Plastics and Recycling by wuyunyi

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									Plastics and Recycling
      Stuart Foster
                Recoup Introduction
•   RECycling Of Used Plastics Limited.
•   Formed in 1990 by industry based companies
•   Research, education and influence change
•   Set up collection and sorting activities
•   Trading subsidiary formed in 1996 (RSL)
•   Charity status gained mid 1997 – David Bellamy (Patron)
•   Particular focus on household plastics packaging
•   Work with UK and international plastic supply chains
               How Does Recoup Work?

                                                RSL (subsidiary)
membership sponsorship   consultancy


                                           trading       market    logistics
                                                         insight

                                                            •   Ineos
                                                            •   Linpac
                      Appointed board &                     •   Sharpak Yate
                      management team                       •   Coca Cola
                                                            •   Glaxo Smithkline
                                                            •   Nampak
                                                            •   Tesco
                                                            •   Marks and Spencer
                                                            •   LARAC
                                                            •   Veolia
                                                            •   Titech
     promotion technical advising research fundraising      •   Wellman
     education support advocating analysis                  •   Signode
•   Website
•   Education Resources
•   Enquiries
•   Presentations
•   Exhibitions
•   Representation
•   Communication
•   Promotion
•   Research
•   Bespoke consultancy
Working with our membership network,
 UK, European and Global Contacts
Member of EPRO
 19 EU Countries represented
 Working Groups – Comms, Bottle, Mixed
 Best Recycled Product competition

Member of BPFRG
 35 members
 Working Groups - Food grade, export, films



• Sharing best practice
• Data / Information
• Working Groups
    ‘the different properties/characteristics of
                      plastics’

    ‘which plastics can be recycled and which
                cannot (and why)’



•   Plastics 101
•   Strategy and Data
•   Reference points
•   Considering recyclability
Polyethylene Terephthalate is linear thermoplastic, long-
chain molecule consists of repeating units, white or bluish
resin made from terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol
through poly-condensation.
             Plastic Production
                      Crude Oil



Diesel & Heating    Light Petroleum        Other Products
       Oils


   Motor           Raw Materials
   Fuels           for Chemicals
     83%
                                           Other Chemical
                      Plastics                Products
                         4%
                                 Plastic
Isn’t it all just plastic?



         Thermoset >



        < Thermoplastic




          .... And can’t it all just be recycled ?
   Polymers & Properties



Two Basic Types of Plastics:


 Thermosets       20%

 Thermoplastics 80%
         Polymers & Properties

Thermosets are hardened by curing and cannot be re-
   melted or re-moulded and are difficult to recycle.
  Thermoset are generally hard and brittle and better
able to resist higher temperatures than thermoplastics.
  Thermoset materials often include fillers. They can
 sometimes be recycled by being ground up and used
                 again as a filler material.

Thermoplastics: are heated to form shapes and then
cooled to harden.Thermoplastics can be reheated and
re-shaped many times. As a result they are generally
much easier to recycle than thermosets.
       Polymers & Properties


Example Polyethylene



   H      H
                       Single Ethylene Molecule
   C      C


   H      H
            Polymers & Properties

  Example Polyethylene chain




      H        H      H       H         H   H


       C       C      C        C        C   C


       H       H      H        H        H   H

Reaction called Polymerisation
– in this case producing Polyethylene
         polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
         food packaging, containers, carpets;

         high density polyethylene (HDPE)
         used in piping, automotive fuel tanks, bottles, toys

         polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
         used in window frames, flooring, cable insulation,
         credit cards, medical products and plastic ducks.

         low density polyethylene (LDPE)
         used in plastic bags, cling film, flexible containers;

         polypropylene (PP)
         used in food containers, battery cases, crates,
         automotive parts;

         polystyrene (PS)
         used in dairy product containers, tape cassettes, cups
         and plates – plus EPS protective packaging;
   7
         Including PC, ABS, Bakelite etc
Others
The Major Plastic Polymer Types


        Names can be confusing:

        HD
        Polyethylene
        HD Polyethylene
        HDPE
        Polyolefin




         Members of the Polyolefin Family
Manufacturing Processes

         Extrusion Moulding
         Injection Moulding
         Thermoforming
         Blow Moulding
         Rotational Moulding
         Injection Blow Moulding
         Compression Moulding
         Foaming
         Calendering
         Laminating
         Compounding
Thermoforming
Rotational Moulding Products
Why Do Plastic Ducks Not Like Hairdryers?
APET vs CPET : The hot water test
          Pack Review : Liquitabs (2009)

                                  •   What is the pack plastic?
                                  •   What is the sleeve plastic?
                                  •   What is the lid/cap plastic?
                                  •   Labels and glues?

3 liquitab products : how many polymers ...........
6 clear trays – how many polymers ……




                                    PLA



                                 Unspecified
Bioplastics
The term ‘bioplastics’ is commonly used to describe two
different aspects of the product:
• Disposal option – i.e. biodegradable/compostable
• Material source – i.e. renewable/biomass-based plastics.

Compostable Plastics - undergoes degradation by biological
processes during composting – up to 180 days.
e.g. PLA

Biobased Plastics - produced from renewable resources; not
in all cases biodegradable and compostable - e.g. PET from
sugar cane.
Terminologies
• ‘Fully biodegradable’
• ‘100% fully compostable’
• ‘100% compostable’
• ‘Biocompostable’
• ‘Degradable’
• ‘Fully biodegradable and 100% compostable’
• ‘Reusable, Recyclable, Biodegradable’
• Made from renewable materials
Application
 • Compostable   • Biobased
Without packaging, much food and many goods would be damaged or
spoiled before they got to us. In less developed countries without the
sophisticated distribution and packaging systems that we have in the UK,
as much as 50% of food never reaches consumers.
                                                 ic
                                               ifneed any protection for
                                         p ec transported from
Some goods (such as fruit and vegetables) do not
shoppers to carry them home – but nones could be d
                                  nd use
                              , a re
producer to shop without packaging.
                             g
                          instruck between providing adequate protection
                        g          sa n
                   ckaand keeping packaging to a minimum. Industry has
A delicate balance has to be
                               pe so
              Pa onlytithe ty amount of packaging because this reduces
for the products inside
                                      a
an interest in using s c right re
                  pla for a
costs, complies with the packaging laws and protects the environment.

Packaging typically protects food and goods which contain more than ten
times the energy and resources that went into the packaging, so it does
more than make modern lifestyles possible – it saves food and prevents
products going to waste.
International Recyclability By Design (RBD) Guidance

                                 Produced by Recoup
                             in Consultation with Industry
                                        Experts

                                       Includes:

                            •Non Rigid Plastics Specification
                                     •Bio Plastics
                           •Increased Sorting & Reprocessing
                                          info

                             •Wide international audience
                                   •Free download

                               •Update due this year
        STRATEGY AND DATA


Plastic Packaging Recycling Targets

• Packaging Obligations / Producer Responsibility
• 32% for 2011 and 2012 (of 1.9 mt)
• 2010 target met mostly through;
     DEFRA Waste Policy Review

For most materials, the collection, sorting
and reprocessing infrastructure is well
established. Plastics are the exception.


Of the estimated 5 million tonnes of plastics
consumed in the UK every year, about 40%
is used in packaging. Overall, the UK only
recycles 24% of its plastic packaging waste.


Ensure that a greater proportion of the
plastic packaging on the UK market can be
easily recycled (i.e. is easy to sort
mechanically)
ACP Annual Report 2010/11
Summary table of intended recovery levels recommended
to 2020
       Material         2013    2014    2015    2016  2017     2018  2019         2020
        Paper          72.7%   74.6%   76.5%   78.4% 80.3%    82.2% 84.1%        86.1%
       Plastic         28.7%    31%    33.3%   35.6% 37.9%    40.2% 42.5%         45%
    Aluminium (exc      45%     46%     48%     52%   55%      59%   62%          65%
    laminates and
     composites)
        Steel           66%     68%     69%     71%   73%      75%  77%           78%
        Glass          60.7%   61.2%    62%    62.7% 63.5%    64.2% 65%          65.6%
        Wood            38.2    43.9    50.6    56.3   62      67.8 70.6          70.6
        Total           60%    60.5%   61.6%   63.1% 64.4%     66% 67.6%         69.1%


 It is important for each authority to make its own decision on systems and
 frequencies but that there should be a requirement for them to consider the
 needs of industry in their specifications especially in respect to quality of
 material recovered.

 There needs to be a step change in the recovery of plastics ..... and more
 strategic coordination between retailers, waste companies and local authorities.
 Whilst energy recovery clearly has a role to play in recovery of packaging for
 paper, plastics and metals it believes that the aim should be to optimise the
 material recovery as this is where it sees the major gains.
EU Data
UK Survey 2010
  • Published in November 2010
  • 263kt bottles, 40kt non bottle collected
Projected Household Plastics Packaging Collection Growth Bottles & PTTs




   • Need for a ‘value recycling’ approach
   • making a positive contribution and not create a
   diminishing value system.
    Recoup Mixed
   Plastic Guidance
      position statement

  • Aimed at collectors and
           handlers
• Based on what happens now
   • Document will evolve
          Endorsed by
Household Mixed Plastic Recycling Guide ...
                    The Journey :
             What Happens After Collection
•   Commercial plastics tend to be pre separated so are baled
•   Bring schemes and kerbside sort systems also have material
    delivered to a basic facility for baling, or baled onsite
•   Co mingled materials from households, businesses, trade and
    commercial go to a materials reclamation facility – a MRF for
    separation and baling




• The output from all these
routes is generally whole baled
Items.
                     Basic MRF Sorting Sequence

 MRF Primary Separation

            Ballistic Separators                                         Fibre
                                                      2nd
              Disc Screens               Fibre                                   Inspection
                                                   Separation            Fibre
                 Trommels

                Plastic bottles
 Pre-
                 and cans
 Sort
                          Ferrous
            Metals                         Bales/
           removed                        briquettes
                      Non ferrous

                Plastic
 Input          bottles
                             Bottle
material                                               Plastic bottles
                          Inspection /
                                                           baled
                             sorting
                  MRF Primary Separation



Ballistic Separator               Screen
                    Bottle Sorting




A person can remove 60kg – 80kg of plastic bottles per hour.
A single automated machine is capable of up to 4000kg per
               hour (equal to 50-66 people)
      Design For Recycling Considerations
• Post consumer plastics will be collected together

The opportunity to separate and reprocess plastic is
  dependent on;

•   Size
•   Shape
•   Polymer Type (s)
•   Ease of separation /dismantling
•   Additives
•   Contaminants
Plastic Sorting – How Do Items React Within Systems




              ... and how could they be changed in a
                commercially viable way to improve
                           acceptability
Float and Sink Separation
Reprocessed plastics sold to market
               Flake



   Fibre
                             Pellets




       ...to meet a specification
•   Recycle on the Go
•   Markets and Values
•   New Technologies
•   Quality
   Plastic packaging recycling chain
          priorities and issues



                                     Handling               Reprocessing
               Collection
                                    and Sorting




 Bottles    Need more tonnage        Improve quality          Over capacity
Non Bottle Needs consistency and                            Demonstrate audit
                                   Lack of infrastructure
  Items         clarification                               trails and viability
             More tonnage from                              Demonstrate audit
   C&I                               Quality control
                   SME’s                                    trails and viability
Stuart Foster
Director
Recoup
1 Metro Centre
Welbeck Way
Woodston
Peterborough
PE2 7UH

Tel: 01733-390021
Direct Dial: 01733-375673
Mobile : 07738 542853


E-mail: stuart.foster@recoup.org
Website : www.recoup.org

								
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