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Overview to TCP-IP - IBM

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					                  Overview of TCP/IP




    Thomas M. Hadley                                                     Laura Jeanne Knapp
 IBM Network Consultant                                               IBM Network Consultant
     1-919-301-3052                                                        1-919-254-8801
  tmhadley@us.ibm.com                                                  laura@lauraknapp.com
                                       Return To Index                  www.lauraknapp.com
IBM               Networking - Connecting people to information through technology      IP_ 010
                                                 TCP/IP History
                                            Stage 1                Stage 2              Stage 3
                                                                   I

                                            Experimental           Growth               Commercialization
                      100,000,000

                        10,000,000
                                                                Research
                          1,000,000
                                             DARPA                                      Worldwide
                               10,000

                                1,000

                                 100
                                                                University
                                     10

                                     1
                                          1968   1973    1978     1983     1988    1994     1999     2004
In the 1980’s                                                                                                                 Today
                Government A



                                                                                               ISP 2 ISP 3 (Backbone)
 University C
                                                                                      ISP 1
                         Company B




                                                                                                      Regional ISP
                                                                                                                        Corporation
                   Company D
                                                                                                                         University
                                                                                            Local ISP

IBM                                          Networking - Connecting people to information through technology               IP_ 020
                    World Wide Web - WWW



URL
 Uniform Resource Locator
 The Internet address of the
   requested information
Home Page
 Web page of information
HTML
 HyperText Markup Language
 How WWW pages are written
HTTP
 HyperText Transport Protocol
 Rules used to transfer
   information between client
   and WWW server



IBM                  Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 030
             Client/Server Application




                                    Internet




WEB Client                                                                        WEB Server
(Browser)                                                                         (HTTP Server)
                                                                                  Stores information




                    HTTP application
             TCP/IP transmission mechanism
IBM            Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                 IP_ 040
                            TCP/IP Layered Architecture




   Browser                                                                                             HTTP Server


           Application            WWW, mail, file transfer, remote access                                   Application


                                              Application interfaces
             TCP                                                                                                TCP
 Transmission Control Protocol                  End-to-end delivery                                 Transmission Control Protocol



                IP                                                                                                IP
        Internet Protocol                       Best effort delivery                                      Internet Protocol



              Network                           Physical connection                                            Network
      Interface and hardware                                                                           Interface and hardware



IBM                              Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                         IP_ 050
                         Network Interface Layer


        OSI Model            4 layer TCP/IP Model
Layer

 7        Application
                                         Application
 6        Presentation

 5        Session

                               TCP                      UDP
 4        Transport        Transmission                 User
                                                                                             Layer 2
                              Control                 Datagram
                             Protocol                 Protocol

                                             IP
 3        Network                    Internet Protocol
                                                                                             Layer 1

 2         Data Link
                                         Network
                                 Interface and hardware
 1        Physical




IBM                       Networking - Connecting people to information through technology             IP_ 060   090
                                                   IP - Internet Protocol
                                                                                                                             Datagram
        Application
                                                                                                              Vers: HD     TOS           Payload length
    TCP
Transmission
                    UDP
                    User
                                     Data transferred in self contained                                        Fragment ID              Fragment Information
   Control
  Protocol
                  Datagram
                  Protocol
                                     units called datagrams
                                                                                                              TTL          Protocol      Header Checksum
              IP
      Internet Protocol
           Layer 3                   20 byte IP header                                                                       Source Address

           Network                                                                                                           Destination Address
   Interface and hardware
        Layer 1 and 2                Best effort delivery -- no guarantee

 Dynamic path selection for every datagram
                                                                                                                                      Data

 Handles datagram fragmentation and reassembly

                                                   Post Office




                                                                                               Post Office

                                     Post Office
                                                                         Post Office




                          25c




                 To: Mom

                                Post Office                      Post Office              Post Office




IBM                                                     Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                           IP_ 070
         TCP - Transmission Control Protocol


           Application



     TCP                UDP
 Transmission      User Datagram
Control Protocol     Protocol
    Layer 4           Layer 4
                                            Connection established
                IP
        Internet Protocol
             Layer 3                        End-to-end acknowledgments

                                            Orderly delivery of datagrams to application
              Network
      Interface and hardware
           Layer 1 and 2                    Error and flow control

                                            Connection takedown

IBM                         Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 080
                    TCP - Connection Flow

                                                                              SYN             S
                                                                                              T
                                                                              CK              A
                                                                         SYN/A                R
                                                                           ACK                T
                                                                                              U
                                                Host A                                        P   Host B

                                                                          DATA
                                                                                              D
                                                                              CK
                                                                         ATA/A
                                                                                              A
           IP Header                                                    D                     T
                                                                          ACK                 A

  Source Port           Destination Port

           Sequence Number
                                                                             FIN
                                                                                              C
       Acknowledgment Number
                                                                            ACK               L
                                                                                              O
                                                                                 K
            Other Information                                             FIN/AC              S
                                                                                              E
                 Data                                                       ACK

IBM                        Networking - Connecting people to information through technology        IP_ 090
                   TCP - Acknowledgments


         Sends datagram
         Starts timer


Host A
Acknowledgment
was not received
                                                                                                    Host B
Timer expires
and datagram retransmitted
                                                                                      Host B receives datagram
                                                                                      and acknowledges receipt

Host A receives acknowledgment ,
resets timer, and clears buffer




IBM                       Networking - Connecting people to information through technology              IP_ 100
                   UDP - User Datagram Protocol


                                         Program to program datagram transfer
           Application
                                         Fast mechanism

     TCP                UDP              Used for management frames, streaming audio
 Transmission      User Datagram
Control Protocol     Protocol
    Layer 4           Layer 4

                IP
        Internet Protocol
             Layer 3


              Network
      Interface and hardware
           Layer 1 and 2




IBM                         Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 110
            TCP/IP Sockets


      Sockets                                                   Application code
                                                             Port Number    Protocol    Application

       Network I/O for UNIX                                  20             TCP         FTP-data
                                                             21             TCP         FTP-control
                                                             23             TCP         Telnet
                                                             25             TCP         SMTP
       Library of C routines                                 53             TCP/UDP     DNS
                                                             70             TCP         Gopher
                                                             79             TCP         Finger
       Berkeley UNIX (BSD) API                               80             TCP         HTTP
                                                             110            TCP         POP3
                                                             161            UDP         SNMP
                                                             162            UDP         SNMP-trap
       Socket also called port                               520            UDP         RIP
                                                             1525           UDP         Archie

      Applications address

       Port Number
       Protocol (TCP or UDP)
                                                                     TCP               UDP
       IP Address
                                                                            IP
IBM      Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                IP_ 120
                            IP Addressing

IP address is 32 bits long

Expressed as 4 decimal numbers
                                                                      Network = 128.189.0.0

Format: 128.189.65.1
                                                                                              128.189.65.1

Divided into 2 parts
 Network address
 Host address

Host addresses locally administered

Network addresses assigned by Internet
Service Providers (ISPs) even for
                                                                    Network = 192.228.17.0      192.228.17.126
use in your own organization

As of 1998 you pay for IP addresses

IBM                    Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                 IP_ 130
                      IP Address Classes


           01234567           01234567                      01234567                      01234567

Class A    0 Network ID                           Host ID
          127 Networks                                           Each with 16,777,214 hosts
          0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255

Class B    1 0 Network ID                                                  Host ID
          16, 384 Networks                                                Each with 65,534 hosts
          128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255

Class C    1 1 0 Network ID                                                                Host ID

          2,097,152 Networks                                                                Each with
          192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255                                                      254 hosts

  Class D address is a multicast group address with addresses ranging
                    from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
IBM                    Networking - Connecting people to information through technology              IP_ 140
                          IP Addresses : Subnet Masks


                 01234567                      01234567                   01234567                      01234567

Class B      1 0 Network ID                                                        Subnet                Host ID


                 Network = 128.189.0.0
                 Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0


                         SUBNET 17
                                                                                 Why subnet an IP network:
                                                                                  congestion control
                                                                                  traffic control
                                                                                  upper limits on hosts
                                                                                  distance limits on LANs
      SUBNET 2
                                               SUBNET 3




IP address               128.189.17.126                      1000000.10111101.00010001.01111110
Subnet mask              255.255.255.0                       1111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
IBM                                  Networking - Connecting people to information through technology              IP_ 150
                       Names and Addresses




      If IP needs an address and I use a name in the URL, how does
                               it all work?


IBM                    Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 160
                   DNS and TCP/IP Addresses


com     Commercial organizations                                               mil        Military organizations
edu     Educational organizations                        root                  org       Other organizations
gov     Government organizations                                               net        Network resources
                                                                               + OSI postal codes for countries




 edu    uk       gov       jp         com           sg          mil            fr          org   au      net



             204.146.46.133          ibm          www.ibm.com

       PC         . . .                Software          . . .                      As400

204.146.167.73                    204.146.17.42                              208.222.150.11
www.pc.ibm.com                  www.software.ibm.com                        www.as400.ibm.com



IBM                     Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                IP_ 170
                                Dynamic IP
                                DNS Server                        DHCP Server




10.128.25.36                                                                                  10.192.68.36
www.widget.com                                                                             laura.widget.com



                                                       Internet


        10.64.136.221                                                                10.32.5.200
                                      208.222.150.11
                                      www.as400.ibm.com


How did my browser actually resolve the Web server name to an IP address?
               DNS server - Domain Name System Server

  How can I function on an IP network if I didn’t configure an IP address?
              DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
IBM                     Networking - Connecting people to information through technology             IP_ 180
                               Routing


                                               IP delivers datagrams directly from
                                              origin to destination if they are on the
  Same network :
                                                          same network
  send directly to destination




        Different Network :
        send to router



                                        If the destination is on a different network,
                                           IP sends the frame to a router that will
                                                forward through the network
IBM                 Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 190
                                                   IP Routing


    Host A                                                                                                                    Host B

        Application                                                                                                                  Application

                                                                                             TCP Connection
            TCP                                                                                                                          TCP
Transmission Control Protocol                                  Routing Protocol                                              Transmission Control Protocol
                                                              (RIP, OSPF, IGRP, …)

              IP
      Internet Protocol         IP Flow                                 IP
                                                                Internet Protocol
                                                                                                                                           IP
                                                                                                                                   Internet Protocol



                                                                                     Frame
        Token-Ring                                       Token-Ring   Ethernet                                                       Frame Relay
                                                                                     Relay




                                                                                              Frame Relay
                                                                                              Public Network



        The routing function is performed by the IP protocol and routers

                                                                                                        RIP - Routing Information Protocol
                                                                                                        OSPF - Open Shortest Path First
                                                                                                        IGRP - Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

IBM                                       Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                               IP_ 200
            Support for Alternate Routes
                                                      Different algorithms used to
      Cost to network B                               find the ‘BEST’ route through
                                                      network.
      Interface   Metric
       0           6
       1           4
       2           3
                                                                                      Network B
                   2
                   1
Network A

            0


IBM                Networking - Connecting people to information through technology        IP_ 210
                                 TCP/IP Protocol Suite


                                               Most          Real time                    NFS
                                              comm             apps
Telnet FTP   SMTP HTTP          POP       DNS apps           RTP/RTCP          DNS       RPC            SNMP

                                                                                                                       RSVP
             TCP                                                                 UDP

                                               IP                                                       ICMP     ARP          RARP



 Token-Ring, Ethernet, FDDI, Frame Relay, Dial, Leased Line, ATM, ISDN, SMDS, Sonet, X.25, Fibre Channel, PPP, SLIP




         IP - Internet Protocol                                                          Telnet - Teletype Network
         ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol                                        FTP - File Transfer Protocol
         ARP - Address Resolution Protocol                                               SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
         RARP - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol                                      HTTP - Hypertext Transport Protocol
         TCP - Transmission Control Protocol                                             NFS - Network File System
         UDP - User Datagram Protocol                                                    RPC - Remote Procedure Call
         POP - Post Office Protocol                                                      SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
         DNS - Domain Name System


IBM                                  Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                       IP_ 220
             Internet Capabilities (Basics)




Terminal Emulation                                                                File Transfer Protocol
    (TELNET)                                                                               (FTP)




                                Internet Mail
                        Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
                                   (SMTP)
IBM                  Networking - Connecting people to information through technology             IP_ 230
                       Application Advances
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         IR ela                                                                                 tim
           tR                                                                                al-
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          e                                                                                Re
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  (Int




                                                                                                  An
  Voice over IP




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                                                                                           List
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IBM                     Networking - Connecting people to information through technology                  IP_ 240
                       TCP/IP Standards
IAB - Internet Architecture Board
  Sets direction
  Determines standards
  Guides evolution of Internet
  Coordinates developments in TCP/IP

IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
  Solutions for engineering problems
  Produce RFC (Request for Comments)

IRTF - Internet Research Task Force
  Coordinates research activities
  Longer term solutions

InterNIC (US)/RICE(Europe)/APNIC(Asia)
   Administer domain names

American Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN)
  Administers IP addresses
IBM                  Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 250
                          TCP/IP Summary


TCP/IP has a heritage of equality ...

 IP network designed to span Wide and Local Area Networks

 Hosts (systems) are equal
  PC or mainframe or midrange

 Connection and connectionless support

 Application environments supported
  Client/server networking
  Peer-peer networking
  Distributed computing
  Network computing
  Terminal emulation

 Designed for independence and interoperability


IBM                      Networking - Connecting people to information through technology   IP_ 260

				
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