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Review for Hydrosphere Unit Test Chapters 6, 14, 15.1, and 16 Review all vocabulary terms and chapter summaries related to the text sections listed above. Make note cards, study sheets, etc. using the topics below to help prepare you for the test. What is the hydrosphere? What is salinity? What is the salinity of ocean water? What are the 2 sources of the elements in sea water? What is density? How does it affect ocean water? What factor has the greatest influence on density? [Cold/Warm] water is denser. Why? What can affect water temperature? Water with [high/low] salinity is denser. Why? What can affect salinity in the ocean? What force generates surface ocean currents? Density Currents? Water that moves away from the equator and towards the poles is [warm/cold]. What affect does this water have on the continents? Weather? Water that moves away from the poles and towards the equator is [warm/cold]. What affect does this water have on the continents? Weather? What affects the direction of ocean currents? Explain. Be sure to include the differences between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Surface ocean currents move [horizontally/vertically]. Why? Density ocean currents move [horizontally/vertically]. Why? List the oceans from smallest to largest. Know characteristics of the oceans. Draw a picture of the ocean floor. Be sure to label the various parts of these regions. Include how some of these areas form, using plate tectonics. What types of resources do we get from the ocean? List the different types of shorelines can result from erosion and deposition? Include a short description of each. What is the impact of human and natural forces on the shorelines? What is the water cycle? Draw a diagram labeling the different parts. What factors can affect parts of the water cycle causing imbalance in the system? What is the most important agent of erosion? What is the most forceful agent of erosion? Define gradient. Include the equation. What is a drainage basin/river basin/watershed? What is groundwater? Where is it found? How does it get there? What can cause it to become contaminated? Describe the water table. What affects the water table? What is porosity? What are some factors that affect porosity? Be able to describe using graphs. Do the same for permeability. Describe the way sediments are arranged if there is high porosity? Describe the way sediments are arranged if there is low porosity? Do the same for permeability. What is an aquifer? What types of rock make for good aquifers and why? What happens to the path of a stream or river as it gets older? How does its appearance change? Describe how velocity, erosion, and deposition within a stream changes as the stream meanders. What effect does velocity have on a stream and the land along it? Where is most of Earth’s liquid freshwater found? How much of the Earth is covered by water? How much of Earth’s freshwater is usable? Describe the impact humans have had on erosion. Describe surface water runoff and what can affect runoff. Know the different types of weathering and what factors influence them.
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