow a policy
  of laissez-faire but chooses instead
  to intervene in the economy.
• Do you think your lives are better or
  worse because of government
• How many young people could afford
  an education if their families had to
  pay for their schooling directly from
  their           own funds?
           Adam Smith (cont.)
Government’s 3 Basic Roles:
1. Protect society from
    - The army
2. Defend citizens from
    - The police
3. Keep up certain public
    works, such as roads &
    canals, that private
    individual couldn’t afford
**Thus, the state should stay
         Smith’s Modern Impact
• What guides the
  economy then?
  - The freeplay of natural
  economic forces
  - The “invisible hand”
• Capitalism!!
  - The government
  should stay out!
  - Lower taxes!                Profit
  - Survival of the fittest!!
              Impacts (cont.)
• Idea: private
  enterprise would
  stimulate fair
  distribution of the
  wealth in a country

Do you think this is
  true? Why or why not?
  Have you seen this in
  the United States?
   Govt’s Role: You Decide!!
Debate: The Role of Government
2 Sides: Do you support or oppose Adam
  Smith’s vision of government?
• If supporting, you should identify reasons
  why the government shouldn’t go beyond
  the bounds cited
• If opposing, you should identify other areas
  in which government might play a
  legitimate role.
                          • Criticized property:
                          “Man is born free & is
                            everywhere in chains.”
                          Q: What does he mean?

                          • Questioned emphasis
                            on reason alone
**Ex’s of “chains” that
bind people??
Rousseau: Social Contract
          1. About the General Will
              Q: What’s that?
          2. Proposed a pol. solution to
              the tension betw. The
              individual & society
              - Based on the consent of
              the governed
              - General Will: the guide to
              social progress & good
          3. Wrote: Social Contract
           The Social Compact
1. What is the “social compact”?
• “Each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself
     to nobody.”
• “Each of us puts his person & all his power in
     common under the supreme direction of the
     general will … each member as an indivisible
     part of the whole.”
2. It’s a collective body
         In the US, we
         citizens are
         indivisible parts of
         the whole
         Rousseau: Education
1. Wrote Emile
2. On the “education of    Valued
   the natural man”        Education
3. Education: should
   foster, not restrict,
   children’s natural
4. Hypocrite!!                Female
• Sent own children to        Inferiority
   orphanages, where
   many died @ a young
5. Women: “naturally”
    Rousseau: You Decide
•  Rousseau argues that govts & laws are
   made to protect private property but in
   fact enslave the people who created
1. Do you feel your govt protects your
   property (both body & material things)?
2. Do you feel enslaved by your govt?
3. What reasonable alternatives do you see
   to having a strong central govt?
     4. How might have Rousseau’s ideas
   have            contributed to the
   creation of socialist    ideas in the
       Mary Wollstonecraft

1. Founder of modern
   European feminism
2. For the rights of
3. Wrote: Vindication of
   the Rights of Women
4. Two Problems w/
        Two Problems with
      Enlightenment Thinkers
1. Many opposed the arbitrary power of
   monarchs over their subjects (subjects
   obeying the monarch)
• Then why must women obey men?

2. Enlightenment was based on an ideal of
    reason in ALL human beings
• If women have reason, then they, too, are
    entitles to the same rights that men have.
        Effects of the
Implications are revolutionary … WHY?
• Proposed belief that men ought to be
  ruled by LAWS, not rulers
• The philosophes argued that social
  progress & political freedom were
  restrained by the state & the church &
  didn’t reflect man’s natural goodness
• Belief in progress & man’s ability to
  solve problems
     French Revolution

• Most important
  result of the
• No single cause for it
• Takes place in

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