An Alphabetical Analysis (10 volumes in 1) by C.H.Welch

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An Alphabetical Analysis (10 volumes in 1) by C.H.Welch Powered By Docstoc
            Dispensational Truth

              Doctrinal Truth

               Practical Truth

         10 Volumes in 1

       Charles H. Welch

               Table of Contents

Volume 1 - Alphabetical Analysis - A to E - Dispensational Truth

Volume 2 - Alphabetical Analysis - F to L - Dispensational Truth

Volume 3 Alphabetical Analysis - M to P - Dispensational Truth

Volume 4 - Alphabetical Analysis - R to S - Dispensational Truth

Volume 5 - Alphabetical Analysis - T to W - Dispensational Truth

   Volume 6 - Alphabetical Analysis - A to K - Doctrinal Truth

  Volume 7 - Alphabetical Analysis - L to W - Doctrinal Truth

  Volume 8 - Alphabetical Analysis - A to L - Prophetic Truth

  Volume 9 - Alphabetical Analysis - M to Z - Prophetic Truth

  Volume 10 - Alphabetical Analysis - A to Z - Practical Truth



   of terms and texts used in the study of
          ‘Dispensational Truth’



                 Author of
          Dispensational Truth
           Just and the Justifier
      The Prize of the High Calling
   The Testimony of the Lord’s Prisoner
        Parable, Miracle and Sign
        The Form of Sound Words
              This Prophecy
         Life Through His Name

             Part One - A to E


                                  THE THREEFOLD DIVISION OF ALL TRUTH
    The revelation given in the Scriptures comes to us in three forms: (1) Doctrinal Truth, (2) Dispensational Truth,
(3) Practical Truth.
    What do we mean by Doctrinal Truth? - Doctrinal Truth embraces all that has been revealed concerning the
Being and Attributes of God, and all that God has done, commanded, promised or foretold in Creation, Law and
Grace. ‘All have sinned’ is true under whatever dispensation we may be called. ‘God is Just’ is as true under grace
as it was under law. ‘To the Jew first’ was true during the period covered by the Acts, but cannot be put into
practice since the dismissal of the Jew in Acts 28. This latter statement therefore comes rather under the next
    What do we mean by Dispensational Truth? - Dispensational Truth takes note of the purpose of the ages, the
changes that have been introduced since Creation, such as may be denominated the Dispensation of Innocence, Law,
Kingdom, Grace, Church, Mystery, etc., and the office of Dispensational Truth is to decide whether any particular
doctrine - be it command, promise, calling or prophecy - does or does not pertain to any particular individual.
Dispensational Truth would lead the believer to distinguish between the blessing which says, ‘The meek shall inherit
the earth’, and those blessings which are described as ‘all spiritual’ and to be enjoyed ‘in heavenly places’.
    What do we mean by Practical Truth? Not until doctrine has passed the mesh of Dispensational Truth, can
Practical Truth put in its claim. It is obvious that the people of Israel, called to be a royal priesthood and a holy
nation, with its sphere of influence in the earth, could not be called upon to put into practice the injunctions of
Ephesians 4 to 6. In like manner, the Church of the One Body has no guarantee that obedience to the special truth of
that calling will result in blessing in ‘basket and in store’. Those who are under the law, must have a very different
form of practice from those who are under grace.
   Only by loyally preaching and teaching the truth of God as related to these three aspects can we hope to become
workmen who need not to be ashamed, for only by so doing shall we ‘rightly divide’ the Word of truth.
    To all who discern ‘things that differ’ (Phil. 1:10 marg.) and who seek to obey the injunction ‘rightly to divide’
the word of truth (2 Tim. 2:15) we very warmly commend the following analysis of words, terms and Scripture
references, that are employed in making known Dispensational Truth, believing that it will prove a tool in the hands
of the ‘unashamed workman’ and that it will be of great service to both teacher and student alike.
    A word or two may be of service relative to the method adopted in this analysis: First, the subjects selected
appear in alphabetical order and not in any order of merit of relative importance. The word Aaron is relatively of
slight importance to the believing Gentile today, but the office and witness of the Apostle is of first importance in
the opening up of truth for the time, yet ‘AARON’ must head the list, even as the MYSTERY, a word of supreme
importance dispensationally, necessarily comes later in the list.
    In the second place, a distinction has been made in the type used to indicate subsidiary headings and those which
are of first importance. For example ABBA is printed in small capitals Helvetica bold type, and stands at the
beginning of the paragraph, because it is subsidiary to the main theme of ADOPTION. This subject of ‘adoption’ is
differentiated from subsidiary articles by being printed in Helvetica bold type capitals, and being placed in the
centre of the page, instead of at the beginning of the first line.
    Structures. - Where the meaning of a term can be illuminated by the structure of the section in which the term
occurs, that structure is given, and as the scope of a passage is of first importance in the interpretation of any of its
parts, these structures, which are not ‘inventions’ but ‘discoveries’ of what is actually present, should be used in
every attempt to arrive at a true understanding of a term, phrase or word that is under review. Under the heading
STRUCTURE the uninitiated believer will receive an explanation and an illustration of this unique feature of Holy
Scripture. In like manner, other exegetical apparatus such as Figures of speech and all such helps are indicated
under the main heading INTERPRETATION.
                                                                                                  INTRODUCTION 3
   References. - Where a word occurs ten times or less in the original a complete concordance will be provided.
Where the number of references exceeds ten, a selection will be given, but an indication of its distribution, number
and translation will be given in order that nothing relevant to the subject under consideration shall be omitted or
    Greek and Hebrew words. - Those readers who can read the Greek and Hebrew originals of the Scriptures will
understand the English transliteration adopted, while those readers who have no knowledge of the original languages
will be encouraged to follow the argument, and refer to the Concordance and Lexicon by the fact that Hebrew and
Greek words are printed with English letters. We have employed italic type for both Hebrew and Greek words, but
we have not attempted to differentiate between long and short vowels, printing the ‘o’ in logos or lego alike,
although in logos the vowels are short, while in lego the ‘o’ is long. Again in order to avoid confusion, the spelling
of Hebrew words follows that employed in ‘Young’s Analytical Concordance’.
                                                                      SUBJECT INDEX
     Main articles are printed in full capitals thus: ADOPTION. Subsidiary articles are printed thus: ASCENSION.
A                                                                                               Page
AARON ............................................................................................. 7
ABBA ................................................................................................ 7
ABOVE .............................................................................................. 8
ABRAHAM....................................................................................... 8
ABSENT .......................................................................................... 12
ACCEPTED ...................................................................................... 12
ACCESS .......................................................................................... 13
ACKNOWLEDGE .............................................................................. 13
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ......................................................... 16
ACTS 28, DISPENSATIONAL BOUNDARY ......................................... 20
ADAM .............................................................................................. 22
ADOPTION................................................................................... 26
AGE............................................................................................... 30
ALIEN ............................................................................................. 34
ALL AND ALL T HINGS ..................................................................... 37
ANGELS .......................................................................................... 41
ANGELS, FALLEN ............................................................................ 42
ANOINTING ....................................................................................... 45
APOSTLE ..................................................................................... 46
APPEARING ...................................................................................... 53
ARCHANGEL ................................................................................... 54
ARMOUR, see SATAN, WARFARE .................................................. 54
ASCENSION..................................................................................... 54
BABES ............................................................................................. 57
BABYLON......................................................................................... 58
BAPTISM ....................................................................................... 59
BETTER ........................................................................................... 62
BIRTHRIGHT ..................................................................................... 63
BLESSING ........................................................................................ 63
BODY ............................................................................................. 65
BOTH ............................................................................................. 68
BRIDE AND BODY........................................................................ 68

CALLING ...................................................................................... 71
CASTAWAY ...................................................................................... 73
CHERUBIM ....................................................................................... 74
CHILDREN v. SONS .......................................................................... 76
CHRIST JESUS ................................................................................ 77
CHRONOLOGY OF Acts and Epistles...................................... 78
CHURCH........................................................................................ 90
CITIZENSHIP..................................................................................... 92
COLOSSIANS ............................................................................. 94
CONFIRMATION ............................................................................... 97
CORNELIUS ..................................................................................... 98
COVENANT................................................................................ 101
CREATION ...................................................................................... 104
CROWN ......................................................................................... 107
DAY, Including Day of Christ, etc........................................... 107
DECREES................................................................................... 110
DEPOSIT ....................................................................................... 116
DEVIL ............................................................................................ 116
DIFFER .......................................................................................... 116
DIFFERENCE ................................................................................. 116
DISPENSATION......................................................................... 116
DIVISION, RIGHT........................................................................ 119
DUE T IME....................................................................................... 122

EARTH .......................................................................................... 125
EARTHLY T HINGS........................................................................... 128
ELECTION ...................................................................................... 131
END .............................................................................................. 135
ENMITY .......................................................................................... 139
EPHESIANS ................................................................................ 140
EPISTLE ......................................................................................... 154
ETERNAL, FOR EVER .................................................................... 156
EXCELLENT .................................................................................... 157
                                        AN ALPHABETICAL ANALYSIS
                                     of words, terms and Scripture references,
                                   used in the exposition of Dispensational Truth


ABBA. This Aramaic or Chaldee word is the equivalent of the Hebrew abi and means ‘my father’, but, although so
far as translation is concerned the one word is equivalent to the other, in usage they differ in one great particular.
Abi can be used of a natural father and it can also be used of an elder, a magistrate, a ruler, but abba can only be
used of a natural or an adopting father. Dr. John Lightfoot gives a number of examples of this usage from
Rabbinical sources. Moreover, the word abba was forbidden to a slave, only sons could use the title. The word
abba is found in three passages of the New Testament, namely, in Mark 14:36, Galatians 4:6 and Romans 8:15. The
parallel passage in Matthew 26:39 reads ‘O My Father’ which is a good translation of abba. The introduction of the
word abba in Mark’s Gospel is one of the indications that Gentile readers were envisaged, and the reader may know
in the prophecy of Daniel, at chapter 2, verse 4, the words ‘in Syriac’ indicate a change from the Hebrew, which
continues to the end of chapter 7. This is one dispensational purpose served by the presence of this word.
    The other is a claim to the highest relationship with the Father, that of a ‘son’ (for a fuller account of the
dispensational distinction between ‘child’ and ‘son’, see ADOPTION p. 40). Both the place of the Gentile, and the
high dignity and blessedness of being a ‘son’ are intended by the employment of this same word in Galatians and
   ‘And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father’ (Gal.
   ‘For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the spirit of adoption, whereby
   we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God’ (Rom.
    In both these epistles ‘bondage’ is in the background of these references, and ‘liberty’ is nothing less than ‘the
liberty of the glory of the sons of God’ (Rom. 8:21).
   This study is mainly an adjunct of a larger theme, namely that of ‘Adoption’, and many aspects of the truth that
seem to cry out for exposition will be found under that head. The need to conserve space makes repetition, however
desirable, both uneconomical and unnecessary in a work of this character.
   We append however the structure of the sections that contain the word abba in Galatians and Romans.

                                               Galatians 3:24 to 4:7
       A 3:24,25. The schoolmaster, hupo ‘under’.
         B 3:26-28. Ye are all sons of God, huios.
            C 3:29.     ‘IF’, heirs.
       A 4:1-5.   Tutors, hupo ‘under’.
         B 4:6.      Ye are sons, huios.
            C 4:7.       ‘IF’, heir.

                                                  Romans 8:1-39
A 1-4.        No condemnation. God sent His own Son.               huios
  B 5-15.     Led. Sons now.                             huios
     C 15-17.     Spirit itself. Adoption.          huiothesia
         D 17-21.    Manifestation of sons.              huios
     C 22-28.     Spirit itself. Adoption.          huiothesia
  B 29,30.    Conformed. Sons then.                      huios
A 31-39.   Who condemns? He spared not His own Son.     Huios
ABOVE. Ano, Anothen an adverb allied with the preposition ana ‘up’.

                                                    (All references)
    John 2:7.     ‘They filled them up to the brim’.
         8:23.    ‘Ye are from beneath; I am from above’.
       11:41.     ‘Jesus lifted up His eyes’.
   Acts 2:19.     ‘I will shew wonders in heaven above’.
   Gal. 4:26.     ‘Jerusalem which is above is free’.
   Phil. 3:14.    ‘The prize of the high calling of God’.
     Col. 3:1.    ‘Seek those things which are above’.
          3:2.    ‘Set your affection on things above’.
  Heb. 12:15.     ‘Any root of bitterness springing up’.
    ‘Things above’ are placed in contrast with ‘things on the earth’ and are associated with that sphere of glory
‘where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God’ (Col. 3:1,2). This is the third and highest sphere of blessing, the other
two being ‘the earth’ and ‘the heavenly Jerusalem’. This third sphere of blessing is said to be ‘far above all
principality and power’ ‘in the super-heavenlies’ (Eph. 1:20,21). Here the words ‘far above all’ are the translation
of huperano, and the rendering ‘super-heavenlies’ is an attempt to do justice to the composition and usage of en tois
epouraniois. For a fuller examination of these terms, see under FAR ABOVE ALL2, and HEAVENLY PLACES2,6, both
of which are moreover comprehended in the main article entitled THREE SPHERES5. The passages which concern us,
are those in Galatians, Philippians and Colossians.
    The dispensational place of the New Jerusalem is discussed under THREE SPHERES5, and the problem of the
employment of ano an adverb in the place of an adjective is dealt with under HOPE2 and PRIZE3, where the
alternative translations ‘THE HIGH CALLING’ and ‘THE CALLING ON HIGH’, are considered. The subject of the
epistle to the PHILIPPIANS3 as a whole, and as it is related to the dispensation of the Mystery should be examined in
order that the true value of these ‘things above’, which should engage our affections, may be estimated accurately.
The references to ano in Colossians involve a consideration of three allied themes:
       Where is Christ now seated.
       What is implied by the fact that He is seated.
       What is involved in His position at the right hand of God.
   These themes are dealt with under the heading, SEATED4.

    Three names stand out in the early pages of Genesis - Adam, Noah and Abraham. The scriptural fact that Noah
is represented as a type of the ‘Second Adam’ is set out under the heading ADAM (p. 31), and again is referred to
under the heading NOAH3. The composition of the book of Genesis and the position of Abraham in the eleven
generations which compose the bulk of the book of Genesis is given under GENEALOGY6. In the present analysis,
these items will be briefly summarized so that as full an examination of the dispensational place of Abraham can be
given as space will permit.
                                                                                                    ABRAHAM         9
    The eleven generations of Genesis are ranged on either side of that of Terah, the father of Abraham, and as
Abraham stands midway between Adam and Christ, it will be seen that he occupies a most important position in the
outworking of the purpose of the ages. The name of Abraham was originally Abram, a Chaldee name meaning
‘high and exalted father’, this was afterward changed by God to the Hebrew Abraham ‘father of nations’ (Gen.
17:5). The name Abram occurs sixty times in the Old Testament, all of which except two references, namely that of
1 Chronicles 1:27 and Nehemiah 9:7, are found in the book of Genesis from Chapters 11 to 17. It is by the name
Abraham that the patriarch is referred to in the New Testament.
   It is a point to be kept in mind, when the dispensational place of the Abrahamic covenant is the theme, that
Abraham is mentioned in the four Gospels, The Acts, Romans, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Hebrews, James and
1 Peter, but is entirely absent from the epistles written by Paul after Acts 28, namely Ephesians, Philippians,
Colossians, Philemon, Titus, 1 and 2 Timothy.
    The outworking of the purpose of God had already been associated with Adam and with Noah in the book of
Genesis, but in both cases Satanic opposition had involved the earth in a curse or destroyed it by a flood.
Subsequent to the flood had come another attack, this time the rebellion at Babel, and immediately following the
confusion of tongues, comes the call of Abraham and the first great promise (See BABYLON p. 104, and its place in
the purpose). The name of Abraham is associated with a Covenant, a Promise, a Doctrine, a Gospel, and two
Callings, earthly and heavenly.
    The Covenant. The first draft of the covenant made with Abraham is found in Genesis 15:18-21, which makes a
promise of a ‘seed’ and a ‘land’, the land being specified by the geographical boundaries ‘from the river of Egypt
unto the great river, the river Euphrates’, and possessed at the time of the promise by a number of tribes, including
the Rephaim and the Canaanites (See GIANTS2). This covenant is reaffirmed in Genesis 17:1-8 and amplified by the
addition of such terms as ‘multiply exceedingly’, ‘father of many nations’, and the covenant here made is called ‘an
everlasting covenant’. As this word translated ‘everlasting’ is of great importance in the understanding of the
Divine purpose, special attention is directed to AGE, p. 47.
   Following this ‘everlasting covenant’ which was made unconditionally by God, is ‘the covenant of circumcision’
which Abraham and his seed should ‘keep’. This also is called ‘an everlasting covenant’ (Gen. 17:13). This
covenant is afterward extended and called the covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Exod. 2:24).
    Callings.- Two callings are associated with Abraham. The earthly calling embraces Israel as the seed, Palestine
as the land, and the role of ‘a kingdom of priests’ in relation to the nations of the earth. The heavenly calling is
developed in the epistle to the Hebrews (3:1) and looks away from the earth and the earthly Jerusalem to the
heavenly city. In the case of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and those who follow in their steps, the heavenly Jerusalem
is seen to be in the nature of a reward, consequent upon their overcoming faith, associated with ‘the better hope’ and
‘the better resurrection’, but it must be remembered that what may be the ‘prize’ of one calling, may be the
unconditional ‘hope’ of another, and in order to appreciate this, see HOPE2 and PRIZE3.

                                            The Abrahamic Covenant
                                    AS SET FORTH IN THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS

                                    The Dispensational Position before Acts 28
   We have endeavoured to show that the setting aside of Israel as a nation completely altered the dispensational
dealings of the Lord (see ACTS 28, p. 26). We will now seek to show that prior to the revelation of the mystery hid
in God the blessing upon the Gentiles as well as the Jews was Abrahamic and Millennial in character, and that
Gentile believers were blessed through Israel or not at all.
    The epistle to the Romans, while containing doctrine as true to-day as when first written, contains also
dispensational teaching which has passed away with the Pentecostal period.
                                 ABRAHAM                                                                           10
   The following list will give some idea as to the prominent position which the Jew occupied before Acts 28, as
compared with the epistles written afterwards:

    Word             Before Acts 28              After Acts 28
                      Number of                   Number of
                      Occurrences                 Occurrences
   Jew                      25                        1
                                            ‘Neither Greek nor Jew’
                                                  (Col. 3:11).
   Israel                   14                        2
                                             (Eph. 2:12; Phil. 3:5).
   Israelite                 3                         -
   Abraham                  19                         -
                             -                         -
   Total                    61                        3
                             -                         -
   When it is observed that the three occurrences after Acts 28 are all negative statements, referring back to the
past, the contrast will be more clearly seen than ever.

                                        To the Jew first (Rom. 1:16; 2:10)
    The use of this expression in Chapter 2:10 shows that it is not merely stating the historical order of preaching,
but shows us the place of precedence assigned to the Jew. This is characteristic of the Millennial Kingdom, as a
reference to Isaiah 60 and 61; Zechariah 8:23; 14:12-21, etc. will show.
    As long as Israel were a people and Jerusalem their city, so long as they retained the covenant position, and
saved Gentiles came up to Jerusalem to worship; the Gentiles were linked with the believing Remnant by baptism,
as the channel of their blessing.
    Romans 3:1 anticipates an objection arising out of the very fact of this Jewish pre-eminence, that might be
expressed thus: ‘If what you say is true, where is the hitherto recognized pre-eminence and profit of the Jew and
circumcision?’ The answer is, ‘Much every way’. But in verse 9, when the Jew would make his dispensational
privilege a ground of merit, when he asks, ‘Are we better than they?’ the answer is, ‘No, in no wise’.
Dispensational privilege did not alter the Jew personally, and when we come to consider Romans 11 we shall see
that to be deprived of it does not alter one’s standing in Christ.
  ‘Is He the God of the Jews only?’ (Rom. 3:29) goes to show the strong Jewish element even in the Church at
    Romans 9 to 11 deal more particularly with the dispensation obtaining from Acts 2 to 28. The Jewish objection
of 3:3 recurs again in 9:6. The objection of 3:29 is again met in 9:24. Chapter 10:21 shows the attitude of the Lord
during the ‘Acts’ period, which culminated in their rejection and the destruction of the city.
    We now arrive at Romans 11. This chapter has been very sadly misunderstood; and to understand it is, in large
measure, to understand the peculiar dispensation that covered the period of The Acts. Expositors, who have been
clear about the subject of the ‘Mystery’, have felt a difficulty with regard to this chapter because they assumed that
the dispensational position of Romans (which was before Acts 28) was the same as that of Ephesians (which came
after Acts 28).
    The figure of the olive tree, and the Gentiles as wild olive branches, is certainly not the same as the ‘One Body’.
To avoid apparent contradiction, the passage has been interpreted of the Gentile as such, whereas it but states the
same truth as Galatians 3, namely, that believing Gentiles up to Acts 28 were blessed with faithful Abraham - the
father of many nations.
                                                                                                    ABRAHAM       11
    The Remnant of Israel, saved from apostasy by electing grace, formed the Olive Tree, into which the believing
Gentiles were grafted. This Remnant is called the ‘first fruit’ (verse 16), a pledge of the harvest of ‘all Israel’ of
verse 26. The Gentiles addressed are said to have received ‘salvation’ (verse 11), to ‘stand by faith’ (verse 20), and
to partake with the saved Remnant ‘of the root and fatness of the olive tree’ (verse 17).
    We feel sure that no Bible student who understands grace will say that the pagan world, the Gentiles as such, did
then, or do now, ‘stand by faith’ or enter into any of the blessings set forth in Romans 11. The apostle further calls
the Gentile addressees ‘brethren’ (verse 25).
    If once we perceive that Abrahamic blessing, and kingdom anticipations, were the characteristics of the period
covered by the Acts (as it will be once again when the kingdom is set up on earth) no difficulty will remain, and the
transitional portions of Romans, Galatians and Corinthians will be better understood.
   We must not read into Romans 11 that which had not then been revealed, namely, the ‘One Body’ of Ephesians.
Some have a difficulty with verses 21 and 22, because they feel that if this passage refers to saved Gentiles it
contradicts such a passage as Romans 8.
   To be clear as to this point it must be remembered that dispensational privileges must be distinguished from
personal standing. With regard to the former - they may be lost; with regard to the latter - it is indefectible. A
comparison of Romans 11 with Galatians 3 will be helpful just here.
   The ‘gospel’ was never a ‘mystery hidden away from the ages and generations’, but was preached before unto
Abraham; we must beware of confounding the gospel with the Mystery.
   ‘Blessed with faithful Abraham’ (Gal. 3:9).
   ‘That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles’ (Gal. 3:14 ... the same as Rom. 11).
   ‘If ye are Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise’ (Gal. 3:29).
   ‘Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all’ (Gal. 4:26).
    The New Jerusalem was a part of Abrahamic blessing, certainly of Abraham’s faith (see Hebrews. 11:14-16).
After Acts 28 instead of a heavenly city which comes down from heaven, we have ‘heavenly places in Christ’, and
the ‘citizenship which is in heaven’ (Eph. 1:3 and Phil. 3:20, Greek).
   Summarizing, we find:
 (1) Acts 28 is the great boundary between the present dispensation and the past (see ACTS 28, p. 26).
 (2) Those epistles written before Acts 28, while containing much doctrinal teaching which remains truth for
     to-day, also contain much that is transitional and much that belongs to a dispensation which has passed away.
 (3) That dispensation was Abrahamic and not that of the One Body, as has been hitherto so generally supposed.
    For a fuller understanding of allusions to OLIVE TREE3, to ACTS 28 (p. 26), and to PENTECOST3 see under these
respective headings. See also SEED4 and STAR SEED, DUST AND SAND4.
    This covenant with Abraham must not be confused with that made 430 years afterward with Israel at Sinai, as
the argument of Galatians 3:15-20 makes clear. This covenant is especially defined as being a covenant of
‘promise’, in which there were no contracting parties, but One only, God, Who made the unconditional promise that
the basis of the Abrahamic covenant. This aspect of the subject is more fully discussed under PROMISE3.
    Doctrine. One fundamental doctrine is inseparable from the name of Abraham, namely ‘Justification by Faith’.
This is introduced in Genesis 15, and is given an exposition in Romans 4 and Galatians 3, where faith alone,
independently of any works of the law, is emphasized as the agent of reception. The basis of Paul’s doctrine is the
record of Genesis 15. James, however, takes the reader to Genesis 22 where Abraham was ‘tried’ and triumphed,
thereby affording an illustration of the ‘perfecting’ of faith, a balance of truth so essential to all acceptable
preaching. To appreciate the argument of James however, a fairly full acquaintance with the meaning and
occurrence of the word ‘perfect’ is required, and this will be found under the heading PERFECT .
   A Gospel. Paul makes it clear in Galatians 3:8, that the initial promise ‘In thee shall all nations be blessed’
contained in germ both the doctrine of justification and the preaching of the gospel to the Gentile saying:
   ‘And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen (Gentiles) through faith, preached before the
   Gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed’.
    It is therefore clear that we must not confuse the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles, which was never a
secret, and which is the basis of such an epistle as Romans, with calling of the Gentiles during the dispensation of
the Mystery, which is the theme of the epistle to the Ephesians.

ABSENT . The meaning and implications of the apostle’s words ‘absent from the body’, found in 2 Corinthians 5:8,
will be better understood if studied in their wider association with such subjects as HOPE2, PRIZE3 and
RESURRECTION4,7 to which articles the reader is directed. See also Doctrinal Analysis.
    The only comment that seems called for here, is that Paul did not announce as a doctrine, ‘Absent from the body
is to be present with the Lord’, which is the interpretation foisted on the passage by wishful thinking.

ACCEPTED. Acceptance in the Scriptures covers a variety of related doctrines. The great types of Leviticus show
that the believer is accepted by virtue of the sacrifice of Christ (Lev. 1:4), and that only a ‘perfect’ offering could
ever be accepted by the Lord (Lev. 22:21). These aspects of the subject lie rather in the doctrinal sub-division of
truth than the dispensational, for they are as true to-day as when Moses gave the law. The one great dispensational
use of the word ‘accepted’ is that of Ephesians 1:6, which comes as the crown and climax of the first division of the
Charter of the Church of the Mystery. This will be more easily understood if the structure of Ephesians 1:3-14 is set
out here, but for the relation of the subdivision to the structure of the epistle as a whole however, the reader must be
referred to the article EPHESIANS p. 275.

                                                   Ephesians 1:3-14
   A 3-6.         The WILL of the Father.
     B -6.           To the praise of the glory of His grace.
   A 7-12.        The WORK of the Son.
     B -12.          To the praise of His glory.
   A 13,14-.      The WITNESS of the Spirit.
     B -14.          To the praise of His glory.
    The reader will observe the threefold refrain of verses 6, 12 and 14, and will also doubtless have noted that in the
first, the words ‘of His grace’ are added. Were we reading the original Greek of Ephesians 1:6, we should
immediately be aware of the close connection intended by the apostle between the words ‘grace’ and ‘accepted’, for
‘grace’ is charis and ‘accepted’ is charitoo, the margin of the A.V. reading ‘lit. hath graced us’.
    The only other occurrence of charitoo is in Luke 1:28, where the salutation of the angel is recorded, ‘Hail, thou
that art highly favoured among women’. If all that is written concerning the initial promise in Eden concerning ‘the
Seed of the woman’ be believed, and if all that is revealed concerning the miraculous conception and birth of Him
Whose name was Emmanuel, ‘God with us’ be true, then it must go without saying that Mary occupies a unique
place in the whole creation of God. Never before was such grace and favour shown to a daughter of Adam, even as
there will never be a repetition of this same miracle of Divine love. Equally true must it be said of those thus
addressed in the epistle to the Ephesians. No other calling or company, whether of Israel or of the Gentiles has been
so ‘highly favoured’ as those Gentiles who constitute the Church of the Mystery, Gentiles who of themselves were
far off, without God, without Christ, and without hope, strangers and aliens from covenants and promises. This
acceptance is not only unique in itself, but it is said to be ‘in the Beloved’, a title used of Christ once and once only
in this particular form. In another form, Christ is spoken of in the Gospels as the ‘Beloved Son’, but even that title is
never employed by Paul. Ephesians 1:6 is doubly unique, unique in the use of the word ‘accepted’, unique in the
sphere of this acceptance ‘in the Beloved’.
                                                                                                       ACCESS       13
    The terms ‘in Christ’ and ‘in Christ Jesus’ abound in Paul’s epistles and the choice therefore of this title in
Ephesians 1:6 is all the more obvious in its deliberate intention. Let the mind attempt to comprehend ‘the love of
Christ’, it will for ever be a subject that ‘passeth knowledge’. What then must the Beloved Himself be in the eyes of
His God and Father? When we can comprehend that most sacred relationship, then shall we be able to appreciate
the high favour that has been bestowed upon the members of the Church which is the body of Christ.

ACCESS. Prosagoge. This word is a compound of pros, a preposition denoting ‘toward’ and ago ‘to lead’. The
verb prosago is used in 1 Peter 3:18 in the statement that Christ once suffered for sins, ‘the Just for the unjust, that
He might bring us to God’. The usage of prosago in the LXX version of Leviticus and Numbers had already
invested this word with a sacrificial meaning.
    Prosagoge, the act of bringing anyone to or towards another is found only three times in the New Testament,
Romans 5:2, Ephesians 2:18 and 3:12. The reference in Romans is purely doctrinal in character and is a truth
unchanged by the change of dispensation. There are things that are permanent and things that are passing in the
epistle to the Romans, the permanent being doctrine that is basic to all callings, the passing that which was true at
the time but true no longer. The two references to access in Ephesians contain truth that is peculiar to the
dispensation of the Mystery.
   ‘For through Him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father’ (Eph. 2:18).
Here it is a company that can be called ‘the both’ that have this access. This expression and a parallel one ‘the
twain’ links that section of Ephesians which covers 2:14-18.

           A   ‘The both’ made one.
               B  ‘The twain’ created one new man.
           A   ‘The both’ reconciled.
             B    ‘The both’ have access in one spirit.
     The complete structure of this passage will be found in the article devoted to EPHESIANS (p. 275), and the
explanation of the terms ‘the both’ and ‘the twain’ will be found under the heading, MIDDLE WALL OF PARTITION3.
Suffice it here to say that the access contemplated in Ephesians 2:18 is experienced by that newly-created company
that before the breaking down of the middle wall, consisted of believing Jews and believing Gentiles, each having
their own code and often grieving one another. This new company is no mere evolution from the Acts dispensation,
it is ‘created’ (ktizo, Eph. 2:15, A.V. ‘make’), the result being ‘one new man’. The second and last reference to this
access is found in Ephesians 3:12, which arises out of the ‘eternal purpose’ or ‘purpose of the ages’ (see AGE p. 47)
of verse 11. This access is spoken of as being exercised with ‘boldness’ and with ‘confidence’. It is said to be ‘by
the faith of Him’. This subject ‘access’ is an adjunct to a larger one, namely RECONCILIATION4 which should be
consulted, with which it is associated both in Romans 5:1-11 and in Ephesians 2:11-19, and this great subject should
be known by all who would appreciate what the ‘access’ in the dispensation of the Mystery entails.

ACKNOWLEDGE. Epiginosko, epignosis.
   Epiginosko. In the A.V. this is translated acknowledge 5 times, have knowledge of 1, know 30, know well 1,
perceive 3, take knowledge of 2.
    Epignosis, acknowledging 3, acknowledgment 1, knowledge 16, with marginal reading acknowledge 1,
acknowledgment 1. The distinction between knowledge and acknowledge, was not so sharply drawn in earlier days
as it is now.
‘We knowledge Thee to be the Father of infinite majesty’ was the recognized form in the year A.D. 1535. Today
‘knowledge’ stands for the ‘stuff’ of knowledge, the information gathered, and the intelligence possessed, but this is
a secondary meaning as any good English dictionary will reveal. The primary meaning of ‘knowledge’ in the Oxford
English Dictionary is ‘acknowledgment, confession, recognition of the position or claims of any one’. Epignosis
does not mean the mere piling up of information, neither does it mean full knowledge, but rather does it mean
                             ACKNOWLEDGE                                                                              14

‘recognition’. Recognition to-day has a primary and a secondary meaning. Disregarding the secondary meaning
that of ‘recognizing’ anyone’s features, manner, etc., the primary meaning that of ‘recognizing or acknowledging
liability or obligation’, this English word would suit admirably.
   Here are a few examples of the usage of the word epiginosko:

   ‘Ye shall know (i.e. recognize) them by their fruits’ (Matt. 7:16).
   ‘Elias is come already, and they knew (i.e. recognized) him not’ (Matt. 17:12).
   ‘Their eyes were holden that they should not know (i.e. recognize) Him’ (Luke 24:16).
An ordinary man does not ‘know’ all that there is to know about a ‘fig-tree’. Even if he were a master of the
sciences of botany, zoology and horticulture, there would be infinitely more left unknown than any scientist has yet
comprehended, but an illiterate observer could readily ‘recognize’ a fig-tree by its fruits.
    It is a natural sequence for ‘recognition’ to take on a moral colouring, and proceed from ‘recognizing’ a fig-tree,
to ‘acknowledging’ Christ and His teaching. No persecution is likely to arise from the one, but the ‘recognition’ of
Truth may be resisted.
   The earliest use of epiginosko by Paul is in 1 Corinthians 13:12:
   ‘For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know (ginosko) in part; but then shall I
   know (epiginosko) even as also I am known (epiginosko)’.
The bearing of this word on Dispensational Truth finds an illustration in Ephesians 1:17,18.
    In Ephesians 1:3-14 the apostle has revealed the outstanding characteristics of the dispensation of the Mystery
(see MYSTERY3) which he follows by prayer. He does not pray that his reader shall pile up knowledge, but pauses to
say that ‘the spirit of wisdom and revelation’ is given ‘in the acknowledgment of Him’ en epignosei auton.
    Occasionally we have had to say of a fellow-believer ‘he did run well, he appeared to accept the principle of
right division and the peculiar revelation of the dispensation of the Mystery - yet, he seems to have drawn back, and
his testimony is silenced’. It is usually not lack of ‘knowledge’ or information that is at the bottom of this failure, it
is not that such do not see clearly what is involved in the profession. Alas, they see all too clearly what the logical
consequences must be of standing for such unpopular teaching, they shrink back from ‘acknowledging’ and growth
   This is the theme of Ephesians 4:12-14 the only other occurrence of epignosis in Ephesians:
   ‘Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the
   measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: that we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro’ (13,14).
    Here, once again we should read ‘the acknowledgment of the Son of God’ and the following analysis may enable
the reader to follow the argument as it is indicated by the threefold use of eis ‘unto’.
   ‘Till we all come
   Eis Unto the unity of the faith, and the knowledge of the Son of God,
   Eis Unto a perfect man,
   Eis Unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ’.
The ‘acknowledgment’ embraces all that is implied in ‘the perfect man’ and the subdivisions that follow. Yet other
passages must be recorded:

   ‘That ye might be filled with the knowledge (epignosis) of His will’ (Col. 1:9).
   ‘Increasing in the knowledge (epignosis) of God’ (Col. 1:10).
   ‘To the acknowledgment (epignosis) of the mystery of God’ (Col. 2:2).
                                                                                                 ACKNOWLEDGE         15

   ‘Which is renewed in knowledge (epignosis) after the image’ (Col. 3:10).
   We must translate Colossians 1:10, thus:
   ‘Being fruitful in every good work, and increasing by the acknowledgment of God’ (Dative case, no preposition
Just as we learned from Ephesians 1:17,18, that ‘the spirit of wisdom and revelation’ we so much need is given ‘in
the acknowledging of Him’ so here we learn that fruitful increase is ‘by the acknowledgment’ of Him, and without
this acknowledgment growth will cease, sight will become dim and keenness will be dulled.
   The limits set by the title of this work, prevent us from giving in detail all the passages where this thought of
‘acknowledgment’ is uppermost, but we give here every occurrence of ‘acknowledge’ and ‘acknowledgment’ that is
found in the A.V.

                                                 The verb epiginosko
   1 Cor. 14:37.      ‘Let him acknowledge’.
   1 Cor. 16:18.      ‘Therefore acknowledge’.
   2 Cor. 1:13.       ‘Ye read or acknowledge’.
   2 Cor. 1:13.       ‘Ye shall acknowledge’.
   2 Cor. 1:14.       ‘Ye have acknowledged’.

                                                 The noun epignosis
   Col. 2:2.          ‘The acknowledgment of the mystery’.
   2 Tim. 2:25.       ‘Repentance to the acknowledging of the truth’.
   Titus 1:1.         ‘The acknowledging of the truth’.
   Phile. 6.          ‘The acknowledging of every good thing’.
    If the reader will ponder the reference in 2 Timothy 2:25, relate it with its context (note ‘Right Division’ in verse
15) and carry with him what has been seen in Ephesians 1:17,18 he may perceive that no unconverted sinner caught
in the toils of sin is here, but a believer held captive by ‘truth’ out of place, by ‘truth’ that is undispensational, a
device of the Devil, more fully revealed in 2 Corinthians 4, and opened up under the heading HID2 to which the
reader is earnestly referred.
   The verb epiginosko occurs once in the epistle to the Colossians, namely, in the phrase ‘and knew the grace of
God in truth’ (Col. 1:6), and the substantive epignosis, occurs four times (Col. 1:9,10; 2:2; 3:10). Whether used as a
noun or a verb each reference is practical in character and has growth as its goal.
   The following paraphrase brings out the apostle’s meaning:
   ‘For this cause, namely, that you recognized the grace of God in reality (i.e. as the "body" as over against the
   "shadow" see Col. 2:17), and are manifesting this "recognition" by fruit bearing and increase, we do not cease to
   pray for you, and to desire that you might be filled, and this fulness is none other than the "recognition" of His
   will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding’.
   It is ‘by’ not ‘in’ the acknowledgment of God, that we both bear fruit and grow.
   The next occurrence of acknowledgment leads to the heart of the mystery, the R.V. reading ‘The mystery of God
even Christ’ (Col. 2:2).
    To deal adequately with this verse would demand an excursus into Textual Criticism and into the mystery of
Godliness, namely that in Christ God was manifest in the flesh, even as Colossians 2:9 declares that in Him dwelleth
all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. But important as these considerations are they lie outside the scope of this
analysis which is devoted to the dispensational aspect of truth.
                       ACTS   OF THE   APOSTLES                                                                    16
   Let us nevertheless ponder the extreme importance, not only of knowledge but of its acknowledgment.

                                          ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
    The Acts of the Apostles is the battleground of Dispensational Truth. To mistake our path here leads to lack of
discrimination in the epistles. To believe that ‘The Church began at Pentecost’ blinds the eyes of the understanding
to the high calling of the Mystery. To teach that Gentiles were baptized together with Jews on the day of Pentecost,
into one body, is to affirm something that is diametrically opposed to what is actually revealed, and to nullify the
statement that the door for the Gentiles opened consequent upon the first great mission of Paul (Acts 14:27). The
Acts of the Apostles is divided first of all into two main subdivisions:
A 1:1-14.            The former treatise. All that Jesus BEGAN to do and to teach.
A 1:15 to 28:31.     The subsequent record of all that the Risen Lord     CONTINUED   to do and to teach, particularly
                     through the ministries of Peter and Paul.
    The ‘Acts’ proper therefore begins at Acts 1:15. The first fourteen verses are a summary of the last chapter
of Luke’s ‘former treatise’ (Luke 24). See LUKE7, The Beloved Physician.
   The main section of the Acts is largely occupied with the ministry of two men, Peter the apostle of the
Circumcision (Gal. 2:7) and Paul the apostle of the Gentiles (2 Tim. 1:11).
   That there is an intended comparison between the ministry of Peter and that of Paul, the following table will
                                       The Parallel between Peter and Paul
               Peter                                Paul

 Peter received a new name (John        Paul was named Saul at the
 1:42).                                 first (Acts 13).
 Peter was baptized by the Spirit       Paul was separated by the
 (Acts 2).                              Spirit (13).
 Peter was thought to be drunk          Paul was thought to be mad
 (2).                                   (26).
Peter’s first sermon in Acts 2 is like Paul’s first sermon in Acts 13.
 Peter heals a lame man (3).            Paul heals a lame man (14).
 Peter strikes with death (5).          Paul strikes with blindness
 Peter’s      first  miracle     has    Paul’s first miracle has
 dispensational      foreshadowing      dispensational foreshadowing
 (3).                                   (13).
 Peter repudiates silver and gold       Paul repudiates silver and gold
 (3).                                   (20).
 Peter is arrested (4).                 Paul is arrested (21).
 Peter stands before the Council        Paul stands before the Council
 (4).                                   (23).
 Peter’s action produces fear (5).      Paul’s action produces fear
 Peter’s shadow had healing             Paul’s body gave even
 virtue (5).                            handkerchiefs healing virtue
                                                                                     ACTS   OF THE   APOSTLES     17
  Peter benefits from the liberal       Paul benefits from the liberal
  Gamaliel (5).                         Gallio (18).
  Peter communicates holy spirit        Paul communicates holy spirit
  by laying on of hands (8).            by laying on of hands (19).
  Peter condemns Simon Magus            Paul condemns Bar-Jesus (13).
  Peter raises Dorcas from the dead     Paul raises Eutychus from the
  (9).                                  dead (20).
  Peter’s first Gentile convert had a   Paul’s first Gentile convert had
  Latin name (10).                      a Latin name (13).
  Peter at mid-day has a vision and     Paul at mid-day has a vision
  hears a voice (10).                   and hears a voice (9).
  Peter is almost worshipped by         Paul is almost worshipped by
  Cornelius (10).                       Lycaonians (14).
  Peter is delivered from prison by     Paul is delivered from prison
  an angel (12).                        by an earthquake (16).
  Peter goes immediately to the         Paul goes immediately to the
  house of Mary (12).                   house of Lydia (16).
  Peter said he was ready for           Paul said he was ready for
  prison and death for the Lord’s       prison and death for the Lord’s
  sake (Luke 22:33).                    sake (21:13).
  Peter was not taught by flesh and     Paul conferred not with flesh
  blood (Matt. 16).                     and blood (Gal. 1:16).
  Peter goes to Babylon (1 Pet.         Paul goes to Rome (Acts
  5:13).                                28:16).

    This set of comparisons, when taken together with the teaching of the epistles on the subject, provides
irresistible evidence that the writer of the Acts, Luke, Paul’s valued helper, intended to settle the question of the
absolute equality and independent apostleship of Paul once for all. (For a further comparison of the life and words
of Paul with those of his Lord, see The Apostle of the Reconciliation, chapter 3).
   Peter dominates the first twelve chapters of the Acts, and then ‘goes to another place’ (12:17) reappearing
mainly to confirm the call and commission of Paul.
    Paul enters the arena in Acts 8 (being converted and commissioned in Acts 9), and his ministry is the theme of
the greater half of the book.
   The disposition of the subject matter of the Acts, and a clear index of the dispensational changes that take place
within its bounds, can be rendered visible by the employment of one or two aids to interpretation.
  (1) The Geographical Aid. When we are dealing with the kingdom of Israel, or with any developments of
teaching that are connected with Israel, we must expect to find that geographical terms provide an index. Jerusalem
is the city of the Great King, and covers the first twelve chapters. The scene then moves to Antioch, a city midway
between Jerusalem and the great Gentile world, and in the last chapter, on the frontier of a new revelation, Paul
arrives at Rome. We can therefore indicate the dispensational movement of the Acts thus:

         1 to 12                13 to 14                  28
      JERUSALEM                 ANTIOCH                 ROME

  (2) The Ethnographical Aid. People are associated with lands and cities, and these as they appear in the Acts
provide an index too.
                        ACTS   OF THE   APOSTLES                                                                    18
   Acts 2,3. Peter addresses ‘Men of Judah’, ‘Men of Israel’, ‘House of Israel’.
   Acts 13. Paul addresses ‘Men, brethren and ye that fear God’. ‘Gentiles’.
   Acts 28. Paul turns to the ‘Gentiles’.
We can therefore exhibit this dispensational trend thus:

         1 to 12                     13,14                    28
JEW ONLY (cf. 11:19)           JEW AND GENTILE         GENTILE ONLY
 (3) The Alliterative Key-word Aid. Three key-words can be allied with this racial and geographical sub-division:
Restoration; Reconciliation; Rejection.

   ‘When they therefore were come together, they asked of Him, saying, Lord, wilt Thou at this time restore again
   the kingdom to Israel?’ (Acts 1:6).
     It will be noted, that this was a concerted action ‘when they were come together’, it was a logical consequence of
the forty days’ Bible teaching received from the Lord, ‘When therefore’. It was recognized by the Lord as a
legitimate inquiry; He did not say, ‘O fools and slow of heart to believe’ or rebuke them for not speaking about the
Church, He only told them that the ‘time’ could not be made known. It will be further observed that the apostles
were concerned, not with something new, but with something old, ‘wilt Thou restore again’. This theme is taken up
in Acts 3, where Peter speaks of ‘the times of refreshing’ and ‘the times of restitution’ which had been the burden of
all the prophets. If the ‘restoration’ of the kingdom to Israel be the true burden of Acts 1 and 3, the Church in which
there is neither Jew nor Greek could not have come into existence in Acts 2. PENTECOST3 is dealt with as a theme in
    Seeing that the Saviour began at Moses and the Prophets and expounded these Scriptures to the disciples during
the last forty days, He must have dealt with such passages as Isaiah 40:1,2; 43:5,6; Jeremiah 1:12; 31:28,35,36;
33:14-26; Daniel 12:1. Small wonder that the apostles were eager to know whether the time of Israel’s restoration
had come, small wonder that the ‘Church’ as we know it never entered into their calculations. (For a fuller analysis
of the prophecies concerning Israel’s restoration, see the booklet, The Burden of Prophecy, and the volume entitled
From Pentecost to Prison).
    Reconciliation. With the ministry of Paul, a change comes over the Acts, for the Gentile now comes into a place
of blessing. (For an examination of Peter’s attitude toward Cornelius, see article CORNELIUS1).
    No longer is the gospel addressed to ‘Ye men of Israel’, no longer do they that preach restrict the message to
‘Jews only’. The door of faith is opened to the Gentile (Acts 14:27); ‘all men everywhere’ are called upon to repent
(Acts 17:24-30). The reconciliation of the Gentile hinged upon the rejection of the Jew (Rom. 11:11-15). Paul is
the only apostle to use the word reconciliation, for he alone was the apostle of the Gentiles. For a fuller account of
this subject in its several phases, the reader is referred to RECONCILIATION4.
    Rejection. Miraculous gifts, the hope of Israel, and the position ‘The Jew first’ are maintained right to the end of
the Acts (28:3-9,17,20). The apostle spent a whole day expounding and testifying the kingdom of God, but when
the Jews at Rome refused his testimony, he quoted Isaiah 6:9,10 for the last time in the New Testament and Israel
passed out into their present blindness. With their dismissal, the prophetic clock stopped, miraculous gifts ceased,
the hope of Israel was suspended, Israel became lo-ammi, the dispensation of the Mystery began, Paul became the
Prisoner of Jesus Christ for the Gentiles, and the revelation of the nature and calling of the present parenthetical
dispensation was committed to writing in what are called ‘The Prison Epistles’.
   The reader is referred to the following articles as supplementing these themes: LO-AMMI2; ACTS 28, THE
DISPENSATIONAL BOUNDARY p. 26; the Seven pre-prison Epistles; the Seven post-prison Epistles; and Isaiah 6:9,10
and its cumulative fulfilment.
                                                                                       ACTS   OF THE   APOSTLES    19
    One more feature must be brought into line, to demonstrate the movement of the Acts of the Apostles from
Jerusalem to Rome, from the Jew to the Gentile and that is the insistence of both Peter and Paul, that the message
each had to deliver was ‘sent’ to a specific people.
    Peter.- To Israel. ‘Unto you first God ... SENT Him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his
iniquities’ (Acts 3:26).
   ‘The word which God SENT unto the children of Israel’ (Acts 10:36).
    Paul.- To Jew and Gentile. ‘Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever among you
feareth God, TO YOU is the word of this salvation SENT’ (Acts 13:26).
   ‘It was necessary that the word of God should FIRST have been spoken to you (Jews); but seeing ye put it from
you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the GENTILES’ (Acts 13:46).
  Paul.- To the Gentile only. ‘Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is SENT unto the
GENTILES, and that they will hear it’ (Acts 28:28).
    The present dispensational boundary is not at Pentecost, not in Acts 13, but at that crucial point in the apostle’s
ministry when Israel were ‘dismissed’ (‘departed’, Acts 28:25,29 is too tame a word, it means ‘divorced’, see
Matthew 1:19; 5:31,32). The recognition of this one fact solves the problem of the discontinuance of Pentecostal
gifts, and illuminates the prophecy of Daniel 9. (See SEVENTY WEEKS OF DANIEL NINE9).
   The analysis of the Acts here presented is necessarily limited, and must be supplemented by the studies
presented on the many side issues already referred to. For our present purpose we conclude this analysis by
repeating the geographical, the racial and the alliterative, followed by the literary structure of Acts as a whole.
   Acts 1 to 12               Acts 13,14                  Acts 28
Jerusalem                  Antioch                 Rome
Jews only                  Jew and Gentile         Gentile only
Restoration                Reconciliation          Rejection
Unto you first ... sent.   To you is ... sent.     Sent to the Gentiles.

                                                 Structure of the Acts
                                                 The Present Treatise
                                                  Acts 1:15 to 28:31


A 1:15 to 2:13.   JERUSALEM. Holy Spirit. The Twelve.
 B 2:14 to 8:1.      Peter and others. Israel. Jerusalem.
  C 8:1 to 11:30.       Peter and others. One Message to a Gentile.
    D 12:1-23.              Jerusalem. Prison. Close of ministry.


A 12:24 to 13:3.   ANTIOCH. Holy Spirit. Paul and Barnabas.
 B 13:4 to 14:28.    Paul and others. Independently of the twelve.
  C 15:1 to 19:20.      Paul and others. Associated with the twelve. Seven epistles to believers. One of which
                        is to Hebrews.
   D 19:21 to 28:31.         Rome. Prison. Close of one ministry, and commencement of the present
                             ‘dispensation of the mystery’.
             ACTS 28. THE DISPENSATIONAL BOUNDARY                                                                20
   The reader is directed to articles entitled ACTS (p. 19), LO-AMMI2, and ISAIAH 6:9,10. The structure of Acts 28
and the commentary on this section are intended to prove that Acts 28 is indeed of the utmost dispensational
importance to the believer today. It marks a frontier.

                                                   Acts 28:23-31
                                           The Dispensational Landmark
A a 23.   Chief of the Jews come to Paul’s lodging.
    b 23.     Paul ‘expounded’ the Kingdom of God.
        c 23.     Persuading concerning Jesus.
          d 23.      Out of the law and prophets.
              e 23.      From morning till evening.
  B f 24,25. They agreed not among themselves.
        g 25.     They departed.
    C     h 25.      The word of the Holy Ghost.
              i 26.      Go unto this people.
                  j 26.      Hear ... not understand.
        D Acts 28:27. Hearts waxed gross.
                         Ears dull.
                         Eyes closed.
                         Eyes see.
                         Ears hear.
          Isaiah. 6:10. Hearts understand.
                         Be converted.
                         I should heal them.
    C     h 28.      The salvation of God.
              i 28.      SENT unto the Gentiles.
                  j 28.      They will hear it.
  B     g 29.     The Jews departed.
    f 29.     Great reasoning among themselves.
A a 30.   All come to Paul’s hired house.
    b 31.     Paul ‘preaches’ the kingdom of God.
        c 31.     ‘Teaches’ concerning the Lord Jesus Christ.
          d 31.      With all confidence. No reference to O.T.
              e 31.      Unhindered.

                                         THE DISPENSATIONAL BOUNDARY
   The ministry of Paul to the Elders of Israel in Rome as recorded in Acts 28 is an echo of the ministry of the Lord
during His forty days on earth as recorded in Acts 1.
   ‘Speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God’ (Acts 1:3).
   ‘He expounded and testified the kingdom of God’ (Acts 28:23).
   The record given in Acts 1:3 is a summary of what is written at large in Luke 24, where ‘Moses and the
Prophets’ are ‘expounded’ by the Lord ‘concerning Himself’. In Acts 28 Paul persuaded the Jews ‘concerning
Jesus’ both out of the law of ‘Moses’ and out of the ‘Prophets’. The parallel is intentional.
   The THEME in both is ‘concerning Himself’; ‘concerning Jesus’.
    The THEME includes the ‘hope’ of Israel. ‘We trusted’ (Luke 24:21) translates elpizo ‘we hoped’. The ‘hope’ of
Israel (Acts 28:20) translates elpis.
                                                                  ACTS 28. THE DISPENSATIONAL BOUNDARY              21
   The BASIS of this ministry in both passages is the Old Testament Scriptures, Luke 24:25,27,45; Acts 28:23.
   The METHOD is Exposition, Luke 24:27,32; Acts 28:23.
   The OBJECT is Persuasion, Luke 24:25,32,45; Acts 28:26.
   In addition, we have such parallels as the use of the word bradus ‘slow’ (Luke 24:25) and ‘dull’ bareos (Acts
28:27). While the eyes of the two in Luke 24 were ‘opened’, the eyes of Israel were ‘closed’ (Acts 28:27).
   In neither Luke 24, Acts 1 nor Acts 28 have we yet discovered the slightest allusion to the high calling of the
church of the Mystery. We are on the verge of its revelation, but not until Israel became Lo-ammi ‘not My people’
could that calling of the Gentiles that goes back for its inception to ‘before the foundation of the world’, be made
   The testimony of the apostle on that memorable day was twofold. It was concerning ‘the kingdom of God’ and
‘concerning Jesus’, and it was found entirely in the testimony of the Old Testament. For the difference between ‘the
kingdom of God’, ‘the kingdom of Heaven’ and ‘The Church’, see KINGDOM2.
    It is evident that ‘the restoration of the kingdom to Israel’ (Acts 1:6) arose as a direct result of the Lord’s
testimony ‘pertaining to the kingdom of God’ (Acts 1:3), and Paul in Acts 26:22 declared that up to that point he had
declared ‘none other than Moses and the Prophets did say should come’. So, here, in his testimony to the Elders of
the Jews the teaching of the Old Testament Scriptures that impinged on ‘the hope of Israel’ set the limits to his
message. When one remembers the scrupulous care with which the apostle speaks of his Lord in his epistles, rarely
calling Him ‘Jesus’, but nearly always giving Him His title ‘Lord’ or ‘Jesus (the) Christ’, it is a matter of importance
to observe that to the Jews he spoke ‘concerning Jesus’.
   When the dismissal of the Jew was over, and the salvation of God sent to the Gentile, a change is observed. He
now speaks ‘concerning the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Acts 28:31). Not only so, the omission of any reference to the Old
Testament Scriptures is eloquent.
    In his early epistles Paul makes constant appeal to the Old Testament. The Gospel which he preached had been
‘promised afore in the holy Scriptures’ (Rom. 1:2); the doctrine of Justification by Faith is confirmed by the words
‘as it is written’ (Rom. 1:17); indeed ‘What saith the Scriptures?’ (Rom. 4:3) might well be cited as typical of Paul’s
attitude during his early ministry (see TWOFOLD MINISTRY OF THE APOSTLE PAUL). In 2 Timothy 3:16 Paul makes it
clear that to the very end he unhesitatingly believed that ‘All scripture was given by inspiration of God’ - and yet the
moment we cross the boundary line of Acts 28 into his ‘Prison Epistles’ that moment we come into the light of a
new revelation, something that had been hid in God from the ages, and something not found in the Old Testament
writings, something indeed that was a Mystery, or a Secret as the word means. ‘It is written’ occurs some forty
times in Paul’s early epistles, the phrase is never again employed by him after Acts 28. Not one quotation of
Scripture meets us in Ephesians 1, until we come to the reference to Psalm 8 in Ephesians 1:21-23.
    We read on through chapters 2 and 3 right into the practical section chapter 4, before we meet the next reference
to the Old Testament namely Ephesians 4:8. There is no direct quotation of Old Testament Scripture in Philippians
or Colossians and but one in 2 Timothy 3:9, an allusion to Numbers 16:5 and 26.
   In the seven later epistles, there are not more than eight references to the Old Testament and of this number not
one can be said to teach the peculiar doctrine that was entrusted to Paul to make known.
   We have already reminded the reader that the word ‘depart’ apoluo (Acts 28:25) indicates Israel’s ‘divorcement’
and the words ‘they agreed not’ (assumphonos) are used of the marriage relationship also (1 Cor. 7:5).
   The failure of Israel and the consequent blessing of the Gentile, was foreshadowed in Paul’s opening ministry as
recorded in Acts 13. The doom there threatened, now falls. Here is the de facto execution of the sentence that was
pronounced de jure in Matthew 23:38, ‘Your house is left unto you desolate’.
   Since the call of Abraham, the Scriptures contain no record of a Gentile being saved independently of Israel.
‘Salvation is of the Jews’ was the testimony of the Lord Himself to the woman of Samaria.
               ACTS 28. THE DISPENSATIONAL BOUNDARY                                                               22
    Acts 28 ends with the apostle dwelling for two years in his own hired house preaching and teaching ‘no man
forbidding him’.
    During Paul’s early ministry, the Jew had consistently opposed the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles, and
this, said the apostle, was their climax sin.
    They ‘killed the Lord Jesus’ but forgiveness was given and a new opportunity to believe and repent was granted.
They had earlier ‘killed their own prophets’ and had more recently ‘persecuted’ the apostle and his helpers
‘forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved’, reaching however a climax ‘TO FILL UP their sins
alway; for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost’ (1 Thess. 2:15,16).
    ‘To the bitter end,’ reads Moffatt. ‘In its severest form’, reads Weymouth. This same word ‘forbidding’ found
in 1 Thessalonians 2:16 is the word used by Paul, ‘No man forbidding him’ - Israel, the opposer, had gone. They
had filled up their measure of sin to the brim, and the very Gentiles that they had ‘forbidden’ now entered into
blessings hitherto unrevealed. (See THREE SPHERES OF BLESSING5).

ADAM .    The name of ‘the first man’ (1 Cor. 15:45), who, according to the chronology of the Bible, was created 4004
B.C. by   God, subsequent to the overthrow of the world (Gen. 1:2), (See OVERTHROW7).
   Commentators and lexicographers with a few exceptions since the days of Josephus explain the word ‘Adam’ as
being derived from the Hebrew Adamah ‘the ground’ (Gen. 2:7). In the first place we must remember that while the
name Adam does not occur in the English Bible until Genesis 2:19, the Hebrew word has already occurred nine
times, namely in Genesis 1:26,27; 2:5,7,8,15,16,18 where it is translated ‘man’ or ‘the man’. The beasts were also
formed out of the ‘ground’ the adamah (Gen. 1:25; 2:19) yet no beasts appear to have been given a name that
associated them with their earthy origin. When we consider the first occurrence of the word ‘Adam’, namely, in
Genesis 1:26, we have the following context:
   ‘And God said, Let us make man in our IMAGE, after our LIKENESS ... so God created man in His own image’
   (Gen. 1:26,27).
    It seems strange to name the first man after the ‘ground’ before the record even alludes to the adamah from
which he was taken. Parkhurst in his Hebrew Lexicon refers the word ‘Adam’ to the Hebrew damah, which
primarily means ‘to be equal’ (Isa. 46:5) and then in the feminine form damuth ‘likeness’ (Isa. 40:18). In the book
of the generations of Adam, it is this aspect of his creation, not that of Genesis 2:6,7 that is perpetuated.
   ‘In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him’ (Gen. 5:1).
   The purpose for which man was created is expressed in the three terms ‘image’, ‘likeness’ and ‘dominion’. The
word ‘image’ tselem, is from the Hebrew root tsel, meaning ‘shadow’.
    The first occurrence in the Old Testament is in Genesis 19:8, ‘the shadow of my roof’. The LXX translates tsel
by the Greek skia some twenty-seven times. The latter is found in the New Testament seven times as follows:
   ‘The shadow of death’ (Matt. 4:16; Luke 1:79).
   ‘The shadow of it’ (a tree). (Mark 4:32).
   ‘The shadow of Peter’ (Acts 5:15).
   The word is also used figuratively of the ceremonial law: ‘a shadow of things to come, and not the very image’
(Heb. 10:1; Col. 2:17); and in Hebrews 8:5, ‘the example and shadow of heavenly things’.
    Adam was not the ‘very image’ but he in great measure shadowed forth the Lord; and Romans 5:12-14 indicates
that in other ways than those suggested in Genesis 1:26,27 Adam was a ‘figure of Him that was to come’.
   By creation, man is ‘the image and glory of God’ (1 Cor. 11:7); but this image is, after all, ‘earthy’:
   ‘The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven ... as we have borne the image of
   the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly’ (1 Cor. 15:47-49).
                                                                                                          ADAM 23
    In his second epistle to the same Church, the apostle resumes the theme, and we give below the two references to
‘the image’ in this second letter:
   ‘But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from
   glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord’ (2 Cor. 3:18).
   ‘In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious
   gospel of Christ, Who is the image of God, should shine unto them’ (2 Cor. 4:4).
    How many know and preach this gospel? How many realize that the announcement that ‘Christ is the image of
God’ is the ‘gospel of the glory of Christ’, and the subject of Satan’s attacks from the beginning? Before the world
was, the Lord Jesus Christ had this ‘glory’ (John 17:5), and it was the subject of Satanic opposition, as we learn
from Ezekiel 28. It was ‘shadowed forth’ in the creation of man, and attacked by the Serpent in the garden of Eden
(Gen. 3). It was ‘veiled’ by the god of this age, as explained in 2 Corinthians 3 and 4, and is the goal towards which
the purpose of the ages is directed. The central section of Romans (5:12 to 8:39) opens with Adam, a failing figure
of Him that was to come, and closes with the goal of God’s great purpose: ‘for whom He did foreknow, He also did
predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son’ (Rom. 8:29).
   The climax of revelation in connection with ‘the Image’ is found in Colossians:
   ‘His dear Son ... Who is the Image of the Invisible God’ (Col. 1:13-15).
   ‘When Christ, Who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with Him in glory ... and have put on the
   new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the Image of Him that created him’ (Col. 3:4,10).
    Here, both in Colossians 1 and 3, the ‘image’ is connected with creation. Moreover, Colossians 1:16 makes it
clear that the Son was the Creator in Genesis 1:26, and that Adam foreshadowed in some way yet to be considered,
‘Him that was to come’, ‘the last Adam’.
    Returning to Genesis 1:26, we must now consider the added clause ‘after our likeness’ (demuth). The LXX
Version translates this by kath homoiosin, which we may compare with the apostle’s use of the word when speaking
to the Athenians in Acts 17:
   ‘Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like (homoios) unto
   gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device’ (29).
   Isaiah also challenges us with the question:
   ‘To whom then will ye liken (damah, see demuth above) God?’ (Isa. 40:18).
   And Ethan says:
   ‘Who in the heaven can be compared unto the LORD? who among the sons of the mighty can be likened (damah)
   unto the LORD?’ (Psa. 89:6).
   Nevertheless it is true that man was made after the likeness of God, and in James 3, we read, concerning the
   ‘Therewith bless we God, even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made after the similitude
   (homoiosis) of God’ (9).
    The prophet Hosea uses the word damah when speaking of the way in which God had condescended to use
figures of speech:
   ‘I have multiplied visions, and used similitudes, by the ministry of the prophets’ (Hos. 12:10).
   During His public ministry, the Lord Himself used many similitudes, for example:
   ‘The kingdom of heaven is like (homoios) unto treasure’ (Matt. 13:44).
   ‘Unto what is the kingdom of God like?’ (Luke 13:18).
   ‘Whereunto shall I liken this generation?’ (Matt. 11:16).
                                 ADAM                                                                               24
   Adam was to God what a figure of speech is to thought, a symbol, an analogy, a type.
    When Nebuchadnezzar saw in a dream the successive kingdoms of Gentile rule in the form of an image, neither
he nor Daniel ever imagined that such kingdoms were actually ‘like’ the image itself, but simply that this image and
its peculiar construction ‘shadowed forth’ in symbol the moral characteristics of the kingdoms concerned. So, in
Genesis 1:26, there is no question of external resemblance. Whether seen in the frail type Adam, or in the glorious
person of the Son of God, the ‘image and likeness’ are never to be understood as physical.
    How far, and in what direction, was Adam intended to shadow forth God Himself? How far was he, as a
creature, able to represent Deity? What limits can be set? The reader will no doubt be acquainted with the two
extreme answers to these questions. There are some who will not allow the image and likeness to be anything more
than physical, while there are others who would deduce from this passage the inherent immortality of the soul. The
truth lies mid-way between the two extremes.
   ‘And God said, LET US make man in OUR image, after OUR likeness; and LET THEM have dominion’ (Gen. 1:26).
    The name ‘Adam’ is similar to the Hebrew word for ‘likeness’. This ‘likeness’ was expressed in the ‘dominion’
which was originally conferred upon man. When sin entered into the world, however, resulting in a curse upon the
earth, his dominion over the lower creatures was impaired. When Noah, whom we can regard as a sort of second
Adam, steps out of the ark into a new world, the word ‘dominion’ is no longer used and ‘the fear of you and the
dread of you’ takes its place (Gen. 9:2). Man, however, is still looked upon as being ‘in the image of God’ (Gen.
9:6), and ‘in the likeness of God’ (Jas. 3:9).
   The dominion that was given to Adam was:
   ‘over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every
   creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth’ (Gen. 1:26).
This dominion was a ‘shadow’ of the greater dominion that was to be exercised by Christ, the true image of God.
David, in Psalm 8, sees something of this, and the apostle Paul in the New Testament completes the story:
   ‘When I consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which Thou hast ordained; what
   is man, that Thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that Thou visitest him? For Thou hast made him a
   little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion
   over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under his feet: all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of
   the field; the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas’ (3-8).
    If we turn to the Epistle to the Hebrews, we shall see that Adam foreshadowed Christ. The Creator of Genesis
1:26 is addressed in Psalm 8 and the Psalmist says that ‘the heavens are the work of Thy fingers’. Unless we are
willing to quibble over the difference between ‘fingers’ and ‘hands’, it is clear that Christ is the Creator in Whose
image and likeness Adam was created, for in Hebrews we read:
   ‘And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of Thine
   hands’ (Heb. 1:10).
   From Hebrews 1, we proceed to Hebrews 2, where we have Psalm 8 quoted, with the comment:
   ‘For in that He put all in subjection under him, He left nothing that is not put under him’ (Heb. 2:8).
   This shows that we have passed from the type, whose dominion was over sheep and oxen, to the antitype, whose
dominion is over all. The apostle continues:
   ‘But now we see not yet all things put under him. But we see Jesus, Who was made a little lower than the angels
   for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that He by the grace of God should taste death for
   every man’ (Heb. 2:8,9).
    This dominion of which Adam’s ‘likeness’ was but a faint shadow, is further expanded in Ephesians 1, where we
reach the zenith of the revelation of ‘the mystery of Christ’. In this epistle we are concerned with that section of the
‘all things’ that is associated with the exalted sphere where Christ sitteth ‘far above all heavens’ (Eph. 4:10). And so
we read:
                                                                                                          ADAM 25
   ‘He raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all
   principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world (age),
   but also in that which is to come: and hath put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be Head over all things
   to the church, which is His body, the fulness of Him that filleth all in all’ (Eph. 1:20-23).
   With this rapid glance at the relationship between this ‘dominion’ and ‘Mystery’, let us turn back now to
1 Corinthians 15, to see one further application of the passage:
   ‘Then cometh the end, when He shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when He shall
   have put down all rule and all authority and power. For He must reign, till He hath put all enemies under His
   feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For He hath put all things under His feet. But when He
   saith all things are put under Him, it is manifest that He is excepted, which did put all things under Him. And
   when all things shall be subdued unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject unto Him that put all
   things under Him, that God may be all in all’ (24-28).
   This goal of the ages is the fulfilment of the pledge shadowed forth in the creation of Adam.
    We must now return to Genesis 1:26, in order to investigate what is actually implied by the word ‘dominion’.
There are various possible alternatives that are not used in this passage. The word used here is not baal, ‘to have
dominion as lord and proprietor’ (Isa. 26:13), nor mashal, ‘to reign as a governor, or a superior’ (Judges 14:4), nor
shalat ‘to rule’ (Psa. 119:133), but radah, ‘to tread down, to subdue’. The following are three passages in which this
particular word occurs:
   ‘They that hate you shall reign over you’ (Lev. 26:17).
   ‘With force and with cruelty have ye ruled’ (Ezek. 34:4).
   ‘Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies’ (Psa. 110:2).
   These references indicate something of the nature of this particular type of dominion, and particularly the
passage from Psalm 110, which is Messianic and speaks of the Day of the Lord. The Psalm goes on to speak of the
Lord ‘striking through kings’, ‘filling places with dead bodies’ and ‘wounding the heads over many countries’ (Psa.
110:5,6). This conception of dominion is carried over into Genesis 1:28 where we read:
   ‘Replenish the earth, and subdue it’.
    The word ‘subdue’ is a translation of the Hebrew cabash, and its significance may be gathered from the fact that
its substantival form means a ‘footstool’ (2 Chron. 9:18). In Nehemiah 5:5 it is rendered ‘to bring into bondage’;
and it is the word used by the King when he exclaims of Haman, ‘Will he force the Queen?’ (Est. 7:8). The word is
also used of the conquest of Canaan under Joshua (Josh. 18:1), a subjugation whose rigour there is no need to quote
chapter and verse to prove.
    The LXX translates the word ‘subdue’ by kata kurieuo, meaning ‘to rule imperiously’, ‘to lord it over’, ‘to get
the mastery’. Its occurrences in the New Testament will give further light on its meaning:
   ‘Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them’ (Matt. 20:25, see also Mark 10:42).
   ‘The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them’ (Acts
   ‘Neither as being lords over God’s heritage’ (1 Pet. 5:3).
   The creation of Adam, his very name, and the dominion given to him, all foreshadowed the subduing of all
enemies beneath the feet of the Lord Jesus Christ. An enemy is most certainly in view in Genesis 1:26-28, and in
chapter 3 he is revealed - ‘that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan’ (Rev. 12:9).
    We are greatly tempted to explore further into the many vital themes that the name Adam opens up to us but
must keep before us the limits set by the word ‘dispensational’. The nature of the soul, the question of inherent
immortality, the problem of evil, the relationship of Adam to sin and death, belong to the realm of doctrine, and we
dare not begin to examine these important themes without loading our pages so heavily as to bring the work to a
stop. These themes are given an exposition in The Berean Expositor and the Index of the bound volumes should be
                                 ADAM                                                                              26
consulted by all who are interested in their exposition. Apart from the reference in Jude, where he calls Enoch, the
seventh from Adam, and Luke, who takes the genealogy of the Saviour back to Adam (Luke 3:38), no other writer in
the New Testament than Paul uses the name Adam or relates either doctrinal, dispensational or practical teaching
with it.
   Paul uses the name seven times, and these occurrences we now give:

                                              Adam in Paul’s Epistles
    Rom. 5:14.     Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses.
    Rom. 5:14.     After the similitude of Adam’s transgressions.
  1 Cor. 15:22.    For as in Adam all die.
  1 Cor. 15:45.    The first man Adam was made a living soul.
  1 Cor. 15:45.    The last Adam was made a quickening spirit.
   1 Tim. 2:13.    For Adam was first formed, then Eve.
   1 Tim. 2:14.    And Adam was not deceived.
    Some students of Scripture have put forward the idea that the creation of ‘Adam’ in Genesis 1:26-28, and the
creation of Genesis 2:18-25 refer to two different events and to two different men. The opening verse of the book of
the generations of Adam (Gen. 5:1) most certainly refers back to Genesis 1:26,27, yet, as it is the Adam of Genesis 2
and 3 who was the father of ‘Seth’ one and the same man must be intended. So also the Adam of Romans 5:12-14 is
the Adam of Genesis 2 and 3. To Paul, the Adam who brought death into the world, was ‘the first man’ (1 Cor.
   That Paul, alone of the apostles has a doctrine of ‘Adam’ and that he alone is the apostle of the Gentiles, together
with the fact that it is Luke and not Matthew that takes the genealogy of the Son of God back to Adam, are facts
eloquent and illuminating to the discerning reader. See SECRETS OF THE SON4, and IN ADAM2.

   This word ‘adoption’ is the translation of the Greek huiothesia, a word composed of huios ‘a son’ and thesis ‘to
place, or constitute’. (See CHILDREN v SONS p. 142). The word is used only by Paul in the New Testament and
occurs five times as follows:
    Rom. 8:15.     Ye have received the spirit of adoption.
    Rom. 8:23.     Waiting for the adoption.
     Rom. 9:4.     To whom pertaineth the adoption.
      Gal. 4:5.    That we might receive the adoption of sons.
     Eph. 1:5.     Unto the adoption of children.
    To appreciate the full significance of the apostle’s figures in Galatians 3 and 4 they must be viewed in the light
of the law of adoption - and more particularly, the Greek law of adoption. At the same time it must be remembered
that Paul also uses the term in Romans, so that we must also bear in mind the Roman law on the subject.
   There is no equivalent ‘law of adoption’ in England. In Roman law, adoption was a very serious undertaking.
   ‘The adopted son became a member of the family, just as if he had been born of the blood of the adopter; and he
   was invested with all the privileges of a filius familias. As a matter of fact it was by this means that the
   succession amongst the Caesars was continued. It never descended from father to son. What with poison,
   divorce, luxury and profligacy, the surviving members of a family were few, the descent suffered constant
   interruption, and whole families disappeared ... In no case amongst the Caesars did the throne pass from father to
   son ... Augustus was the great nephew of Julius Caesar, and was adopted from the Octavian into the Julian gens.
   Tiberius was no relation at all to his predecessor: he was merely the son of Augustus’s wife, Livia, by Tiberius
                                                                                                       ADOPTION      27
   Claudius Nero. Here we have the introduction of another family - the Claudii ... Nero was the great nephew of
   his predecessor Claudius, who had adopted him in the year A.D. 50’ (Septimus Buss).
   Adoption was of two kinds: adoption proper, and adrogation.
    Adoption proper. It must be remembered that the father in Roman law had absolute control over his family,
possessing the same rights over his children as over his slaves. By this patria potestas the son was deprived of the
right to own property, and the father could inflict any punishment he thought fit, even to the extent of the death
penalty. He could also sell his son into bondage. According to the law of the XII Tables, however, a father forfeited
his potestas if he sold his son three times. For this reason, in the case of adoption, a legal ceremony took place in
which the father went through the process of selling his son three times, and the son passed over completely to the
potestas of the adopter. In later times the cumbersome ceremony was substituted by a simple declaration before the
Praetor or Governor.
    Adrogation. When the person to be adopted was his own master, he was adopted by the form called adrogation
(from the word for ‘ask’, since in this case the adopter, the adopted, and the people were ‘asked’, rogatur). The law
demanded that the adopter should be at least eighteen years older than the adopted:
   ‘Adoption imitates nature, and it seems unnatural that a son should be older than his father’ (Justinian).
   ‘Adoption was called in law a capitas diminutio, which so far annihilated the pre-existing personality who
   underwent it, that during many centuries it operated as an extinction of debts’ (W. E. Ball).
   The effect of adoption was fourfold:
 (1) A CHANGE OF FAMILY. The adopted person was transferred from one gens to another.
 (2) A CHANGE OF NAME. The adopted person acquired a new name: for he assumed the name of his adopter, and
     modified his own by the termination ianus. Thus when Caius Octavius of the Octavian gens was adopted by
     Julius Caesar, he became Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
 (3) A CHANGE OF HOME, and
 (4) NEW RESPONSIBILITIES AND PRIVILEGES. While the adopted person suffered many ‘losses’, these were more
     than counterbalanced by his ‘gains’, for he received a new capacity to inherit. In the case of the adopter
     dying intestate, the adopted son acquired the right of succession.
    Paul alludes to the patria potestas, the absolute power of the father in the family, in the fourth Chapter of
Galatians where he speaks of ‘the child differing nothing from a slave’ and goes on to say ‘Thou art no longer a
slave, but a son’ (Gal. 4:7). Paul also alludes to tutelage in Galatians 3 and 4, where we have such phrases as ‘kept
in ward’, ‘tutor to bring us to Christ’, ‘under guardians and stewards’, and ‘children held in bondage’ (Gal. 3:23 to
    So far as the ceremony was concerned, the difference between the transferring of a son into slavery, and his
becoming a member of the family was very slight. In the one case the adopter said: ‘I claim this man as my slave’;
in the other, ‘I claim this man as my son’. The form was almost the same; it was the spirit that differed.
   If the adopter died and the adopted son claimed the inheritance, the latter had to testify to the fact that he was the
adopted heir. Furthermore -
   ‘the law requires corroborative evidence. One of the seven witnesses is called. "I was present", he says, "at the
   ceremony. It was I who held the scales and struck them with the ingot of brass. It was an adoption. I heard the
   words of the vindication, and I say this person was claimed by the deceased, not as a slave, but as a son"‘ (W. E.
   Bearing all these facts in mind, can we not feel something of the thrill with which the Roman Christian would
read the words of Romans:
                               ADOPTION                                                                                28
   ‘Ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we
   cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: and if
   children, then heirs’ (Rom. 8:15-17).
   It is not so much the Holy Spirit addressing Himself here to the human spirit in confirmation, but rather the joint
witness of the Holy Spirit and the spirit of the believer to the same blessed fact.
   Closely associated with the law of adoption was that of the Roman will. The Praetorian will was put into
writing, and fastened with the seals of seven witnesses (cf. Rev. 5 and 6). There is probably a reference to this type
of will in Ephesians:
   ‘In Whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our
   inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of His glory’ (Eph. 1:13,14).
   W. E. Ball translates the latter part of the passage: ‘Until the ransoming accomplished by the act of taking
possession (of the inheritance)’:
   ‘When a slave was appointed heir, although expressly emancipated by the will which gave him the inheritance,
   his freedom commenced not upon the making of the will, nor even immediately upon the death of the testator,
   but from the moment when he took certain legal steps, which were described as "entering upon the inheritance".
   This is "the ransoming accomplished by act of taking possession". In the last words of the passage - "to the
   praise of His glory", there is an allusion to a well-known Roman custom. The emancipated slaves who attended
   the funeral of their emancipator were the praise of his glory. Testamentary emancipation was so fashionable a
   form of posthumous ostentation, the desire to be followed to the grave by a crowd of freedmen wearing the "cap
   of liberty" was so strong, that very shortly before the time when St. Paul wrote, the legislature had expressly
   limited the number of slaves that an owner might manumit by will’.
   No modern writer has greater first hand knowledge of this term than Sir William Ramsay, and in order to
acquaint ourselves with its usage in Galatia, we will first of all quote from Sir William’s A Historical Commentary
on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians.
   ‘The idea that they who follow the principle of faith are sons of Abraham, whatever family they belong to by
   nature, would certainly be understood by the Galatians as referring to the legal process called adoption,
   ‘Adoption was a kind of embryo will; the adopted son became the owner of the property, and the property could
   pass to a person that was naturally outside the family only through his being adopted. The adoption was a sort of
   will-making; and this ancient form of will was irrevocable and public. The terms "son" and "heir" are
   ‘An illustration from the ordinary fact of society, as it existed in the Galatian cities, is here stated: "I speak after
   the manner of men". The will (diatheke) of a human being is irrevocable when once duly executed. But, if Paul
   is speaking about a will, how can he say, after it is once made, it is irrevocable?’
   ‘Such irrevocability was a characteristic feature of Greek law, according to which an heir outside the family
   must be adopted into the family; and the adoption was the will-making. The testator, after adopting his heir,
   could not subsequently take away from him his share of the inheritance or impose new conditions on his
   succession. The Roman-Syrian Law Book will illustrate this passage of the Epistle. It actually lays down the
   principle that a man can never put away an adopted son, and that he cannot put away a real son without good
   ground. It is remarkable that the adopted son should have a stronger position than the son by birth; yet it is so.
   The expression in Galatians 3, verse 15, "When it hath been confirmed" must also be observed. Every will had to
   be passed through the Record Office of the city. It was not regarded in the Greek law as a purely private
   document. It must be deposited in the Record Office’.
    Here it will be seen that one may be ‘adopted’, or made the heir, without being at the same time a true child, but
in the case of the Scriptural usage of adoption there is no idea that the believer is only an ‘adopted’ child for the
testimony of the Word is explicit on the point, making it clear that adoption is something added:
   ‘The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God’ (Rom. 8:16).
                                                                                                       ADOPTION      29
    The argument of Galatians 4:1-7 proceeds upon the supposition that there is a difference between a ‘child’ (Gal.
4:1,2), and one who has received the ‘adoption’ (Gal. 4:5). ‘If a son, then an heir of God through Christ’ (Gal. 4:7).
That ‘adoption’ is related to ‘inheritance’ we can see by examining the first chapter of Ephesians. There we find the
word ‘predestinate’ used twice, once in verse 5, where it is ‘unto adoption’, and again in verse 11, where it refers to
‘inheritance’. Let us now observe the way in which this important word is used in connection with three different
companies of the redeemed.
    In Romans 9 the apostle enumerates the distinctive and exclusive privileges of Israel ‘according to the flesh’,
‘who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption’ (9:4). The structure of the passage relates ‘adoption’ with
‘promises’ and the whole is important enough to claim our attention before passing on. Accordingly we set out the

       A   According to the flesh, brethren.
           B  Who are Israelites.
           C     To whom pertaineth the ADOPTION.
              D     And the glory.
                 E       And the covenants.
                 E       And the giving of the law.
              D     And the service of God.
           C     And the PROMISES.
         B    Whose are the fathers.
       A   As concerning the flesh, Christ came.
    No one with any understanding can interpret the words ‘Israel’ and ‘according to the flesh’ as of the Church, or
of that company where there is ‘neither Jew nor Greek’ (Gal. 3:28).
   When Israel were about to be brought out of Egypt, God called the nation His ‘firstborn’ saying, ‘Israel is My
son, even My firstborn’ (Exod. 4:22).
    Attached to this position is a citizenship, the city being Jerusalem, which is destined to be the centre of the earth
when the Kingdom is set up (Isa. 2:3; Zech. 14:16,17). It is obvious that if one nation is to be granted pre-eminence,
the others must be subservient, and one of the accompaniments of the privilege of adoption, which we find true of
each sphere, is the grant of pre-eminence over other companies in the same sphere.
   ‘The nation and kingdom that will not serve thee shall perish; yea, those nations shall be utterly wasted’ (Isa.
   ‘Strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be your plowmen and your
   vinedressers. But ye shall be named the Priests of the LORD: men shall call you the Ministers of our God’ (Isa.
   We shall find that the following features are inseparable from adoption as used in the Scriptures.
 (1)   The appointing of the heir.
 (2)   The dignity of the first-born.
 (3)   The close association of citizenship.
 (4)   Some special pre-eminence over other companies in the same sphere.
    In marked contrast with Romans 9, where ‘the adoption’ is the exclusive prerogative of ‘Israel according to the
flesh’, we have ‘the adoption’ of Galatians 4, which pertains to the seed of Abraham who are not considered ‘after
the flesh’ (23), who are associated with ‘Jerusalem which is above’ (26), and which is composed of both Jew and
Greek made one in Christ, and consequently heirs according to the promise. Yet further, those to whom pertaineth
the adoption according to the teaching of Ephesians, have no relationship with Israel at all, they have no connection
with the promises made unto the fathers, they were aliens and strangers, without hope, and without God. These
were chosen before the foundation of the world, and in Christ are raised and seated far above all principality and
power. Consequently the logical result of admitting the contextual teaching of Paul’s epistles regarding ‘adoption’
is to admit three distinct spheres of blessing.
   A man can only have three first-born sons, if he has had three families. This application to the teaching
concerning adoption will be found to be an irrefutable proof of the existence of ‘three spheres of blessing’, (see

   The word ‘age’ is the translation of the Greek word aion, and occurs also in the plural, and in the progressive
form ‘the ages of the ages’. In the A.V. the word aion is given the following renderings: age 2, beginning of the
world 2, course 1, world 32, eternal 2, world began 1.
    In conjunction with eis (unto, or for): for ever 27, for evermore 2, ever 1, while the world standeth 1. Followed
by genitive for ever and ever 21, for evermore 1, beside ever, never and world without end. Aionios the adjective is
translated eternal 42, everlasting 25 and for ever 1.
     The Hebrew equivalent of aion is olam. This Hebrew word comes from a root meaning something hidden or
secret (as in Psa. 19:12, ‘secret faults’) and indicates a period of undefined limits. Aion, the Greek word is used by
the translators of the Septuagint to render the Hebrew word olam into Greek.
   Students of the purpose of the ages will often find themselves turning the pages of Ecclesiastes, realizing in the
preacher one whose problems and experiences are often much like their own. In Ecclesiastes the word olam occurs
seven times, and is translated by the A.V. as follows:
      1:4.   The earth abideth for ever.
     1:10.   It hath been already of old time.
     2:16.   There is no remembrance of the wise more than of the fool for ever.
     3:11.   He hath set the world in their heart.
     3:14.   I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever.
      9:6.   Neither have they any more a portion for ever.
     12:5.   Man goeth to his long home.
    Here we have ‘for ever’, ‘old time’, ‘world’, and ‘long’ as translations of the one word olam. Such a variety of
renderings gives no connected thought, and consequently the evident relation of these passages is missed.
Supposing we take the original word in each passage and translate it by the word ‘age’, we at once realize that seven
such references may contain much helpful teaching. Their order and connection likewise are made apparent, and
their claim upon our attention is emphasized.

                                                Olam in Ecclesiastes
A 1:4.     The earth abideth to the age - The passing generation.
  B 1:10.      It hath been already in or to the ages - Nothing new under the sun.
      C 2:16.      No remembrance of the wise more than of the fool to the age - Forgotten in the days to come.
        D 3:11.        He hath set the age in their heart - Beginning to end of God’s work past finding out.
      C 3:14,15. Whatsoever God doeth it shall be to the age - God’s work remains.
B 9:6.     Neither have they any more a portion to the age - No portion- under the sun.
A 12:5.    Man goeth to his age-home - The passing generation.

    Leaving these passages until we are more prepared to consider their teaching in detail, we pass on to another
cluster of seven, this time in the New Testament, namely, in the epistle to Ephesians. There the word aion is
translated as inconsistently as we found its parallel olam had been in Ecclesiastes.
                                                                                                              AGE    31
         1:21.   This world.
          2:2.   The course of this world.
          2:7.   The ages to come.
          3:9.   From the beginning of the world.
         3:11.   Eternal purpose.
         3:21.   Throughout all ages world without end.
         6:12.   Rulers of the darkness of this world.

    Here we have a strange assortment. This world, which had a beginning, but which has no end, the course of this
world, and the eternal purpose. Translate the word aion consistently, and order, light and instruction take the place
of human tradition and confusion.

                                                  Aion in Ephesians
A 1:21. Rulers of this and the coming age. - Subject to Christ in resurrection.
  B 2:2. The age of the world. - Satanic energy (energo).
     C 2:7. Ages to come. - Display of divine grace (future).
        D 3:9. Hid since the ages. - The mystery.
     C 3:11. The purpose of the ages. - Display of divine wisdom (now).
  B 3:21. The generations of the age of the ages. - Divine energy (energo).
A 6:12. Rulers of the darkness of this age. - Withstood by believers in resurrection power.
    All lovers of the Word must see how great is the loss which we have sustained through the traditional translation.
‘The eternal purpose’ sounds very grand, it gives a certain feeling of reality and indefectibility to the purpose of
God, yet it is a double violation. The noun aion is translated as though it were the adjective aionion, which is a
serious liberty to take with inspired Scripture apart from the mistake of putting eternity where an age should have
been. What we have to learn is that the Bible does not speak of eternity. It was not written to tell us of eternity.
Such a consideration is entirely outside the scope of revelation. Many, many undreamed wonders will doubtless be
unfolded when the ages are no more. What they will be and what they will involve is idle and profitless speculation.
The Word of God as it has been given is a complete system of teaching for us; it does not treat fully of the creation
around us, much less of the time before or after the Creation.
   While we acknowledge that there is much which our curiosity would tempt us to ask, we do most heartily bow
before the divine boundaries of our studies, realizing that by the repeated emphasis upon the teaching of the ages,
and the absence of teaching concerning eternity, the Lord is still showing us (as is expressed in Ecclesiastes) that the
time has not yet arrived when we may ‘find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end’.
Accepting the fact of the ages, and of the age-times, we shall have to inquire from the Scriptures an answer to the
question ‘when did they commence?’
    As an added contribution to the subject, we place before the reader, some of the most important expressions that
are found in the New Testament dealing with the time factor of the ages. Such expressions as ‘the end of the world’;
‘since the world began’; ‘this world’; ‘the world to come’ are known to all. We now propose to submit them to a
more careful scrutiny, so that the Scriptural association of time with the ages shall be better seen. The reader will
already know that aion is often translated ‘world’ in the A.V. and while it is a good rendering, meaning
etymologically ‘the age of man’ (vir man, eld age), it simplifies the inquiry, if we agree to translate kosmos by
‘world’ and aion by ‘age’, thereby preserving the distinction that must be maintained between words dealing with
place and words dealing with time.
    ‘The end of the world’. There are more words than one that can be translated ‘end’, the word used in this phrase
is sunteleia. In Matthew 13:39,40,49; 24:3 and 28:20, aion is in the singular, but in the one remaining occurrence,
namely in Hebrews 9:26, aion is used in the plural. What the significance of this change may be we do not pause at
the moment to consider, but just make a note of the fact that nowhere else except in Matthew or Hebrews do we
meet the expression sunteleia tou aionos. If there is a period that can be called ‘the end of the world’, there is also a
period which speaks of a time ‘since the world began’ or ‘from the beginning of the world’. We should remember
when reading this expression that the word arche ‘beginning’ does not occur in this phrase, all that is found in the
original being the two words ap’ aionos ‘from (an) age’, when used in Luke 1:70, Acts 3:21 and 15:18; and apo ton
aionon the plural with the article, in Ephesians 3:9 and Colossians 1:26. We observe that in the last reference the
ages are coupled with generations, a term which we must consider separately.
    ‘The world to come’, translates two forms, one in which aion is spoken of as erchomeno ‘coming’, Luke 18:30;
and aion spoken of as mello ‘about to be’, Matthew 12:32, Ephesians 1:21 and Hebrews 6:5. ‘This world’ and ‘that
world’ are contrasted, the former expression using toutou with aion, the latter using ekeinos. ‘That world’ occurs
but once, namely in Luke 20:35, but ‘this world’ occurs some fourteen times, and these will be given in fuller detail
when the occurrences are being examined in detail. Variations of this expression are found in Galatians 1:4 which
adds the words ‘present’ and ‘evil’, and 1 Timothy 6:17, 2 Timothy 4:10, and Titus 2:12 where the word ‘now’ nun,
is added.
   One passage contains the phrase ‘before the ages’ (plural) pro ton aionon, 1 Corinthians 2:7, the other passages
which speak of ‘before the world’ contain the word kosmos not aion.
    The word ‘generation’ is used in association with the ages. Genea has three meanings in the New Testament. It
means the simple succession from father to son (Matt. 1:17); it means a company of men living at the same time and
sharing similar characteristics; and thirdly, it means a mark of time, the successive lives of offspring being taken to
indicate so many stages in the world’s history.
    Aion ‘age’ belongs to no one particular dispensation or line of teaching. Aion occurs in all but five of the
twenty-seven books of the New Testament. The epistles that contain no reference are 1 and 2 Thessalonians, James,
Philemon and 3 John. Aionios the adjective, translated ‘eternal’ and ‘everlasting’, occurs in nineteen books of the
New Testament, being omitted from 1 Corinthians, 1 Thessalonians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, James and
2 and 3 John. The books therefore which contain both aion and aionios are the four Gospels, Acts, Galatians,
1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, Jude and the Revelation. We must examine some of
these occurrences in detail, and we shall have to consider the bearing of apo ‘from’ and ‘since’, pro ‘before’, and eis
‘unto’ or ‘for’, before we can even begin to come to any conclusion as to when the agetimes began.
    What does the Scripture mean by ‘age times’? Is such a term a correct translation of the original? What light do
parallel constructions throw upon the phrase? Where does the expression occur? What light do we get from the
context? Are there parallel - though different - expressions that should be considered? Let us address ourselves to
these and any related questions that may occur during the investigation.
    The rendering ‘age-times’ is not found in either the A.V. or the R.V. In the A.V. the translation reads ‘before or
since the world began’ and in the R.V. the rendering is ‘through’ or ‘before times eternal’. ‘Before the world began’
is at least understandable, but ‘before times eternal’ cannot be understood without a very drastic revision of the
meaning ascribed to ‘eternal’. If eternal things have neither beginning nor end, then it is impossible to speak of a
‘period’ before times eternal - the translation is figurative, and does not contribute to our understanding or add to our
knowledge. The occurrences of the expression are three in number and we give them first of all as they occur in the
   ‘Now to Him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ,
   according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, but now is made
   manifest, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made
   known to all nations for the obedience of faith: to God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen’
   (Rom. 16:25-27).
   ‘Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me His prisoner: but be thou partaker of the
   afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God; Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling,
   not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus
   before the world began, but is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ’ (2 Tim. 1:8-10).
                                                                                                             AGE    33
   ‘In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began; but hath in due times
   manifested His Word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God
   our Saviour’ (Titus 1:2,3).
    The Greek words translated ‘since the world began’, are chronois aioniois in Romans 16:25, and ‘before the
world began’, pro chronon aionion in 2 Timothy 1:9 and Titus 1:2. We observe that the expression in either form is
exclusive to Paul, and that such an exclusive character is emphasized in the context by such added terms as ‘my
gospel’; ‘through the gospel where unto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles’;
‘through preaching which is committed unto me’.
    Our first note therefore is that ‘before the world began’ or ‘since the world began’, however ultimately we are
obliged to translate the original, belong exclusively to the ministry of Paul.
   Secondly we note that there is a difference between the phrase found in Romans 16, and those found in
2 Timothy and Titus. The former speaks of a period ‘since’, the latter of a period ‘before’ the beginning of the
world. We must be careful therefore to keep these two periods distinct, together with the revelations associated with
    Ignoring for the time being the preposition pro ‘before’, or the dative case translated by the A.V ‘since’, let us
examine the words chronon aionion. It is not a matter of debate, that aionos is an adjective, derived from aion the
noun, or that chronos is a noun. If we read in Matthew 25:19 meta de chronon polun, we naturally translate ‘but
after a long time’. If we find the order of the words reversed as in John 5:6 polun ... chronon, while the emphasis
may be shifted, the translation must remain the same, polun still remains an adjective, chronon still remains a noun.
The word chronos ‘time’ is not of frequent use in the epistles, occurring only twelve times in the fourteen written by
Paul, and when we turn to Romans, 2 Timothy and Titus in the hope of observing the usage of chronon in those
three epistles which use the phrase since, or before ‘the world began’ we find but one passage, namely Romans 7:1,
‘the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth’, literally ‘for a long time’, eph hoson chronon.
    Aionios, the adjective is derived from aion, and must retain whatever essential meaning pertains to the noun. It
is impossible that the noun should be translated ‘age’, which most certainly had a beginning, and will certainly have
an end, and to translate the adjective ‘everlasting’ or ‘eternal’. Keeping to Paul’s epistles we find aionion translated
eternal, everlasting and for ever, except in the three passages before us, Romans 16:25, 2 Timothy 1:9 and Titus 1:2,
where we read ‘since, or before, the world began’. If chronos be translated ‘world’ then aionios must have been
translated ‘began’, or if chronos has been translated ‘began’ because of its association with time, then aionios has
been translated ‘world’. In any case the translation is exceedingly wide.
    The Revisers were evidently unsatisfied with this rendering for in the three passages they substitute, ‘times
eternal’, which though it adheres more to the actual words so translated, is still too poetic to be of use, for ‘times’
belong to one category and ‘eternal’ to another. We can speak of ‘a living death’ but only in a figure, we can speak
of ‘times eternal’ but only in a figure; for the purpose of discovering at what point in the outworking of the purpose
of the ages, these ‘times eternal’ commence, such a translation is valueless. There is nothing for it, but to adopt
either the foreign sounding phrase ‘ -onian times’, or the cumbersome expression ‘age-times’. This latter has the
advantage of presenting to the eye the fact that we are still within the bounds of the ages, and not dealing with either
‘the world’ as in the A.V. or ‘eternity’ as in the R.V.
    We must now return to those passages that are under review, to observe any particular features that will help us
in our attempt to place them in the outworking of the Divine purpose. First, we will give Weymouth’s rendering of
Romans 16:25-27, with our own emphasis of each occurrence of aion and aionios.
   ‘To Him Who has it in His power to make you strong, as declared in the Good News which I am spreading, and
   the proclamation concerning Jesus Christ, in harmony with the unveiling of the Truth which IN THE PERIODS OF
   PAST AGES remained unuttered, but has now been brought fully to light, and by the commandment of THE GOD OF
   THE AGES has been made known by the writings of the Prophets among the Gentiles to win them to the
   obedience to the faith - to God, the only wise, through Jesus Christ, even to Him be glory THROUGH ALL THE
    The words chronois aioniois, in Romans 16:25 are in the dative case. This case is used to denote ‘a space of
time’, ‘for’, as in Acts 13:20 and John 2:20. (The A.V. use of the word ‘since’ is without precedent; this demands
the preposition apo, or its equivalent). In the space of time known as the age-times, a truth had been ‘kept secret’.
As the word musterion and its derivations express the idea of something ‘secret’ and as the word translated ‘kept
secret’ in the original of Romans 16:25 is sigao ‘to keep silence’ (see 1 Cor. 14:28,34), the translation of the A.V. is
misleading. The word does not indicate that the truth in view was never made known at all, or at any time, but that
in the space of time known as the age-times, it was ‘hushed’, that period ending with the revelation found in the
epistle to the Romans, and referring, not to ‘The Mystery’ of Ephesians, but to the inner portion of Romans, namely
Romans 5:12 to 8:39, where instead of the law of Moses, and personal transgressions, being the dominant theme,
Moses retires into the background, and Sinai is exchanged for ‘the law of sin and death’, Adam takes the place of
Moses, and the ruin of the creature is stressed rather than personal transgressions, ‘sin’ rather than ‘sins’.
   Since the call of Abraham, and during the period of Israel’s discipline this inner teaching of Romans remained
unemphasized, but with the commission of the apostle, the hour struck for its proclamation. A comparison of
Romans 1:1-7 with Romans 16:25-27 will reveal some things in common, and some that differ.
    The structure of the epistle to the Romans is exceedingly complex, as we can well believe of so mighty an
epistle. Simplified to the extreme it appears somewhat like this:
A Rom. 1:1 to 5:11.      Sins, rather than sin.
    (outer)              Law of Sinai.
                         Abraham, Israel, Jew and Gentile.
   B Rom. 5:12 to 8:39.      Sin, rather than sins.
       (inner)               Adam, not Abraham.
                             Law of sin and death.
A Rom. 9:1 to 16:24.     Dispensational and Practical problems.
    (outer)              Abraham, Israel, Jew and Gentile.
   B Rom. 16:25-27.          The mystery that had been ‘hushed’.
       (inner)               No ‘doctrine’ of Adam outside of the
                             epistles of Paul.
     The conclusion to which an examination of the word aion leads, is that eternity is never in view, but that the
word is employed to cover the period of time since Genesis 1:2 and reaching up to the day when God will be all in
all, when the Ages will have reached both their goal and their end.
   The reader would find considerable help, if the notes on ‘age’ given in the appendix of Rotherham’s Emphasized
New Testament were consulted; Weymouth’s Translation of the New Testament in Modern Speech, and Appendix
129 and 151 of The Companion Bible.
   For further notes, see the article entitled TIME5.

ALIEN, Greek allotrios and apallotrioo. Allotrios is found fourteen times in the New Testament and is translated in
the A.V. as follows: alien 1, another man’s 6, of others 1, strange 2, stranger 4.
   Apallotrioo, be alienated 1, alien 1, alienated 1. The Greek word allotrios is one of a large family, the root of
which is alla ‘change’, and it is of great importance to remember that alienation and reconciliation, the two poles of
experience, are both derived from the same root. Reconciliation being either katallasso, apokatallasso, dialassomai
and katallage; allogenes being translated ‘stranger’ (see RECONCILIATION4). The word that has a direct bearing
upon dispensational truth is apallotrioo which occurs as follows:
   Eph. 2:12.    Being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel.
   Eph. 4:18.    Being alienated from the life of God.
                                                                                                              ALIEN 35
    Col. 1:21.     That were sometimes alienated.
    The references in Ephesians 4 and in Colossians 1, belong to the practical and doctrinal sphere of revealed truth,
the passage that interests us is Ephesians 2:12.
   The structure of Ephesians 2:11-19 divides the subject-matter into three time periods:
   (1)       In time past ... What we once were.
   (2)       But now ... What grace has done.
   (3)       No longer ... The complete reversal of the past.
    Each part of Ephesians 2 deals with a time past in contrast with a time present, with its accompanying change. It
is important to observe the distinctive features of these two parts, the former dealing with death and life, the latter
with distance and nearness. Ephesians 2:1-10 uses such words as ‘dead’, ‘trespass’, ‘sin’, ‘disobedience’, ‘wrath’,
‘quickened’, ‘saved’, ‘faith’ and ‘walk’. Ephesians 2:11-22 uses an entirely new vocabulary. Instead of sin and
death we have ‘Gentiles’, ‘uncircumcision’, ‘aliens’ and ‘far off’; instead of being quickened and raised, we have a
‘middle wall broken down’, ‘ordinances abolished’, ‘one new man created’ and the thought of ‘fellow citizens’ and
a ‘holy temple’. Instead of trespasses we have dispensational distance; instead of the flesh with its lusts we have the
flesh in its uncircumcision and enmity. In the first section we have a new creation, and in the second the creation of
a new man; in the first, believers are seated together in the heavenlies, in the second builded together as an
habitation of God.
    These differences are important, for if the section before us deals with dispensational distance rather than with
sin and death, this will materially colour the meaning of the reconciliation referred to here by the apostle. The trend
of the two parts of this chapter may be seen if set out as follows:

                                                      Ephesians 2
A Doctrine.            a 1-3.     Once. Walk. World and flesh.
                         b 4.        But God. Mercy. Love.
                            c 5-10.     Made alive together.
                                        Raised together.
                                        Made to sit together.
A Dispensation.        a 11,12.   Once. Gentiles. In flesh. In world.
                         b 13-18.    But now. Nigh. One.
                            c 19-22.    Citizens together.
                                        Fitly framed together.
                                        Builded together.
    The Gentiles who composed the majority of the members of the One Body had no Scriptures full of promises
made unto their fathers; they were not only alienated from the life of God, but were also aliens from the
commonwealth of Israel. The structure of the epistle as a whole (see article entitled EPHESIANS p. 275) throws into
prominence two features - the new man and this twofold alienation. For the moment our attention is to be directed
to the dispensational alienation, the dispensational disability of being a Gentile as contrasted with the dispensational
privilege of being a Jew.
 What was the position, dispensationally, of those who are now members of the One Body? This passage bids us
remember that we were once:
         A   Gentiles in the flesh.
           B    Without Christ.
             C      Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel.
             C      Strangers from the covenants of promise.
           B    Having no hope.
         A   Godless in the world.
36                                ALIEN
    There was nothing personally wrong in being a Gentile, but being born a Gentile carried with it great
dispensational disabilities.
     ‘He sheweth His word unto Jacob, His statutes and His judgments unto Israel. He hath not dealt so with any
     nation: and as for His judgments, they have not known them’ (Psa. 147:19,20. See also Amos 3:2; Rom. 3:2).
    We observe in Ephesians 2:11,12 that the sphere of Gentile disability is ‘in the flesh’; so also is the sphere of
Israel’s privileges. Some of these privileges are set out by the apostle in Romans 9:
            A   According to the flesh ... Brethren.
              B    Israelites.
                C      Adoption (placing as sons).
                   D       Glory.
                       E       Covenants.
                       E       Law.
                   D       Services.
                C      Promises.
              B    Fathers.
            A   According to the flesh ... Christ (Rom. 9:3-5).
    In the flesh, the Gentile is without Christ. He can only be in Christ ‘in the Spirit’; in the flesh he is without hope,
for it was of Israel according to the flesh, that Christ came. Thus the words en pneumati (Eph. 3:5) really preface
the threefold fellowship of the mystery detailed in verse 6.
    At the close of the dark list of Gentile hopelessness are the words ‘in the world’. The world is at the present time
an abandoned evil, the enemy of God and of truth. Its prince is the devil, for the Saviour’s kingdom is not of this
world. The whole world lieth in wickedness, and its rudiments are antagonistic to Christ. It is totally oblivious of
the work and witness of the Spirit. Its elements hold the Gentiles in bondage. Nothing but utter hopelessness,
therefore, can be the condition of those who are ‘in the flesh’ and ‘in the world’.
    From this pit of corruption, and from this godless, Christless, hopeless wilderness, God, in His rich mercy,
stooped and saved those whose destiny is to be blessed with all spiritual blessings in the heavenly places in Christ.
     The Syrophenician woman shows us something of the meaning of the words:
     ‘Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise’ (Eph. 2:12).
    The Gentile was by nature ‘far off’. How could he be made nigh? The answer is that, while the dispensation
that included the nation of Israel lasted, Gentile believers could be grafted into the olive tree of Israel. Romans 9
does not refer to a merely national position - those addressed were ‘brethren’ and were reminded that they stood ‘by
faith’ (Rom. 11:20,25). The justified Gentile during the Acts period did not become a member of the body of Christ;
he became a graft in the olive tree of Israel of which Abraham was the root.
     ‘But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ’ (Eph. 2:13).
    When we realize something of the slavery of Satan and the dominion of sin (Eph. 2:1-3), with what relief do we
read the words of Ephesians 2:4, ‘but God’. Again, when the helplessness and the hopelessness of the Gentiles’ case
dispensationally, as set forth in Ephesians 2:11,12 is realized, how blessed the ‘but now’ of verse 13. The blood of
Christ which accomplished deliverance from the bondage of sin (Eph. 1:7) now breaks down all barriers and gives
perfect access. The former condition of alienation is closely linked with a special enmity. The new status brings in
peace, evidently the result of the cessation of that enmity.
    The reader should refer to MIDDLE WALL3, DECREES p. 212, BOTH p. 125, and ADOPTION p. 40, to obtain an
all-round view of what this alienation involved, and how it has been met by grace.
                                                                                        ALL   AND   ALL THINGS      37
ALL AND ALL T HINGS, Greek pas. This word occurs over 1,100 times in the New Testament and is variously
translated ‘all’, ‘every’, ‘whosoever’ and other equivalent terms too numerous for us to tabulate here.
   ‘Singular; without the article, signifies every; with the article, the whole of the object it qualifies. Thus pasa
   polis, every city; pasa he polis, the whole of the city; panta perrasmon, every form of temptation (Luke 4:13);
   pantes, all men; panta, all things severally. (See Phil. 4:13); ta panta, all things constituting a whole’ (Col.
   1:16). (Dr. E. W. Bullinger’s Lexicon).
   Let us acquaint ourselves with the usage of this word in the New Testament. ‘Every nation under heaven’ (Acts
2:5) sounds universal, but is limited to a radius of some 400 miles, as a reference to verses 9-11 will reveal.
    In Colossians 1:16 we read of the creation of all things that are in heaven and in earth, that Christ is before all
things and that by Him all things consist. Yet in the space of a few verses, Paul says that the gospel entrusted to him
had been preached to ‘every creature which is under heaven’ (Col. 1:23). We have no certain knowledge that Paul
fulfilled his wish to preach the gospel in Spain, he certainly did not cover the continents of Africa, America or Asia,
yet he is free to use such terms.
    When Paul wrote ‘all things are lawful for me’ (1 Cor. 10:23) he most certainly did not mean that it would have
been lawful for him to lie, steal, murder or break any other commandment of God or of conscience. When he said
that Love ‘believeth all things’, he most certainly did not teach that the highest exhibition of love was an uncritical
   So, therefore, it behoves us to approach the question of the meaning of ‘all’ with care. Let us consider some
expressions that are of dispensational importance as well as which illustrate the need for this care in interpretation.
    ‘All Israel’. Are we to understand from Romans 11:26 that all Israel there means every single individual who
can trace his pedigree back to Jacob or to Abraham? We must remember that Romans 11 is one of three chapters
which form a unit, and unless we see the passages as a whole, we shall not be able to discern ‘the wood for the
   A somewhat condensed structure of Romans 9 to 11 is as follows.
       A 9:1-5.   Sorrow. Doxology, ‘Over all’ panton.
         B 9:6-29. Remnant saved. Mercy on some.
                                        (Corrective as to ‘all Israel’ 9:6).
             C 9:30 to 11:10.      Christ the end of the law.
           B 11:11-32. All Israel saved. Mercy on them all.
                                   (Corrective as to Remnant 11:1-5).
       A 11:33-35. Song. Doxology. ‘All things’ ta panta.
   For a fuller exposition of Romans 9 to 11 see the book, Just and the Justifier, by the author.
   In Romans 9 the apostle had said:
   ‘They are NOT ALL ISRAEL, which are of Israel: neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all
   children: but, IN ISAAC shall thy seed be called ... the children of the promise are counted for the seed’ (6-8).
   The underlying principle of election and promise influence the extent of the word ‘all’ here.
    ‘All in Adam’. In like manner we could paraphrase Romans 9:6-8 and say, ‘they are NOT ALL IN ADAM, which
are physically descended from Adam, but "in Christ" the true seed are called’, for there are many evidences in the
Scriptures to show that there are TWO SEEDS in the earth, and one of them is not of God. (See SEED4, IN ADAM2).
   When Paul says, in 1 Timothy 4:10, ‘He is the Saviour of all men’, universal redemption is not implied, for if he
had meant that, he could not have added ‘especially of them that believe’.
    Ta panta. It is of extreme importance that we distinguish between those passages of Scripture which use panta
‘all things’ and ta panta some particular ‘all things’.
                         ALL   AND   ALL THINGS                                                                       38
   The term ‘all things’ occurs a little over sixty times in the epistles alone; forty references are without the article,
and the remaining twenty include the article. We intend to direct particular attention to the construction used in the
smaller division (ta panta), but must just briefly touch upon the wider expression in passing.
   The first occurrences in the epistles of the two constructions, with and without the article, are in Romans 8:28
and 32.
   ‘We know that all things (panta) work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called
   according to His purpose’ (Rom. 8:28).
   Here the word is without the article and includes evil as well as good. In verse 32 we read:
   ‘He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely
   (graciously) give us the all things’ (ta panta).
    Of course the article here may be merely the ‘second mention’, and may refer back to verse 28; there are reasons,
however, for doubting this. First, the reference is some distance away; secondly, it comes in a new section
commencing with the words, ‘what shall we then say?’ of verse 31; thirdly, the fact that the all things of verse 28,
which are under the hand of God, may include most conflicting agents (Satan, the world, and evil as well as good),
whereas in verse 32 the all things are graciously given ‘with Him’. This seems to lead us to see that ‘the all things’
may be a much less inclusive expression than ‘all things’ and further, that the special term ta panta has been used by
the Holy Spirit with a special meaning which it is our wisdom to investigate and to understand.
    We meet the expression again in Romans 11:36 in a setting which is typical of its usage. After bringing before
the reader the amazing grace and matchless mercy of God in His final dealings with Israel, the apostle concludes
with the doxology:
   ‘For of Him (ek, originating cause), and through Him (dia, efficient and ministerial cause), and to Him (eis, final
   cause), are all things (ta panta): to Whom be glory, unto the ages. Amen’.
     It will be observed that it does not say that the Lord is the originating cause of all things universally, but of the
all things. It does not say that He is the ministerial cause of all things universally, but only of the all things, and it
does not say that all things universally are unto Him as the final cause, but the all things. This emphasis at once
suggests the question, what all things? and it is with a view to providing a scriptural answer that we continue our
   Even in the wider and more universal expression (that is with the article omitted), there are necessary limitations.
The apostle said ‘all things are lawful’, but this is not universally true. Murder, lying, thieving, etc., were no more
lawful to Paul the apostle than to Saul the Pharisee. ‘All things’ must be considered in the light of the restrictions
imposed by the law of Moses, the traditions of the Elders and the contextual references to various foods, idolatrous
connections, etc. Ephesians 6:21, Philippians 3:8, 1 Timothy 6:17 and Titus 1:15 will supply other examples of the
limitations of this wider expression.
    Returning to the doxology of Romans 11:36, we compare it with the statement of the apostle in 1 Corinthians
8:5,6. In Romans 11 the Scripture does not differentiate between ‘Him’ of whom are all things, and ‘Him’ through
whom are all things. He is called ‘God’ and ‘Lord’ in the context (see verses 33 and 34). It is evident that the God
of verse 33 is the Lord of verse 34, and the fourfold ‘Him’ of verse 36. The apostle who wrote Romans 11 had
written 1 Corinthians 8:5,6 and felt under no obligation to attempt to explain that which superficially is a difficulty
to some. In contrast to the heathen conception of gods many and lords (ie., Baalim, demons, mediums) many, the
believer recognizes one God, the Father, the originating cause of the all things (ta panta), and one Lord, Jesus
Christ, the ministerial and mediating cause in reference to the same ‘the all things’ (ta panta) and consequently to
such ‘an idol is nothing in the world’.
   Again the force of the expression (the all things) must be observed. This emphasis upon origin and ministerial
cause is met with in the next reference, 1 Corinthians 11:12:
   ‘For as the woman is out of (ek, origin) the man, even so is the man through (dia, ministerial cause) the woman;
   but the all things (ta panta) are out of (ek, origin) God’.
                                                                                        ALL   AND   ALL THINGS      39
The next passage (1 Cor. 15:27,28) we must consider together with Hebrews 2:8-10 :
   ‘For He hath put all things under His feet. But when He saith all things are put under Him, it is manifest that He
   is excepted, which did put the all things (ta panta) under Him. And when the all things (ta panta) shall be
   subdued unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject unto Him that put the all things (ta panta) under
   Him, that God may be all in all’.
    We must not take it as proved that God cannot be all in all in the destruction of some as in the salvation of
others; it is a sentimental conclusion which must not weigh with us here. In this passage we find the wider
expression used first, then in repetition the article is used, and in this case it would seem that throughout one aspect
is intended. This is further emphasized by the one exception which emphasizes the universality of all things which
are to be subjected beneath the feet of Christ. Hebrews 2:8-10 definitely states this:
   ‘Thou hast put all things in subjection under His feet. For in that He put the all things (ta panta) in subjection
   under Him, He left nothing that is not put under Him. But now we see not yet the all things (ta panta), put under
   Him ... For it became Him, for whom are the all things (ta panta), and by (through) whom are the all things (ta
   panta), in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation perfect through suffering’.
   Returning for a moment to 1 Corinthians 15:27,28 we must remember that the context speaks of the subjection
and destruction of enemies. In verse 24 we read:
   ‘Then the end, when He shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when He shall have
   abolished (katargeo) every principality (arche), and every authority (exousia), and power (dunamis). For He
   must reign, until He hath placed all enemies under His feet. The last enemy that shall be abolished (katargeo) is
    It is manifest by the sequence of thought that the principalities, authorities and powers which are to be destroyed
are enemies, otherwise the connection of verses 24 and 25 by the word ‘for’ loses its force. Turning to Ephesians
1:21-23 we read of the exaltation of Christ as being -
   ‘Far above every principality (arche, see above on 1 Cor. 15:27,28), and authority (exousia) and power
   (dunamis) and lordship (kuriotes), and every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in that which is to
   come: and hath put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be Head over all things to the church, which is His
   body, the fulness of Him that the all things (ta panta) with all is filling’.
    It will be at once noticed that we have the repetition of those spiritual powers which were mentioned so
particularly in 1 Corinthians 15. The epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians speak of principalities and powers
several times, and as it is evident that these are largely in view with regard to the subject under consideration, we
will take note of the passages before passing on.
   ‘To the intent that now unto the principalities (arche), and authorities (exousia) in the heavenlies might be
   known by the church the manifold wisdom of God’ (Eph. 3:10).
   ‘For we wrestle not with flesh and blood, but with the principalities (arche), with the authorities (exousia), with
   the world-rulers of this darkness, with the spiritual things of wickedness in the heavenlies’ (Eph. 6:12).
   ‘For by Him were created the all things (ta panta), the things in the heavens and the things on the earth, the
   things seen and the things unseen, whether thrones, or lordships (kuriotes) whether principalities (arche), or
   authorities (exousia), the all things (ta panta) for Him, and unto Him have been created, and He is before the all
   things (ta panta), and by Him the all things (ta panta) consist, and He is the Head of the body the church: Who is
   the Beginning, First-born out of the dead, in order that among all He might become pre-eminent; because in Him
   it was thought good that all the fulness should dwell’ (Col. 1:16-19).
   ‘Because in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. And you are filled full by Him, Who is the
   Head of every principality (arche) and authority (exousia)’ (Col. 2:9,10).
   ‘Having put off the principalities (arche), and the authorities (exousia), He made a public exhibition of them,
   having triumphed over them by it’ (Col. 2:15).
   The parallelism of these verses is worth noticing:
                         ALL   AND   ALL THINGS                                                                      40
A Eph. 1:21-23. Principalities, authorities, powers, lordships.
                Christ. Head of the body the church. Fulness.
  B Eph. 3:10.      Principalities, authorities - The church linked with the principalities.
     C Eph. 6:12.      Principalities, authorities, world rulers, spiritual things of wickedness - The believer’s
A Col. 1:16.    Principalities, authorities, thrones, lordships - Christ, Head of the body the church. Fulness.
  B Col. 2:10.      Principalities, authorities - The church linked with principalities.
     C Col. 2:15.      Principalities, authorities - The Saviour’s triumph.
    As we read these passages together it seems difficult to think that the very different references are all to the same
spiritual powers. Some we find are placed beneath the Lord’s feet (Eph. 1:22), and this position is not the place of
the members of His body - to them He is Head. These same subjected powers (being guided by the parallel in
1 Corinthians 15 and the emphasis there on enemies) seem to be the antagonizing spirits of Ephesians 6:12, and the
ones over whom the Lord triumphed by reason of the cross. Others seem to be more closely associated with the
Church. Some are learning by the Church the manifold wisdom of God (Eph. 3:10), and are linked with the Church
of the One Body by having Christ as a common Head (Col. 2:10).
    The believer has been delivered from the authority (exousia) of darkness by the Lord who is the image of the
invisible God, First-born of every creature. The meaning of the term ‘Firstborn’ is defined by the reason given in
the next sentence. He is First-born of every creature because by Him were all things created. As we ponder the
creations enumerated in Colossians 1:16 and their relation to the pre-eminence of the Son of God, it becomes
manifest that we are not dealing with such creatures as are enumerated in Psalm 8:7 -
   ‘All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field; the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever
   passeth through the paths of the sea’.
- but with mighty powers and beings over whom the Lord Jesus Christ is pre-eminent. The whole enumeration has
reference to visible and invisible dominions and spiritual powers and by comparison with the other passages
referring to the principalities, it would seem that some of these mighty beings not only antagonized the Church (Eph.
6:12) and Israel (Dan. 10), but also the pre-eminence of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and it is the reconciliation of
these ‘all things’ with which Colossians 1 is particularly concerned. Chapter 2 also shows that the opposition of
these angelic powers in reference to ‘holding the Head’ is still prominent in the inspired writer’s mind.
    It will be further observed that man is not mentioned in verse 16, for man is not included in the all things
enumerated in that verse, he is treated quite separately in verse 18, as included in the Church. The reconciliation of
the all things (ta panta) looks back to those spiritual powers on earth, or in heaven, and man is introduced into the
subject of reconciliation quite separately in verse 21.
   1 Peter 3:22 emphasizes the subjection of angelic and spiritual powers to the risen Lord:
   ‘Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities (exousia) and powers
   (dunamis) being made subject unto Him’.
   Romans 8:38,39 includes them among the possible agencies that might be thought antagonistic to the believer:
   ‘For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor
   things to come (cf. Eph. 1:21), nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the
   love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord’.
   It certainly appears that those angelic dominions are ranged under two heads, some antagonistic to the Lord and
His people, and some ranged under the Lord as Head both now and in the fulness of the seasons (Eph. 1:10).
   ‘That in the dispensation of the fulness of the seasons He might gather together under one Head the all things (ta
   panta) in the Christ, the things in the heavens and the things on the earth in Him’.
   Ta panta by its recurrence and contexts seems to be a term having in most cases a specific meaning. Those who
dismiss the subject by saying of Colossians 1:16,17,18 and 20, it reads ‘all things’ and that is enough for me, are not
                                                                                                        ANGELS      41
rendering the homage to verbally inspired Scripture that they imagine. It does not say all things, but THE all things,
and the insertion of the article at once defines and narrows the expression. The all things that are to be reconciled
are described, they are in the main creatures of which we know practically nothing. Believers are now reconciled,
but they are not included in the all things of the verse under notice.
   All things universally will be placed in subjection beneath the Lord, either beneath His feet or under Him as
Head, the narrower expression ta panta is the term used by God when speaking of the reconciliation of all things.
Let us keep close to the words of the Word. May grace be given to both reader and writer to prove all things and to
hold fast that which is good (see RECONCILIATION4 and SEED4).

ANGELS, Greek aggelos. (The double ‘g’ being pronounced ‘ng’). This word is allied with evangel and means
primarily a messenger; then in Scripture those heavenly ministering spirits known to us as ‘angels’. The word
occurs 188 times in the Greek New Testament and is translated ‘angel’ 181 times and ‘messenger’ seven times. The
word is of dispensational importance by reason of its close connection with the fortunes of Israel, and of its non-
association with any calling that is purely Gentile, such as the dispensation of the Mystery.
  The word aggelos occurs in Hebrews thirteen times. In the first chapter Christ is exalted to the right hand of the
Majesty on high being made ‘so much better than the angels’ (Heb. 1:4).
   ‘Unto which of the angels said He at any time, Thou art My Son...’ (1:5).
   ‘Let all the angels of God worship Him’ (1:6).
   ‘Who maketh His angels spirits’ (1:7).
   ‘To which of the angels said He at any time, Sit on My right hand’ (1:13).
     In the second chapter angels are associated with the giving of the Law, and we are told that the age to come has
not been put into subjection to angels. Adam, and Christ by the testimony of the prophetic Psalm 8, are seen ‘for a
little’ lower than the angels and at the Incarnation Christ ‘took not on Him the nature of angels’ (Heb. 2:2,5,7,9,16).
    In Hebrews 12:22 the heavenly Jerusalem is associated with ‘an innumerable company of angels’, and the
believer is reminded that in Old Testament times the ministry of angels was no uncommon experience (Heb. 13:2).
    When writing to the Romans, Paul mentions angels, together with ‘principalities’ (Rom. 8:38) and asked the
Corinthians: ‘Know ye not that the saints shall judge angels’ (1 Cor. 6:3), but from the dispensational point of view
it must be observed that angelic ministry among men, or the presence of angels at the exaltation of Christ, is entirely
omitted in Ephesians. There we read that when Christ was raised from the dead He was seated at the right hand of
God ‘in the heavenly places far above all principality and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is
named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come’ (Eph. 1:20,21). These ‘principalities’ are
mentioned again in Ephesians 3:10 and in 6:12, each in connection with ‘heavenly places’. Of these ‘principalities’
the Epistle to the Hebrews knows nothing.
    Angels have special reference in Scripture to the people of Israel, and they are not mentioned in the Old
Testament until after the call of Abraham and the birth of Ishmael (Gen. 16:7). Angelic ministry is associated with
the destruction of Sodom, the deliverance of Lot, the birth of Isaac, and the blessing of Jacob in the book of Genesis.
In the book of Exodus the angel of the Lord is intimately associated with the deliverance of Israel from Egypt and
with their guidance through the wilderness and so, throughout the Law, the Prophets and the Psalms, the whole
course of Israel’s history is accompanied by angelic ministry. Nor does it cease with Malachi; it is prominent in the
Gospels, being associated with the Birth, the Sufferings, the Resurrection, and the Second Coming of Christ. It is
prominent in the Acts from chapter 1 to 12, but after Acts 13, there is but one reference to angelic ministry, namely
at Acts 27:23. This isolated reference must be placed over against seventeen references that occur in the first twelve
chapters. In the Prison ministry of Paul, that is in the five ‘Prison Epistles’ angels are mentioned but once and then
only to be set aside in the passage that condemned the ‘worshipping of angels’ (Col. 2:18). In 1 Timothy 3:16
angels are mentioned in connection with the mystery of godliness and in the charge given to Timothy (1 Tim. 5:21).
We have already drawn attention to the fact that the word ‘angel’ occurs thirteen times in the epistle to the Hebrews.
                           ANGELS, FALLEN                                                                            42
    It is of interest to note that, taking Paul’s epistles together with the exception of Hebrews, the word ‘angel’
occurs thirteen times, or, if we include the passage where it is translated ‘messenger’ then fourteen times in all. It
will be seen that where the word ‘angel’ is used at the rate of one reference to an epistle in Paul’s epistles other than
Hebrews, it is used at the rate of one reference to a chapter in that epistle. Then, if we include the number of times
the word angel occurs in the epistles of Peter, Jude and the book of Revelation, we must add eighty-one more
occurrences to the number, making in all, from Matthew to Acts 12, Hebrews, and to the end of the New Testament
164 occurrences, as over against eleven occurrences in Paul’s pre-prison epistles, two in 1 Timothy and none in the
Prison Epistles!
    While we readily admit that doctrine cannot be proved by the mere number of occurrences of any particular
word, the presence and the absence of such related terms as ‘angels’ and ‘principalities’ cannot be easily accounted
for apart from purpose and intention. ‘Angels’ are ministering spirits, but by the very nature of the word
‘principalities’ hold precedence in rank, and if that difference be evident between these heavenly powers, it follows
that there must be the same difference between the callings of the two epistles that employ these terms with such
    The Hebrew believers are never said to be ‘far above’ angels, but by virtue of the revelation of Ephesians 2:6,
the Ephesian believer is seated potentially ‘far above’ even principalities. The inclusion of the word ‘angel’ in this
Alphabetical Analysis of terms used in teaching Dispensational Truth is justified by the light it throws upon the
distinctive callings of Hebrews and Ephesians. These callings are more fully discussed under the respective
headings HEBREWS2, EPHESIANS p. 275, THREE SPHERES5, ADOPTION p. 40, MYSTERY3, and other related themes.

ANGELS, FALLEN. An examination of the early chapters of Genesis most surely justifies the primeval prophecy
concerning the enmity that should exist between the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman. In this article
we hope to exhibit as far as possible the teaching and meaning of Genesis 6.
   ‘And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
   that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they
   chose’ (Gen. 6:1,2).
The fifth chapter of Genesis is ‘The book of the generations of Adam’ and his sons together with their ages are given
down to Noah and his three sons ‘And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham and Japheth’
(verse 32). At verse 9 of chapter 6 the book of the ‘generations of Noah’ is introduced which extends to Genesis
9:29 where it ends with the words: ‘And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years: and he died’. The
first eight verses of Genesis 6 belong to the previous section, ‘The book of the generations of Adam’ as the
following structure given in The Companion Bible will show:
A 5:1,2.   Unfallen Adam: a ‘son of God’ (Luke 3:38).
  B 5:3-5.     Fallen Adam, and his years. The total 930, and the first 130.
      C 5:6-27. The progeny of Adam, and their deaths.
         D 5:28-32. Noah, and his promise of ‘comfort’.
A 6:1,2.   The fallen angels: ‘sons of God’.
  B 6:3.       Fallen Adam, and his years. The total 930 and the last 120.
      C 6:4-7.    The progeny of the fallen angels, and their threatened destruction. The Nephilim.
         D 6:8.       Noah and his possession of ‘grace’.
     It will be seen that this book of the generations of Adam falls into two parts. Genesis 5:1-32 recording the
genealogy of the natural descendants of Adam, while Genesis 6:1-8 introduces the abnormal and the unnatural. In
the structure given above it is already assumed that ‘the sons of God’ are ‘fallen angels’ and that the progeny of their
illicit marriage were the Nephilim - a word left unexplained in the structure. These subjects we must now consider,
and the following sequence seems to be the most helpful.
                                                                                                  ANGELS, FALLEN        43
 (1)   Has there been a ‘fall’ among the angels?
 (2)   If so, could these angels be called ‘the sons of God’?
 (3)   In view of Luke 20:35,36 how can we speak of ‘the progeny’ of the fallen angels?
 (4)   Who and what are ‘The giants’ and ‘The nephilim’?
 (5)   What is the significance of the words ‘and also after that’? (Gen. 6:4).
    Our first question is, ‘has there been a fall among the angels?’ While the word ‘angel’ is often used without
qualification, there are a number of occasions where the writer says ‘the holy angels’, ‘the angels of God’, ‘the angel
of the Lord’, ‘His angel’, etc., that at least make it possible that there are angels, that could not be thus indicated.
We read in Matthew 25:41 of a place of punishment ‘prepared for the Devil and his angels’ and in Revelation 12:7
we read of war in heaven, Michael and his angels, fighting with the Devil and his angels, and by reason of their
defeat Satan and his angels are cast out of heaven into the earth (Rev. 12:7-13). Unless, therefore we are to believe
the monstrous doctrine that God actually created the Devil and his angels in their present state, there must have been
a ‘fall’ among angelic beings. Further, when the Devil and his angels were expelled from heaven, it does not say in
Revelation 12 that they dispersed themselves throughout the limitless spaces of the universe, it tells us that Satan at
least ‘came down’ to the inhabiters of the earth, ‘having great wrath’. It is not only a fact that angels fell, but it
seems fairly certain that fallen angels find an abode in the earth among the sons of men. The book of the Revelation
deals with the Day of the Lord and the time of the end, and like the passage in Ephesians 2:1-3, it shows that Satan,
though fallen, was not bound. With this knowledge we approach two other passages of Scripture which speak of a
fall among the angels, which, by reason of the context, compel us to fix upon Genesis 6 as the date and occasion of
their fall. The two passages are here set out side by side that they may be the better compared:

             2 Peter 2:4-6                            Jude 6,7
      ‘For if God spared not the          ‘And the angels which kept not
  angels that sinned, but cast them       their first estate, but left their
  down to hell, and delivered them        own habitation, He hath
  into chains of darkness, to be          reserved in everlasting chains
  reserved unto judgment; and             under darkness unto the
  spared not the old world, but           judgment of the great day.
  saved Noah the eighth person, a         Even as Sodom and Gomorrha,
  preacher     of     righteousness,      and the cities about them in
  bringing in the flood upon the          like manner, giving themselves
  world of the ungodly; and               over to fornication, and going
  turning the cities of Sodom and         after strange flesh, are set forth
  Gomorrha into ashes condemned           for an example, suffering the
  them with an overthrow, making          vengeance of eternal fire’.
  them an ensample unto those that
  after should live ungodly’.
     Let us note in some measure of detail the extraordinary features of these two passages. These angels ‘sinned’,
they also ‘kept not their first estate but left their own habitation’. The reader is aware that the basic meaning of ‘sin’
is ‘to miss the mark’ (Judges 20:16), and it is evident by the expansion given by Jude, that some of the angels appear
to have ‘kept not’ and ‘left’ the position allotted to them by God and to have transgressed bounds which He, the
Creator, had set. The word translated ‘to keep’ in Jude 6 is tereo. It is employed by Paul when he speaks of keeping
one’s virginity (1 Cor. 7:37), keeping one’s self pure (1 Tim. 5:22), being preserved blameless (1 Thess. 5:23). Jude
uses the word five times, as follows, ‘preserved in Jesus Christ’, ‘the angels which kept not’, ‘He hath reserved in
everlasting chains’, ‘to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness’ and ‘keep yourselves in the love of God’.
    The angels therefore failed to keep themselves pure, they failed to preserve their integrity, they failed to keep the
trust committed to them. Jude specifies the particular failure that was their sin, thus: ‘they kept not their first estate’.
Alford translates this, ‘those which kept not their own dignity’. Weymouth reads: ‘Those who did not keep the
position originally assigned to them’, and Moffatt renders the passage ‘the angels who abandoned their own
                            ANGELS, FALLEN                                                                               44
domain’. The word translated in these various ways is the Greek arche ‘beginning’ (John 1:1) and in the plural
‘principalities’ (Eph. 1:21). These angels ‘left their own habitation’. There are two words that are translated ‘to
leave’ in the New Testament. One aphiemi, which means ‘to send away or dismiss’, the other, various compounds
of leipo, which mean lack, forsake, abandon, leave behind. The word used by Jude is apoleipo ‘to leave away from
one’s self, to leave behind’. Paul uses the word of ‘the cloak’ that he had left at Troas (2 Tim. 4:13), and of
Trophimus, who had been left at Miletum, sick (2 Tim. 4:20). The word translated ‘habitation’ is oiketerion, a
derivative of oikos ‘a house’ or ‘a home’, and occurs in 2 Corinthians 5:2 where it refers to the resurrection body:
   ‘For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house (oiketerion) which is from heaven’.
    The apostle contrasts ‘the earthly house of this tabernacle’ with ‘the house which is in heaven’, and earnestly
desired the exchange. The angels that sinned left their ‘own body’, and the apostle speaking of the resurrection says
‘to every seed its own body’ (1 Cor. 15:38). Before the seed is sown it is likened to ‘bare’ grain, gymnos ‘naked’
(1 Cor. 15:37); before the oiketerion is entered, the believer is looked upon as unclothed or ‘naked’ (2 Cor. 5:3) and
these, apart from Hebrews 4:13, are the only occurrences of gymnos in Paul’s epistles. The angels, therefore, when
they left their ‘own’ (idios) body, the one that was ‘proper’ (1 Cor. 7:7), ‘private’ (2 Pet. 1:20), they descended to an
‘unclothed’ condition, or were ‘naked’. The reader will now appreciate something of what is intended in Genesis
3:1 where we read, ‘Now the serpent was more subtil’ remembering that the word translated ‘subtil’ is the Hebrew
arum, and the word translated ‘naked’ of our unclothed parents is the Hebrew word arom, both words being derived
from the same root. It would appear from the use made of such words as ‘naked grain’, ‘not being found naked’ and
the conception of the resurrection as a condition that can be described as ‘clothed upon’, that man at his creation
must be thought of likewise as ‘naked grain’, and that he would have continued as such without shame, until the
transformation took place, equivalent to resurrection, when being glorified and given his destined place above the
angels, he would then be clothed upon.
    The coming in of sin and death however exposed man to the attack of the enemy, and so the Lord ‘clothed’ our
first parents with coats of skin, symbols of the redemptive covering made by Christ until resurrection is attained. All
mankind from Adam to the end of the race are conceived of as being ‘naked’, all need the covering provided by
redeeming love, and all who attain unto the resurrection of life and righteousness will at last find themselves fully
    The fact that oiketerion is used to speak of the resurrection body of the believer and of that which the angels
sinfully left, raises a question. In what way can we speak of the ‘body’ of an angel? We must remember that the
apostle declares that ‘flesh and blood’ cannot inherit the kingdom of God, and that consequently at the resurrection
we shall all be changed. We shall not, however, exchange a body to become pure spirit, we shall exchange the body
of our humiliation, for a body like unto the Lord’s body of glory:
   ‘It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body’ (1 Cor. 15:44).
    At this, the apostle paused, realizing apparently the need for explanation, so he adds ‘there is (such a thing as) a
natural body, and there is (such a thing as) a spiritual body’. ‘A creature without any bodily form is wholly
inconceivable, since that which is created, can only work and subsist within the limits of time and space, and since it
is corporeality alone that confines the creature to time and space. God alone is infinite, an absolute Spirit. He alone
exists above and beyond time and space’ (Kurtz). ‘Only combining itself with matter, can mind bring itself into
alliance with the various properties of the external world: only thus can it find and be found, be known or employed,
be detained or set at large ... an unembodied spirit, or sheer mind is NOWHERE’ (Fleming). ‘We might as well say of
a pure spirit, that it is hard, heavy, or red, or that it is a cubic foot in dimensions, as say that it is here or there, and
that it has come and it is gone’ (Taylor).
    Amongst the ‘Fathers’ who ascribed corporeality to angels, are Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Caesarius and
Tertullian. Now if it is possible for those whose bodies are at present flesh and blood to be translated to a plane
‘like unto the angels’, then it seems equally possible for angels to descend into the lower plane and possess bodies
like unto men. When we read of the visit of the angels in Genesis 18, they are described as ‘men’, whose ‘feet’
could be washed, and who could partake of a meal composed of ‘butter, milk, cakes made on the hearth and a young
calf’ (Gen. 18:1-8). Two of these ‘men’ turned their faces towards Sodom, and are called ‘two angels’
in Genesis 19. Abraham, according to Hebrews 13:2, entertained angels unawares. There is no indication of make-
                                                                                                          ANOINTING      45
believe about the record, and this and other appearances of angels in both the Old and the New Testament confirm
the fact that they have bodies, but bodies which in their ordinary sphere are invisible to the eye of man, but which
can become visible when occasion so demands.
    We have therefore arrived at the following conclusion. Angels have sinned. The sin of the angels associated
with Noah and the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha is partly to do with the forsaking of their own proper sphere, and
of leaving the body natural to their state, and of descending to the human plane, with bodies to all appearance at
least like those of mankind. The fact that Peter connects the sin of these angels with the flood, God ‘spared not’ the
angels, He ‘spared not’ the old world, establishes one link with Genesis 6. The sons of God who saw the daughters
of men could have been angels. The items numbered 3 to 5 on page 74 are treated under the headings GIANTS2 and
NEPHILIM3 which should be consulted. For another aspect of this teaching, see IN ADAM2.

ANOINTING, Greek chrisma. This word is derived from chrio, and allied with the word Christ ‘the Anointed’, ‘the
Messiah’. The word Messiah is from the Hebrew (Dan. 9:25,26), the word mashiach means ‘anointed’ (Lev. 4:3).
The title of our Lord ‘Christ’ is not exclusive to any one dispensation. He is Lord and Saviour of all men and of all
callings, but the use of the word ‘anointing’ when it is applied to the believer is of more restricted use, and its
presence or absence indicates the character of the dispensation that is in view and it is this aspect of the subject that
must claim our attention.
   First of all we give a concordance of the two Greek words.
   Luke 4:18.     He hath anointed Me to preach the gospel.
    Acts 4:27.    Thy holy child Jesus, Whom Thou hast anointed.
  Acts 10:38.     God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost.
  2 Cor. 1:21.    And hath anointed us, is God.
     Heb. 1:9.    Hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness.
 1 John 2:20.     Ye have an unction from the Holy One.
 1 John 2:27.     The anointing which ye have received.
 1 John 2:27.     As the same anointing teacheth you.
   It will be seen that four references speak of the anointing of the Saviour and four of the anointing of the believer.
    Let us take the three references in 1 John 2. In the first place, is it universally true that every believer at all times
has this ‘anointing’? Does it refer to the experience of every believer, or is there something special about it? One of
the ways to arrive at an answer is to consider the consequence of this anointing. Among other things it rendered the
possessor independent of ‘teaching’ for he ‘knew all things’. Another way of arriving at the truth of any passage is
to discover its place in the book as a whole, in other words to note the structure, and so discern the scope (See
STRUCTURE). The simplified analysis is as follows:

   A 1:1 to 2:17. ‘That eternal life’. - A Person. The Son.
     B 2:18-29.      ‘Many Antichrists’. ‘Ye have an unction’.
         C 3:1-24.       ‘What manner of love’.
     B 4:1-6.        ‘Spirit of Antichrist’. ‘Try the spirits’.
         C 4:7-21.       ‘Herein is Love’.
   A 5:1-21.      ‘The true God and eternal life’. A Person. The Son.
   The value of this analysis is immediately evident. We are dealing with a particular experience, not one that is
general and universally true of all believers. The spirit and the teaching of Antichrist was to be met by the
supernatural gift bestowed upon the Church during the Acts period, as indicated in 1 Corinthians.
                                ANOINTING                                                                           46
       ‘ For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom;
         To another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit;
         To another faith by the same Spirit;
         To another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit;
         To another the working of miracles;
         To another prophecy;
         To another discerning of spirits;
         To another divers kinds of tongues;
         To another the interpretation of tongues’
                                                (1 Cor. 12:8-10).
   These are all ‘spiritual gifts’ (1 Cor. 12:1) and peculiar to the dispensation inaugurated at Pentecost. This fulfils
the promise of Mark 16:17-20, a promise abundantly fulfilled during the period of the Acts and the ‘unction’
especially referred to by John is that gift of ‘the discerning of spirits’.
   1 John 2:20 is the outcome of the warning given in the previous verses ‘it is the last time’, ‘Antichrist shall
come’, ‘they were not all of us’, ‘but ye have an unction ... ye know’.
   Again as a preface to the next reference to this anointing John says: ‘These things have I written unto you
concerning them that seduce you. But the anointing which ye have received ... ye need not that any man teach you’.
   In the sequel, namely in 1 John 4:1-6, instead of speaking of the anointing, John speaks of its practical
   ‘Try the spirits ... this is that spirit of Antichrist’.
    We pass from the epistle of John to the one occurrence of the word ‘anointing’ that is found in Paul’s epistles,
and here again the larger context must be considered first. 1 Corinthians 12, the all-covering words, ‘concerning
spiritual gifts’, would be as true in 2 Corinthians as they are in the first epistle. The same Church, people and
dispensation belong to both. In 1 Corinthians 1:6-8 we read:
   ‘Even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you: so that ye come behind in no gift ... who shall also
   confirm you unto the end’.
    This ‘confirmation’ is particularly associated with ‘gifts’, ‘signs and wonders’ (Heb. 2:3,4) and the same word
that is used in 1 Corinthians 1:6 and 8, namely, bebaioo, is used in 2 Corinthians 1:21 where it is translated
   ‘Now He which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; Who hath also sealed us, and
   given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts’ (2 Cor. 1:21,22).
   In Ephesians 1:13,14 we have ‘the seal’ and ‘the earnest’ but the external confirmation and anointing is omitted.
    During the Acts period confirmation of truth was miraculous, but with the passing of Israel and the opening of
the dispensation of the Mystery miraculous gifts, signs, wonders, tongues and all the other ‘manifestation of the
Spirit’ ceased. The presence or absence of ‘anointing’ in the epistles is a dispensational index. (See BAPTISM p.

   The word is taken from the Greek apostolos which occurs in the New Testament 81 times, and is translated
apostle 78, He that is sent once and messenger twice. The word is derived from apostello ‘I send’.
   This word is found both in the Greek version of the Old Testament, and in classical or common Greek used
outside the Scriptures.
   In classical Greek apostolos meant ‘a messenger, ambassador or envoy’, and, in later usage, ‘the commander of a
naval force’. This rather limited meaning of the word is further seen in the use of stolos, ‘a fleet ready for sea, a
                                                                                                      APOSTLE      47
naval squadron or expedition’. In the LXX apostolos occurs in 1 Kings 14:6 in the phrase, ‘I am sent to thee with
heavy tidings’, where ‘sent’ translates the Hebrew shalach, which immediately connects with such missions as that
of Joseph (Gen. 37:13), Moses (Exod. 3:14), and Isaiah (Isa. 6:8) and, generally, with the bearing of ‘tidings’,
whether of deliverance or judgment. The composition of the word is simple. Apo is a preposition, and, like nearly
all prepositions, carries with it a sense of motion, direction or rest. In this case the translation ‘from’ indicates
origin, motion and direction. Stello is the verb ‘to send’, and so an apostle is one ‘sent from another’.
    Apostello is used of the ‘sending forth’ of the twelve (Matt. 10:5), of John the Baptist (Mark 1:2; John 1:6), of
preachers generally (Rom. 10:15), of angels (Heb. 1:14), and of Paul (Acts 26:17). There is, however, one other
occasion where apostello and apostolos are used, that gives all subsequent apostles and messengers their true and
only authority. Both words are used of the Lord Jesus Christ. He is pre-eminently ‘The Sent one’ (1 John
4:9,10,14); He is pre-eminently ‘The Apostle’.
   ‘Consider the APOSTLE and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus’ (Heb. 3:1).
    Here, therefore, is revealed the character of the solemn office denoted by the title ‘apostle’. Here Paul’s
insistence on the use of the word ‘me’ in 2 Timothy 2:2, is carried back to another and higher use of the pronoun,
‘He that receiveth you, receiveth ME’ (Matt. 10:40) and, through Him, to the ultimate source of all authority, God
   Having therefore considered the meaning of the term apostle, we must now take the subject a stage further and
inquire into the apostleship of Paul. First we must observe any difference there may be revealed between ‘The
Twelve’ and Paul, and then collect all references that throw light upon the claim of the apostle to his office.
    First we will see how Paul’s apostleship differs from that of the twelve in one great particular. The twelve were
appointed early in the Lord’s public ministry (Matt. 10) before His Death, Resurrection or Ascension, whereas
Paul’s apostleship is referred to the time when Christ ‘ascended up far above all heavens’ whence, as the ascended
One, He ‘gave gifts unto men ... and He gave some apostles’ (Eph. 4:8-11). Here is indicated a most decided
difference between the calling of these two orders of the apostles. The difference is recognized in 1 Corinthians 15,
where the apostle gives successive witnesses to the Resurrection of Christ, among whom he numbers ‘The twelve’,
but from which company he distinguishes his own calling by adding ‘and last of all he was seen by me ... for I am
the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God’ (1 Cor.
15: 5-9). This intense humility and sense of undeservedness but heightens the fact that, in spite of all such
limitations, Paul had a distinct apostleship which even humility could not deny.
   There is another witness to Paul’s distinct apostleship which should weigh with us all, especially with any who
deny or object to emphasis upon his distinctive calling: it is the testimony of Peter, James and John, recorded in
   ‘When they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision
was unto Peter; (for He that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty
in me toward the Gentiles:) and when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that
was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen
(Gentiles), and they unto the circumcision’ (Gal. 2:7-9).
    The apostleship of Paul is a distinct order, and must not be confused with ‘the twelve’. One outstanding
difference is that already cited from Galatians 2, another is made evident in Ephesians 4:
   ‘And He has given some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;
   for the readjustment of the saints, with a view to (the) work of ministry, with a view to the building up of the
   body of Christ’ (11,12).
These are the gifts and their purpose.
    In 1 Corinthians 12, where the gifts are set out in detail, there is an inspired enumeration; firstly, secondly,
thirdly. This order must be so placed for a purpose. To discount it is to despise the inspired Word; to add to it is to
take unwarranted liberty. Before Acts 28 this is the God-given order:
                                APOSTLE                                                                            48
   First, apostles.
   Secondarily, prophets.
   Thirdly, teachers.
   After that, miracles.
   Then, gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues (1 Cor. 12:28).
   This order is repeated in the verse that follows.
   The order in Ephesians 4 however is:
       (1)    Apostles.      (3)    Evangelists.
       (2)    Prophets.      (4)    Pastors and Teachers.
   The third one here is the evangelist whilst the teacher joined with the pastor is fourth. No other gifts follow, as
they do in 1 Corinthians 12:28; we are evidently dealing with a different ministry.

APOSTLES. These were given after He had ‘ascended up on high’. Which of the apostles were thus given? In
Matthew 10:2-4 we read:
   ‘Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother;
   James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican;
   James the son of Alph -us, and Leb -us, whose surname was Thadd -us, Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot,
   who also betrayed Him’.
   Before the Lord ascended He was seen ‘of the twelve’ (1 Cor. 15:5). This therefore includes Matthias, for Judas
never saw the risen Lord, and Matthias was a ‘witness of His resurrection’, and was ‘numbered with the eleven’
(Acts 1:15-26).
    In any attempt to demonstrate the unique apostleship of Paul the case of Matthias is sure to intrude, and his place
among the apostles must be settled before the way is clear to consider more intimately Paul’s own claims. We turn
to Acts 1:15 to 2:13, which is the section containing the appointment of Matthias, and note first of all the structure:
A 1:15,16. a In those days.
             b The 120.
                 c Together (epi to auto).
                    d The Holy Ghost (to pneuma to hagion).
                        e Spake by mouth of David.
   B 1:17-19. f       Dwellers at Jerusalem (katoikeo).
                      g In their proper tongue (te idia dialekto auton).
       C 1:20-26. The appointment of Matthias.
                     The 12 Apostles.
A 2:1-4.      a The day of Pentecost.
                b All (i.e., the 12).
                   c In one place (epi to auto).
                      d Holy Ghost (pneuma hagion).
                          e Began to speak.
   B 2:5-8.       f   Dwellers at Jerusalem (katoikeo).
                      g In his own language (te idia dialekto auton).
       C 2:9-13.      The representative nations.
                         The 12 Countries.
                                                                                                       APOSTLE      49
                                     Paul’s Apostleship, Gospel and Authority
   It is clear that the appointment of Matthias is most intimately related to the making up of ‘the twelve’.
    While we may give assent to the evidence of our eyes and agree that there is a verbal connection between the
passages, it may not be very evident wherein the deeper connection thus indicated consists. Let us therefore look
further. It is very evident that the apostle Peter and those who gathered with him realized that the gap in the number
of the apostles occasioned by the fall of Judas was a matter for immediate concern. Of all things that it might have
been expected would claim consideration and prayer consequent upon the Ascension of the Lord, the last to enter
our unassisted minds would have been the matter of Judas and his successor. Not so the apostles. They were to
tarry at Jerusalem and once more preach the kingdom. Should Israel repent and the kingdom be set up, the Lord
would fulfil His promise that the twelve apostles should sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
While, however, the number of the apostles was incomplete it could not be said, ‘all things are ready’ (Matt. 22:4),
therefore we can appreciate the fact that the apostles were rightly concerned about this matter.
    The Jews gathered at Jerusalem to keep the feast were not, so far as is revealed, representative of the complete
twelve tribes: all that is said is that they were gathered from the surrounding nations, and an examination reveals that
the number of the nations was twelve. That is sufficient for the purpose: the link between Acts 1 and 2 is made
evident, and the theme of this section, the restoration of Israel, is advanced. Whether Israel would repent and the
kingdom be set up at that time, none of the apostles knew. It was not for them to know times and seasons. They
were witnesses, and fully equipped for their work.
    But in spite of the evident fitness of these two sections, there are those who maintain that Matthias was not
appointed by God but by man, and that Peter and the rest were prompted by a zeal that was not according to
knowledge. The matter is of great importance and must therefore be considered. Let us give heed to the word as we
examine the matter. First of all, can we be certain that Peter was right when he said that the Psalms he quoted
referred to Judas? We believe we can. But a few days before the Lord Himself had said:
   ‘I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread
   with me, hath lifted up his heel against Me. Now I tell you before it come, that when it is come to pass, ye may
   believe that I am He’ (John 13:18,19).
   Here the Lord not only quoted the Psalm as of Judas, but emphasized the point that He was informing them
before it came to pass in order that their faith might be strengthened at the accomplishment of the event. Now it had
come to pass, and they believed.
   In addition to this we have recorded in Luke 24:44-48 the fact that the Lord not only passed in review the Old
Testament Scriptures, including the Psalms, and dealt with those passages that spoke of Himself, but that He also
‘opened their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures’. When therefore Peter said, ‘This Scripture
must needs have been fulfilled’, he was but repeating the lesson of Luke 24:26 and 46, for the self-same words there,
‘ought’ and ‘behoved,’ are translated ‘must needs be’ in Acts 1:16.
    Even though it may be agreed that Peter’s quotation of the Psalm was appropriate, it is possible that some may
entertain the suspicion that in selecting but two men the apostles were limiting the Lord. We shall, however, find,
upon examination, that there was an important reason for this limitation. Referring once more to our Lord’s own
instructions, we read:
   ‘But when the Comforter is come, Whom I will send unto you from the Father ... He shall testify of Me: and ye
   also shall bear witness, because YE HAVE BEEN WITH ME FROM THE BEGINNING’ (John 15:26,27).
The apostles were evidently acting with this qualification in mind, for Acts 1:21,22 reads:
   ‘Wherefore of these men which have companied with us ALL THE TIME that the Lord Jesus went in and out
   among us, BEGINNING FROM THE BAPTISM OF JOHN, unto that same day that He was taken up from us, must one
   be ordained to be a witness with us of His resurrection’.
   It was therefore not a matter of piety, learning, or fitness of character; what was essential was capacity to bear
personal testimony.
                                 APOSTLE                                                                        50
   It is generally taught that the words ‘that he might go to his own place’ (Acts 1:25), mean that Judas had been
consigned to hell or perdition, but the passage bears another sense and should read:
   ‘... show whether of these two Thou hast chosen, that he may take part of this ministry and apostleship (from
   which Judas by transgression fell) that he might go to his own place ... and he was numbered with the eleven’.
    The fact the Holy Spirit made no difference between Matthias and the rest of the apostles should silence all
objection. That Paul himself speaks of ‘the twelve’ as separate from himself is eloquent testimony to the accuracy
of the inclusion of Matthias among the twelve (1 Cor. 15:5). In face of these facts we believe that the appointment
of Matthias was in complete harmony with the will of God, and that of necessity, therefore, Paul was an apostle of
an entirely distinct and independent order.
   The structure of Galatians 1 is a testimony to the independent apostleship of Paul, which we will now exhibit.
                                         Paul’s Apostleship, Gospel and Authority
                                                      Galatians 1:1-24
                                             Key words ‘Not’, ‘Neither’, ‘But’.
                                               Not of men.
A 1:1-5. Independent APOSTLESHIP.              Neither by man.
                                               But by Jesus Christ.
   B 1:6-10.‘Ye received’.
                                               Not after man.
A 1:11,12. Independent GOSPEL.                 Neither received nor taught.
                                               But by revelation.
   B 1:13,14. ‘Ye heard’.
                                               Not flesh and blood.
A 1:15-17. Independent AUTHORITY.              Neither apostles.
                                               But unto Arabia.
   B 1:18-24. ‘They had heard’.
   There is a remarkable parallel between Galatians and 2 Corinthians where the issue once again is the validity of
Paul’s apostleship
              Galatians                             2 Corinthians
  ‘Seemed to be somewhat’ (2:6).            ‘The extra super apostles’
  ‘Another gospel’ (1:6-9).                 ‘If he that cometh preacheth
                                            another Jesus ... another spirit
                                            ... another gospel’ (11:4).
  ‘False brethren’ (2:4).                   ‘False brethren’ (11:26).
  ‘He Who wrought effectually in            ‘For I suppose I was not a whit
  Peter ... the same was mighty in          behind the very chiefest
  me’ (2:8).                                apostles’ (11:5).
  ‘I am afraid of you, lest I have          ‘For I fear, lest, when I come, I
  bestowed upon you labour in               shall not find you such as I
  vain ... I desire to be present with      would’ (11:3; 12:20).
  you now, and to change my
  voice; for I stand in doubt of
  you’ (4:11,20).
  ‘I have confidence in you                 ‘I rejoice therefore that I have
  through the Lord, that ye will be         confidence in you in all things’
                                                                                                      APOSTLE      51
  through the Lord, that ye will be     confidence in you in all things’
  none otherwise minded’ (5:10).        (7:16).
  ‘From henceforth let no man           ‘Forty stripes save one, five
  trouble me: for I bear in my body     times: thrice beaten with rods:
  the marks of the Lord Jesus’          once stoned: thrice ship
  (6:17).                               wrecked’ (11:24,25).
  ‘Behold, before God, I lie not’       ‘The God and Father of our
  (1:20).                               Lord Jesus Christ, which is
                                        blessed for evermore, knoweth
                                        that I lie not’ (11:31).
  ‘If ye bite and devour one            ‘If a man devour you ...
  another, take heed that ye be not     backbitings, whisperings,
  consumed one of another’ (5:15).      swellings, tumults’ (11:20;
  ‘As we said before, so say I now      ‘I told you before, and foretell
  again, If any man preach ... ‘        you, as if I were present, the
  (1:9).                                second time’ (13:2).
  ‘Having begun in the Spirit, are      ‘That as He had begun, so He
  ye now made perfect by the            would also finish (perfect) in
  flesh?’ (3:3).                        you the same grace also’ (8:6).
  ‘For in Christ Jesus neither          ‘Therefore if any man be in
  circumcision availeth any thing,      Christ, he is a new creature’
  nor uncircumcision, but a new         (5:17).
  creature’ (6:15).
   The departure from the truth both doctrinally and practically in both churches is closely connected with doubting
and denying the apostleship of Paul and the truth of his gospel. The self-same departure can be unhesitatingly
deduced from the same cause today.
    While a more complete list of parallels would be helpful, our immediate concern is with the revived controversy
regarding the apostle Paul. In 1 Corinthians we realize that the elements of division are present; parties rally round
the names of Paul, Apollos, Cephas, and even Christ. It is evident that the apostleship of Paul had been seriously
questioned at Corinth, as Chapter 9 makes most manifest:
   ‘Am I not an apostle? am I not free? have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? are not ye my work in the Lord? If I
   be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the SEAL OF MINE APOSTLESHIP are ye in the Lord.
   Mine answer to them that do examine me is this, Have we not power (a right) to eat and to drink? Have we not
   power (a right) to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and
   Cephas? Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power (the right) to forbear working? ... If others be partakers of
   this power (right) over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power (right); but suffer all
   things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ ... when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel of Christ
   without charge, that I abuse not my power (do not use to the full my right) in the gospel. For though I be free
   from all men, yet have I made myself servant (enslaved) unto all, that I might gain the more. And unto the Jews
   I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law ... to them that are
   without law, as without law ... To the weak became I as weak ... I am made all things to all men, that I might by
   all means save some’ (1 Cor. 9:1-22).
    This utter abandonment of self for the good of others was used against the apostle by the Judaizing party. In
2 Corinthians 12:12 he tells them that all the signs of an apostle were wrought among them, except this one thing,
that the apostle abstained from his right of being supported by them. ‘Forgive me this wrong’, he says, ‘I will very
gladly spend and be spent for you, though the more abundantly I love you, the less I be loved’. There a heavy heart
                                APOSTLE                                                                             52
is manifested for all the brave exterior. Quoting from the slanders in circulation about him, he repeats, ‘But be it so,
I did not burden you; nevertheless, being crafty, I caught you with guile’ (verse 16). Hardly are the words penned
than the apostle’s whole being revolts against the charge. Away with the thought. ‘Did I make gain of you by any of
them whom I sent unto you? I desired Titus, and with him I sent a brother; did Titus make gain of you?’ (verses 17
and 18).
    2 Corinthians 11 and 12 are occupied much in the same way as Galatians 1 and 2. The apostle, with much
diffidence, calling his defence ‘folly’ and ‘foolish boasting’, is again plunged into the defence of his ministry, and
the unchivalrous contention with Peter and others. The literary structure will again simplify the subject and keep us
to the chief point:

                                              2 Corinthians 11 and 12
A 11:1-4. The real deceiver. The Serpent; ‘subtility’ (panourgia).
  B 11:5,6. KNOWLEDGE. ‘Not one whit behind the extra super apostles’.
     C 11:7-21. SELF-ABASEMENT.                 Ministers of Satan.
         D 11:22.      EQUALITY.     As to advantages of birth and religion.
         D 11:23-33. SUPERIORITY. As to labour and sufferings.
     C 12:1-10. VISIONS and REVELATIONS. A messenger of Satan.
  B 12:11,12. SIGNS.          ‘Not one whit behind the extra super apostles’.
A 12:13-18. The false charge. ‘Being crafty’ (panourgos).
    While, therefore, the false teachers were saying of Paul that being crafty he caught them with guile, Paul exposes
the real deceiver in the Serpent. And his servants - ministers of Satan, false apostles on the one hand and a stake in
the flesh, a messenger of Satan, on the other hand, intensified the sufferings both mental and physical of the apostle
to the Gentiles. The necessity of saving the Corinthians from the bondage of the Judaizers was urgent. Once more
the apostle lays bare that which modesty would for ever have covered.
 (1) His equality with the apostles of the circumcision.
        ‘Are they Hebrews?                            So am I
         Are they Israelites?                         So am I
         Are they the seed of Abraham?                So am I’
 (2) His superiority as to labours and sufferings.
     ‘Are they ministers of Christ                 I am MORE
         In labours MORE abundant
         In stripes ABOVE measure
         In prisons MORE frequent
         In deaths OFT
     Of the Jews FIVE times received I forty stripes save one,
         THRICE was I beaten with rods,
         ONCE was I stoned,
         THRICE I suffered shipwreck,
     A DAY AND A NIGHT have I been in the deep;
     In journeyings OFTEN,
     In perils of waters, robbers, mine own countrymen,
         heathen, city, wilderness, sea, and false brethren;
         in weariness and painfulness, in watchings OFTEN;
         in hunger and thirst, in faintings OFTEN,
         in cold and nakedness;
         besides those things which are without,
         that which cometh upon me daily,
                                                                                                         APOSTLE       53
       Who is weak, and I am not weak?
       Who is offended, and I burn not?’
   Twice does the apostle use a term that is reminiscent of Galatians 2, ‘the very chiefest apostles’ - ‘extra super’ as
one has well rendered it - and he follows the line of Galatians 2 where he not only establishes equality with Peter,
James, and John, but in the case of Peter, shows that he had to withstand him to the face. But in 2 Corinthians the
apostle not only says ‘so am I’, but also ‘I more’.
    It was for the establishing for all time of the personal integrity and the absolute apostleship of Paul, the apostle to
the Gentiles, that the Acts of the Apostles was written: and in humbler form, and in faulty fashion, but with the same
end in view, this Analysis is largely penned. To rehabilitate Paul as the minister of the risen and ascended Christ to
the Gentiles would of itself revolutionize Christianity today. We entertain no vain hopes, however. A little
company has always guarded the sacred deposit, and will do so until the dispensation closes, but the generality of
Christians care for none of these things.
   On occasions Paul makes the specific claim that he was the apostle of the Gentiles.
   ‘I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office’ (Rom. 11:13).
   ‘I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in
   faith and verity (truth)’ (1 Tim. 2:7).
   ‘I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles’ (2 Tim. 1:11).
    Paul clearly recognized two things. He knew and taught that there was but one Lord, one Mediator, one Head,
one Offering, one Saviour, Jesus Christ, and that he was but an earthen vessel, a planter, and in comparison
‘nothing’ (1 Cor. 3:7). On the other hand, he knew and taught that he was a chosen vessel, that neither Peter, James
nor John had received the commission that he had received, and while he could not and would not magnify himself,
he could and did magnify his office, for as one that had been chosen, separated and sent to the Gentiles he had no
option but to faithfully discharge so solemn a trust.

APPEARING, Greek epiphaneia. This word which occurs six times is derived from phaino to appear, bring to light,
     2 Thess. 2:8.   ‘The brightness of His coming’.
     1 Tim. 6:14.    ‘The appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ’.
     2 Tim. 1:10.    ‘The appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ’.
       2 Tim. 4:1.   ‘His appearing and His kingdom’.
       2 Tim. 4:8.   ‘Them also that love His appearing’.
       Titus 2:13.   ‘The glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ’.
    This subject is part of a greater one, namely the coming of the Lord, and the relationship of the Hope entertained
by the believer, the calling he has received, and the sphere of his blessing. It must be related with the other key
words parousia and apocalupsis which are dealt with under the word HOPE2. All that we will say here is that
whereas parousia is used to define the hope of the kingdom (Matt. 24:3) and of the Church of the Acts period
(1 Thess. 4:15, 2 Thess. 2:1), epiphaneia is reserved for the hope of the Church of the Mystery.
    The one occurrence in an epistle before Acts 28, is no exception. ‘His coming or parousia’ is the subject and in
this passage ‘brightness’ or epiphaneia but qualifies that ‘coming’, whereas after Acts 28 parousia is dropped and
‘the appearing’ is used of the first phase of the Second Coming, a phase that belongs to things above where Christ
sits on the right hand of God, and not to the second sphere which is associated with the Archangel and the air. These
aspects are fully discussed in the main article HOPE2 to which the reader is directed.
ARCHANGEL. The place that angels occupy in the outworking of dispensational truth, their presence in the epistle to
the Hebrews, the paucity of reference to angels in the epistles of the Mystery and their particular association with the
destiny of Israel, have been discussed under the headings ANGELS p. 69, HEBREWS2 and HOPE2. The present note is
in the form of a supplement and is concerned only with the term ARCH-angel.
    ‘Arch’ is the Anglicized form of the Greek arche, beginning, chief, first, and was once used independently as the
reference to Shakespeare will show:
   ‘My worthy arch and patron comes tonight’ (King Lear ii. 1).
There are but two references to ‘the archangel’ in the Scriptures, namely:
   1 Thess. 4:16.    ‘The voice of the archangel’.
         Jude 9.     ‘Yet Michael the archangel’.
From Jude we learn that the archangel is ‘Michael’ a Hebrew name meaning ‘who is like God?’ and so keeping the
challenge of the ages to the forefront. Michael is spoken of in the two great Apocalyptic Prophecies, Daniel and
  Dan. 10:13.    ‘But, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes’.
  Dan. 10:21.    ‘And there is none ... but Michael your prince’.
   Dan. 12:1.    ‘At that time shall Michael stand up’.
   Rev. 12:7.    ‘Michael and his angels fought against the dragon’.
Michael is called ‘one of the chief princes’, ‘Michael your prince’, and ‘the great prince which standeth for the
children of thy (Daniel’s) people’ (Dan. 10:13,21; 12:1), and so the ‘Prince of the kingdom of Persia’ and the
‘Prince of Grecia’ (Dan. 10:13,20) must be angelic powers too.
   In Daniel, Revelation and Jude, Michael leads the attack upon Satan and his agents, which culminates at the
Second Coming of Christ (1 Thess. 4) and the deliverance of Israel (Dan. 12:1,2).
    The fact that the apostle introduces the terms ‘the voice of the archangel and the trump of God’ into the
Thessalonian hope, links the hope with Israel and severs it from the church of the Mystery. The hope of the Mystery
is entirely disassociated from the time of trouble and the deliverance of Israel, from the advent of the Man of Sin and
the accompaniments of flaming fire and the taking of vengeance, all of these are definitely linked with the hope of
the Thessalonians and the period prior to Acts 28.
   For a fuller exposition of the hope, and its relation to the three spheres of blessing, see THREE SPHERES5 and


ASCENSION. The Greek word anabaino is translated ‘ascend’ ten times and ‘ascend up’ eight times. It occurs
altogether 81 times and is translated arise, climb up, come, come up, come up again, enter, go up, grow up, rise up,
spring up and, with epi, go upon.
                                    The eight occurrences translated ‘ascend up’
  Luke 19:28.    ‘Ascending up to Jerusalem’.
   John 3:13.    ‘No man hath ascended up to heaven’.
   John 6:62.    ‘What and if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up’.
    Eph. 4:8.    ‘When He ascended on high’.
   Eph. 4:10.    ‘The same also that ascended up far above all
     Rev. 8:4.   ‘The smoke ... ascended up before God’.
                                                                                                        ASCENSION 55
  Rev. 11:12.    ‘They ascended up to heaven in a cloud’.
  Rev. 14:11.    ‘The smoke of their torment ascendeth up’.
   While evangelical believers rightly stress the fundamental place that the Crucifixion, the Burial, the Resurrection
and the Coming again of the Saviour must ever occupy, the supreme importance of the Ascension seems to have
been missed.
    The only gospel of the four that omits the Ascension is Matthew, but this is in harmony with its teaching
concerning the kingdom of heaven. Should any think that the Ascension is omitted also from John by the fact that it
does not occur in the last chapter, we commend a reading of chapter 20. Not only did the Lord Himself make
reference to His approaching death and Resurrection, He also spoke on more than one occasion of His Ascension:
   ‘No man hath ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in
   heaven’ (John 3:13).
   ‘The Jews then murmured at Him, because He said, I am the bread which came down from heaven. And they
   said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? how is it then that He saith, I came
   down from heaven? ... Doth this offend you? What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where He was
   before?’ (John 6:41,42,61,62).
    Here we touch the most vital subject of the Scriptures, nothing less than the very mystery of godliness. That this
is not simply the figurative expression of an enthusiast, turn to 1 Timothy 3:16 and note the opening and closing
items, ‘Great is the mystery of godliness, God was manifest in the flesh ... received up in glory’. It will be seen by
comparing John 6:42 with the Lord’s own answer and this revelation in 1 Timothy 3:16, that the deity of Christ, His
assumption of flesh, the finishing of His work, and His resumption of glory are deeply involved. To omit this
consummation of the mystery of godliness is to give place to the satanic mystery of iniquity, which with
blasphemous pretensions likewise places a ‘man’ upon the throne of deity (2 Thess. 2:3-12).
   The Ascension of Christ was the grand testimony of Scripture to the fact that His work was finished:
   ‘I have finished the work which Thou gavest Me to do ... and I COME TO THEE’ (John 17:4,11; cf. John 13:3).
   The Ascension of Christ is the basis of the believer’s victory during the present conflict:
   ‘Who is he that condemneth? Is it Christ that died? yea rather, that is risen again, Who is EVEN AT THE RIGHT
   HAND OF   GOD? Who also maketh intercession for us. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall
   tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? ... Nay, in all these things we
   are more than conquerors through Him that loved us’ (Rom. 8:34-37 Author’s translation).
   The fact that Christ has ascended enables the believer not only to triumph over such mundane things as famine or
nakedness, but ‘death, life, angels, principalities and powers’ also, for Peter declares of Christ that He ‘is gone into
heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto Him’ (1 Peter
3:22). The finished work spoken of in John 17 in connection with the Ascension bulks large in the epistle to the
Hebrews. In two of the references the mystery of godliness is in view:
   ‘Hath in these last days spoken unto us in Son ... when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down on the right
   hand of the Majesty on high’ (Heb. 1:2,3).
   ‘A body hast Thou prepared Me ... this man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the
   right hand of God’ (Heb. 10:5,12).
    In both of these passages the same sequence is observable as in 1 Timothy 3:16, ‘manifest in the flesh ...
received up in glory’. Hebrews 8:1 says:
   ‘Now of the things which we have spoken THIS IS THE SUM (PRINCIPAL THING): we have such an high priest, Who
   is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens’.
   Connected with this ascended position is the blessed assurance of an ‘uttermost salvation’:
                               ASCENSION                                                                               56
   ‘Wherefore He is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by Him, seeing He ever liveth to
   make intercession for them’ (Heb. 7:25).
    The key-word of Hebrews is ‘perfect’, and the great exhortation (Heb. 13:20,21) is found in the words of
Hebrews 6:1, ‘Let us go on unto perfection’. The word ‘perfect’ is allied to the word ‘end’, and the scriptural
conception of perfection is not that which goes by the name of ‘sinless perfection’, but of reaching the end for which
one has been saved, as Paul puts it in Philippians 3:12, ‘Not as though I had already attained, either were already
perfect, but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus’. We have
said all this because the ‘uttermost salvation’ is that which goes to the full ‘end’ or ‘all the way’, and without the
ascended Christ this full salvation would be in jeopardy. While it suffices for Acts 1:9 to say, ‘He was taken up, and
a cloud received Him out of their sight’, this is not sufficient for the epistle to the Hebrews. That epistle says:
   ‘Seeing then that we have a great High Priest, that is PASSED INTO (THROUGH) the heavens ‘ (Heb. 4:14).
   ‘For such an High Priest became us, Who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made HIGHER
   THAN  the heavens’ (Heb. 7:26).
   ‘For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into
   HEAVEN ITSELF, now to appear in the presence of God for us’ (Heb. 9:24).

    While it may not be possible to fix the date of the epistle to the Hebrews, its very title ‘to the Hebrews’, as well
as its references to the people of Israel, tells us that dispensationally it does not belong to a period that is peculiarly
Gentile in character. Right through the Acts of the Apostles we see a controversy that necessitates the clear-cut
teaching of Hebrews to prevent a Judaized form of Christianity swamping the truth. In Romans and Galatians the
opposition comes from the Jew, with his works of law. In the last chapter of the Acts we reach a crisis. Israel in the
dispersion act precisely as Israel at home had acted, and there in Acts 28 we witness the removal of that people,
‘until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in’. It does not require a profound knowledge of Scripture to realize that
the removal from the scene of such a people as Israel must precipitate a crisis, and involve very drastic changes in
God’s dealings with men. It is here where the Ascension of Christ becomes of such fundamental importance.
Rejected by Israel, He now rejects Israel, and His claims upon the earthly sphere of God’s purposes are temporarily
suspended, being put into force when the ‘mystery of God’ shall be finished (Rev. 10:7), in a yet future day.
    We now know, through the revelation given in such epistles as Ephesians and Colossians, that God in His
wisdom had fully provided for Israel’s defection, and in direct connection with the ascended Christ He revealed,
after Acts 28, in those epistles which are called for convenience ‘The Prison Epistles’ (Ephesians, Philippians,
Colossians, and 2 Timothy) a mystery or secret which was planned and purposed ‘before the foundation of the
world’ (Eph. 1:4), and ‘before age times’ (2 Tim. 1:9), which mystery concerns a company of believers taken mainly
from among the Gentiles, who were ‘chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world’, and made a ‘joint body’
(Eph. 3:6), blessed with all spiritual blessings ‘in heavenly places’ (Eph. 1:3), created as ‘one new man’ (Eph. 2:15),
and with no middle wall of partition to perpetuate the distinction between Jew and Gentile (Eph. 2:14). All these
blessings are intimately and inseparably connected with the ascended Christ. ‘Heavenly places’, the sphere of these
new blessings, is defined as the place where Christ ascended after His Resurrection, ‘far above all principality and
power’, etc. (Eph. 1:20,21), and this unique company of believers are told that not only are they ‘raised up together’
but made to ‘sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus’ (Eph. 2:6). A new ministry, with a definite work in
connection with this new company, was given by the ascended Christ:
   ‘When He ascended up on high, He ... gave gifts unto men ... and He gave some, apostles ... for the edifying of
   (building up) of the body of Christ’ (Eph. 4:8-12).
   Parts 6 and 7 of this Analysis will be devoted to DOCTRINE as distinct from DISPENSATIONAL matters. Where the
exposition appears to fall short in the Dispensational Section (parts 1 to 5), the reader may find a fuller treatment in
parts 6 and 7.
                                                                                                        BABES        57

BABES. When making known the wonders of Dispensational Truth, the reader must remember the stultifying nature
of prejudice and tradition, and act accordingly. It is manifestly unreasonable to attempt to erect ‘The Ephesian
Temple’ without first being assured that the foundation stones of the great doctrinal epistle ‘To the Romans’ are well
and truly laid. One element that has barred the way to fuller teaching, even from the days of the apostles
themselves, has been that of spiritual immaturity. This immaturity is likened to infancy, and can be (1) the
legitimate condition which attaches to the state of infancy and so must be allowed for both regarding method and
subject matter; but the term is also applied to (2) that state of infancy which is by no means synonymous with
innocency, and is indeed the result of carnal-mindedness (1 Cor. 2,3), ‘dullness of hearing’ (Heb. 5) and spiritual
obstinacy (Heb. 6).
    Two words are used in the Greek New Testament for ‘babe’, brephos and nepios. Brephos occurs eight times,
but one occurrence only has any bearing upon the subject before us, namely 1 Peter 2:2, where the apostle exhorts
believers ‘as newborn babes’ to desire the sincere milk of the Word, that they may grow thereby. Here is infancy in
its innocence and its charm, milk as its natural food, and growth the consequence. Nepios is composed of the
negative ne and epo ‘to speak’ just as the Latin infans is from in ‘not’ and fans ‘speaking’. This word occurs
fourteen times in the Greek New Testament and always in a figurative setting or sense.
                                                       (all references)
     Matt. 11:25.    ‘Thou ... hast revealed them unto babes’
                          (cf. Luke 10:21).
     Matt. 21:16.    ‘Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings’.
      Rom. 2:20.     ‘A teacher of babes’.
      1 Cor. 3:1.    ‘As unto babes in Christ’.
    1 Cor. 13:11.    ‘When I was a child ... child ... child ... child
                       I put away childish things’.
        Gal. 4:1.    ‘As long as he is a child’.
        Gal. 4:3.    ‘When we were children’.
       Eph 4:14.     ‘No more children, tossed to and fro’.
       Heb. 5:13.    ‘He is a babe’.
    This figure of the babe is placed over against ‘the spiritual’ (1 Cor. 3:1), ‘the perfect’ or adult (1 Cor. 2:6; Eph.
4:13; Heb. 5:14 margin). There is a marked parallel between the usage of the babe and the perfect in 1 Corinthians
2,3 and Hebrews 5,6 as the following will show:
         1 Corinthians 2,3                         Hebrews 5,6
     Babes                     3:1.          Babes                    5:13.
     Milk                      3:2.          Milk                     5:13.
     Meat                      3:2.          Meat                     5:14.
     Perfect                   2:6.          Perfect                  5:14,
     Fire                     3:13.          Fire                      6:8.
     Foundation               3:11.          Foundation              6:1,2.
   Some things cannot be taught because the hour for their revelation may not have come. In this sense we
understand the Lord’s words when He said:
   ‘I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now’ (John 16:12),
but this reservation was not because of any dullness or obduracy on the part of the apostles. The Lord Himself here
recognized the legitimacy of ‘Dispensational Truth’. So, in measure, must the language of Paul be understood when
he spoke of the period when miraculous gifts were enjoyed as compared with the day of perfect knowledge, saying:
                               BABYLON                                                                             58
   ‘Whether there be prophecies, they shall fail ... but when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part
   shall be done away. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but
   when I became a man, I put away childish things’ (1 Cor. 13:8-11).
    It should be noticed that the words in italics, are all translations of the one Greek word katargeo ‘to put away or
to annul’. In 1 Corinthians 2,3 and Hebrews 5 there is a great stress upon the spiritual responsibility of those who
were addressed as ‘babes’. The apostle says that the Corinthians were ‘carnal’, and consequently could only be fed
on milk, although to the perfect or the full grown he had much deeper and richer teaching to give. So, the apostle
found it well-nigh impossible to say all that he might have done concerning the Melchisedec priesthood of the Lord,
not because of any failure or ignorance on his part, but because they had become dull of hearing. It is impossible to
respond to the exhortation ‘let us go on unto perfection’ if we remain babes and take only the milk of the Word, and
many a Christian who objects to the advanced revelations of the Mystery, is but making it manifest that he still
needs ‘the first principles of the oracles of God’, and cannot ‘leave the word of the beginning of Christ’ (Heb. 6:1
margin) and usually becomes entrenched in the four gospels, and looks with suspicion upon any attempt to take the
Lord’s words of John 16:12 to heart, and to seek those other things of which He has now spoken since His
Ascension and session at the right hand of God.
    The goal before the Church of the Ephesians is that of the ‘perfect man’ as opposed to the spiritual condition of
babes, who are easily deceived and tossed about with every wind of doctrine. Dispensational Truth settles and
establishes rather than unsettles the believer and he is enabled thereby to comprehend with all saints, its breadth,
length, height and depth, and be filled up to all the fulness of God.

BABYLON, its place in the purpose of the ages.
    While Dispensational Truth must take cognizance of the vaster sweep of the purpose of the ages, it manifestly is
only a department or subdivision of that great theme, and any endeavour to make this analysis comprehend all that is
included in the purpose of the ages, would defeat our prime object. We are primarily concerned with the present
dispensation, and must touch upon other dispensations in order that, by observing their very differences, we shall be
enabled to appreciate those peculiar blessings that belong to our present high calling. We therefore deal with the
gospels, with the Acts, with Pentecostal gifts, with the various aspects and spheres of the blessed hope.
    Babylon is not actually mentioned in any of the apostle Paul’s writings, it figures largely in the book of the
Revelation in the New Testament and occupies a great place in the prophets of the Old Testament. The only places
where what may be called Babylonianism enters into Paul’s epistles, are where in Romans 1:21-32 the moral
consequences of this great opposing system are reviewed, and where in 2 Timothy 3:1-4 they are envisaged as
reappearing in the last days, when Babylon and its awful teaching will come once more to a head under the
dictatorship of the Man of Sin. If 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 be studied with Revelation 13, it will be seen that there
again Babylonianism is referred to.
    Most of what Paul has been inspired to write concerning Babylonianism comes under the heading of ‘the lie’
pseudos, sometimes translated ‘lying’. This word pseudos is found in Romans 1:25, Ephesians 4:25 and
2 Thessalonians 2:9-11. The present dispensation, as we shall see later, is a parenthesis, and its last days will lead
up to the awful conditions which characterize the close of Gentile dominion that is set forth in such books as Daniel
or the Revelation. They lead up to, but do not belong, for the dispensation covered by the Day of the Lord, lies
outside the scope of the dispensation of the Mystery. We have included this brief reference to Babylon and its place
in the purpose of the ages to show that even though we cannot turn aside and deal with Prophecy, its importance
cannot be overlooked without loss and possible disaster. The same is true regarding doctrine, for without the great
truths of redemption, justification, and life in Christ, Dispensational Truth must be but a tantalizing mockery. We
must, however, respect the limits of our present attempt and leave much that would be of profit, unsaid. See the
article entitled LIE2.
                                                                                                       BAPTISM      59
    According to Galatians 3:27-29, baptism was a levelling and a unifying incorporation of the believer into Christ,
whereas, the history of the professing Church shows that the question of baptism has been the cause of much
bitterness, strife and division. The Evangelical rightly repudiates the Ritualist, yet both find ‘texts’ that appear to
justify their contrary opinions. We believe that much of the disputation that has torn the Church, has arisen out of
the failure to discern the dispensational differences that mark the several ministries of the New Testament.
    In the consideration of this subject, sufficient attention to the Old Testament does not appear to have been given,
and to commence our examination with the Baptism of John, is like attempting to decipher an inscription with the
first half of the alphabet unknown. The word baptizo is found in the LXX of the Old Testament twice and of the
Apocrypha twice also, namely in 2 Kings 5:14, Isaiah 21:4, Judith 12:7 and Syrack 34:27. Bapto occurs eighteen
times, and baptos once, namely in Ezekiel 23:15. The earliest reference is in the book of Job where he speaks of
being ‘plunged’ into a ditch (Job 9:31), and the latest references are found in Daniel, where we read that
Nebuchadnezzar’s body was ‘wet’ with the dew of heaven (Dan. 4:33; 5:21). The two occurrences of baptizo are of
interest. One is used of Naaman when he ‘dipped’ himself in Jordan (2 Kings 5:14), the other is a figurative use of
the word that anticipates the Saviour’s statement concerning His own baptism of suffering (Isa. 21:4), where the
A.V. ‘fearfulness affrighted me’ is rendered by the LXX ‘transgression overwhelms me’, literally ‘baptizes me’.
    The word bapto is found nine times in the law of Moses, where it is used of dipping in blood, or in oil, or in
water (Exod. 12:22; Lev. 4:6; 14:6; Num. 19:18 and Deut. 33:24). While the references in the New Testament to
Pharisaic traditions do not take us back to any Old Testament passage, they do indicate that baptism is in no sense a
New Testament rite or custom (Mark 7:8, Luke 11:38), and the inquiry by the Pharisees of John the Baptist was not
to ask the meaning of baptism, but why he baptized if he were neither Christ, Elijah nor that prophet? (John 1:25),
which again shows clearly that baptism was no new thing.
    However, there are three references to the Old Testament that must be considered before we can hope to handle
the New Testament references with any certainty.
 (1) The reference to the Ark and the Flood (1 Peter 3:21).
 (2) The crossing by Israel of the Red Sea (1 Cor. 10:2).
 (3) The carnal ordinances of the tabernacle (Heb. 9:10).
    Peter’s employment of the waters of the flood and the antitype, baptism, presents in any circumstances a
difficulty, but this is magnified if we approach Peter and attempt to interpret him as though he were Paul.
    ‘The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us’. After making all allowances, Peter will still be
seen to affirm that ‘baptism saves’. Now if we turn to Acts 2, we shall find Peter saying to his hearers: ‘Repent and
be baptized every one of you ... for the remission of sins’ (Acts 2:38). While Peter’s words are difficult to square
with the gospel of the grace of God as preached by Paul, they are in entire harmony with the commission of Mark
   ‘He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved’ (Mark 16:16).
    We have no warrant to reverse the Divine order here. An evangelical Baptist believes and teaches, that faith is
followed by salvation, and that it is a command to the saved believer, that he be baptized. This teaching whether true
or false cannot be identical with Mark 16. Moreover, the command concerning baptism is followed by a promise
‘these signs shall follow (not may follow) them that believe’; which signs did follow during the period covered by
the Acts but do not follow to-day. While baptism provided an initiatory rite, enabling a convert from either Judaism,
or from Paganism to make his conversion evident, we do not read either in the Acts or in the epistles, of anything
comparable to the baptism of infants, or the baptism of believing children. There must have been many families of
the faithful that had believing children during the period covered by the Acts, yet no instance is found of the baptism
of those who were already in the atmosphere as it were of the Christian faith, and no instruction is found to guide
either parents or ministers in this matter. This but emphasizes the initiatory character of the rite, and speaks against
its perpetuation. In connection with Peter’s preaching on the day of Pentecost, it is natural to connect Acts 22:16 :
   ‘And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord’.
60                               BAPTISM                                                                            60
    While Paul here told his Jewish hearers, speaking in the Hebrew tongue, what Ananias told him to do, there is no
indication in the actual record of Acts 9, that Paul obeyed. In Acts 9 Ananias is called a disciple, but here, because
of the fanatical character of his hearers, Paul tells them that Ananias was ‘a devout man according to the law, having
a good report of all the Jews which dwelt there’ (Acts 22:12). Now Ananias was both a disciple and a devout man
according to the law, but the official and inspired record written by Luke in Acts 9 omits all reference to this side of
his character. Paul was not disobedient to the heavenly vision, as we know, but there is no record or hint anywhere
that he obeyed the suggestion of Ananias. Had such a baptism formed an integral part of Paul’s commission, we
should have found it in Acts 9 or in one of the references he makes to that epoch-making experience.
   The crossing by Israel of the Red Sea is the occasion of the second New Testament reference to the Old
     ‘All our fathers were ... baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea’ (1 Cor. 10:1,2).
Here is an Old Testament baptism often overlooked in controversy, a baptism from which ‘water’ was rigourously,
nay miraculously excluded.
     ‘The children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground’ (Exod. 14:22).
     ‘The children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea’ (Exod. 15:19).
     ‘He turned the sea into dry land: they went through the flood on foot’ (Psa. 66:6).
     ‘That led them through the deep, as an horse in the wilderness’ (Isa. 63:13).
    This baptism was ‘unto Moses’, even as in its fuller sense, the baptism of the New Testament was ‘unto Christ’
but 1 Corinthians 10:1,2 prefigures the baptism of the spirit, not immersion in water, for as we have already seen the
Scripture seems to go out of its way to impress upon us the absence of water at this time. The third reference to Old
Testament usage of baptism is in Hebrews 9. There the tabernacle and its service is reviewed, and the conclusion is
‘The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first
tabernacle was yet standing: which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and
sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience; which stood only in
meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation’ (Heb.
    The divers ‘washings’ are ‘baptisms’ and include the many specified washings of the priests in the performance
of their duties, the washings at the purifying of the leper and others who contracted any form of defilement. These
‘baptisms’ are summed up under the heading ‘carnal ordinances’ and they were ‘imposed until the time of
reformation’. One such ‘baptism’ is immediately considered in fuller detail, and the contrast is made between ‘the
ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean’, not with a better, that is to say Christian ordinance of baptism, but with
‘the blood of Christ’ (Heb. 9:11-14). Among the words of the beginning of Christ, which these Hebrews were
exhorted ‘to leave’ not ‘lay again’, are ‘the doctrine of baptisms’ (Heb. 6:2), these being among the elements that
were to be left behind as the believer pressed on unto perfection.
     The New Testament teaching concerning baptism is distributed thus:

 1.     John the Baptist. This baptism falls under two headings:
      (a) It was a baptism unto repentance, in view of the near approach of the kingdom of heaven (Matt. 3:1,2).
      (b) It was the work of John as the forerunner prophesied of by Isaiah in the fortieth chapter of his prophecy.
      (c) It was concerned only with Israel or with those who joined themselves to Israel, as the words ‘Comfort
          ye’ of Isaiah 40 were concerned.
      (d) It was a baptism in water, that spoke of a future baptism with Holy Ghost and with fire.
      (e) It was specifically designed to make manifest to Israel the One Who was sent to be their Messiah (John
 2.     The baptism with the Holy Ghost promised by John was fulfilled at Pentecost (Acts 1:5).
 3.     During the Acts, water baptism and the baptism of the Spirit went together (Acts 2:38; 10:47).
                                                                                                        BAPTISM      61
 4.    During the first ministry of the apostle Paul, baptism by water was practised (1 Cor. 1:16), but baptism never
       held the place in Paul’s commission (1 Cor. 1:17) that it did in that of Peter (Acts 2:38). Peter could never
       have said: ‘Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel’ as Paul did.

   Baptism during the early ministry of Paul:
      (a)   united the believer by burial with the death of Christ (Rom. 6:3,4).
      (b)   united Jew and Gentile making them ‘all one in Christ and Abraham’s seed’ (Gal. 3:27-29).
      (c)   baptizing these believers into one body, with particular reference to the exercise of spiritual gifts (1 Cor.
            12:13). The structure of 1 Corinthians 12 and its teaching is set out at large in the article entitled
 5.    After Acts 28, and the revelation of the Mystery we enter into a calling where shadows give place to the
       reality of the fulness of Christ (Col. 2:17).
   Baptism in the epistles of the Mystery is either that which unites the believer with the death and Resurrection of
Christ (Col. 2:12) or by which the believer becomes a member of the Church which is His body (Eph. 4:5).
    Owing to the failure on the part of expositors and teachers to discern the change of dispensation consequent upon
the setting aside of Israel at Acts 28, there has been a failure to discern the extreme difference that exists between
baptism as taught in the earliest part of the New Testament, or even in the earlier epistles of Paul and as it is taught
in the epistles of the Mystery.
   The following diagram may help the reader to visualize the movement observable throughout the New
Testament in connection with this subject of baptism.
       John Baptist              Acts Period               Mystery

    Galatians 3:19 asks a question: ‘Wherefore then serveth the law?’ and the answer is: ‘It was superadded’
(prostithemi). The Galatians were turning back to the weak and beggarly elements of the ceremonial law. ‘Now
that this law was not promulgated in the first instance to the Jewish people, but was a superaddition to the
antecedent moral law is a matter of universal notoriety. It is well-known (says Whitby) that all these ancient fathers
were of the opinion, that God gave the Jews only the Decalogue, till they made the golden calf, and afterwards He
laid the yoke of ceremonies upon them’. ‘The law was superadded (assuming the translation which is most suitable
to Charin) in behalf of transgressions being ordained in the hand of a mediator’ (Glynn).
    The Christian Church has fixed its attention so much upon these superadded carnal ordinances and have
modelled their doctrine of baptism so much upon these things which were imposed until the time of reformation that
they have given little or no place to the one great baptism, which was not added because of transgressions but was
an integral part of the Redemption of the nation, namely the baptism of the whole nation unto Moses at the Red Sea.
That is the type that remains for us today, all others are carnal ordinances that have no place in the present economy
of pure grace.
   The baptism of Colossians 2 is not likened to anything that was introduced into the Aaronic priesthood or
tabernacle service, it is likened to the initiatory rite of circumcision. Now in Colossians 2 this circumcision is the
                                 BETTER                                                                              62
spiritual equivalent of that practised by the Jew, it is explicitly said to be ‘the circumcision made without hands’, and
repudiates ‘the body of the flesh’ (sin is not in question, the revised text omits the words ‘of the sins’), and this is
accomplished ‘by the circumcision of Christ’. Now until it can be proved that the circumcision here emphasized is
the literal carnal ordinance, the consequential burial by baptism will have to be understood of the spiritual equivalent
too, and finds its type, not in the many baptisms of the ceremonial law, but in the one baptism of the whole nation at
the crossing of the Red Sea. This ‘one baptism’ forms an integral part of the Unity of the Spirit, which those who
are blessed under the terms of the Mystery are enjoined to keep. The seven parts of this unity are so disposed, as to
throw into correspondence the One Baptism in the One Spirit, thus:
                                                    One Lord
                    One Hope         One Faith
             One Spirit                    One Baptism
           One Body                            One God and Father
    This sevenfold unity is composed of seven units - and to tamper with the repeated word ‘one’ is to deny
inspiration and to destroy the apostle’s insistence. We can no more believe that ‘one’ baptism means two, i.e.,
‘water and spirit’ than we can import plurality into the realm of faith, hope or the Lordship of Christ. It is the
custom of those companies of Christians who stress baptism in water, to call themselves ‘baptized believers’. It is
also, unfortunately the habit of many who see the spiritual nature of baptism in Colossians and Ephesians to allow
this claim, but such are wrong. Members of the One Body are ‘baptized believers’ for without this one baptism
membership of the One Body is impossible. To speak otherwise is to magnify the carnal ordinance that pertains to
the ceremonial act, above the spiritual reality. The truth is that no company in the New Testament. has ever known
what true baptism really is, except that Church where baptism in water is absent and unknown.
    While much more could be said, the articles in this alphabetical analysis are necessarily limited, but we believe
every essential feature has been considered so that the reader can pursue the matter in detail with every hope of
attaining unto fuller light. The special relation of baptism with the enduement of supernatural gifts, will be
considered together with 1 Corinthians 12 as a whole under the heading MIRACULOUS GIFTS, to which the reader
should refer.

     Explanatory note on Baptism, written by Charles H. Welch and originally published in Part 4 of An
                                                Alphabetical Analysis.
    Owing to the character of articles in an Analysis, some features may not receive the expansion that could be
wished. There is no thought in this article that Paul was not baptized, the whole point being focused in the phrase
‘Had SUCH a baptism ...’ referring to the baptism of Acts 2:38 and 22:16 which links baptism with the remission of,
or the washing away of sins. Had Paul submitted to SUCH, he would have started off his distinctive ministry on the
wrong foot. Paul’s attitude in 1 Corinthians 1:14-17 shows that ‘washing away of sins’ had no place in what
baptism involved in his ministry.
BETTER. The adjective ‘good’ does not form the comparative with ‘gooder’ but goes to another root (probably from
‘boot’ e.g., ‘what boots it?’) and gives us ‘better’. In the Greek this word is either kreisson or kreitton, the spelling
varying with locality, age and custom, but without altering the meaning. The word occurs nineteen times in the
Greek New Testament being translated in every case except one, by the comparative ‘better’, the exception being
1 Corinthians 12:31 where the A.V. reads ‘best’ and the R.V. reads ‘greater’. The word is used with reference to
dispensational superiority in one book, namely in the epistle to the Hebrews, where it can be looked upon as one of
the key words of the epistle (see HEBREWS2 for structure and general teaching). The word occurs thirteen times in
Hebrews. The great thought in Hebrews is that of going on unto perfection (Heb. 6:1) and of realizing the
superiority of Christ to angels, Moses, Aaron, Joshua and all the Old Testament witnesses put together.
    Together with this we have a better testament or covenant, than was given at Mount Sinai (Heb. 7:22; 8:6) which
is established on better sacrifices and is the guarantee of better promises and a better hope (Heb. 8:6; 7:19).
    This better hope is related to a better country and a better city namely the heavenly (Heb. 11:16), and the same
principle that adds ‘the prize of the high calling’ to the hope of that calling, and associates it with ‘the
out-resurrection’ (Phil. 3:11), is seen in Hebrews 11:35 where we see some attaining to ‘a better resurrection’. (For
a fuller treatment, see PRIZE3, OUT-RESURRECTION3 and PHILIPPIANS3). The general trend of the dispensations is
                                                                                                       BIRTHRIGHT 63
that the one that succeeds has been better. Consequently we may translate Philippians 1:10, ‘approve things that are
excellent’ as the A.V. or ‘try the things that differ’ as indicated in the margin. This therefore is an encouragement to
the reader, an incentive ‘to go on’. If the calling announced in the gospels is blessed, that which we find in the
epistles is more so.
    And if the calling in the early epistles of Paul reveals the wondrous association of the believer with the
Crucifixion, Death and Resurrection of Christ, the Prison Epistles take us higher, until the believer is not only
‘quickened’ and ‘raised together’ but ‘seated together’ in heavenly places. It is good, therefore, to present this fact
to any newcomer to Dispensational Truth, so that timidity or fear of losing something already held, shall not rob
them of the better things that still await the faith of God’s elect.

BIRTHRIGHT . Much that is implied by the word ‘birthright’ will be found in the article entitled ADOPTION (p. 40),
but as the word birthright has a place in the unfolding of the message of Hebrews, some attention must be given to it
here. The Greek word translated ‘birthright’ in Hebrews 12:16 is prototokia, and the Greek word translated
‘firstborn’ in Hebrews 12:23 is prototokos, and these two words are the foci of the structure of Hebrews 12:15-25,
which we here set out.

                                                  Hebrews 12:15-25
   A 12:15.   a Looking diligently.
                 b Lest any man fall back.
     B 12:16,17.    The birthright bartered (Prototokia).
        C 12:18-21.    Ye are not come. SINAI.
        C 12:22,23.    But ye are come. SION.
     B 12:23,24.    The birthright enjoyed (Prototokos).
   A 12:25.   a See.
                 b Lest ye refuse.
    The earlier part of Hebrews 12, namely verses 5-14 deals with sons, and of what all sons are partakers. The
second part of Hebrews 12, namely verses 15-25 deals with firstborn sons and with the special blessings to which
the firstborn may attain. Here comes the example of Esau. Esau for one morsel of meat sold his birthright. The
Philippians on higher ground but in a parallel case were warned about those whose ‘god is their belly’ in the same
chapter that speaks of pressing on to the prize of the high calling (Phil. 3).
     Mount Sion is first mentioned in Scripture in 2 Samuel 5:7. It was a stronghold, and held out against the people
of Israel, even though Jerusalem itself had fallen to them. When David however was crowned king over all Israel,
Joab as an overcomer, effected an entry into Sion and it became the city of David. Those who press on, as the
Hebrews were exhorted to, those who run as the Philippians were exhorted to, they find their place in the heavenly
Sion. Those who do not sell their birthright for a few moments of ease in this life, find their inheritance among the
church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven. (For fuller and further light on this aspect of truth, see PRIZE3,

BLESSING. The character of a dispensation may be gathered by considering its sphere, whether earth, heaven, or far
above all, the company blessed, whether a nation, a kingdom or a church, and the character of a dispensation can
also be estimated by the kind of blessings that belong to it. We can assess fairly accurately the calling of Israel as
we read Deuteronomy 28.
   ‘Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field. Blessed shall be the fruit of thy body,
   and the fruit of thy ground, and the fruit of thy cattle, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep.
   Blessed shall be thy basket and thy store’ (Deut. 28:3-5).
                                BLESSING                                                                                64
    There is not the slightest warrant today that a Christian farmer can claim these blessings. It would be impossible
and undispensational to attempt to gauge the spiritual stature of a Christian farmer or business man to-day by the
number of his cattle, or by the stock he carries in his store. Indeed the reverse might well be the true gauge, that as a
man’s spiritual life developed, so there would be every possibility that his bank balance would decrease. The word
translated blessing in the New Testament is the Greek eulogia, a word that means primarily ‘to eulogize or to speak
well’ of anyone. Although the number of occurrences exceeds our limit (ten) by but one, we will provide a
concordance to all these references.

                                                   Eulogia ‘Blessing’.
     Rom. 15:29.     ‘The fulness of the blessing’.
    1 Cor. 10:16.    ‘The cup of blessing’.
       Gal. 3:14.    ‘The blessing of Abraham’.
        Eph. 1:3.    ‘All spiritual blessings’.
        Heb. 6:7.    ‘The earth ... receiveth blessing’.
      Heb. 12:17.    ‘He would have inherited the blessing’.
        Jas. 3:10.   ‘Out of the same ... proceedeth blessing’.
       1 Pet. 3:9.   ‘That ye should inherit a blessing’.
    Rev. 5:12,13;
             7:12.   ‘Blessing’ ascribed to the Lord.
   Eulogia occurs in all, eighteen times, translated blessing, bounty, bountifully and fair speeches.                  The
concordance given is limited to the translation ‘blessing’.
    The two references that stand out from this list, and reveal themselves as markers of dispensational import are
Galatians 3:14 and Ephesians 1:3. Under Galatians 3:14 it is clear that the gospel blessings enjoyed during the Acts,
were not associated with any mystery that had never before been revealed, but were traceable back to the promise of
God made to Abraham. This is true of the great foundation doctrine of justification by faith. When we turn
however to Ephesians 1:3, we are presented with an entirely different and new state of things. While we would not
suggest that the word ‘blessing’ should not be used by us to-day when speaking of the glorious doctrine of salvation,
or the wondrous providence of God, it is nevertheless true to say that the word is used with some restriction in the
New Testament. Twice of the gospel, once in connection with the Lord’s supper, and once to describe the blessings
that belong to the high calling of the Mystery.
    All spiritual blessings. As the passage stands in the A.V. the word blessing is in the plural, but in the original it
is in the singular. ‘In (or with) every blessing (that is) spiritual’. The word translated ‘all’ is pas, and when it is
used of one it means ‘the whole’, ‘entire’ or ‘all the ...’ but if pas be used to cover several items, it means ‘every’.
Thus pasa polis means ‘every city’, pasa he polis or he pasa polis ‘the whole city’, while he polis pasa would have
a slightly different meaning, either ‘the city, all of it’ or ‘the city, every part’. The Church of the Mystery is ‘blessed
with every blessing that is spiritual’. If the total number of the blessings with which the Church is blessed were say
four or forty - they could still be defined as ‘all spiritual’ whereas the mind reels in its endeavour to grasp the fact
that there is no blessing that is spiritual, that is omitted from this gift of grace. We shall never in this life appreciate
or realize a tithe of what is here so freely bestowed. The word ‘spiritual’ is the Greek word pneumatikos derived
from pneuma ‘spirit’, which in its turn derives from the root which means ‘breath’, and so is allied with the Hebrew
conception as expressed in the word ruach. Pneumatikos occurs three times in Ephesians.
        Eph. 1:3.    ‘Every blessing that is spiritual’.
       Eph. 5:19.    ‘Hymns and spiritual songs’.
       Eph. 6:12.    ‘Spiritual wickedness’.
    Without the balance that these occurrences provide, we might be tempted to equate the word ‘spiritual’ with all
that is good, but this is rendered impossible by Ephesians 6:12. We cannot speak of ‘good wickednesses’. We look
therefore in the context for the antonym, and find it in the words ‘flesh and blood’. It is evident therefore in this
passage at least, that the term ‘spiritual’ is used in opposition to the term ‘corporeal’, and this is what we find
elsewhere. ‘For we know that the law is spiritual (pneumatikos): but I am carnal (sarkinos)’ (Rom. 7:14). ‘For if the
Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things’
(Rom. 15:27). ‘The natural man (psuchikos) ... but he that is spiritual (pneumatikos)’ (1 Cor. 2:14,15). ‘It is sown a
natural body, it is raised a spiritual body’ (1 Cor. 15:44). It is evident from this usage that ‘spiritual blessings’ are
supernatural blessings, far above such things as ‘basket and store’. Blessings for our pilgrimage are comparable
with the guarantee to Israel while journeying to Canaan, that the manna should not fail them nor should their shoes
wax old, but these pilgrim mercies are not included in ‘every blessing that is spiritual’, that is to confound the manna
of the wilderness, with the old corn of the land (Josh. 5:11,12).
    A confirmation of this peculiar nature of ‘every spiritual blessing’ is found in the added clause ‘in heavenly
places’. This is the sphere in which they are bestowed and to be enjoyed. In an orderly exposition we should now
proceed to expound what these words mean, and should also be obliged to go on and consider the bearing of
Ephesians 1:4, ‘before the foundation of the world’ has upon that unique character. These considerations, however,
in this Analysis must be deferred and dealt with in their place, and the reader will find them dealt with under the
heading HEAVENLY PLACES2 and FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD8. Suffice it for the moment to conclude that the
blessings of Ephesians 1:3 are unique both in their character, spiritual, their sphere, in heavenly places, and their
inception, before the foundation of the world.

    The Greek word soma which is translated ‘body’ in the New Testament occurs 147 times, and is translated
‘body’ in all passages except two where it is rendered ‘slave’ (Rev. 18:13) and ‘bodily’ (2 Cor. 10:10). In the
majority of cases soma refers to the actual physical body (Matt. 5:29; 26:12), in some cases it refers to the spiritual
body that shall be given in resurrection (1 Cor. 15:35,37,44). With these aspects of the term we are not immediately
concerned. The word ‘body’, however, is used in 1 Corinthians, Ephesians and Colossians of a believing company
or church, and to these references we now turn. The references in 1 Corinthians to the body as a company or church
are found in chapters 10 to 12. This company are made one body by baptism.
   ‘For by one spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or
   free; and have been all made to drink into one spirit’ (1 Cor. 12:13).
   During the same dispensation and referring to the same baptism, the same apostle wrote of the same company:
   ‘For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there
   is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ’s,
   then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise’ (Gal. 3:27-29).
   The one body therefore of 1 Corinthians 12 is a realization of the promise made to Abraham, and must not be
confused with that which had at that time never been revealed. We must not attempt an exposition of 1 Corinthians
12 without referring to 1 Corinthians 10, for to do so will be fatal to a true understanding:
   ‘Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and
   all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and did all eat the same
   spiritual meat; and did all drink the same spiritual drink’ (1 Cor. 10:1-4).
    1 Corinthians 12 not only opens with desire that the reader should not be ignorant, there is the similar emphasis
on the word ‘same’, ‘The same spiritual meat’; ‘The same spiritual drink’ (1 Cor. 10:3,4). ‘The same spirit’; ‘The
same Lord’; ‘The same God’; ‘The same spirit’ (1 Cor. 12:4,5,6,8,9). To refuse to compare these passages and be
guided by this comparison is to set aside the principle of interpretation already laid down in Chapter 2:12. Not only
are these repetitions of the desire that the Corinthians should not be ignorant, and the stress upon ‘the same’, but
there is also the emphasis upon eating and drinking:
   ‘They did all eat the same spiritual meat: and did all drink the same spiritual drink’.
   ‘Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?’ (1 Cor. 10:18).
   ‘Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils’ (1 Cor. 10:21).
                                  BODY                                                                                66
   ‘Take, eat: this is My body’. ‘As often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till
   He come’ (1 Cor. 11:24,26).
   These passages cannot be separated from the reference in 1 Corinthians 12:13.
   ‘For by one spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or
   free; and have been all made to drink into one spirit’.
    The basis of the argument of the apostle in 1 Corinthians 10 to 12 is the baptism of all Israel unto Moses, and
their consequent share in the ‘spiritual’ meat and drink that followed. When he comes to expand and apply this in
1 Corinthians 12, he opens the subject by saying: ‘Now concerning spiritual gifts’ showing that he is now about to
develop the typical significance of the ‘spiritual’ meat and drink which ‘all Israel’ enjoyed. Consequently he calls
upon all to recognize that while there are most certainly diversities of gifts, or differences of administrations or
diversities of operations, these all come from the same Spirit, the same Lord, and the same God. In short the ‘body’
of 1 Corinthians 12 cannot be separated from the typical history of Israel, nor from the possession and use of
spiritual gifts. To make it evident that spiritual gifts are the feature of this chapter, let us note the following facts:
 1.    In the opening verse the apostle introduces the subject with the words ‘Now concerning spiritual gifts’.
 2.    In verses 2 and 3 he differentiates between those spiritual gifts which are from God, and those that belong to
       the evil one.
 3.    Having subdivided his subject, he now deals specifically with those gifts which are of God.
 4.    In verses 5-11 he sets out in much detail the diverse nature of these spiritual gifts, enumerating among others
       ‘healing’, ‘miracles’, ‘prophecy’, ‘tongues’ and ‘interpretation’. But, however diverse these gifts may be he
       takes us back to their one and only source, ‘But all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit dividing to
       every man severally as He will’ (1 Cor. 12:11).
 5.    Extending this idea, the apostle immediately introduces the figure of the body:
           ‘For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are
           one body, so also is the Christ’ (1 Cor. 12:12).
 6.    This is followed by a reference that links this theme with the baptism of Israel unto Moses and the Red Sea:
           ‘For by one spirit are we all baptized into one body . . . and have all been made to drink one spirit’ (1 Cor.
 7.    From this develops the remainder of the argument, which speaks of the human body, with its eye, its hand, its
       foot, and even its ‘uncomely parts’, which proves that ‘the Church which is His body’ is not in view, for
       there are no ‘uncomely parts’ there, and of that body Christ alone is the head, whereas, here we have as many
       references to the various functions of the head (eye, ear, nose) as of the rest.
 8.    To demonstrate that these ‘members’ of the body refer to the distribution and functioning of ‘spiritual gifts’
       observe the following feature:
           ‘But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased Him’ (1 Cor.
       ‘And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that
           miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues’ (1 Cor. 12:28).
    Here then is the employment of the figure of the ‘body’ definitely related to the type of Israel’s baptism unto
Moses, definitely related to the possession and the exercise of spiritual gifts, definitely related to the promise made
to Abraham, but entirely unrelated to a church, whose members were chosen before the foundation of the world, a
church where ‘spiritual gifts’ are unknown, a church whose very existence was a mystery unrevealed when
1 Corinthians was written. The student who observes the frontiers set up by Dispensational Truth will never appeal
to 1 Corinthians 10 to 12 as a passage which speaks of the Church of the one body of Ephesians. We turn now to
the epistles of Paul, written after Acts 28:28 written to make known the truth of the Mystery, in order that we may
obtain information concerning the Church which is called the Body of Christ.
   First let us see the distribution of the word ‘Body’ in Ephesians.
The Body

       A 1:23.     The Church which is His Body.
         B 2:16.      Reconciliation.
            C 4:4.       The One Body.
               D 4:12.      Gifts for building up.
                   E 4:16.      Fitly framed together.
               D 4:16.      Members for growth.
            C 5:23.      Christ the Head.
         B 5:28.      Love.
       A 5:30.     The Church and members.

    Two passages fall within the doctrinal section, namely Ephesians 1:23 and 2:16, the remaining seven being
found in the practical section, chapters 4 and 5. Let us examine the doctrinal passage first, as these will supply the
fundamental teaching of Ephesians concerning the ‘Body’. These references to the Church the Body, are not
isolated, but form an integral part of the contextual argument, and just as we found the ‘Body’ of 1 Corinthians 12,
vitally and inseparably connected with Moses, Israel, Abraham and spiritual and miraculous gifts, so we shall find
the reference to the Body in Ephesians 1:23 vitally and inseparably connected with the exaltation of the Saviour ‘Far
above all’. There are seven sections in the doctrinal portion of Ephesians, and Ephesians 1:23 falls within the third
of these subdivisions. (For the complete structure of Ephesians, see the article entitled EPHESIANS p. 275). The
following is its analysis:
                                                Ephesians 1:19 to 2:7
A a 19.    Energy (energeia energeo). Mighty power.
    b 20.     Wrought in Christ.
        B c 20.      Raised HIM. Heavenly places.
           c 20,21. Seated HIM. This age or the coming one.
           c 22,23. Gave HIM.
              C The Church THE BODY. THE FULNESS.
A a 2:1,2. Energy (energeo). Prince of power of air.
    b 2:2,3. Wrought in sons of disobedience.
        B c 4,5. Quickened US. Heavenly places.
           c 6.      Raised      US. The ages to come.
           c 6,7. Seated         US. In heavenly places.

    It is evident from this passage that the Church of the one Body is vitally and inseparably connected with Christ
in His exaltation ‘far above all’ ‘in heavenly places’. Under the heading HEAVENLY PLACES2,6 this peculiar sphere
of blessing is discussed. It is sufficient here to say that this sphere is never spoken of in connection with any other
calling but that of the Mystery, which fact of itself lifts the Church of the one Body which is associated with it, into
a distinct place in the purpose of the ages, not to be confused with the promises made to Abraham or any other age
purpose that belongs to lower realms. These heavenly places are further defined as ‘far above all principality and
power’ (Eph. 1:21), ‘far above all heavens’ (Eph. 4:10). It is where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God (Eph.
1:20), and the superlative and marvel of grace is that this Church of the one Body is reckoned by God not only to be
‘raised together’ but also ‘seated together’ in those self-same heavenly places ‘in Christ Jesus’ (Eph. 2:6).
   Then further, the title ‘the Body’ is not the final title of this blessed company. The full measure of grace and
glory is realized when we read: ‘The church which is His body, the fulness of Him that filleth all in all’ (Eph.
1:22,23). When the import of this world ‘fulness’ is perceived (see the article entitled THE PLEROMA3) then
something of the place of this company of the redeemed will be realized. The second reference, namely Ephesians
2:16 will be found treated in the articles entitled MIDDLE WALL3 and RECONCILIATION4 and the references to the
one body in Ephesians 4:4 and 16 will be considered in the article entitled UNITY OF THE SPIRIT5. Finally the
                          BRIDE   AND   BODY                                                                      68
references to the Body in Ephesians 5 should be read in the light of the teaching assembled in the article entitled
THE BRIDE AND THE BODY (see below). Sufficient has been brought forward to demonstrate the unique character of
this high calling, which makes it impossible when once seen to confuse this Church of the Body with the references
already considered in 1 Corinthians 10 to 12.

BOTH. This word and the synonymous ‘twain’ of Ephesians 2:14-18 fall within the teaching arising out of the
reference to ‘The Middle Wall’ and the article under that heading should be consulted, as also the structure of
EPHESIANS (p. 275), together with the articles on RECONCILIATION4, NEW MAN3 and ORDINANCES7. It would
necessitate going over the ground already covered by these articles to deal with the term ‘both’ of Ephesians 2:14

                                         THE BRIDE AND THE BODY
Dr. R. A. Hadden wrote:
   ‘It is assumed almost universally that the Church of the present dispensation is at once the "Body of Christ" and
   "the Bride" ... Traditional theology, unscriptural hymnology, amazing disregard for correct interpretation,
   intolerant zeal for dogmatic human opinions together with careless defective instruction, have united for
   generations in perpetuating a phase of teaching possessing no foundation in or authority from Holy Scripture and
   perpetrating a system that plunges multitudes of believers in dire confusion concerning the plan, purpose and
   programme of God for "the Church which is His Body" as distinct from the Divine purpose concerning another
   outcalling known as "the Bride, the Lamb’s wife"‘.
Sir Robert Anderson wrote:
   ‘Is the Church the Bride of Christ? Let us begin by correcting our terminology. In the Patmos visions we read of
   "The Bride, the Lamb’s wife", but "the Bride of Christ" is unknown to Scripture ... With the close of the
   Baptist’s ministry, both the Bride and the Lamb disappear from the New Testament until we reach the Patmos
   visions. In Revelation 21, the angel summoning the Seer to behold "the Bride" the Lamb’s wife, and he showed
   him "the Holy Jerusalem descending out of heaven from God". The twelve gates of the city bear the names of
   the twelve tribes of the children of Israel, and on the twelve foundations are "the names of the twelve apostles of
   the Lamb" ... it is the city for which Abraham looked ... These apostles of the Bride are not the apostles who
   were given after the Ascension for the building up of the Body of Christ - the apostles of this Christian
   dispensation, chief among whom was Paul. They are the twelve apostles of the Lord’s earthly ministry to Israel,
   who shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel’ (Matt. 19:28).
    These two quotations contain enough to make the present investigation both serious and imperative. We have
already seen, in the article entitled BODY (p. 119), sufficient evidence for believing that the Church thus
denominated in Ephesians 1:22,23, is unique, is entirely disassociated from the hope and calling of Israel, and was
indeed hidden in the mind of God, unrevealed even in His Word, until the present dispensation of the Mystery
followed the dismissal of Israel in Acts 28.
    If we call upon the Old Testament to bear a witness to the Church which is His BODY the answer is silence.
Such a company and such a relationship is unknown. If, however, we call upon the Old Testament to bear a witness
to a company of redeemed, that are likened to either wife or bride, the answer is affirmative and very full. When
Jeremiah prophesied of the institution of the New Covenant, he said, ‘not according to the covenant that I made with
their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt: which My covenant they
brake, although I was an husband unto them’. This supposes that under the terms of the old covenant, Israel were
related to the Lord as a wife to an husband. This is recognized by Ezekiel who wrote, namely in Ezekiel 16:7-14.
The figure employed, ‘I spread my skirt over thee’ when compared with Ruth 3:9 reveals the marriage relationship,
which is explained by Ezekiel as entering into a ‘covenant’ and ‘prospering as a kingdom’.
   The charge laid against Israel, however, is that they proved unfaithful to their marriage vow, Ezekiel likened
them to ‘a wife that committeth adultery’ (Ezek. 16:32) and says that Israel will be judged ‘as a woman that breaketh
                                                                                               BRIDE   AND   BODY    69
wedlock’ (Ezek. 16:38). The phrase, which has become common in modern matrimonial lawsuits, ‘breach of
promise’, is used by God of Israel in Numbers 14:34; and divorcement is employed by Jeremiah to set forth this
people’s unhappy position.
   ‘They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man’s, shall he return unto her
   again? ... Turn, O backsliding children, saith the LORD; for I am married unto you’ (Jer. 3:1,14).
Isaiah speaks of divorcement saying:
   ‘Where is the bill of your mother’s divorcement, whom I have put away?’ (Isa. 50:1).
The same Isaiah has some glowing words to say regarding the ultimate restoration of this wayward people:
   ‘Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken: neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be
   called Hephzibah, and thy land Beulah: for the LORD delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married’ (Isa.
   The prophet Hosea, is the prophet of the interval between the setting aside of Israel and of their restoration. In
Chapter 1, he has three children bearing prophetic names:
           Jezreel. ‘Scattering’ and also ‘Sowing’.
           Lo-ruhamah. ‘Not having obtained mercy’.
           Lo-ammi. ‘Not My people’.
In chapter 2 the prophet continues, ‘she is not My wife, neither am I her husband’ but at the close, all is reversed, all
is restored:
   ‘I will betroth thee unto Me for ever’.
   ‘I will sow (Jezreel) her unto Me in the earth; and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy; and I
   will say unto them which were not My people, Thou art My people; and they shall say, Thou art my God’ (2:23).
    Chapter 3 speaks of the long waiting period of Israel’s divorcement: ‘Thou shalt abide for Me many days ... for
the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a Prince, and without a sacrifice, and
without an image, and without an ephod, and without teraphim’.
    We have already considered the dispensational boundary of Acts 28 where Israel’s hope is suspended, Israel’s
long period of blindness and wandering commenced, and where Israel entered into her long period of divorcement.
This later thought is implicit in the word translated ‘departed’ in verse 25 which should be rendered ‘dismissed’ for
the word is passive. This word apoluo had a distinct meaning, and one that bears closely upon the divorcement of
Israel in Acts 28. Here are the first occurrences of this Greek word in the New Testament.
   ‘Joseph ... was minded to put her away privily’ (Matt. 1:19).
   ‘Whosoever shall put away his wife’ (Matt. 5:31).
   ‘Shall marry her that is divorced’ (Matt. 5:32).
    The predicted ‘lo-ammi’ condition of Hosea 1 commences here, the long night of Israel’s exile begins here, and
the new dispensation of the grace of God to the Gentiles begins here. The Bride of the Lamb must be distinguished
from the national restoration of Israel, set forth in the symbol of a wife divorced, then taken back forgiven and
blessed. The Revelation is particularly concerned with a believing, overcoming remnant, and it is this overcoming
remnant out of Israel that is depicted under the figure of a Bride. While this distinction must be observed, some
expositors have attempted to make a distinction between the ‘wife’ of Revelation 19 and the ‘bride’ of Revelation 21
and 22. Restored Israel, as the wife once divorced and at last taken back again is not the subject of the book of the
Revelation. Restored Israel as such, has no place in the heavenly city, that is reserved for the heavenly calling of the
kingdom. Abraham had the land as an assured inheritance but as an overcomer, he looked higher, and waited for the
heavenly city. In both Revelation 19 and 21 it is the ‘Lamb’ who is the Bridegroom.
    It is assumed, that because Revelation 21:1 opens with a vision of the new heavens and new earth, all that
follows belongs also to that great day, but this cannot be, for it is still possible to be excluded as verses 8 and 27
show. It is a characteristic of these visions of the Apocalypse to lead up to a climax, as in Revelation 6:14-17, and
then to go back in time and approach the same climax by another avenue. The same principle that would make the
wife of Revelation 19 distinct from the bride of Revelation 21, sees two separate creations and two Adams, in the
dual records of Genesis 1 and 2, whereas it is obvious that in the second account fuller details are given. The word
‘wife’ is not exclusive to the record of Revelation 19, for in 21:9 we read of ‘The bride, the Lamb’s wife’. It has
been affirmed that because Revelation 19:7 tells us that ‘His wife has made herself ready’, we are here on legal
ground, and that salvation by works is in view. This is untrue on two counts. First because there will be none saved
in that day, apart from those who are redeemed, their own works having no place therein, and secondly, the idea of
the wife preparing herself or making herself ready, is but the scriptural and natural action, spoken of by Isaiah ‘as a
bride adorneth herself with her jewels’ (Isa. 61:10).
    In Revelation 19 the marriage supper of the Lamb is inaugurated. A specific period of time was observed for
this ceremony, referred to in Genesis 29:27 as ‘her week’, and it appears from the Revelation that this week lasts
throughout the millennium, after which the holy city is seen descending from heaven and the ‘tabernacle of God’
will be with men. The language of Revelation 21:10 when compared with Revelation 17:1 places these two women,
these two cities, these two systems in direct opposition, a third woman, city or system would be an intruder here.
    Before concluding, we must consider the teaching that affirms that the Church of the Mystery, ‘The Body’ must
be at the same time ‘The Bride’ by reason of what is taught in Ephesians 5. First, it is a matter of demonstrable truth
that the Church of the Mystery is called ‘The Body’ of which Christ is the Head. Secondly, the statement made by
Paul as to the exclusive character of this high calling, would not only be nullified, but would prove to be
unwarrantable exaggerations, if after all that is written in Ephesians 1 to 3, this Church should turn out to be a part
of the hope of Israel or the promise made to Abraham. Thirdly, the apostle (to say nothing of the deeper thought of
inspiration) could be accused of badly mixing his metaphors.
    We remember once meeting an enthusiast for ‘The Bride’ who contended that the MAN child of Revelation 12
must be the Bride! but this is no more extravagant than maintaining that a company destined to be ‘the perfect MAN’
is nevertheless ‘The Bride’. It may be objected that the word ‘man’ includes both sexes, but this is not so.
Anthropos yes, but Paul does not use the word anthropos in Ephesians 4:13 but aner, a word actually translated in
Ephesians 5 by the English word ‘husband’, so that they who insist that the Church of Ephesians 5 is the bride, must
insist that Paul taught that the bride will be the perfect husband - which is absurd.
    Ephesians 5 and 6 belong to the practical portion of the epistle (see the structure of the epistle in the article
EPHESIANS, p. 275) and in these chapters human society is divided up into three groups: (1) Wives, Husbands. (2)
Children, Parents. (3) Servants, Masters. Quite irrespective of the dispensation of grace these three divisions of
society would need to be recognized, and wives and husbands are just as surely advised on their relation to the
calling that Peter administered as wives and husbands were advised as to their relation to the calling administered by
    Again, some have pointed out that the Church is feminine, and that the pronouns in Ephesians 5:25-27 should be
translated ‘her’ and ‘she’ instead of ‘it’ thereby making it clear that the Church is ‘the bride’. This, however, is just
sheer ignorance, or trading upon ignorance. Gender in grammar is not the same as sex. Does anyone imagine that
because la table in French is ‘feminine’ it has the remotest allusion to sex? We need not, however, go outside the
Greek of Ephesians 5 itself to demonstrate how utterly false the argument is that would speak of the Church as ‘she’.
Kephale ‘Head’ is feminine. Is Christ, the Bridegroom, therefore a female? Akatharsia ‘uncleanness’ is feminine.
Do we therefore teach that this is impossible for a man to exhibit or fall into? Basileia ‘kingdom’ is feminine, rutis
‘wrinkle’ is feminine, sarx ‘flesh’ is feminine and so on. Nothing concerning the calling of the Church can be made
out of the fact that the word ekklesia is in the feminine gender. Does Ephesians 5 say that the Church is the bride,
therefore wives should act in accordance with the fact? The answer is No, it draws its power of appeal from the fact
that these ‘wives’ were by grace members of the Body.
       ‘He is the Saviour of the Body’ (Eph. 5:23).
       ‘We are members of His Body’ (Eph. 5:30).
       ‘No man hateth his own flesh’ (Eph. 5:29).
                                                                                                    CALLING      71
   In the new creation, when all the redeemed of all ages are raised, the Church which is the perfect MAN, or
husband, and the Church which is the BRIDE may re-enact in its full spiritual sense, the union of the first man and
woman (Gen. 2:21-24), but that lies beyond the present limits of the ages and dispensations. The Church which is
His Body is one company, with a calling that is unique and distinct. The Church of the Bride is another company
with a calling unique and distinct, and until God joins these two together let no man attempt to do so.
    The Greek word translated ‘calling’ is klesis, and it occurs in the New Testament eleven times. Those who
receive this calling are denominated ‘called’ kletos, and this too occurs eleven times. Both of these words derive
from kaleo ‘to call’, which is found in the New Testament 147 times. Those who receive the call of Divine grace,
become members of a ‘called out company’ or ekklesia, which is the primary meaning of the word church. (See
article on CHURCH, p. 171). Calling is employed doctrinally, as in Romans 8:30, ‘whom He called, them He also
justified’ and has a great place in the doctrine of grace. We, however, must not allow ourselves in this analysis to
attempt to embrace doctrinal themes as well as dispensational, and with this passing reference, we turn our attention
to the use of ‘calling’ as a term employed in making known dispensational truth.
   We will first of all give a concordance to the word klesis.
     Rom. 11:29.     The gifts and calling of God are without repentance.
     1 Cor. 1:26.    Ye see your calling, brethren.
     1 Cor. 7:20.    Abide in the same calling wherein he was called.
       Eph. 1:18.    What is the hope of His calling.
        Eph. 4:1.    Walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.
        Eph. 4:4.    Called in one hope of your calling.
       Phil. 3:14.   The prize of the high calling of God.
   2 Thess. 1:11.    Count you worthy of this calling.
      2 Tim. 1:9.    Who hath ... called us with an holy calling.
        Heb. 3:1.    Partakers of the heavenly calling.
      2 Pet. 1:10.   Give diligence to make your calling and election sure.
  We can subdivide these references under three headings:
(1) The calling of Israel.
  (2) The calling of the Church before Acts 28, and
  (3) The calling of the Church of the Mystery.
   These three callings differ radically from one another, both in sphere, constitution and origin. Let us consider
each separately.
The calling of Israel (Rom. 11:29)
   Romans 9 to 11 is devoted to the dispensational problems that arise out of Israel’s defection, failure and
non-repentance. For a complete analysis of the epistle, the article on ROMANS4 should be consulted, here we limit
our survey to these three dispensational chapters.

                                                  Romans 9 to 11
A 9:1-5.    Sorrow.
            Doxology ‘over all, God blessed unto the ages’ (9:5).
   B 9:6-29. REMNANT saved. Mercy on some.
                                  (Corrective concerning ‘All Israel’ 9:6).
     C 9:30 to 11:10.    Stumbling stone.
   B 11:11-32. ALL ISRAEL saved. Mercy on them all.
                                CALLING                                                                               72
                                 (Corrective concerning ‘Remnant’ 11:1-5).
A 11:33-36. Song.
            Doxology ‘Of Him ... unto the ages’ (11:36).

    The exposition moves from sorrow to song, from a remnant out of Israel as a firstfruits and pledge, to the
salvation of all Israel at the end. In chapter 9, the apostle enumerates the dispensational privileges of an Israelite in
the flesh, which can be appreciated as it stands, but with much greater understanding when placed beside the
dispensational disadvantages of being a Gentile in the flesh. The reference to Ephesians 2 which is here made will
be better understood if the reader is in possession of the complete structure of the epistle, which will be found under
the heading EPHESIANS, p. 275.

           Rom. 9:3-6                           Eph. 2:11,12
A Acc: to the flesh. KINSMEN.        Gentile disability ‘in the flesh’.
 B Who are Israelites.
  C The Adoption.                      A Gentiles. IN THE FLESH.
   D The Glory.                         B Without Christ.
     E The Covenants.                    C Aliens ... commonwealth.
     E The giving of the law.            C Strangers ... covenants.
   D The Service.                       B No hope.
  C The Promises.                      A Godless. IN THE WORLD.
 B The Fathers.
A Acc: to the flesh. CHRIST.
    In Romans 11, the apostle shows that the failure of Israel was over-ruled to bring about greater blessing to the
Gentile, saying: ‘Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the
Gentiles; how much more their fulness?’ (Rom. 11:12). Should the thought arise in our minds that it is hardly
believable that God would save and use Israel after all that they have done, he says: ‘I would not, brethren, that ye
should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits: that blindness in part is happened to
Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in, and so all Israel shall be saved’ (Rom. 11:25,26). The salvation
of Israel is entirely removed from the covenant of works and law of Sinai, and is based upon the New Covenant, as
Romans 11:27 shows. The fact of Israel’s enmity is squarely faced, ‘as concerning the gospel they are enemies for
your sakes; but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sakes, for the gifts and calling of God are
without repentance’ (Rom. 11:28,29). Such is the character of Israel’s calling, it is entirely of grace, and arises out
of the electing love of God, merit, works and law being rigorously excluded.
The calling of the Church before Acts 28
    Two passages speak of the ‘calling’ in the epistles written before the setting aside of Israel at Acts 28, namely
2 Thessalonians 1:11 and 1 Corinthians 1:26. In one passage, the apostle prays that the believer may be counted
worthy of the calling, in the other, the apostle draws attention to the fact that in this calling ‘not many wise after the
flesh, not many noble are called’ (1 Cor. 1:26), but that all is in Christ Jesus.
    To discover the nature of the calling of this period we shall have to ponder the teaching of the Acts and epistles
that cover it. We shall find, among other features, that it differs from the calling of Israel inasmuch as those who
belong to this company are comprised of both Jew and Greek, and being made ‘all one in Christ Jesus’ they are
necessarily also ‘Abraham’s seed and heirs according to the promise’ (Gal. 3:27-29). The calling of the Church
during the Acts looks to the promise made to Abraham as its foundation. This promise includes ‘the Gospel’
preached (Gal. 3:8), the great doctrine of justification by faith (Rom. 4:3), and the promise of the spirit (Gal. 3:14).
The hope that was entertained by this Church was millennial in character (Rom. 15:12,13), and was linked with the
hope of Israel which extended right to the last chapter of the Acts (Acts 28:20), which hope was definitely linked
with the ‘Archangel’ and the ‘trump’ of God, and so with the hope of Israel. (See HOPE2 and ARCHANGEL p. 95).
                                                                                                         CALLING      73
    There was, however, no equality except in sin and salvation where there was ‘no difference’ (Rom. 3:22; 10:12),
for the Gentile believer was reminded by the apostle that his position was that of a wild olive graft, contrary to
nature, into the olive tree of Israel (Rom. 11:24), (see articles on OLIVE TREE3 and ROMANS4 - Provoke unto
Jealousy), and that the Jew was still ‘first’ (Rom. 1:16). The middle wall still stood, and the enmity occasioned by
‘the decrees’ of Acts 15 made it impossible while such a condition lasted that the one body in which every member
was on perfect equality could be revealed (see articles on BODY p. 119, and MIDDLE WALL3). The Gentile had been
called and blessed during this period, to provoke to jealousy and to emulation the failing people of Israel. The
long-suffering of God waited for thirty-five years, and then the change of which Paul had warned them in Acts
13:40 fell.
    While the glorious basic doctrine of Redemption and Justification remains, the dispensational position has
entirely changed, and we must turn to the Prison Epistles of Paul, to learn what calling obtains at the present time.
There are four references which indicate something of the glory of this new calling. It is a holy calling (2 Tim. 1:9).
The context supplies the following distinctive features.
 (1) This calling is essentially associated with Paul as ‘the Lord’s prisoner’.
 (2) This calling is essentially associated with a period spoken of as ‘before the world began’ (literally ‘before
     times of ages’ pro chronon aionion).
 (3) To this testimony Paul had been appointed ‘a preacher and an apostle and a teacher of the Gentiles’.
 (4) And this glorious message including both its gospel and its calling is spoken of as a ‘deposit’, ‘something
    It is a high calling (Phil. 3:14). The interpretation suggested by some, that this should be rendered ‘the call on
high’ as though it were a future summons, has been examined in the articles entitled ABOVE (p. 3), HOPE2, and
PRIZE3, which cannot be repeated here. Our conclusion can be stated, however, the passage in Philippians does not
refer to a future summons ‘on high’ but to ‘the high calling of God in Christ Jesus’ here and now. Here, in
Philippians, ‘the Prize’ of this calling is in view, whereas in Ephesians it is ‘the hope’ of this same calling that is in
view. The prize may be won or lost, the hope is intrinsic, it can neither be won nor lost, it is as much a gift of grace
as is salvation itself. Hope is related to calling in two passages in Ephesians. The first is in the doctrinal portion, in
which after giving ‘the charter of the church’ (see under EPHESIANS, p. 275) in Ephesians 1:3-14, the apostle pauses
to make the new revelation a matter of prayer.
   ‘That ye may know what is the hope of His calling’ (Eph. 1:18).
    The second is found in the practical outworking of this great revelation and forms a part of the sevenfold unity of
the Spirit (see UNITY OF THE SPIRIT5) in Ephesians 4:4. ‘There is one body, and one spirit, even as ye are called in
one hope of your calling’. Doctrine - ‘His calling’; Practice - ‘Your calling’; the same calling seen from two points
of view.
    The doctrinal portion of the epistle (see EPHESIANS, p. 275, for structure of the epistle as a whole) opens with
the apostle beseeching his readers that they ‘walk worthy of the vocation’ (calling) wherewith they had been called
(Eph. 4:1), and upon that pivot the whole teaching of the epistle is balanced. To appreciate the unique character of
the calling we must become acquainted with the meaning and implication of such terms as ‘all spiritual blessings’,
‘heavenly places’, ‘foundation of the world’, ‘seated together’, ‘mystery’, ‘far above all’ and ‘Prison Epistles’.
These various and wondrous elements of this unique calling can be considered by turning to articles in this analysis
which either bear these titles, or which evidently include them.

CASTAWAY . How many believers have lived under the dreadful fear of being cast away from salvation and grace, by
reason of some lapse, frailty or sin? This misinterpretation of 1 Corinthians 9:27 is comparable to the harm done to
tender consciences, that has been wrought by misunderstanding ‘the sin unto death’ of 1 John 5 and ‘the
impossibility of renewing unto repentance’ of Hebrews 6.
    A fuller examination of the Greek word translated ‘castaway’ will be found under the heading RIGHT DIVISION4
(2 Tim. 2:15) where dokimon is translated ‘approved’. Here in 1 Corinthians 9:27 the Greek word is adokimos
                              CHERUBIM                                                                            74

‘disapproved’. The subject under discussion is that of winning a prize or crown, and the idea implied in the word
translated ‘castaway’ is that of being ‘disqualified’ as a contestant in a race. For no man is crowned ‘except he
strive lawfully’ (2 Tim. 2:5). This matter will be found more fully handled under the headings HOPE2 and PRIZE3, to
which the reader’s attention is directed.

CHERUBIM . The cherubim do not figure in Paul’s ministry except for one reference, which but introduces them only
to dismiss them with the comment ‘of which we cannot now speak particularly’ (Heb. 9:5). The passage in the
epistle to the Hebrews, referring back as it does to the tabernacle, is the only occurrence of ‘cherubim’ in the New
Testament. These symbolic creatures however, are mentioned again, but they are referred to in the A.V. as ‘beasts’
in the book of the Revelation. This is a pity, because, there is ‘the beast’ the great dictator of the time of the end
who justly merits that name and this rightly translates the Greek word therion which means ‘a wild beast’ as in Mark
1:13 and Acts 10:12. The other word translated ‘beast’ in the Revelation is zoon ‘the living creature’ (Rev. 4:6,7,8
etc.) and refers back to Ezekiel 10:20, where the four, four-faced living creatures are already described in Ezekiel
   ‘This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river of Chebar: and I knew that they were
   the cherubim’ (Ezek. 10:20).

                                                     Genesis 3
A 1-5.    The serpent (‘Beast’ in verse 1 is the Hebrew chalyah ‘living creature’).
          (Procuring man’s downfall and loss of the tree of life).
   B 6.       Tree of knowledge.
                                                      *   *   *
   B 22-24. Tree of life.
A -24.    The cherubim (‘living creature’ Ezekiel 1:5; Revelation 4:6)
          (Pledge of man’s restoration to the tree of life).
   It is a mistake to speak of cherubims, as the Hebrew ending ‘im’ is itself the sign of the plural. The first
occurrence of cherubim in Scripture is in Genesis 3, and its relation to the tragic story of that chapter, and its
correspondence with the serpent, can be seen in the structure of that chapter.
   Here is the pledge of Paradise restored, placed at the gate of the garden, upon the fall of man and his expulsion
from Eden. It is to be noted moreover, that the word ‘placed’ in Genesis 3:24 is the Hebrew shaken which means ‘to
dwell’, and with the prefix mi (mishkan) it becomes ‘tabernacle’. For example:
   ‘Let them make Me a sanctuary; that I may dwell (shaken) among them. According to all that I shew thee, after
   the pattern of the tabernacle (mishkan)’ (Exod. 25:8,9).
    The cherubim meet us again in Exodus, in the tabernacle, in the book of Kings in the temple, in Ezekiel
associated with the departing and returning glory of the Lord from Jerusalem, and finally under the title, ‘the four
living creatures’ in the book of the Revelation, where the primeval promise of Genesis 3 reaches its fulfilment, but
only so by reason of the atonement prefigured by the ark and the mercy seat. There is, however, more than this to be
noted, for in Ezekiel 28 we meet with the title cherubim once again in a context that demands careful attention. The
appearances therefore of the term ‘cherub’ and ‘cherubim’ in Ezekiel are as follows:

A 1-11. The cherubim. Glory departing       a from threshold.
                                                b from east gate.
                                                    c from midst of city.
   B 28. The anointed cherub ‘cast out as profane’.
                                                                                                        CHERUBIM      75
A 41-48. The cherubim. Glory returning          a from way of East.
                                                  b by way of gate.
                                                     c to the inner court.
    The anointed cherub of Ezekiel 28 is an extraordinary figure. Its relation to the rest of the prophecy is manifest,
and demands our close attention. (Fuller notes than can be given here will be found in The Berean Expositor, Vol.
15, pp. 181-191). In Ezekiel 26:19-21 the prophet pronounces the doom of Tyre, which includes the words, ‘a terror
will I make thee, and thou shalt not be’, which words are practically repeated of the anointed Cherub in chapter 28.
This doom of Tyre is followed by a lament or dirge which occupies chapter 28. Here we find further expressions
that are repeated in chapter 28 of the anointed cherub.
 TYRE’S BOAST.            ‘Perfection of beauty’ (27:3,4,11).
 ANOINTED CHERUB.         ‘Perfect in beauty’ (28:12).
 TYRE’S TRAFFIC.          ‘Merchants’, ‘Merchandise’ (27:12-25,34).
 ANOINTED CHERUB.         ‘Merchandise, traffic’ (28:16,18).
 TYRE’S DOOM.             ‘A terror, never ... be any more’ (27:36).
 ANOINTED CHERUB.         ‘A terror; never ... be any more’ (28:19).
   It is evident from these parallels that the fall of Tyre is used as a type of another and greater fall. This is brought
before us again in chapter 28 itself by dividing the words of the prophet up under two heads:
   The judgment upon the Prince of Tyre (verses 1-10).
   The lamentation upon the King of Tyre (verses 11-20).
The Prince of Tyre was so obsessed with his own wisdom, traffic and riches, that he said: ‘I am God’. He was,
however, ‘a man’ and was ‘slain’. The King of Tyre, he too found his heart lifted up because of his beauty, and
corrupted his wisdom because of his brightness. He, however, was not ‘slain’, a ‘fire’ is to be brought forth from his
midst, he shall be brought to ashes, be a terror and never be any more. He is not said to be ‘a man’, instead he is
called ‘the anointed cherub that covereth’. Among other things said of this ‘king’ is that he had been in ‘Eden the
garden of God’, and only two others are recorded as ever having been there, namely Adam and Eve, the third being
the Nachash, ‘the shining one, the serpent’ and the ‘cherubim’ (Gen. 3). With every precious stone as his ‘veil’ and
‘covering’ he could well be called ‘the shining one’ while the stones that are named resemble very closely both the
breast-plate worn by the high priest, and the twelve foundations of the holy city. The additional words ‘anointed’
and ‘covereth’, ‘holy mountain’ and ‘profane’, all point to a being who had originally an office very closely related
to the worship of God. If we attempt to reduce these six sets of Scripture to some sort of pattern we shall be made
conscious of some sort of gap or omission.
A Ezek. 28. The Anointed. Cast out as profane.
            ‘I am God? but thou shalt be a man, and no God’.
  B Gen. 3. Paradise lost. The pledge.
     C      Israel   Tabernacle in the wilderness. (Exodus)
            and      Temple in the land.             (Kings)
         Atonement The glory at the end.             (Ezekiel)
A    ?????
  B Rev. 22. Paradise restored. The fulfilment.
    Everything works out with the fitness we have learned to associate with Bible structure (see STRUCTURE), and
the self-same confidence that causes astronomers to seek a missing star, or the chemist to seek a missing element,
and to find them, leads us to be certain that what is so evidently demanded by the structure of the word cherubim
will be supplied. The first thing that we observe is that the cherub of Ezekiel 28 is called ‘the anointed’ (Heb.
mimshach) a word derived from the Hebrew mashach which gives us the title ‘Messiah’, which is being interpreted
‘The Christ’ (John 1:41). The blasphemous aspirations of those in Ezekiel who prefigure this anointed cherub that
fell, point the way to the completely opposite spirit manifested in the Saviour. For example, of the prince of Tyre it
was written: ‘Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am God, I sit in the seat of God’, whereas the
                          CHILDREN v. SONS                                                                          76
Saviour, Who originally in the form of God, and accounting it nothing to be grasped at to be on equality with God,
nevertheless made Himself of no reputation, wherefore God hath highly exalted Him, and He is to be confessed as
Lord, by the entire universe in that day.
   The four gospels set forth the Saviour as King, Servant, Man and Son of God, and from the earliest Christian
times the four gospels have been associated with the four faces of the cherubim.
   Matthew    .   .   The LION .    .   The King.
   Mark .     .   .   The OX .      .   . The Servant.
   Luke .     .   .   The MAN .     .   Genealogy to Adam.
   John .     .   .   The EAGLE     .   . The Word was God.
   We can therefore confidently fill in the gap indicated by the letter:
   A The Anointed. Exalted as Lord.
       ‘Became a man, but was originally "in the form of God"‘.
While we may have wished that Paul could have been permitted to speak of the cherubim ‘more particularly’ it is
obviously for our good that nothing explicit was revealed. We must therefore accept this Divinely appointed
limitation and be thankful for the glimpse of the conflict and purpose of the ages that the references to the cherubim
supply. While much detailed information is lacking, the glorious triumph of the Redeemer stands out in all its
unique excellence, and with it the assurance comes to us in great grace, that the goal of the ages shall be achieved.

CHILDREN v. SONS. Several Greek words are translated ‘children’ in the A.V. New Testament.
   Brephos,      a new-born babe, Acts 7:19.
   Nepios,       an infant not having the power of speech (Gal. 4:3; Eph. 4:14).
   Paidion       a little or young lad (Matt. 14:21).
   Paidarion a very little lad (Matt. 11:16).
   Pais          a lad, boy, servant or maid (Matt. 2:16).
   Teknon        a child, one that has been born a child whether son or daughter (Matt. 2:18).
   Huios,    a son, a male (Matt. 5:9).
    The two words with which we are here particularly concerned are teknon and huios. Unfortunately the A.V.
have not been quite consistent in their rendering giving us ‘child’ in seventy-seven occurrences and ‘son’ in
twenty-one, as translations of teknon, and translating huios ‘child’ fifty times, ‘son’ 120, ‘Son’ 210 times. It is
evident even from this survey, that teknon means ‘a child’ as distinct from huios which means ‘a son’, but there are
passages where this distinction should have been made clear where precision is dulled by the translator. For
example where John 1:12 reads ‘gave them power to become sons of God’ it should read ‘children’. So also that
well-known passage in 1 John 3:1,2, ‘that we should be called the sons of God’, ‘now are we the sons of God’ must
be altered to read ‘children of God’. John uses the word huios twentyfour times, but never of a believer.
    It is Paul whose ministry speaks of the believer as a ‘son’ (Rom. 8:14,19), and the reader should remember when
reading Galatians 3:7,26 to translate ‘sons’ here also. John’s ministry brings the believer into the family of faith,
Paul takes him further and gives him the position of a son. This distinction will be better understood if the article on
ADOPTION (p. 40) be read. Israel as compared with the nations have the place of ‘sons’ although the phrase ‘the
children of Israel’ has become so commonly used that we do not suggest that we should attempt to alter it, only that
we should remember, that where the A.V. reads ‘children of Israel’, the Greek uses the word huios ‘son’,
remembering too the inspired consequence ‘if a son, then an heir of God’. It should also be remembered that all
‘sons’ must be ‘children’, but that all children need not necessarily be sons. Neither Peter, James nor John use the
word huios of a believer, that is the exclusive testimony of the ministry entrusted to Paul.
                                                                                                                    77     CHRIST
CHRIST JESUS. The Greek word Christos is the translation of the Hebrew Mashiach ‘Messiah’, both meaning
‘anointed’. In the Old Testament a prophet, a priest and a king were anointed, and these three titles are included
under the all-covering term ‘Christ’. The employment of the names and titles ‘Jesus’, ‘Jesus Christ’ and ‘Christ
Jesus’ is an index of the line of teaching which discriminates in their use. Jesus is the most usual name for the Lord
during His earthly life, and is only employed by the apostle Paul in exceptional circumstances. We are not,
however, attempting an analysis of the names and titles of our Lord generally, in this article, but wish to draw
attention to one title of dispensational importance namely ‘Christ Jesus’. The Revised Version, having access to
manuscripts that were unknown at the time of the Authorized Version, have made a number of changes, which are
significant. In the accompanying concordance, it will be seen that in the A.V. the title ‘Christ Jesus’ is found in Acts
19:4, Hebrews 3:1 and 1 Peter 5:10 and 14, but in the R.V. these four references are excluded, Acts 19:4 and
Hebrews 3:1 reading ‘Jesus’ and 1 Peter 5:10 and 14 reading ‘Christ’. Accepting the revised text we discover an
important dispensational feature. The title ‘Christ Jesus’.
 A concordance of the differences in the Authorized and Revised Versions with respect to the title ‘Christ Jesus’.
   Reference             R.V. Reading              A.V. Reading
   Acts 19:4                  Jesus                Christ Jesus
   Acts 24.24              Christ Jesus               Christ
   Rom. 6:3                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Rom. 6:11               Christ Jesus        Jesus Christ our Lord
   Rom. 8:11,34            Christ Jesus          Jesus and Christ
   Rom. 15:16,17           Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   1 Cor. 1:4              Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   2 Cor. 1:1              Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Gal. 2:16               Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Gal. 3:14               Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Gal. 5:6                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Gal. 5:24               Christ Jesus               Christ
   Eph. 1:1                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Eph. 2:20               Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Eph. 3:1                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Eph. 3:6                Christ Jesus               Christ
   Phil. 1:1               Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Phil. 1:8,26            Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Col. 1.1                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Col. 1:28                 Christ                Christ Jesus
   Col. 4:12               Christ Jesus               Christ
   1 Tim. 1:1              Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
                                               and Lord Jesus Christ
   1 Tim. 4:6              Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   1 Tim. 5:21             Christ Jesus        The Lord Jesus Christ
   2 Tim. 1:1              Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   2 Tim. 1:10             Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   2 Tim. 2:3              Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   2 Tim. 4:1              Christ Jesus        The Lord Jesus Christ
   Titus 1:4               Christ Jesus        The Lord Jesus Christ
   Phile. 1                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Phile. 6                  Christ                Christ Jesus
   Phile. 9                Christ Jesus            Jesus Christ
   Heb. 3:1                   Jesus                Christ Jesus
   1 Pet. 5:10,14            Christ                Christ Jesus
                 CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES                                                             78
   This is a complete list of all the changes in connection with the title ‘Christ Jesus’ that have been made from the
A.V. to R.V. The title occurs many more times, but in these cases it is unchanged in the R.V. and so can easily be
found. It will be observed that the references to ‘Christ Jesus’ in Hebrews and Peter go out, which means that all the
remaining references belong to the ministry of the apostle Paul.
    The title seems to stress a new aspect of Christ’s position and glory, pointing away to the seated One at the right
hand of God, rather than to the One Who walked the earth, and came only to Israel. In all this, of course, it is
always the same Person; only the title is changed. The title ‘Son of Man’, for example, has no place in the epistles
to the Church, but this does not of course mean that we in any way belittle His perfect humanity. So, in the case of
the title ‘Christ Jesus’, it is again the same Person, but we do well to note that this particular title belongs exclusively
to the ministry of the apostle Paul.
    It is of design and with definite reference to the exclusive nature of the position indicated that Ephesians speaks
of those who belong to the Church of the Mystery as being made to sit together in heavenly places ‘in Christ Jesus’
(Eph. 2:6), that when speaking of the high calling of God to the Philippians Paul adds ‘in Christ Jesus’ (Phil. 3:14),
or that when speaking of the holy calling of those who were chosen before age-times, he should speak of that
purpose and grace that were given to them ‘in Christ Jesus’ (2 Tim. 1:8,9). Just as we have already seen John’s
gospel brings one into the family of faith, while Paul’s gospel makes one a son, so here, while all blessings that ever
can be enjoyed must flow from the One Mediator between God and man, the distinctive title given to the One
Mediator varies according to the dispensational privileges that are being rehearsed, and that to the Church of the one
Body the title of the Saviour ‘Christ Jesus’ is of peculiar importance and sanctity.

                                CHRONOLOGY OF THE ACTS AND EPISTLES
    It should be stated at the outset that the chronology of the Acts must ever remain somewhat tentative, owing to
the nature of the data provided. The chronology of the book of Genesis can be built up from Adam, all authorities
agreeing on the date of Joseph’s death recorded in Genesis 50:26, 1635 B.C. The chief purpose of chronology in the
Bible is to establish an unbroken chain of events that link Adam to Christ. That being accomplished, chronology has
served its purpose, and the dates that do come in the New Testament are isolated, and not links in a chain. However,
that is no reason why we should not use what information we have, in order that the great historic book of the New
Testament namely the Acts should be seen in its relationship both with the outside world and the unfolding of the
Divine purpose. Let us approach the question in its broadest outline first. The reign of four Roman Emperors
covers the period of the Acts.

   Just how far the scroll will extend when spread out is now the object of our inquiry.
    While these four Emperors and their reigns more than cover the period of the Acts, we have no definite point of
contact recorded either in sacred or secular history where, in A.D .... Paul, or Peter, did so-and-so. We must seek
some definite point of time where the scroll of the Acts can be pinned down to the calendar of the world. If the
wider range of Roman Emperors fails us here, a narrower and lesser dynasty supplies this need. There is one
incident recorded in the Acts, the date of which is known; that is the tragic death of Herod (Acts 12:20-23).
                                                                          CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES   79
    The history of Herod Agrippa I is a chequered one. Josephus records (Ant. xix: 8, 2) that Herod died in ‘the 7th
year of his reign and the 54th year of his life’. Again he tells us (Bell. Jud. ii, xi: 6) that Agrippa died soon after the
completion of his third year as King over all Jud -a. Now let us see whether we can arrive at the date by these two
 (1) When did Herod begin his reign?
 Secular history supplies the answer: ‘Not many days’ after the accession of Gaius. When was that? ‘March 16th,
   37’. lf we add 37 A.D. and 7 together, we have the date of Herod’s death as A.D. 44.

 (2) When did Herod begin to reign over ALL JUD -A?
   Gaius was murdered on January 24th, A.D. 41 and on the accession of Claudius (Ant. xix: 8,2), Herod was made
King of Jud -a and Samaria. Add to A.D. 41 the 3 years of Herod’s reign, and again we get A.D. 44.
(3) A threefold cord is not easily broken.
    Josephus makes a casual remark to the effect that Herod died during a festival held in honour of Claudius ‘for his
safety’. Claudius returned to Rome from Britain in January, A.D. 44 after an absence of six months. The festival at
Caesarea, the Roman capital of Palestine, was where Herod the King died that same year. Again A.D. 44.
   We can now fix the 12th Chapter of Acts down upon the calendar of the world (see chart opposite).
   The year of the Crucifixion of the Lord is now accepted as A.D. 29 which is the year of the opening chapter of
Acts. We have therefore the date of the first twelve chapters A.D 29-44.
    Let us now seek evidence to place a date for the last chapter. The narrative leaves Paul a prisoner, but residing
in his own hired house for two years, receiving all who came, teaching them freely and without reserve, ‘no man
forbidding him’. These closing words of the Acts indicate a period wherein the Roman Power was tolerant to the
new sect. Indeed, throughout the Acts up to the closing chapter, the Roman Government is seen in a favourable
light, the persecutions detailed in the narrative coming from the Jews.
    The great fire which broke out in Rome took place on July 19th. A.D. 64. If we have any knowledge at all of the
awful persecution of the Christians which immediately followed, we shall find it impossible to conceive of Paul
remaining unmolested in his own hired house while his followers and converts were being burned as torches or
thrown to the lions. A.D. 64, therefore, is the furthest bound of the story of the Acts. It is not necessary that the Acts
reaches so far, but it is practically certain that it does not extend beyond.
                 CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES                                                              80
    Paul was brought into close touch with several Roman rulers upon the occasion of his imprisonment. Let us see
whether we can find another date similar to A.D. 44. The apostle was arrested at Jerusalem, sent to Caesarea,
imprisoned by Felix and detained by him for two years. Felix was succeeded by Festus, who heard Paul’s defence,
as did also King Agrippa. Felix was Procurator of Jud -a in A.D. 52 or 53 (Jos. Ant. xx: 7,1; Bell. Jud. ii: l2,8).
Eusebius assigns A.D. 51 as the date of his appointment (Chron. ii., p. 271). Whichever of these dates may be the
true one, we know from Acts 24:10 that Felix had been ‘many years’ Procurator when Paul stood before him.
   When Tertullus accused Paul before Felix, he introduced his charge with the compliment, ‘seeing that by thee we
enjoy great quietness’, as though this were an outstanding feature of Felix’s administration. This also had some
bearing upon the nature of the charge brought against Paul. When Paul was delivered from the Jewish mob by
Roman soldiers, it is evident from the words of the chief captain that he had been mistaken for the false prophet, an
Egyptian who led 30,000 fanatical Jews to the Mount of Olives to see Jerusalem fall. Felix routed them, but the
Egyptian had escaped. As another small link the word ‘murderers’ in Acts 21:38 is in the original sikarion. Now
Josephus tells us of these sicarii who murdered people in broad daylight, and that they arose during the reign of
Nero. Nero began his reign, October 13th, A.D. 54.
    The ‘great quietness’ referred to by Tertullus ensued upon the capture of Eleazer, and upon his being sent to
Rome after twenty years’ defiance and rebellion, and also upon the rout of the false prophet - the Egyptian for whom
Paul was mistaken by Claudius Lysias, the chief captain. The numerous events that go to make up the
administration of Felix fully account for three years. These, added to the earliest possible date of the ‘sicarii’, would
bring us to A.D. 57. Paul arrived some time after this date, for the Egyptian had been routed ‘before these days’.
Felix was recalled to Rome to answer charges of misrule; and he was followed by accusing Jews. It was for this
reason he left Paul bound, ‘willing to show the Jews a pleasure’ (Acts 24:27). Josephus tells us that Felix was saved
from the due punishment of his deeds by the intervention of his brother Pallas. Now Pallas died A.D. 62 (Tacit. Ann.
xiv. 65); therefore Felix must have been recalled not later than A.D. 61 in order to arrive in Rome in time for his
brother’s influence to have been of any avail.
    Another clue is given by a note of Josephus, that a dispute arose between Festus and the Jews, and that the
Jewish deputation was considerably helped by the influence of Nero’s wife Poppoea, who was married to him in
A.D. 62. Yet one more testimony. When Paul arrived at Rome he was delivered into the custody of the prefect of
the ‘praetorian guard’ to strato pedarche (Acts 28:16).
    The minute accuracy of Scripture enables us to fix another boundary line. One prefect is mentioned here. In A.D
62 two Prefects were appointed, Burrhus holding that office singly up to the time of his death, February, A.D. 62.
We know that Paul wintered at Malta (Acts 28:1-11); the sea was not open to navigation until February, and
consequently Burrhus would have been dead before Paul reached Rome, if we make his arrival as late as A.D. 62.
We must therefore put it back to A.D. 61 as the latest date. Some time after the Fast, which was September 24th (if
in A.D. 60), we find the apostle at Fairhavens. This places the embarkation of Paul (Acts 27:2) as about August of a
year not later than A.D. 60. We have already seen that somewhere between A.D. 57 and 58 must be placed the latest
date of his arrest.
    Many expositors of note have unhesitatingly placed the date of Paul’s embarkation for Rome as A.D. 60. One
later testimony, however, must be heard before we reach our conclusion. The testimony of Eusebius must not be
lightly set aside; and Harnack, accepting his dates, places the embarkation of Paul at A.D. 56. C. H. Turner subjected
the problem to a careful examination, and brings the date forward to A.D. 58. The solution he suggests is that
Eusebius, in making out his calendar, could not be continually commencing a fresh year at the month in which each
new king ascended the throne: and as he commenced his year with September, the first regnal year of an Emperor
was dated from the September next after his actual succession. C.H. Turner reckons A.D. 58 for Paul’s trial before
Festus and Agrippa.
    lt will be seen that while there is a little uncertainty as to the precise date, there are certain limits beyond which it
cannot be placed. If we accept A.D. 60 for the embarkation for Rome, this will mean that Paul was liberated in the
spring of A.D. 63, and was therefore free of Rome before the fierce persecution broke out. If we accept the earlier
date, A.D. 58, Paul would have been liberated in A.D. 61, and would have had time to revisit the churches, and upon
                                                                         CHRONOLOGY   OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES   81
the outbreak of the persecution under Nero he would have become involved, and would have been apprehended, this
time to seal his testimony with his blood.
We have therefore the following approximate dates:
Acts 1,2                A.D.   29     The date of the Crucifixion and of                     Pentecost.
Acts 3-11
Acts 12                 A.D.   44         The date of Herod’s death.
Acts 13-20
Acts 21                A.D. 56
                       or                The date of Paul’s arrest at
Acts 22-27             A.D. 58                   Jerusalem.
                       A.D. 59
Acts 28                or               The date of Paul’s arrival at
                       A.D. 61                    Rome.
                       A.D. 61
Acts 28                or               The date of the conclusion of
                       A.D. 63                the ‘two years’.
    One or two details will suffice to fill in the spaces. Aquila and Priscilla were banished from Rome by the edict
of Claudius, who reigned A.D. 41-54, and these dates are the extreme boundaries of Aquila’s visit to Corinth.
Tacitus tells us that in A.D. 52 the Jews were commanded to leave Rome. Suetonius says, ‘Judaeos impulsore
Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit’. Chrestos is by some considered as a reading for Christos. If Aquila
reached Corinth at the beginning of February A.D. 52, Paul would have arrived a little later in the year. Acts 18:11
tells us that the apostle remained in Corinth for one year and six months; hence his departure from Corinth would be
August, A.D. 53.
   Luke passes on to tell us of an incident that occurred ‘certain days’ (Acts 18:18, A.V. ‘a good while’) before
Paul left Corinth, ‘when Gallio was the deputy (proconsul) of Achaia’. Incidentally we remark the exactness of
Luke’s language. Achaia had been proconsular under Augustus, but had changed to an Imperial Province under
Tiberius (Tacit. Ann. 1:76). It was restored again by Claudius to the Senate, became proconsular after A.D. 44, and
became free under Nero. Luke never makes a mistake amid all these political changes. He had indeed ‘perfect
understanding from above’. We have suggested that Paul left Corinth August, A.D. 53, so if we deduct the ‘certain
days’ of verse 18, we can say that the Gallio incident was about midsummer of that year.
    Claudius had appointed Marcus Ann -us Novatus to be proconsul of Achaia, this man having been adopted by
the rhetorician Lucius Junius Ann -us Gallio, by which name he was known. Gallio’s brother was the famous stoic,
Seneca. Now Seneca had been banished, but had been recalled in A.D. 49, and in A.D. 53 he was in the height of his
popularity. Gallio was not in Achaia in A.D. 54 (Dion. ix: 35); hence A.D. 53 is the latest date in which Paul could
have been brought before him, and eighteen months before this would bring us to the year 52.
    Upon leaving Corinth, Paul sailed to Syria, intending to arrive at Jerusalem for the feast (Acts 18:21) which
would be Tabernacles, September 16th, A.D. 53. After the visit to Jerusalem alluded to in verse 22, the apostle went
down to Antioch and from thence ‘he went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order’. This would bring
us to the spring of A.D. 54. Paul now passed to Ephesus (Acts 19:1) and remained there for the space of three years
(Acts 20:31). As he had promised to return after the feast, he doubtless arrived at Ephesus in the spring of A.D. 54.
It will be seen that a whole series of events revolves around this approximate date, and helps us to feel that we are
not very far from the truth. Another incidental note is introduced by the reference of Paul to Aretas.

                                        The Reign of Aretas at Damascus

    Much evidence as to this and other details has been omitted as too bulky and non-essential.
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   In 2 Corinthians 11:32 the apostle says of his humiliating departure from Damascus:
   ‘In Damascus the governor (ethnarch) under Aretas the king kept the city of the Damascenes with a garrison,
   desirous to apprehend me’.
    This Aretas was the fourth of his dynasty, and reigned roughly from 9 B.C. - A.D. 40. Inscriptions are extant
which speak of his 48th year, and he died somewhere between the death of Tiberius and the middle of the reign of
Claudius, for his successor is found engaged in war in A.D. 48. Damascus was under Roman administration A.D. 33,
34 and A.D. 62, 63 for coins of Tiberius and Nero give no evidence of a local prince at the time. This narrows the
period to somewhere after A.D. 34.
    Gaius who succeeded Tiberius at this time was noted for the way in which he sought to encourage local
princelings; and it is very probable that Damascus was assigned by him to Aretas. We are at any rate shut up to A.D.
34-40, and as other calculations bring us down to A.D. 37, it appears that such a date can well be accepted.

                                             The Famine of Acts 11:28
    Agabus, a prophet of Jerusalem, foretold a famine which came to pass in the reign of Claudius Caesar. Upon
this being made known, and before the famine had actually commenced, the believers at Antioch determined to send
relief to Jud -a by the hands of Barnabas and Saul.
    Now Josephus tells us that the famine began in the year of Herod’s death, for it took place during the
government of Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius Alexander (Ant. xx. 5,2). Cuspius Fadus was appointed in the latter half
of A.D. 44, and was succeeded by Tib. Alex. in A.D. 46. As Tib. Alex. was in turn succeeded by Cumanus in A.D.
50, we have a period of six years in which the famine could develop and disappear.
   Premonitions of the coming dearth are evident in the care which the people of Tyre and Sidon betray to
conciliate Herod. They desired peace, says Acts 12:20, ‘because their country was nourished by the king’s
(Herod’s) country’. This supplies a fairly approximate date for the journey of Barnabas and Saul to Jerusalem as
A.D. 44.

    We have now ascertained the dating of the Acts so far as its main outlines are concerned, namely A.D. 29, 44, 60,
64. We have also found indications of the probable dates of the famine predicted by Agabus, and the apostle’s first
arrival at Corinth. We will now endeavour to place the missionary journeys that were undertaken by the apostle.
    Acts 13 and 14. This journey has been located somewhere between A.D. 44 to 48. C. H. Turner in Hasting’s
Dictionary of the Bible, considers that eighteen months are required for this journey. Prof. Ramsay estimates two
years and three or four months. Among the items that influence a conclusion must be the character of the district,
the climate, and their effect upon travelling.
   The hill country lying between Perga and Antioch in Pisidia, would not be crossed usually between December
and March. If we therefore imagine that Paul’s itinerary would be arranged to suit the natural condition of the
country, the following seems to be a possible time-table. It is the one suggested by C. H. Turner as above.
    Paul arrived at Cyprus in April. Then went through the isle (Acts 13:6), and left Paphos in July, reaching
Antioch in Pisidia in August. Shaking off the dust of his feet against Antioch, Paul reached Iconium in November.
Here the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Ghost; and here also we read that Paul and Barnabas abode
‘a long time’. As it was nearing winter when they arrived, the probability is that they remained there until the
Passover. By April, therefore, they would have arrived at Lystra and Derbe, and the region round about (14:6,7).
They would begin the return journey about the beginning of July, reaching Pamphylia by October, and getting back
to Antioch and Syria by November. We shall therefore be fairly safe to assign the years A.D. 45 to 48 for this first
missionary journey.
    Among the items of interest that need to be placed in their chronological order, are the visits of the apostle to
                                                                        CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES   83
                                             Paul’s Visits to Jerusalem
FIRST VISIT        Acts 9:26-30            Compare ‘Syria and Cilicia’,
(3 years)          (Gal. 1:17-21)          with ‘Caesarea and Tarsus’.
SECOND VISIT       Acts 11:29,30           Before the first missionary (14 years)   (see also 12:25) journey.
THIRD VISIT        Acts 15:2-4             After the first missionary
FOURTH VISIT       Acts 18:21,22           To keep the Feast.
FIFTH VISIT        Acts 21:15 to 23:30     Taken prisoner.
    Before we can place the epistles of Paul in their true chronological order, it will be necessary to deal with the
related problem: ‘Where is Galatia?’ for when that question is settled, the chronological place of the epistle to the
Galatians is easily discovered.
    Where is Galatia? The answer to the question depends upon the date at which the map consulted was published.
If the map be that of Dr. Kitto’s Cyclop -dia, 1847, or T. R. Birks, editor of Paley, 1849 or any other publication
before them, Galatia will be as shown in the following map:

    If we look at Lewin’s Life and Epistles of Paul (1875), we shall find two maps, one showing the province of
Galatia with indications that national boundaries had given place to political necessities; the other showing Asia
Minor mapped according to its nationalities. A comparison of the two maps will reveal a marked difference. While
the national boundaries coincide with Kitto’s map, the political map reveals a state of affairs which must materially
influence the answer to the question, ‘Where is Galatia?’
    Upon this map are parts labelled, ‘Part of Phrygia included in the Province of Asia; Part of Phrygia in the
Province of Galatia’. In Ramsay’s ‘Historical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians’ is a map showing the
political divisions of Asia Minor, A.D. 40 to 63. We give here a sketch of this, indicating the province of Galatia by
shading the drawing.

    It will be seen that a letter addressed to churches situated in the Phrygian portion of the Galatian province, would
have to be addressed to the churches of Galatia, in harmony with the ruling of the powers that be. A pedant may be
imagined, though hardly probable, who would ignore the growth of London, and address those living outside the
original city walls as residents of Surrey, Middlesex, or Essex. We cannot for a moment believe the writer of the
inspired narrative to be so absurd. Whatever Galatia was to the mind of the rulers of the day would settle the
question for him, not withstanding that a great many nationalities were included in the one Province. Paul himself is
                CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES                                                          84
a case in point. He was a Hebrew, a Tarsian, and a Roman. Would anyone set out to debate as to whether Tarsus
was in Italy or Rome in Cilicia?
    Young’s Analytical Concordance (New Edition) no longer shows Galatia according to its national limitations,
but shows the larger Province of Galatia extending southward to include Derbe, Lystra, and Iconium, which had
hitherto been contained in Lycaonia: so also does an Atlas illustrating the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles
published by S. Philip & Sons, in 1914.
    It will be seen from this transition and change, that the simple question, ‘Where is Galatia?’ does not admit of a
simple answer. It will be also evident that the question is removed from purely Scriptural exposition, to that of arch
-ology and history. Quoting from The Times:
   ‘Professor W. M. Ramsay is the greatest living authority on the geography of Asia Minor, and the historical and
   arch -ological questions associated with its study’.
    Whatever theological opinions the Professor may hold, it is surely right to hear him in this province so peculiarly
his own. And as to the theological side, the Professor approached the study believing that the Acts of the Apostles
was written some 200 years later than Paul’s lifetime: he concluded it by believing that Luke was the writer during
the lifetime of the apostle. In other words, his investigation disproved Higher Criticism, and proved the Bible. This
is decidedly encouraging.
    It will be superfluous to use quotation marks in this article, for where Prof. Ramsay or his critics are not quoted,
some of the expressions are bound to be reminiscent of the writings of others. Those who wish to pursue the theme
more fully than can be undertaken here are recommended to the various bulky volumes from Prof. Ramsay’s pen,
the able book by Mr. Askwith, and the commentary of Kirslop Lake.
    Returning to the question: ‘Where is Galatia?’ and what is the meaning of the differing maps, we reply: ‘The
small district marked on the old maps as Galatia is the kingdom of Galatia.’ The larger area including the cities
visited in Acts 13 and 14 is the Roman Province of that name. To understand more fully the subject before us, we
must bear in mind that there were three classes of states in Asia Minor:
 1. Countries incorporated in the Empire
    in which law was administered by a
    Roman Governor.
 2. Countries connected with Rome by an                 Included in
    agreement or alliance, the terms of               the conception
    which were expressed by treaty,                        of the
    i.e., Client States according to                  Roman world.
    the usual and convenient expression,
    among which the chief were Galatia
    and Cappadocia.
 3. States in no formal and recognized
    relations with Rome, especially Pontus               Enemies.
    and the Isaurian Pirates.
    The Roman range of authority and action in any foreign land constituted a Provincia. Strabo shows the policy of
the Romans regarding the question of small kings and Roman governors. Where the character of the people was
unruly, and the nature of the country made rebellion and lawlessness easy, kings with their own standing army were
placed in authority, but step by step, and district by district, these countries were incorporated in the adjacent Roman
Provinces, as a certain degree of discipline and civilization was imparted to the population by these kings, who built
cities and introduced the Gr -co-Roman customs and education.
    As the above paragraph is appreciated, the changing of the map, and the enlarging of the borders of Galatia the
Kingdom to Galatia the Province, will be understood. For convenience of reference, we divide the existing teaching
on the subject into two views:
              (1) The North Galatia view.
                                                                        CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES   85
              (2) The South Galatia view.
   The North Galatia view maintains that only that part of the map which was originally Galatia is the Galatia of the
Scriptures. It recognizes that it is somewhat awkward to have to acknowledge that of all the cities of North Galatia,
which the apostle is supposed to have visited, and where he is supposed to have founded the churches, and to which
he addressed his epistle, Tavium, Ancrya, Pessinus, not one is even mentioned in the Acts.
   The South Galatia view maintains that by Galatia is intended the Galatia of the day, the large Roman Province
which had embraced Lycaonia and part of Phrygia on the south. According to this view, every city is named, and
Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe are seen as the churches of Galatia.
   The North Galatia view necessitates that the epistle to the Galatians was written after Acts 18:23, for Galatians
4:13 indicates a second visit. This associates ‘Galatians’ with ‘Corinthians’. The South Galatia view sees no
necessity for a later date.
    While Acts 16:6 is looked upon by the North Galatia view as the first mention and founding of the church of
Galatia, giving no names or incidents of the journey, the South Galatia view looks upon Acts 16:6 as a re-visiting of
the churches already founded in Acts 13 and 14; and the brief summary is most fitting and understandable. Full
details had already been given in Acts 13 to 15.
   Before passing on in our study, we will give historic proofs that Iconium, Lystra, Derbe and Antioch are rightly
addressed as ‘Galatia’:
 (1) Asterius, Bishop of Amaseia in Pontus, A.D. 401, in dealing with Acts 18:23 explains it in direct
     contradiction of what was true in his own day. Lycaonia was not included in Galatia in A.D. 401.
   ‘No conceivable interpretation could get Lycaonia out of Galatiken choran except deliberate adhesion to the
   South Galatian view’.
 (2) Dr. Schurer retracted his criticism of Prof. Ramsay’s position after consulting Pliny and Ptolemy. Ptolemy
     arranged his chapters according to the Roman Proconsular divisions:
              v.   1.   Pontou kai Bithunias Thesis.
              v.   2.   Tes idias Asias Thesis.
              v.   3.   Lukias Thesis.
              v.   4.   Galatias Thesis.
    He states that Galatia is bounded on the South by Pamphylia, and on the north by the Euxine Sea, including in it
Pisidia in the south, and Paphlagonia in the north. He enumerates parts of which it consisted, and mentions Antioch,
Iconium, and Lystra as cities of Galatia.
    So far as the date of the epistle is concerned, it has been assigned by different critics to the close, and to every
intermediate stage, of its author’s epistolary activity. Marcion places ‘Galatians’ first. Accepting as we do the
teaching that Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe are the churches of Galatia, the necessity for placing the writing of
the epistle to a period subsequent to Acts 18:23 is entirely removed. Both Ramsay and Weber believe that
‘Galatians’ was written from Antioch. Ramsay views Acts 13 and Acts 16 as the two visits; Weber considers that
the outward and homeward journeys of 13 and 14 suffice.
    It is strange that Paul makes no reference to the ‘Decrees’ in Galatians, and this silence is taken as an indication
that the epistle was written before Acts 15. Further, it has been said, the Judaizers could hardly ‘compel’
circumcision (6:12), after the decision at Jerusalem (Acts 15). Peter’s action in Galatians 2 is also much more
difficult to understand if after Acts 15. Altogether, everything is favourable to an early date for the epistle, and we
believe we shall not be wrong in placing it first in chronological order.
   Since writing this chapter, the author has come across a small book (The Date of Galatians, by Douglas Round),
dealing with the date of the epistle, in which the writer, while accepting the South Galatian view of Prof. Ramsay,
does not accept the date suggested by him, but argues very strongly for the position which we have felt to be the true
one, namely, the earliest of all the epistles. We quote his own opening words:
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     ‘Before the appearance of his (Prof. Ramsay’s) books setting out the South Galatian theory, the epistle to the
     Galatians seemed to be in the air, and to have no relation to the Acts of the Apostles or to any other writing. His
     brilliant work illuminated what had been before a dark corner. The interest so aroused led me to study the
     subject more closely, and eventually to form the opinion expressed in these pages, as to the earlier date of the
     epistle. The later date was the burden laid by necessity upon the holders of the North Galatian theory. Prof.
     Ramsay might have cast off the burden so inherited. Instead of so doing, he gratuitously (as it seems to me) tied
     the burden round his neck to the great injury of the South Galatian theory’.
   Without going through all the controversy raised in this book, we give the following summary of the essential
    (1) Was the epistle written before or after Acts 15?
    (2) The private conference of Galatians 2 took place upon the second visit of the apostle to Jerusalem, which was
        that of Acts 11:30. The reference to ‘the poor’, and Paul’s expressed readiness, coincide with the errand of
        mercy mentioned in Acts 11:30.
    (3) After the private conference at Jerusalem, Peter dissembles at Antioch. The question at issue at Antioch was
        not, ‘should the Gentiles be circumcised’? that had been settled; but, ‘should the circumcised eat with the
        uncircumcised?’ On this point Peter wavered. Peter felt the force of the rebuke, and acted accordingly at the
        public Council (Acts 15).
    (4) Paul paid the Galatian churches two visits (Acts 13). The return visit was important. The faith which the
        apostle had preached (13:39), they were exhorted to ‘continue in’ (14:22), and the persecution which they
        knew the apostle suffered (13:50), was a part of their expectation also - ‘we must through much tribulation
        enter the kingdom of God’.
    (5) While the apostle abode at Antioch for ‘a long time’ some of the emissaries from Jerusalem went on to
        Galatia. The result of their visit is recorded in Galatians 1:6. Paul at once, from Antioch, and just before the
        conference (Acts 15), wrote the epistle.
    (6) The contention which necessitated the conference necessitated also the epistle.
    (7) The decrees, formulated by the Council, are never mentioned in the epistle. If the Apostle had received
        them, he would be obliged in all honesty, to have said so. Further, the fact that these decrees practically
        endorsed the exemption of the Gentiles from the Law was a strong argument for the apostle. If the epistle
        had been written after Acts 15, would not the apostle have settled the question at once by reference to the
   In the epistle we can have no doubt the apostle uses the strongest arguments that at the time of writing were
possible. The close connection between Acts 13 and the epistle is also an argument for nearness in point of time.
He argues in the epistle as though his teaching would be still clearly remembered.
    Galatians 4:20 suggests a desire to revisit them. Why did he not go? The simple reason was that he was obliged
to go up to Jerusalem for the conference instead.
     Douglas Round’s own summary is as follows:
    (1)   By this view no visit of Paul to Jerusalem is suppressed.
    (2)   The most forcible arguments that could be used at the time are used.
    (3)   No inconsistency is intruded into the Acts.
    (4)   Every phrase which bears upon the date is simply and naturally explained.
    (5)   The authority of the Council at Jerusalem, and the decree made, remains unimpaired.
    (6)   The epistle was written from Antioch or the neighbourhood.
    (7)   The churches of Galatia were those of Pisidia, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe.

    In a review of the first edition of this Analysis, F.F. Bruce pointed out ‘... that in his later works (The 14th
edition (1920) of St. Paul the Traveller, pp. 22-31) Sir William Ramsay did accept the view expressed here, that
Galatians is the earliest of the extant Pauline letters’.
                                                                        CHRONOLOGY      OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES   87
 (8) The epistle is probably the earliest book in the New Testament.
    Having established the position of the epistle to the Galatians, we can now set out the chronology of the Acts and
the place of the epistles, with some measure of assurance that, while every detail cannot be proved, and a margin of
one or two years must be permitted, yet for all practical purposes, the following calendar can be accepted with every
confidence. The external history recorded in the Acts, keeps pace with the internal revelation of doctrinal and
dispensational truth recorded in the epistles, and this relationship we now indicate by pointing out a few of the
verbal links that associate an epistle with its place in the Acts. We take as our basis of comparison Paul’s own
summary given in Acts 20:18-21.

                                      The relation of the epistle with the Acts
ACTS. ‘After what manner I have been with you’ (Acts 20:18).
EPISTLE. ‘Ye know what manner of men we were among you for your sake’ (1 Thess. 1:5).
ACTS.    ‘Serving the Lord’ (Acts 20:19).
         With the exception of the statement of our Lord Himself, ‘Ye cannot serve God and Mammon’ douleuo is
         used exclusively by the apostle for service unto the Lord. There are six occurrences in his epistles which,
         together with Acts 20:19, make seven in all.
EPISTLE. ‘Fervent in spirit; serving the Lord’ (Rom. 12:11 and see also Rom. 14:18; 16:18; Eph. 6:7; Col. 3:24 and
         1 Thess. 1:9).
ACTS. ‘Serving the Lord with all humility of mind’ (Acts 20:19).
EPISTLE. ‘In lowliness of mind let each esteem other’ (Phil. 2:3).
         Paul is responsible for six out of the total seven occurrences of tapeinophrosune, ‘humility of mind’.
ACTS. ‘With many tears, and temptations’ (Acts 20:19).
EPISTLE. ‘My temptation which was in my flesh’ (Gal. 4:14).
ACTS. ‘How I kept back nothing that was profitable’ (Acts 20:20).
EPISTLE. ‘But if any man draw back’ (Heb. 10:38).
ACTS. ‘How I kept back nothing that was profitable’ (Acts 20:20).
EPISTLE. ‘All things are not expedient’ (1 Cor. 6:12).
         There are sixteen occurrences of sumphero ‘expedient’ or ‘profitable’ in the New Testament: eight occur
         in the Gospels and Acts 19:19, and the other eight exclusively in Paul’s epistles.
ACTS. ‘The Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city’ (Acts 20:23).
EPISTLE. ‘The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit’ (Rom. 8:16).
ACTS. ‘That I might finish my course’ (Acts 20:24).
EPISTLE. ‘I have finished my course’ (2 Tim. 4:7).
         These are the only occurrences of dromos ‘course’ except that in Acts 13:25, where, again, Paul is
         speaking. The use of the verb teleioo, ‘to perfect’, in the sense of finishing a race, is characteristic of the
         apostle’s language, especially in Philippians 3 and the epistle to the Hebrews.
ACTS. ‘Over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you (tithemi) overseers’ (Acts 20:28).
EPISTLE. ‘Whereunto I am appointed (tithemi) a preacher’ (2 Tim. 1:11).
ACTS. ‘Not sparing the flock’ (Acts 20:29).
EPISTLE. ‘If God spared not the natural branches’ (Rom. 11:21).
         There are seven occurrences of pheidomai, ‘to spare’ in Paul’s epistles. Elsewhere it is found only in
         Acts 20:29 or 2 Pet. 2:4,5.
ACTS. ‘Therefore watch, and remember’ (Acts 20:31).
EPISTLE. ‘For ye remember, brethren, our labour’ (1 Thess. 2.9).
         Mnemoneuo. - This is a word very characteristic of the apostle Paul. He uses it again in Acts 20:35,
         seven times in the Church epistles and three times in Hebrews.
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ACTS. ‘Therefore ... remember ... night and day’ (Acts 20.31).
EPISTLE. ‘With labour and travail night and day’ (2 Thess. 3:8).
         The association of night and day as an indication of continuance is a characteristic expression of Paul. He
         uses the combination seven times (Acts 26.7; 1 Thess. 2:9; 3:10; 2 Thess. 3:8; 1 Tim. 5:5; 2 Tim. 1:3).
         The other epistles do not use the expression.
ACTS. ‘I ceased not to warn every one’ (Acts 20:31).
EPISTLE. ‘Warning every man, and teaching every man’ (Col. 1:28). This word noutheteo, ‘to warn’, occurs in
         seven passages, all of them in Paul’s epistles. It occurs nowhere else except in Acts 20:31, where it is
         Paul who is speaking.
ACTS. ‘An inheritance among all them which are sanctified’ (Acts 20:32).
EPISTLE. ‘The inheritance of the saints in light’ (Col. 1:12).
ACTS.    ‘I have coveted no man’s silver, or gold, or apparel’
         (Acts 20:33).
EPISTLE. ‘Neither ... used we ... a cloke of covetousness’ (1 Thess. 2:5).
          This is a characteristic attitude of the apostle Paul.
ACTS.    ‘These hands have ministered unto my necessities’
         (Acts 20:34).
EPISTLE. ‘We labour, working with our own hands’ (1 Cor. 4:12).
ACTS. ‘These hands have ministered unto my necessities’ (Acts 20:34).
EPISTLE. ‘Distributing to the necessity of saints’ (Rom. 12:13).
ACTS.    ‘These hands’; ‘These bonds’ (Acts 20:34; 26:29).
         ‘How that so labouring ye ought to support the weak’ (Acts 20:35).
EPISTLE. ‘We both labour and suffer reproach’ (1 Tim. 4:10).
          Kopiao, ‘to labour’ is a word much used by the apostle. He employs it fourteen times in his epistles.
          None of the other apostles use the word except John (Rev. 2:3).
   Here, within the compass of eighteen verses, we have eighteen instances of the usage of words peculiarly
Pauline. Could there be more convincing proof that Luke is a faithful eye-witness, and a trustworthy historian?
   We conclude this analysis by setting out the chronological order of the fourteen epistles of Paul.

                                      Chronological Order of Paul’s Epistles
                                            Seven Epistles before Acts 28
GALATIANS. ‘The just shall live by FAITH’ (Gal. 3:11).
  1 THESSALONIANS. ‘Faith, Hope and Love’.
   2 THESSALONIANS.    Written to correct erroneous views arising out of first epistle and emphasizing Satanic
                           counterfeit (2 Thess. 2).
HEBREWS.    ‘The just shall LIVE by faith’ (Heb. 10:38).
   1 CORINTHIANS.      ‘Faith, Hope and Charity’ - these ‘abide’.
   2 CORINTHIANS.      Written to correct erroneous views arising out of the first epistle, and emphasizing Satanic
                           counterfeit (2 Cor. 11).
ROMANS.     ‘The JUST shall live by faith’ (Rom. 1:17).
    The hope of Israel is in view from Acts 1:6 to Acts 28:20. It appears in Acts 26:6,7, Romans 15:12,13 and
1 Thessalonians 4:15-18. All reference to ‘The twelve tribes’, ‘The reign over the Gentiles’ and the ‘Archangel’
cease at Acts 28:28. With the setting aside of Israel a new dispensation comes into operation, and a new set of
                                                                         CHRONOLOGY    OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES   89
                                            Seven Epistles after Acts 28
           EPHESIANS.         The revelation of the Mystery.
               PHILIPPIANS.      Bishops and Deacons.
                                     The Prize.
               PHILEMON.         Truth in practice.
           COLOSSIANS.        The revelation of the Mystery.
               1 TIMOTHY.        Bishops and Deacons.
               2 TIMOTHY.            The Crown.
    The evidences for the exact dating of these Prison and Pastoral Epistles are not sufficient to enable anyone to
dogmatize. All that we feel can be said with some measure of confidence is, that 1 Timothy and Titus were written
in the interval of freedom that intervened between the two years at Rome (Acts 28:30), when Paul was treated as a
military prisoner and allowed some measure of liberty, and the subsequent imprisonment when he was treated as an
‘evil doer’, and from which there was no hope entertained of release, except by death.
    Most students know that it is necessary to antedate the birth of Christ by a few years, some say three, some four,
some five. The Companion Bible makes the date of the Nativity 4 B.C., and the date of the Crucifixion A.D. 29. The
Lord commenced His public ministry when He was ‘about thirty years old’ and this ministry continued for a space
of three years and a half. This means that the date of the Crucifixion must be somewhere round about A.D. 29, but
the reader will see from the following chronology that, working back from the settled date of Acts 12, 13, A.D. 44,
we have felt obliged to adopt A.D. 30. We do not attempt to supply actual details, until we arrive at A.D. 36, the date
of Saul’s conversion. The calendar travels beyond the end of the Acts which we have put as A.D. 63, adding two
more years to complete the apostle’s ministry. To this we add five more years to bring us to the date of the
destruction of Jerusalem. It will be observed that from A.D. 30 to A.D. 65 we have a period of thirty-five years, or
five sets of seven years, each seventh year being marked by a Divinely expressed comment. Thirtythree whole years
of the Saviour’s life are balanced by thirtythree whole years of His ascended ministry ‘The Lord working with
them’, which period also is the length of time which David reigned over all Israel (2 Sam. 5:5). The dates of the
epistles are indicated, together with the several journeys of the apostle to Jerusalem, and other matters of interest
concerning the dates of which some measure of exactness is possible are tabulated:

                                             Chronology of Acts 9 to 28
   EVENT         CHAPTER          YEAR        EVENT            EPISTLE
                     9             36    Paul converted
   7. ‘Rest’         9:31          37
ARETAS                             38    1st Jerusalem
                  11:26            43    Christians
  Famine          11:28            44
HEROD 7. ‘Growth’ 12:24            44
                                   45    2nd Jerusalem
                     12:1          46    1st Mission
   Cyprus (April)                  47
   Return (July?)                  48    Antioch (Nov.?)
                   CHRONOLOGY    OF   ACTS   AND   EPISTLES                                                       90
                                      50 3rd Jerusalem
   7. ‘Increase’
                      16:5            51 2nd Mission      Galatians
FELIX    Jews         18              52 Gallio           1 and 2
   Expelled 18 months                 53 Feast Sept. 16th Hebrews
   Ephesus         19:1               54 4th Jerusalem
                   19:21              55 3rd Mission
   3 years         20:31              56
   7. ‘Arrest’        22:             58 5th Jerusalem        1 and 2
                                      59   2 years prison     Romans
FESTUS                24:27           60   in Caesarea
                      28:             62   2 years prison     MYSTERY
End of Acts                           63   in Rome            made known
Fire at Rome          Nero            64   Spain and          1 Timothy                the West and Titus
    7. ‘Finished’     2 Tim. 4        65   Evil doer          2 Timothy
    Two dates, namely A.D. 44, the death of Herod (Acts 12:23) and the fire of Rome, A.D. 64, peg the Acts down
upon the calendar of the world, the rest is a matter either of arithmetic or of careful reading and comparison. As we
said at the beginning of this article, some datings must remain tentative, but for all practical purposes the above
chronology will prove to fit the circumstances and give a faithful all-over picture of the whole of the apostle’s

     The English word ‘church’ has come down to us from the Greek through the Gothic. Walafrid Strabo, who
wrote about A.D. 840 gives as the explanation of the word ‘kyrch’ the Greek kuriake, a word that means ‘related to
the Lord’, as he kuriake hemera ‘the Lord’s day’. The Scottish word ‘kirk’ retains the sound of the Greek original
still. In ordinary parlance, the word church can refer both to the body of worshippers assembled together, or to the
building in which they are met, but there is no instance in the New Testament where the word ‘church’ refers to a
building. In the ministry of Paul a transition in the usage of the word is observable which is dispensationally
important. Before Acts 28 and while the hope of Israel still obtained, the apostle addressed six epistles to different
companies of believers. ‘Unto the churches of Galatia’, ‘Unto the church of the Thessalonians’, ‘Unto the church of
God which is at Corinth’. Thus five of these early epistles use the word ‘church’ in a local sense. Romans is the
exception in this group, this epistle is not addressed to ‘the church which is at Rome’ but ‘To all that be in Rome,
beloved of God, called to be saints’ (Rom. 1:7), the word church being reserved for the last chapter, where it occurs
five times.
    This prepares the way for the great change which meets us in Ephesians and Colossians. In these great epistles
of the Mystery, the word church is not used in the opening salutation, but is invested with new glory, the first
occurrence being in Ephesians 1:22,23, ‘The church which is His body, the fulness of Him that filleth all in all’. The
word translated ‘church’, is with one exception the translation of the Greek word ekklesia, which becomes in
English ecclesia and enters into the composition of such words as ecclesiastical etc. The one exception is Acts
19:37, ‘robbers of churches’, which the R.V. more correctly renders ‘robbers of temples’. Ekklesia occurs in the
New Testament 115 times, three of these occurrences being translated ‘assembly’ the rest ‘church’. The Septuagint
version uses the word about eighty times, but we will defer their examination until we have finished our survey of
the usage of the word in the New Testament.
                                                                                                             CHURCH        91
   The following extract from Trench on the Synonyms of the New Testament is of interest:
   ‘There are words whose history it is peculiarly interesting to watch, as they obtain a deeper meaning, and receive
   a new consecration, in the Christian Church; which, even while it did not invent, has yet assumed them into its
   service, and employed them in a far loftier sense than any to which the world had ever put them before. The
   very word by which the Church is named is itself an example - a more illustrious one could scarcely be found -
   of this gradual ennobling of a word. For we have it in three distinct stages of meaning - the heathen, the Jewish,
   and the Christian. In respect of the first, as all know, was the lawful assembly in a free Greek city of all those
   possessed of the rights of citizenship, for the transaction of public affairs. That they were summoned is
   expressed in the latter part of the word; that they were summoned out of the whole population, a large, but at the
   same time a select portion of it, including neither the populace, nor strangers, nor yet those who had forfeited
   their civic rights, this is expressed in the first. Both the calling and the calling out, are moments to be
   remembered, when the word is assumed into a higher Christian sense, for in them the chief part of its peculiar
   adaptation to its auguster uses lies. It is interesting to observe how, on one occasion in the New Testament the
   word returns to this its earlier significance (Acts 19:32,39,41)’.
   The LXX uses the word ekklesia to translate the Hebrew qahal. Qahal means to call, to assemble, and the noun
form means a congregation or assembly. Solomon is called koheleth the Preacher, translated by the LXX
ekklesiastes. The earliest known occurrence of the word is found in Job 30:28, ‘I cried in the congregation’. In the
books of the law, qahal is rendered by the Greek word sunagoge, showing that the synagogue is the beginning of the
New Testament church. Stephen in his speech which ended in his martyrdom referred to the history of Israel, and
dwells for considerable length upon the one great leader Moses, saying in Acts 7:38:
   ‘This is he, that was in the CHURCH in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sinai’.
The people of Israel, looked upon as ‘a called-out assembly’ were ‘the Church’ of that period.
    In the nineteenth chapter of Acts, a reference is made to the Greek usage of the word ekklesia. The concourse of
people gathered to the theatre at Ephesus is referred to as an ekklesia, ‘the assembly was confused’ (Acts 19:32).
Upon the arrival of the town clerk, he reproved the people for the rashness of their proceedings saying: ‘If ye inquire
anything concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly (ekklesia)’ (Acts 19:39), and having
thus spoken he dismissed the assembly (Acts 19:41). Here the word is used in its original sense, a called-out people,
assembled for a particular purpose. It will be seen, therefore, that it is not enough to point to the word ‘church’ and
thereby set aside the distinctive callings of God. The kingdom as announced in Matthew is not to be contrasted with
a church, but is in itself to be viewed as a company of called-out ones. The reference to the church in Matthew
16:18 does not look to the subject of subsequent revelation reserved for the prison ministry of Paul, but to the calling
that was announced in the Gospel of the Kingdom. There was a ‘church’ before Pentecost, as Matthew 18:17 makes
     In the Prison Epistles (See under PRISON EPISTLES3) the word ekklesia is advanced to its highest conception. It
is ‘the body of Christ’, it will be ‘the fulness of Him that filleth all in all’. It will be seen that it is not enough to say:
‘The church began at Pentecost’, we must go further, and define what church is in view. Under the heading ekklesia
or ‘called-out company’ we find the following different assemblies, ranging from the nation of Israel separated from
all the nations of the earth down to the church to which Philemon acted as host. Before, therefore, we build up any
doctrine upon the presence of the word ‘church’ in any passage of Scripture we should consult the context and
realize the dispensation in which any particular church finds its calling and sphere.

 1.    The nation of Israel viewed as distinct in their calling to be a kingdom of Priests in the earth (Acts 7:38). In
       this light it will be perceived that some care must be exercised when we are seeking to differentiate between
       the Kingdom and the Church.
 2.    The Church spoken of as existing in the days of Christ’s earthly ministry before either His sacrificial death,
       or before the day of Pentecost (Matt. 18:17).
                              CITIZENSHIP                                                                          92
 3.    The Church concerning which Christ spoke as future, and built upon the rock, and confession ‘Thou art the
       Christ the Son of the living God’ related to Peter with his keys of the kingdom of heaven (Matt. 16:18).
 4.    The Church which was formed in the day of Pentecost, which
        (a) partly fulfilled the prophecy of Joel 2:28,29.
        (b) awaits complete fulfilment until the future day of the Lord.
        (c) is inseparable from the enduement of spiritual gifts.
        (d) is inseparable from the kingdom of Israel (Acts 1:6; 2:30,31).
        (e) is inseparable from baptism for the remission of sins. This Church is related to the dispersion (Jas.
             1:1; 5:14).
 5.    The Church of God, which Paul persecuted before his conversion in Acts 9 (Gal. 1:13, 1 Cor. 15:9; Phil. 3:6)
       and which continued to assemble and to grow under his subsequent ministry (1 Cor. 1:2; 11:16; 1 Thess.
       2:14; 2 Thess. 1:4).
 6.    The Church of God, called in the same chapter, the Church of the living God (1 Tim. 3:5,15) to whom was
       directed that ministry of re-adjustment which had in view the building up of the body of Christ until all
       arrived in the unity of the faith, etc. (Eph. 4:11-13).
 7.    The Church of the One Body, the calling that goes back before the foundation of the world, and ascends to
       the position ‘far above all’ where Christ sits. This church is entirely disassociated from all previous
       companies, having no relation with Israel, Abraham or New Covenant, but filling the great dispensational
       parenthesis of Israel’s blindness, which fell on that nation in Acts 28. The status, calling and constitution of
       this Church can be gathered by reading Ephesians and Colossians, remembering as the reading progresses,
       ever to ‘try the things that differ’.
 8.    The seven Churches of Asia (Rev. 1 to 3), one of them namely the Church at Pergamos, will be in the city
       ‘where Satan’s seat is’ (Rev. 2:13). These seven churches will resume where the Church of Pentecost left off
       and carry the fulfilment of Joel 2:28,29 through to its end. In these Churches there will be some who will
       ‘say they are Jews and are not’ (Rev. 2:9). This company, though enumerated separately, really falls under
       heading No. 4, but owing to the setting aside of Israel at the coming in of the dispensation of the Mystery, we
       have listed these Churches separately.
    We believe that the earnest student who obeys the injunction of 2 Timothy 2:15 and discovers under which of
these heads ‘the church’ under examination falls, will have no difficulty in correctly relating any church mentioned
in the New Testament with its respective calling and dispensation.

CITIZENSHIP. Among the glorious privileges of the members of the body of Christ is that of being ‘fellow citizens
with the saints’ (Eph. 2:19) which is placed in contrast with a previous position, ‘No more strangers and foreigners’,
which position is set out very clearly in earlier verses of this same chapter.
                                                 Ephesians 2:11,12
       A   Gentiles in the flesh.
           B  Without Christ.
           C      Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel.
           C      Strangers from the covenants of promise.
         B    Having no hope.
       A   Godless in the world.
   The word ‘commonwealth’ here is politeia, the word ‘fellow citizen’ is sumpolites. In the flesh, the Gentile was
an alien, but in the spirit, he could be a citizen on equal terms.
   The apostle who thus writes of this great privilege of citizenship could bring to bear upon the subject his own
conscious sense of privilege in being a citizen of Israel’s commonwealth, by reason of his Hebrew birth, and the fact
                                                                                                      CITIZENSHIP    93
that he was at the same time ‘a citizen of no mean city’ (Acts 21:39) namely of Tarsus, and above this, a Roman
‘born free’ (Acts 22:28), where it must be remembered that the word ‘freedom’ used by the Roman captain is
politeia, the same word that is translated ‘commonwealth’ in Ephesians 2:12. It is evident that before we can use the
word ‘citizenship’ without ambiguity we must know what ‘city’ is in view. Before discussing this feature, we will
provide a concordance to all the derivatives of polis ‘city’ that are found in the New Testament.
Politeuo      ‘I have lived in all good conscience’ (Acts 23:1).
              ‘Let your conversation be as it becometh’ (Phil. 1:27).
Politeuma     ‘For our conversation is in heaven’ (Phil. 3:20).
Politeia      ‘With a great sum obtained I this freedom’ (Acts 22:28).
              ‘Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel’ (Eph. 2:12).
Polites       ‘Joined himself to a citizen’ (Luke 15:15).
              ‘But his citizens hated him’ (Luke 19:14).
              ‘A citizen of no mean city’ (Acts 21:39).
Sumpolites    ‘Fellow citizens with the saints’ (Eph. 2:19).
    The cities mentioned in the New Testament are many, Jerusalem, Capernaum, Lystra, Derbe, Damascus, the
heavenly Jerusalem, and Rome, come at once to the mind. Jerusalem is called ‘the holy city’ (Matt. 4:5) and the city
of the great king (Matt. 5:35). Christ was born in Bethlehem, ‘the city of David’ (Luke 2:11), but it is evident that
the citizenship which is spoken of in the epistles is something higher than anything these could offer. In the epistle
to the Hebrews and in the book of the Revelation, the heavenly Jerusalem is dominant, and it is in Hebrews, that we
read ‘here we have no continuing city but we seek one to come’ (Heb. 13:14). The heavenly city is associated with
Abraham, and is called Mount Sion. The description given of this city in Revelation 21, links it with the heavenly
calling of the people of Israel. The twelve gates bear the names of the twelve tribes of Israel. The twelve
foundations bear the names of the twelve apostles, as distinct from the order of apostles given by the ascended
Christ spoken of in Ephesians 4 (see article on APOSTLE p. 82). This city is called ‘The Bride’ and ‘the Lamb’s
Wife’, and cannot be confused with the church of the one Body which is the ‘perfect man’ (see article THE BRIDE
AND THE BODY p. 125).

   Weymouth’s translation of Philippians 3:20 reads:
   ‘We, however, are free citizens of heaven’.
   The R.V. reads ‘For our citizenship is in heaven’, with a marginal note ‘commonwealth’.
    A Gentile ‘in the flesh’ could not belong to the commonwealth of Israel, and in the spirit he has a citizenship in
heaven, to which Israel would be a stranger. The citizenship open to believers today is not associated with
Abraham, for he is never once mentioned in the Prison Epistles. Here there is no city bearing the names of the
twelve tribes of Israel, for Israel and its hope is never mentioned in the Prison Epistles. Here is no city, resting upon
the foundation of the twelve apostles, for Peter, James, John and the rest have no place in these Prison Epistles. It is
a citizenship in complete harmony with the calling of the Mystery, which associates the believer with heavenly
places where Christ sits at the right hand of God, and unlike the holy city, the New Jerusalem, will never be seen
descending out of heaven to the earth, neither will it ever change its status of the perfect man, for that of the Bride.
    The introduction of politeuma in Philippians 3 is not so much to teach positive truth as to exhort those who
belonged to the high calling of God to comport themselves accordingly. The Philippians were in a peculiar position
to enable them to appreciate this exhortation. Philippi was a ‘colony’ (Acts 16:12), free citizens of Rome, but living
away from Rome itself, and Moffatt’s version reads suggestively here, ‘But we are a colony of heaven’, which has
the advantage of including both the idea of citizenship and the idea of the Roman colony, and at the same time
taking our eyes off the Heavenly Jerusalem which is never at any time associated with the idea of a colony. So the
Philippians were free citizens of heavenly places, but living here on earth for the time being. Let us who realize our
high and holy calling remember that we are indeed ‘citizens of no mean city’ and seek grace to act accordingly.
                              COLOSSIANS                                                                            94
    The epistle to the Colossians is one of a group of epistles which were written by Paul from prison (see PRISON
MINISTRY) and forms one of a pair with Ephesians leaving Philippians to form one of a pair with 2 Timothy. The
relationship of the Prison Epistles can be seen by the following structural correspondence.
                                                 The Prison Epistles
   A Ephesians.  The Dispensation of the Mystery.
                 The Church which is His Body.
                 The Fulness. Christ the Head.
                 Principalities and Powers.
     B Philippians. Try the things that differ.
                     Strive. Press towards the mark.
                     Prize. Depart. Offered.
        C Philemon.      A private and affectionate letter.
   A Colossians. The Dispensation of the Mystery.
                 The Church which is His Body.
                 Fulness. Christ the Head.
                 Principalities and Powers.
     B 2 Timothy. Rightly dividing the word of Truth.
                     Strive. Course finished.
                     Crown. Depart. Offered.
    Colossians supplements Ephesians, gives the same teaching in somewhat more condensed form, and adds a large
central section in the nature of a warning. The warning has to do with ‘the prize’ of Philippians, the words, ‘let no
man beguile you of your reward’ being a translation of katabrabeuo (Col. 2:18). ‘The prize’ of Philippians 3:14
being brabeion. At the close of this article we give a chart, setting forth the general idea of the epistle, but we will
here give the structural outline of the epistle as a whole and exhibit the arrangement of some of its parts, and follow
this with a few notes upon some outstanding features of the epistle.

A 1:1,2.     Salutation.
 B 1:3-8.      Faithful ministry Epaphras. Word of truth heard.
  C a 1:9-12. Prayer for spiritual walk.
        b 1:13-23. Christ before all. In Him all consist.
    D 1:23-27.         The MYSTERY manifested by God.
      E 1:28 to 2:1. Preaching to present PERFECT.
        F 2:2,3.          HID. Treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
          G 2:4-23.         BEWARE. Fivefold warning.
        F 3:1-4.          HID. Your life, with Christ.
  C b 3:5-15.          Christ is all and in all.
      a 3:16 to 4:1. Indwelling word, spiritual walk.
    D 4:2-11.          The MYSTERY manifested by Paul.
      E 4:12,13.        Prayer to stand PERFECT.
 B 4:14-17. Public ministry. Archippus. Epistle to be read.
A 4:18.      Salutation.

   We follow this outline of the epistle as a whole, with one or two outlines of the larger correspondencies.
                                                                                                        COLOSSIANS 95

                                          Colossians 1:9-12 with 3:16 to 4:1
                                     Meet for, and the Reward of the INHERITANCE.
C 1:9-12.          A 1:9. Prayer for all wisdom.
                     B 1:9. Spiritual understanding.
                         C 1:10. Every good work.
                           D 1:12. Giving thanks unto the Father.
                              E 1:10. All pleasing.
                                 F 1:12. Meet for Inheritance.

                                                  BEWARE   - Col. 2:4-23

C 3:16 to 4:1.     A 3:16. Word of Christ, all wisdom.
                     B 3:16. Spiritual songs.
                        C 3:17. Word or deed.
                           D 3:17. Giving thanks to the Father.
                             E 3:20. Well pleasing.
                                 F 3:24. Reward of the

                                            Colossians 1:13-23 with 3:5-15
                                                THE IMAGE. Christ is all.
C 1:13-23. G 1:15,16. Creator. The IMAGE.
             H 1:20.     Reconciliation. Heaven and Earth.
                I 1:17,18. Christ pre-eminent. All in Him.
                    J 1:20.     Peace and forgiveness of sins.
                      K 1:22.      Holy, blameless,

                                                  BEWARE   - Col. 2:4-23

C 3:5-15.      G 3:10.   Created after the IMAGE.
                 H 3:11.    Reconciliation of Jew and Greek.
                    I 3:11.     Christ is all and in all.
                       J 3:13,15. Peace. Forgive quarrel.
                         K 3:9,12. Put off, put on, holy and

For the corresponding structure of Colossians 1:23 to 2:1 with 4:2-13, see the article entitled MYSTERY3. For
structure of the prayer of Colossians 1:9-12 and its association with the prayers of Ephesians and Philippians, see the
article THE PRAYERS OF THE APOSTLE PAUL. For the structure of Colossians 1:13-23 see article entitled
RECONCILIATION4. For the word fulness, see article entitled PLEROMA3.
    We must leave these several articles to supply the necessary information regarding the passages indicated, and
turn our attention to the outline of the great distinctive central portion. It will be seen that there are five correctives,
and we have had them set up in distinctive type so that they may be seen together.
    The key-words of Colossians and others, such as ‘above’, ‘the hope’, ‘manifestation’, etc., are dealt with in
articles bearing similar words in their titles. For a fuller exposition of the whole epistle, the reader is directed to the
series of articles on Colossians in The Berean Expositor, Vols. 20 to 25, and the section of The Testimony of the
                             COLOSSIANS                                                                         96
Lord’s Prisoner devoted to that epistle. The chart on page 183 may help the reader to envisage the teaching of this
great epistle.

                                                Colossians 2:4-23
R a 4-8. Plausible speech. Philosophy (sophos).
    b 8.    Traditions of men.
       c 8.     Rudiments of the world.
            CORRECTIVE        8.    Not after Christ.
                              9,10. Ye are filled full in Him.

    S d 11,12. Body of the flesh. The energy of God.
        e 11.     Made without hands.
           f 11,12. IN Whom. Circumcised and baptized.
                  CORRECTIVE        12.    Dead and buried with
                                    10.    Head of principality and

       T g 14.   Handwriting of ordinances. Blotted out.
           h 14.    Nailed to cross. Taken out of the way.
           h 15.    Principalities spoiled. Triumph in the cross.
         g 16.   Observances. Let no man judge you.
                    CORRECTIVE         17.   These are shadows.
                                       17.   The body is of

    S d 18,19. Mind of the flesh. Increase of God.
        e 18.     Voluntary humility. Vainly puffed up.
           f 18,19. OUT of Whom. Religion of angels.
                  CORRECTIVE         19.    Hold Christ the Head.
                                     20.    Ye died with Christ.

R         c 20-22. Rudiments of the world.
      b 22.    Teaching of men.
    a 23.   Wordy show of wisdom (sophos).
               CORRECTIVE       23.    Not in any honour.
                                23.    Filling the flesh.

CONFIRMATION. We have no intention of dealing with the Church of England rite of ‘confirmation’ under this
heading, such a subject lies completely outside the limits of this analysis. We are confining ourselves to one use of
the term found in the New Testament namely, the confirming character and purpose of miraculous gifts. The Greek
word so translated is bebaio. Confirmation in the New Testament may be the sense of support received episterizo
(Acts 14:22; 15:32,41, ‘strengthening’ Acts 18:23). It may be the confirmation that is received when validity or
authority is established kuroo (Gal. 3:15). It may be the confirmation that results from the interposition of some
unquestionable assurance, mesiteuo as in Hebrews 6:17. None of these aspects is in mind at the moment. Bebaio
indicates that confirmation which is established by proof.

                                                 Confirm Bebaio
      Mark 16:20    ‘Confirming the word with signs following’.
       Rom. 15:8    ‘To confirm the promises made unto the fathers’.
       1 Cor. 1:6   ‘The testimony of Christ was confirmed in you’.
       1 Cor. 1:8   ‘Who shall also confirm you unto the end’.
      2 Cor. 1:21   ‘He which stablisheth us with you’.
         Col. 2:7   ‘Stablished in the faith’.
         Heb. 2:3   ‘Was confirmed unto us by them’.
        Heb. 13:9   ‘The heart be established with grace’.
   The passages which concern us in the present inquiry are Mark 16:20, 1 Corinthians 1:6 and Hebrews 2:3.
   Mark 16. The signs following of verse 20, are most evidently the signs that shall follow them that believe of
verse 17. They are:
   ‘In My name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if
   they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands upon the sick, and they shall recover’
   (Mark 16:17,18).
   After these promises had been made, the Lord ascended and sat on the right hand of God, the apostles went forth
and preached everywhere:
   ‘The Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following’.
    1 Corinthians 1:6. The church at Corinth had a super abundance of spiritual and miraculous gifts, so much so
that some regulation was necessary to avoid confusion (1 Cor. 14:26-33). In the opening address to this church Paul
refers to the confirming character of these gifts:
   ‘In every thing ye are enriched by Him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge; even as the testimony of Christ
   was CONFIRMED in you: so that ye come behind in no gift’ (1 Cor. 1:5-7).
Here again we perceive that the Lord was confirming the Word with signs following.
    Hebrews 2:3,4. ‘How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by
the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard Him; God also bearing them witness, both with signs and
wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to His own will’.
    These confirmatory gifts are spoken of in Hebrews 6:5 as ‘the powers of the age to come’ the ignoring of which
made it impossible to renew such unto repentance. These gifts promised in Mark 16, extend to the last chapter of
the Acts, where Paul is bitten by a viper, unharmed, and miraculously cures a case of dysentery (Acts 28:3-8).
These miracles of Mark 16 keep pace with the ‘hope of Israel’ (Acts 28:20), but when the condition foretold in
Isaiah 6:9,10 is entered, Israel ‘dismissed’ and the salvation of God sent unto the Gentiles, miraculous signs cease.
Instead we read such passages as Philippians 2:25-28, 2 Timothy 4:20, and 1 Timothy 5:23 with understanding. The
people of sign and wonder are no longer on the scene, and it had been established on two occasions that miracles
wrought before Gentiles as such, without the explanatory presence of Israel only made them more idolatrous saying
‘the gods are come down to us in the likeness of men’ (Acts 14:11), or they ‘said he was a god’ (Acts 28:6). ‘These
signs’ DID follow, but ‘these signs’ DO NOT follow them that believe to-day. The answer is that the dispensation has
changed, and with it the characteristic evidences of a past calling. As the present dispensation nears its end, and as
the earlier Church’s position temporarily set aside is resumed, we may expect to see a return of genuine miraculous
gifts, but this will make the anti-Christian travesty of 2 Thessalonians 2:9 the more dangerous, for the signs that will
be wrought in support of the Man of Sin would deceive ‘if it were possible, the very elect’ (Matt. 24:24). The only
‘confirmation’ mentioned in the Prison Epistles is that of Colossians 2:7, ‘rooted and built up in Him, and
STABLISHED (bebaio) in the faith, as ye have been taught’. All else so far as we are concerned is beside the mark
and leads into by-paths fraught with danger.

CORNELIUS. The vision that Peter had of the great sheet, and his subsequent visit to Cornelius, form part of the
movement that we see taking place in Acts 8 to 11, which prepares the way for the work of Paul, the apostle to the
Gentiles. It will be found that there is nothing in Acts 10 to warrant the idea that Peter had a ministry among the
Gentiles, for the vision of the sheet and the visit to Cornelius were exceptional. They accomplished their purpose,
and Peter was left free to pursue his ministry among the circumcision.
   The subject before us falls into four parts:
 (1)   THE VISION OF CORNELIUS (Acts 10:1-9).
 (2)   THE VISION OF PETER (Acts 10:9-24).
 (3)   THE MINISTRY OF PETER (Acts 10:24-48).
 (4)   THE EFFECT UPON THE CHURCH (Acts 11:1-18).
Cornelius is described as:
   ‘A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to
   God always’ (Acts 10:2).
                                                                                                       CORNELIUS      99
   Paul’s converts are described variously as:
   ‘Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led’ (1 Cor. 12:2).
   ‘When ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods’ (Gal. 4:8).
   ‘At that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the
   covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world’ (Eph. 2:12).
    Yet it is abundantly clear from Acts 10 that had he not had the vision of the sheet Peter would have called the
devout, prayerful Cornelius ‘common and unclean’. How is this attitude possible if it is true that the Church began
at Pentecost? The dispersion of the Jew throughout the Roman world had of necessity influenced Gentile thought,
and there were accordingly some who, though uncircumcised and outside the Hebrew pale, were nevertheless
worshippers of the true God. Lydia, a woman of Thyatira, is said to be one who ‘worshipped God’ and is found at
the place of prayer (Acts 16:14). At Thessalonica there was ‘a great multitude of devout Greeks’ (Acts 17:4), at
Athens Paul disputed with devout persons (Acts 17:17); and at Corinth Paul found a refuge in the house of one
named Justus who ‘worshipped God’ (Acts 18:7). It was to this class that Cornelius belonged, for if he had been a
proselyte he would not have been looked upon by the Jew as ‘common and unclean’. This conclusion is further
strengthened by Peter’s confession:
   ‘Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons: but in every nation he that feareth Him, and worketh
   righteousness, is accepted with Him’ (Acts 10:34,35).
   We must now turn our attention to the vision given to Peter, which produced so great a revolution.
   Joppa! Did Peter ever think of Jonah? Was not Peter’s name ‘Simon bar Jonah’? Did not Jonah remonstrate
with God because of His mercy to Gentiles? Were the problems of the expanding gospel forcing themselves upon
Peter? We are not told, but we believe that he would have been neither human nor an apostle, if such were not the
burden of his thought.
   Falling into a trance upon the housetop he saw a vessel descending from heaven, and containing four-footed
beasts, reptiles of the earth, and fowls of the air, and a voice said to him: ‘Rise, Peter, slay and eat’. It is hardly
possible for any Gentile to enter into the thoughts that would fill the mind of a Jew, whether Christian or otherwise,
who received such a command. We can, however acquaint ourselves with the law that governed this matter of clean
and unclean animals and see what is written:
   ‘These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth. Whatsoever parteth the hoof,
   and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat’ (Lev. 11:2,3).
Then follows the long list of prohibited animals, with the recurring sentiment:
   ‘They are unclean to you’ (Lev. 11:8).
   ‘Ye shall have their carcases in abomination’ (Lev. 11:11,20,23).
Not only so, but
   ‘These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean
   until the even’ (Lev. 11:31).
All this prohibition is because Israel were a separated people:
   ‘For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy ... This
   is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every
   creature that creepeth upon the earth: TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE between the unclean and the clean, and between
   the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten’ (Lev. 11:44-47).
   This instruction to ‘make a difference’ is reiterated in the corresponding section of Leviticus, namely, chapter 20.
   ‘I have said unto you, Ye shall inherit their land, and I will give it unto you to possess it, a land that floweth with
   milk and honey: I am the LORD your God, which have SEPARATED YOU from other people. Ye shall therefore
   PUT DIFFERENCE between clean beasts and unclean ... which I have SEPARATED from you as unclean. And ye
                               CORNELIUS                                                                            100
   shall be holy unto Me: for I the LORD am holy, and have severed you from other people, that ye should be Mine’
   (Lev. 20:24-26).
    It was in this atmosphere that the Jew was born, lived, moved and had his being. Practically from cradle to
grave, from morning till night, waking or sleeping, marrying or giving in marriage, buying or selling, he was
continually reminded that all the Gentiles were unclean, and that his own nation alone was holy unto the Lord. This
separation to the Lord was seriously enforced upon his conscience by the scrupulous observances of the Levitical
law. The bearing of all this upon the words and attitude of Peter in Acts 10 is most evident by the following
   ‘Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean’ (Acts 10:14).
   ‘What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common’ (Acts 10:15).
   ‘Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another
   nation; but God hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or unclean’ (Acts 10:28).
    Here are the words of Peter himself. If we accept the chronology of the A.V., this incident occurred eight years
after Pentecost, and Peter is still by his own confession, ‘A man that is a Jew’. He, at least, did not believe that ‘the
Church began at Pentecost’. Not only was he still a Jew, though a believer, but he was still under the Law. ‘It is an
unlawful thing’, said he. How then can we tolerate the tradition that the Church began at Pentecost? He told
Cornelius to his face that he would have treated him as ‘common and unclean’, for all his piety and prayers, had he
not received the extraordinary vision of the great sheet. Yet at Pentecost
   ‘All that believed were together, and had ALL THINGS COMMON’ (Acts 2:44).
   When taken with Acts 10 this is absolute proof that no Gentile could have been there. Yet the tradition that the
Church began at Pentecost persists!
   Peter moreover makes manifest his state of mind by adding: ‘Therefore came I unto you without gainsaying, as
soon as I was sent for’ (Acts 10:29). Can we imagine the apostle Paul speaking like this even to the most abject of
pagans? No, the two ministries of these two apostles are poles apart. Further, Peter continued: ‘I ask therefore for
what intent ye have sent for me?’ (Acts 10:29). Can we believe our eyes? Do we read aright? Is this the man who
opened the Church to the Gentile on equal footing with the Jewish believer? He asks in all simplicity, ‘What is your
object in sending for me?’ Again, we are conscious that such words from the lips of Paul would be not only
impossible but ridiculous. He was ‘debtor’ to wise and unwise, to Jew and Gentile, to Barbarian and to Greek. Not
so Peter. He was the apostle of the Circumcision (Gal. 2:8), and therefore the call of Cornelius seemed to him
    ‘For what intent have ye sent for me?’- Can we imagine a missionary in China, India or anywhere else on the
broad earth, asking such a question, or asking this question in similar circumstances? Any Mission Board would
request such a missionary to resign his post, and rightly so. No! every item in this tenth chapter is eloquent of the
fact that Peter had no commission to the Gentiles.
   At last Peter ‘began to speak’ (Acts 11:15). Let us listen to the message he gives to this Gentile audience:
   ‘Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons (first admission): but in every nation he that feareth
   Him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with Him (second admission). The word which God sent unto the
   children of Israel (note, not as Paul in Acts 13:26), preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (He is Lord of all:) (third
   admission) ... published throughout all Jud -a ... in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem ... preach unto the
   people (i.e. the people of Israel) ... whosoever believeth in Him shall receive remission of sins’ (Acts 10:34-43).
   One cannot but be struck with the attitude of Peter. He does not preach directly to the Gentile audience, he
rehearses in their hearing the word which God sent to Israel, saying nothing of a purely gospel character until the
very end.
    But for the further intervention of God we cannot tell how long Peter would have continued in this way. It is
doubtful whether he would have got so far as inviting Cornelius and his fellows to be baptized, as his own words
                                                                                                       CORNELIUS 101
   ‘Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as
   we?’ (Acts 10:47).
   Peter’s ministry in the Acts concluded with the words ‘Forbidding’ and ‘Withstand’ both translations of the
Greek word koluo. Paul’s ministry concludes with the words ‘No man forbidding’ (Acts 28:31) where the Greek
word is akolutos. Peter maintained this attitude up to the tenth chapter of the Acts, he would have ‘forbidden’ both
Cornelius and God, for the word ‘withstand’ in Acts 11:17, is koluo.
   The upshot of this work at Caesarea was that even Peter was called upon to give an account of himself.
   ‘The apostles and brethren that were in Jud -a heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God. And
   when Peter was come up to Jerusalem, they that were of the circumcision contended with him, saying, Thou
   wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them’ (Acts 11:1).
   We find no remonstrance from Peter to the effect that seeing that the Church began at Pentecost, the conversion
of Cornelius should have been anticipated and be a matter for rejoicing. No, Peter patiently, and humbly, and
apologizingly, rehearsed the matter, even to the pathetic conclusion: ‘What was I, that I could withstand God?’ (Acts
11:17). Why should Peter ever think of withstanding God, if he knew that the Church began at Pentecost? It is
abundantly evident that neither Peter, the other apostles, nor the brethren at Jerusalem had the remotest idea of any
such thing.
   ‘When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, THEN HATH GOD ALSO to the
   Gentiles granted repentance unto life’ (Acts 11:18).
We have devoted this much space to the story of Cornelius, because we believe that when once the attitude of Peter
here is realized, it will be utterly impossible to still retain the traditional view that ‘The Church’ began at Pentecost.

    Israel are associated with a covenant, old and new. Believing Gentiles during the Acts were blessed with faithful
Abraham, but by nature and in the flesh the Gentiles were strangers from the covenant of promise, and in the
teaching of the Prison Epistles, no covenant of any description is known. The English word ‘covenant’ obviously
means ‘to come together’, and is derived from the Latin con ‘with’, venio ‘to come’, and is cognate with such words
as ‘convention’ and ‘convenient’ where the basic idea of ‘coming together’ either of persons, or the fitness and
aptness of circumstances underlies the meaning and usage of such words. A testament differs from a covenant, in
that there is no necessary agreement between the person who makes his will and the legatee, who may be
unconscious of the contents of the will. A testament has no force while the testator lives. It can only come into
operation after the death of the testator. The word ‘testament’ does not occur in the writings of ‘The Law, the
Prophets and the Psalms’ commonly called ‘The Old Testament’. The word thus translated is the Greek diatheke, a
word employed by the LXX to translate the Hebrew berith ‘covenant’.
    Before we discuss the principle that must guide us when we come to the translation of diatheke, let us go back to
the Hebrew of the Old Testament and consider the meaning of the word there employed. The Hebrew word
‘covenant’ is berith, and this word refers to something that has been ‘cut’. So important is this conception of
‘cutting’ that in most cases where we read ‘made a covenant’ the Hebrew karath, another word meaning ‘to cut’ is
used - so literally ‘to make a covenant’ is ‘to cut a cutting’ - but this thus baldly stated makes no sense. Let us
attempt an illustration borrowed from our own language. The word ‘indent’ means ‘to notch with teeth’ yet an
‘indenture’ means in law ‘a deed under a seal, entered into between two parties’ and so very similar to a covenant.
Now, when we read the term ‘to indenture an apprentice’ we do not understand that anyone was supposed to have
‘bit’ the young fellow, the ‘indentures’ refer to the zig-zag cutting that was made across the deed, so that they would
tally one with another.
   ‘Whose tempers, inclinations, sense and wit,
   Like two indentures did agree so fit’ (Butler).
   Here then is a parallel:
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    To covenant in the Hebrew is ‘to cut’. To execute a deed or compact in the English is ‘to notch with teeth’. This
so far is useful in that it suggests that a custom or practice lies behind the peculiar use of the words ‘to cut a cutting’.
In the Hebrew, the covenant or the berith was confirmed by sacrifice and a reference to Jeremiah 34:18,19 will show
what lies behind the choice of this expression. We learn that Zedekiah the king had made a covenant with all the
people which were at Jerusalem, to proclaim liberty unto them, but afterwards the king and the people turned and
caused the servants who had been set free to become bond slaves again (Jer. 34:8-11). To these men who had thus
violated their covenant, Jeremiah addressed these words:
   ‘And I will give the men that have transgressed My covenant, which have not performed the words of the
   covenant which they had made before Me, WHEN THEY CUT THE CALF IN TWAIN, and passed between the parts
   (through the pieces) thereof’ (Jer. 34:18).
By means of this strange ceremony the contracting parties seem to say:
   ‘The Lord do so to me and more also, if I keep not my promise’.
    Psalm 50:5 speaks of the saints who have made a covenant upon sacrifice, and the earliest example of this
custom is found in Genesis 15, where Abraham took the sacrificial animals, ‘divided them in the midst, and laid
each piece one against the other’, and when the covenant was being made ‘a smoking furnace and a burning lamp’
passed between these pieces. The meticulous care with which Abraham ‘laid each piece one against the other’
closely resembles the ‘tally’ or ‘the indenture’, especially when we realize that the word ‘against’, the Hebrew qara
literally means ‘to meet’ as it is so translated in Genesis 14:17. Turning to the New Testament we find that the word
that is used to speak of the covenant made by God is the word diatheke, a word which means ‘to appoint’ and which
contains no idea in its composition of ‘agreement’. Now if we are justified in building our doctrine on the
etymology of the Greek words employed, we shall have to agree with Janius and Parkhurst, that it indicates: ‘A
disposition, institution, appointment, and signifies neither a testament, nor a covenant, nor an agreement, but as the
word simply requires, a disposition or institution of God’. Parkhurst says that the word ‘dispensation’ conveys the
idea of diatheke, and continues:
   ‘I am well aware that our translators have rendered the word diatheke by covenant, and a very erroneous and
   dangerous opinion has been built on the exposition, as if polluted, guilty man could covenant or contract with
   God for his salvation’.
Now we are fully in sympathy with the impossibility of man being able to covenant or contract with God for his
salvation, but that must not be allowed to blind our eyes to other equally obvious features.
    First, let us consider the question of etymology. There is no doubt that diatheke is composed of elements that
mean ‘to dispose’ or ‘to appoint’, just as there is no doubt but that the word ‘indenture’ means ‘to notch with teeth’
words that can be spoken of a saw. Secondly, there is no doubt but that the word diatheke was used in the Greek of
the Greeks to refer to a ‘will and testament’ whereby property was bequeathed, but we must remember that the
language of inspiration at the beginning was Hebrew, and that when the time came to translate the Hebrew into
Greek, the Septuagint translators had no option but to take the extant Greek words and use them for their new and
sacred purpose. So, although diatheke, when used of ‘a man’s covenant’ and ‘speaking after the manner of men’
retains its pagan meaning as it does when introduced by Paul into Galatians 3:15, the overwhelming evidence is that
diatheke must be looked upon as the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew berith, and that we must ignore the etymology
of the word, remembering its usage. Before we allow the appeal of Parkhurst, namely, that no polluted or guilty
man can enter into a covenant with God, to sway us, we must remember that the covenants of the Old Testament are
either covenants of obligation, in which the contracting parties agree to observe certain terms, or covenants of
promise, in which no such agreement is entered.
    When Israel stood before Mount Sinai, and said, ‘all that the LORD hath spoken we will do’ (Exod. 19:8), we
read that Moses ‘returned the words of the people unto the LORD’. Consequent upon this agreement, the ten
commandments were given, and became the covenant which Israel miserably ‘broke’. This covenant, they received
at the hands of a mediator, and that mediator was Moses. Whenever man has entered into any agreement or
covenant of this character disaster has inevitably followed. When Noah and his family stepped out of the ark to
make a new world and a fresh start, the Lord made a covenant with them that ensured the recurrence of day and
                                                                                                        COVENANT 103
night, seed time and harvest, summer and winter, cold and heat. No undertaking was entered by the family of Noah,
for the Lord knew, before they had time to make it manifest, that the imaginations of man’s heart are evil from his
youth. Here in Genesis 8:21,22 we have an example of a covenant of promise (Gen. 9:9-17), and the covenant has
remained inviolable to this day.
   Similarly, when the Lord made the covenant with Abraham that is detailed in Genesis 15, Abraham instead of
walking between the pieces, and so becoming one of two contracting parties, was put into a ‘deep sleep’.
Consequently the covenant with Abraham is called a covenant of promise, which the covenant and obligation given
430 years after could not disannul. The Mediator of the covenants of promise is Christ, and He faileth not:
   ‘He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ’ (Gal. 3:16).
   Titus 1:2 says that the eternal life was ‘promised before the world began’. 2 Timothy 1:9 says that the believer
was called according to the Lord’s own purpose and grace ‘which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world
began’. Ephesians 1:4 says that such were ‘chosen IN HIM before the foundation of the world’. Here are covenants,
agreements, promises, but they were not made with or to us, they were all made in and with Christ. So, when we
examine 2 Corinthians 3 and 4 we see that everything turns on two mediators - Moses and Christ. How thankful
should we not be, to think that so far as the Church of the one Body is concerned there are no contractual
agreements, no covenants, no testaments, that involve the believer, he finds all in his completeness in Christ.
    We must now turn our attention to the employment of the words ‘testament’ and ‘testator’ in Hebrews 9:16,17.
In Hebrews 9:16,17 we read in the A.V.: ‘For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the
testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead; otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth’.
This is not only a bad and a biassed translation, it is futile, for what congruity is there in the figure of a person who
makes his last will and testament, bringing confusion to his heirs, by rising again from the dead? It is entirely
unscriptural to speak of Christ as a Testator, upon Whose death His last will and testament becomes effective, and it
is entirely inconsistent with the context of Hebrews 9, for the following verse attaches this reference to a ‘testator’,
with the action of Moses when he dedicated the first ‘covenant’ with blood, as a reference to Exodus 24:6 will show.
   The following is adapted from Dr. Bullinger’s Greek Lexicon, under the heading, ‘Testator’.
    ‘Gar for, hopou where, diatheke a covenant (is), thanaton a death, anagke necessary, pheresthai, to be brought
in, tou of him, diathemenon that makes the covenant, gar for, diatheke a covenant, epi over, nekrois dead ones, or
victims (is) bebaia sure, epei since, mepote at no time, ischuei has it force, hote when, ze he is living, ho the one
who is, diathemenos making the covenant. Thus all is clear when we remember that He Who makes the covenant of
which the apostle speaks, is Himself the victim, and hence must of necessity die’.
   MacKnight’s paraphrase reads:
   ‘For to show the propriety of Christ’s dying to ratify the new covenant, I observe that where a covenant is made
   by sacrifice, there is a necessity that the death of the appointed sacrifice be produced. For according to the
   practice both of God and man, a covenant is made firm over dead sacrifices; seeing it never hath force whilst the
   goat, calf or bullock, appointed as the sacrifice of ratification liveth’.
    The introduction of the figure of will making into Hebrews is entirely beside the apostle’s argument, the nature
of the subject, and the character of the Hebrews themselves. It would take us too far afield at this point to make a
digression, and show that the epistle to the Galatians was written at the same time as the epistle to the Hebrews, and
was indeed the covering letter for that epistle to the Hebrews which does not, consequently, bear the apostle’s name.
Where the apostle speaks of a man’s ‘will’ is in Galatians 3, a figure which he introduces with the formula: ‘I speak
after the manner of men’, and there he plainly declares that he speaks of ‘a man’s covenant’ which here, alone of all
the occurrences of the word diatheke, demands the translation ‘testament’. This word ‘testament’ is used in the A.V
of Hebrews on six occasions, and ‘covenant’ on eleven occasions, but without consistency. What justification is
there to translate Hebrews 7:22:
   ‘By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament’
and on the very next occasion to render the passage:
                              COVENANT                                                                            104
   ‘By how much also He is the Mediator of a better covenant?’ (Heb. 8:6).
Or again, what warrant is there for translating Hebrews 9:15, ‘new testament’, when the passage refers most surely
to the ‘new covenant’ of Hebrews 8:8? In every passage whether in Matthew 26:28, 2 Corinthians 3:6 and 14, the
seventeen occurrences in Hebrews, or the remaining occurrences of diatheke, in every passage with the one
exception already noted in Galatians 3:15, diatheke must be rendered consistently ‘covenant’. To attempt to make
the Hebrew berith or the Greek diatheke bear the meaning of a will whereby one may dispose of property after
death, introduces man’s ideas to the confusion of the reader and the contradiction of revealed truth. We must reject
the etymology of Greek words, as the basis of our doctrine, for such a basis is untrustworthy. We must ignore the
composition of the word diatheke, and, in its place put the usage of the word as found in the Septuagint. It then
becomes synonymous with the Hebrew berith, and means a covenant. It may not be possible for us to avoid the use
of the terms Old Testament and New Testament as titles of the two great sections of the Bible, but we must
remember that they are accommodations only.
   The relationship of the Lord’s Supper with the new covenant is considered in the article entitled LORD’S

CREATION. If there be no Creator, there can be no moral ruler. If no moral ruler, there can be no responsibility, no
sin, no penalty, no law, and no gospel. If there be a Creator, He alone can plan the unfolding ages, He alone can
introduce a way of escape for the penalties He Himself has joined to sin. Consequently we find creation in the
opening verse of Genesis, and a New Creation coming into view as the last chapters of Revelation are reached. The
fact of creation is found in the very heart of the ten commandments and by the one fact of creation and its necessary
implications all Job’s problems were solved and his anxieties stilled (Job 37 to 42). The restoration of Israel and the
faithful fulfilment of all His promises, is linked by the prophets to the Creator and His work, and creation therefore
finds a prominent place in the unfolding dispensations. In this quest we are particularly concerned with the place
occupied by creation in the epistles, and we find this distributed under two headings. The visible creation and
invisible creation.

                                                The Visible Creation
                                                   Ktisis and Ktizo
   ‘For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things
   that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead’ (Rom. 1:20).
   ‘Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, Who is
   blessed for ever’ (Rom. 1:25).
   ‘The earnest expectation of the creature waiteth’
      (Rom. 8:19).
   ‘For the creature was made subject to vanity’
      (Rom. 8:20).
   ‘The creature itself also shall be delivered’ (Rom. 8:21).
   ‘For we know that the whole creation groaneth’
      (Rom. 8:22).
   ‘(The Gospel) was preached to every creature’
      (Col. 1:23).
   ‘Neither is there any creature that is not manifest’
      (Heb. 4:13).
   ‘That is to say, not of this building’ (Heb. 9:11).
   ‘Every ordinance of man’ (1 Pet. 2:13).
   ‘From the beginning of the creation’ (2 Pet. 3:4).
   ‘The beginning of the creation of God’ (Rev. 3:14).
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   ‘For every creature of God is good’ (1 Tim. 4:4).
   ‘Every creature which is in heaven’ (Rev. 5:13).
   ‘The creatures which were in the sea’ (Rev. 8:9).
   ‘Neither was the man created for the woman’
      (1 Cor. 11:9).
   ‘Hid in God, Who created all things’ (Eph. 3:9).
   ‘By Him were all things created’ (Col. 1:16).
   ‘Which God hath created to be received’ (1 Tim. 4:3).
   ‘Thou hast created all things, and for Thy pleasure’
      (Rev. 4:11).
   ‘Sware by Him ... Who created heaven ... earth ... sea’ (Rev. 10:6).
    In these passages the fact of creation is stated or assumed, and various consequences drawn from this fact are
given. Those which have a dispensational bearing and demand some fuller examination in this analysis are the
   Ephesians 3:9 R.V.
   ‘And to make all men see what is the dispensation of the mystery which from all ages hath been hid in God Who
   created all things’.
    This one passage throws us back to Genesis 1:1 in which we read: ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and
the earth’, and it was then that this great purpose of the ages was conceived, and the necessity consequent upon
Israel’s blindness that would arise, for a parenthetical dispensation to intervene until the blindness of Israel should
be removed. For a fuller examination of this theme, see ‘The foundation of the world, before, from’, and also the
phrase ‘before the world was’ - literally ‘before times of ages’ in the article entitled AGE (p. 47). All that we need
stress here is that Ephesians 3:9 shows that like every other part of the Divine purpose of the ages, the mystery
cannot be separated from the initial purpose and fact of creation. It is this as well as a common redemption, that
links all spheres of blessing together, however different they may be, as surely as creaturehood unites in one, the
highest created being in heaven, with the lowest and simplest element of earth. Under the heading DISPENSATION
(p. 225), the two readings of Ephesians 3:9 (A.V. ‘fellowship’ and R.V. ‘dispensation’) will be considered, and
under the heading MYSTERY3 all the mysteries of Scripture will be associated and their differences assessed.
Colossians 1:16 R.V.
   ‘For in Him were all things created’.
    This verse will come up for consideration again, when we are dealing with the ‘invisible creation’, all that we
will do here is to draw attention to the change from the A.V. which reads: ‘For by Him were all things created’.
First let us record that the preposition en which means, literally ‘in’, can and must often times be translated ‘by’, as
for example in Ephesians 5:26, ‘by the word’, or 1 Corinthians 3:13, ‘revealed by fire’, but when Colossians 1:16
continues to say, ‘all things were created by Him’, the Greek preposition used is not en but dia, and the reader is not
given a clear-cut rendering, especially when we observe that the preposition en is repeated at intervals in this great
passage of Colossians 1. In the following the various occurrences of en are indicated by the use of the italic type:
   ‘For by Him were all things created, that are in heaven ... by Him all things consist ... that in all things He might
   have the preeminence ... in Him should all fulness dwell ... in earth, or things in heaven ... by wicked works ... in
   the body of His flesh’ (Col. 1:16-22).
    Revelation 3:14 reveals that Christ Himself is ‘the beginning of the creation of God’ and throws a vivid light
upon Genesis 1:1 ‘in the beginning’ being not so much a note of time, but a reference to Him, Who is the Image of
the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature, the One in Whom Creator and creature, Redeemer and redeemed,
meet, the One Mediator, the One in Whom not only the spiritual world finds its sphere, but the very visible creation
itself is seen to have been created ‘in Him’. We shall supply the structure of the whole passage, with its
corresponding portion in chapter 3, when we deal with the second heading, ‘The invisible creation’.
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                                               The Invisible Creation
   ‘Created in Christ Jesus unto good works’ (Eph. 2:10).
   ‘For to make in Himself of twain one new man’
       (Eph. 2:15).
   ‘The new man, which after God is created in
       righteousness’ (Eph. 4:24).
   ‘After the image of Him that created Him’ (Col. 3:10).
   ‘If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature’
       (2 Cor. 5:17).
   ‘A new creature’ (Gal. 6:15).
   ‘A kind of firstfruits of His creatures’ (Jas. 1:18).
   Of these references to the invisible creation, let us consider the following:
    Ephesians 2:15 R.V. ‘That He might create in Himself of the twain one new man, so making peace’. It will be
observed that the A.V. reads ‘make’ here, which is not an adequate translation of ktizo, which should always be
rendered ‘create’, as distinct from make, fashion, form, etc. If this new company is a ‘creation’ it must be something
new. The Church of the Mystery is not an evolution from the Church of Pentecost, or from the Church as
constituted according to Galatians 3:26-29. In the Acts period the basis and background of the Church was the
promise to Abraham - here, Abraham is never mentioned (see article ABRAHAM, p. 4, for his relationship with the
Church). The believing Gentile during the Acts period was grafted contrary to nature into the true olive tree of
Israel. The present dispensation is not a consequence of the dispensation of the Acts but something thrust in to fill
the gap occasioned by the defection of Israel. It is a newly created company, resting upon an entirely different
promise, chosen at an entirely different period, blessed in an entirely different sphere. (For the nature of these
distinctive blessings, see articles on BLESSINGS, p. 116, HEAVENLY PLACES2,6, FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD8,
ISRAEL2 and MYSTERY3). The Place which Ephesians 2:15 occupies in the apostle’s argument will be seen, together
with the structure of the passage in articles entitled MIDDLE WALL3 and BOTH p. 125.
    Colossians 3:10. ‘And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of Him that
created him’. The passage containing this reference is in structural correspondence with Colossians 1:13-23, as the
following structure will indicate:

                                           Colossians 1:13-23 and 3:5-15
   A 1:15,16. The Creator. The Image.
     B 1:20.     Reconciliation of heaven and earth.
        C 1:17,18. Christ pre-eminent. All in Him.
            D 1:20.     Peace and forgiveness of sins.
              E 1:22.        Holy, blameless, unreproveable.
   A 3:10.    Created after the Image.
     B 3:11.     Reconciliation of Jew and Greek.
        C 3:11.      Christ is all and in all.
            D 3:13,15. Peace. Forgive quarrel.
              E 3:9,12. Put off, put on, holy and beloved.
    The reader will perceive that the order of one or two verses has been inverted. To exhibit the complete structure
in perfect alignment and in full detail would occupy a disproportionate amount of space, and serve no good purpose.
The above will demonstrate the evident correspondence that exists and that is all we need at the moment.
    These two references in the epistle of the Mystery will show that there is a most definite link between the initial
purpose manifested in creation with the subsequent unfolding of the purpose that is presented in the different
dispensations, and that while the Mystery is unique, it is not unrelated, but holds a most definite place in the purpose
of the ages, and indeed constitutes its crown and climax. When contemplating with wonder the glory of the truth as
                                                                                                         CROWN      107
revealed in Ephesians, we may for a moment think that the pseudo-scientific attack upon the authority of Genesis 1
and 2 is too far removed from the matter to call for any exercise of prayer and testimony, but it is not so; indeed, the
taller the building the more essential the foundation, and consequently if the ten commandments needed the truth of
creation to be incorporated in them, how much more the high calling which is made known in the epistles of the
Mystery? For the purpose of this analysis, however, the most critical passage is that of Ephesians 2:15, and the
presence and consequence of the word ‘create’ must be recognized and observed if we would have the truth of the
present high calling unsullied and complete. It should be remembered, whenever there is a tendency to bring over
from one calling, observances and doctrines that belong to another, that where a new creation is mentioned in the
Scriptures, there we usually find that ‘former things have passed away’. If this principle be observed when dealing
with Ephesians 2:15, the one new man, will be seen as ‘new’ indeed.

CROWN. The first Christian martyr is named Stephen, and his name means ‘a crown’ (stephanos). This is no
accidental association, for a crown in the New Testament is usually related to service in the nature of a reward. The
great principle that underlies the teaching of the Scriptures regarding the crown, is discussed in the articles entitled
HOPE2 and PRIZE3, all that we intend to do here is to show the connection made by Scripture between the idea of a
prize and that of a crown. ‘Prize’ is equated with ‘crown’ as we may see in the following passage:
   ‘Know ye not that they which run in a race run all, but one receiveth the      PRIZE?   ... Now they do it to obtain a
   corruptible CROWN’ (1 Cor. 9:24,25).
    In Philippians Paul expressed his willingness ‘to depart’ and to be ‘offered’ upon the sacrifice and service of
faith (Phil. 1:23; 2:17). In this epistle he speaks of the ‘Prize’ of the high calling, and associates it with terms that
take us back to the Greek games and the race-course (Phil. 3:13,14). In 2 Timothy Paul reveals that the time for his
‘departure’ had arrived, and that he was about to be ‘offered’. Here once more is a reference to the Greek games
and the race-course, here is the holy calling, here is the warning that no man is crowned except he strive lawfully,
and here, the prize of Philippians 3 becomes ‘the crown of righteousness’ (2 Tim. 4:6-8; 1:9; 2:5).
    The word ‘prize’ is a genus, the word ‘crown’ is a species. When we use the word ‘dog’ we use a word that
means a genus, but in that genus will be many species. So is it here. The prize of Philippians 3 is not defined. We
discover that it is a crown by comparing Philippians with 2 Timothy. No competitor in a sports contest could
possibly object when presented with a purse of gold, that he had expected a ‘prize’. The purse of gold would be the
prize, and it is equally foolish to fail to see that the prize of Philippians 3, when it is defined is the crown of
2 Timothy 4. With this aspect of truth must be linked those Scriptures which speak of the believer ‘reigning’
particularly such passages as 2 Timothy 2:10-13. ‘So run that ye may obtain’. See article PRIZE3.

DAY. The Greek word hemera corresponding with the Hebrew yom is used of (1) The natural day, the interval
between sunrise and sunset, and so distinguished from night, and (2) The civil day of twenty-four hours, which
consequently includes the night as well. The word is used in a figurative sense in such expressions as ‘the last day’,
‘the day of the Lord’, ‘the day of Christ’ and ‘that day’, etc., which impinge upon the subject of this analysis and
must here be given attention. The form semeron, which is a compound indicates ‘this day’. The Greek word has
entered into our own tongue in the name of the Mayfly - the ephemera, because of the brevity of its life, and as an
adjective ephemeral having the sense of being short-lived. The following list contains the figurative use of the word
as it has any connection with Dispensational Truth:
   The day of the Lord, the day of God, man’s day (in the A.V. of 1 Cor. 4:3 man’s judgment). The day of Jesus
Christ, the day of the Lord Jesus, the day of Christ, the day of salvation, the day of redemption, the evil day, that
day, the last days, the day of temptation, the days of His flesh, the days of Noah, the day of visitation, until the day
dawn, the day of judgment, the day of the age (2 Pet. 3:18 in the A.V. ‘both now and ever’) the great day and the
day of Pentecost.
                                  DAY                                                                              108
   To attempt an examination of these twenty phrases, with any fulness, is manifestly beyond the limits of the
present work, and we shall, perforce be obliged to select those which appear to be of dispensational importance.
    The day of the Lord. This phrase is found in the A.V. only in 1 Thessalonians 5:2 and 2 Peter 3:10 and the R.V.
reads ‘the day of the Lord’ in 2 Thessalonians 2:2. In Revelation 1:10 we have the one occurrence of the term, ‘The
Lord’s day’. It is assumed by many without proof that ‘the Lord’s day’ means ‘Sunday’ or the first day of the week,
and when challenged for their proof, those who hold this view appeal to Revelation 1:10: ‘I was in the spirit on the
Lord’s day’. Verse 9 tells us that John came to be in Patmos for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus; verse
10 tells us that he came to be in spirit in the day of the Lord, and verse 11 completes the parallel by saying, ‘what
thou seest write in a book’. The word and testimony were received by signs (‘He sent and signified’, verses 1 and 2)
in the isle of Patmos, and are vitally concerned with the statement, ‘in spirit in the day of the Lord’. The words
anthropine hemera, ‘man’s day’ in 1 Corinthians 4:3 are translated ‘man’s judgment’, so in Revelation 1:10 kuriake
hemera means ‘the Lord’s judgment’. This ‘day’ of Revelation 1:10 is the great prophetic day of the Lord which
bulks so large in Old Testament prophecy.
    The Hebrew and the Greek languages differ in many ways, and it is impossible in Hebrew to say ‘The Lord’s
day’. The word ‘Lord’ cannot be used as an adjective, and the words must be ‘in regimen’, ‘the day of the Lord’,
whereas in Greek either mode of expression is possible. There is no essential difference between ‘the Lord’s day’
and ‘the day of the Lord’, the only difference is one of emphasis. The occurrences of ‘the day of the Lord’ whether
in the Old Testament or the New Testament are marked by the number four. There are sixteen occasions where the
Hebrew yom Jehovah, ‘day of the Lord’ is used: Isaiah 13:6,9; Ezekiel 13:5; Joel 1:15; 2:1,11,31; 3:14; Amos 5:18
(twice), 20; Obadiah 15; Zephaniah 1:7,14 (twice), and Malachi 4:5. In four other places, the Hebrew adds the
preposition, the letter lamed or ‘L’, ‘a day to or for the Lord’ (Isa. 2:12; Ezek. 30:3; Zech. 14:1 and 7). The New
Testament as we have seen has four references, 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2 (R.V.); 2 Peter 3:10 and
Revelation 1:10. The Church of the Mystery has no reference in any way to this great prophetic day.
    There are four occasions where John tells us that he was ‘in spirit’, viz., Revelation 1:10, he became in spirit in
the day of the Lord; 4:2, he became in spirit, and saw the throne in heaven; 17:3 he is carried away into a desert in
spirit to see the woman sitting on the scarlet beast; 21:10, he is carried away in spirit to see the holy city. When
John is to be taken to a desert or a mountain he is ‘carried away in spirit’, and when he is transported into time, ‘the
day of the Lord’ or to the future heavenly sphere, he writes, ‘I became in spirit’.
   The four references made by John find an echo and an explanation in the statement to a like effect by Ezekiel:
   ‘The spirit lifted me up, and brought me unto the east gate of the LORD’s house’ (Ezek. 11:1).
   ‘Afterwards the spirit took me up, and brought me in a vision by the spirit of God into Chaldea, to them of the
   captivity. So the vision that I had seen went up from me’ (Ezek. 11:24).
   ‘The hand of the LORD was upon me, and carried me out in the spirit of the LORD, and set me down in the midst
   of the valley which was full of bones’ (Ezek. 37:1).
In Ezekiel 40:2 we have a close parallel to Revelation 21:10 :
   ‘In the visions of God brought He me into the land of Israel, and set me upon a very high mountain, by which
   was as the frame of a city on the south’.
    The man with the measuring reed (verse 3), and the command to declare what he saw (verse 4), also find their
parallels in the Revelation. This and the seven succeeding chapters are punctuated by the words ‘then’, ‘and’, or
‘afterwards’, ‘he brought me’. Ezekiel 43:5 records similar words. Ezekiel was not merely taken in vision from one
locality to another, but was taken into the yet future even as was John.
   In Ezekiel 8:1-3 the parallel with Revelation 1 is most pronounced:
   ‘And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in mine house,
   and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me. Then I beheld, and lo a
   likeness as the appearance of fire: from the appearance of his loins even downward, fire; and from his loins even
   upward, as the appearance of brightness, as the colour of amber. And he put forth the form of an hand, and took
                                                                                                             DAY 109
   me by a lock of mine head; and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the
   visions of God to Jerusalem’.
    The description of the wondrous being who appeared to Ezekiel is very similar to the description of the Lord
Who appeared to John. The vision is a prelude to a revelation of dark apostacy and the retiring glory of God. It is
so also in the book of the Revelation.

                                The Day of Christ; of Jesus Christ; of the Lord Jesus
    The Divine titles are used with discrimination and meaning, see the article entitled CHRIST JESUS p. 143. The
epistle to the Corinthians uses the title, ‘The day of the Lord Jesus’ (1 Cor. 5:5, 2 Cor. 1:14) and ‘the day of our
Lord Jesus Christ’ (1 Cor. 1:8). Philippians uses the titles ‘the day of Jesus Christ’ and ‘the day of Christ’ (Phil.
1:6,10, 2:16), and while each reference has its own context and is coloured by the existing characteristics of the
dispensation then obtaining, all have a future day in view when service will be assessed, and the day of Christ
becomes almost a synonym for ‘the judgment seat of Christ’ or its equivalent. So, when writing to the Corinthians
concerning their service, the apostle says ‘the day shall declare it’, adding as an expansion and explanation, ‘because
it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is. If any man’s work abide which
he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he
himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire’ (1 Cor. 3:13-15). This question of reward or loss, is more fully described
under articles entitled HOPE2, PRIZE3, REWARD7, and JUDGMENT SEAT 2, which should be consulted.
   Something of this same association of reward, loss and assessment of service, is attached to several passages
where the reader’s attention is directed to ‘that day’. This phrase is borrowed from the Old Testament where it will
be found in frequent use by the Prophets. Isaiah 2:11, 26:1, Ezekiel 29:21, Hosea 2:18, Zechariah 2:11,14:4, and
Malachi 3:17 will serve as specimens. It is found in the Gospels with much the same association of judgment as for
example: ‘It shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom’ (Luke 10:12). So when we read in 2 Timothy 1:12, 18
and 4:8:
   ‘He is able to keep that which I have committed unto Him against THAT DAY’.
   ‘The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in THAT DAY’.
   ‘Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me
   at THAT DAY: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love His appearing’.
For an examination of 2 Timothy 1:12, and what was committed see the article entitled GOOD DEPOSIT2.
    To be children of the day is one of the gracious characteristics of the redeemed, 1 Thessalonians 5:5,8, Romans
13:13, a variant of this being ‘children of light’ in Ephesians 5:8. In the section of Ephesians which speaks of ‘the
whole armour of God’ the believer is warned of an ‘evil day’ which must come, and which will demand
self-discipline, courage and ability to use the sword of the spirit (Eph. 6:11-18), there is also ‘a day of redemption’
spoken of in Ephesians 4:30, a passage that looks back to Ephesians 1:14, and necessitates some knowledge of the
Old Testament types of the Jubilee, the Kinsman Redeemer and the book of Ruth, if the full meaning of these two
passages is to be attained. Some help will be found under the heading REDEMPTION7 which distinguishes between
the two aspects found in Ephesians 1:7 and 14.
    The term ‘the last days’ is used in more than one sense in the New Testament. Hebrews 1:2, contrasts ‘these last
days’ with the days of the Old Testament prophets, whereas 2 Timothy 3:1, James 5:3 and 2 Peter 3:3 use the term
‘the last days’ of the future. Paul speaks of the apostate nature of the closing days of the present dispensation; Peter
speaks of the days immediately preceding the day of the Lord. One of the commendable characteristics of the
Bereans, was that they ‘searched the Scriptures daily’ (Acts 17:11) as well as endeavouring to see whether what was
taught them was ‘so’. One peculiar use of the word ‘daily’ is found in the Lord’s Prayer, ‘give us this day our daily
bread’ (Matt. 6:11, Luke 11:3). No more common expression of everyday life can be imagined than the word ‘daily’
and in the sixty occurrences of the word in the Old Testament and New Testament nothing extraordinary is to be
found. The two references taken from the Lord’s Prayer, however, are the exception. The word translated ‘daily’ is
so extraordinary, that apart from these two passages, it is unknown and unused in any extant Greek writing. Origen
in his commentary says:
                                  DAY                                                                              110
   ‘We must first know that the word epiousion is not used by any of the Greeks and learned men, nor is it in vulgar
   use, but seems to have been framed by the evangelist’.
    Scholars disagree as to the actual derivation of the word. Some say that it is composed of epi ‘upon’ and eimi ‘to
be’, but this is objected to by others, who say that had the word derived from eimi ‘to be’, the participle would have
been epousa, and that epiousion is a compound of epi and eimi, a word of the same spelling but meaning ‘to come’
or ‘to go’, and so literally, the prayer would read: ‘Give us this day, the bread that cometh down upon us’. To say,
‘give us this day, our daily bread’ introduces a tautology that does not appear necessary. No Jew would need to be
told what bread that would be that ‘came down from heaven’ and this petition will go up in the full meaning of the
term, when the persecuted believer, in the day of the Lord, will be miraculously fed in the wilderness once again by
God, as revealed in Revelation 12:14. To repeat many times in one day this request for daily bread, when the
cupboard is well stored and there is plenty on every hand leads to insincerity, but there will be no insincere
repetition in that three and a half years sojourn in the wilderness, even as there was a sense of real need, that led to
the original gift of the manna in the forty years’ sojourn in the wilderness at the beginning of Israel’s history.
    While we have not recorded every variety of combination in which the word ‘day’ figures in the New Testament
we believe what has been brought forward will be sufficient to guide the believer in his studies, and as this analysis
is especially concerned with Dispensational Truth some restraint must be practised.

                                                  THE DECREES
   If this were a ‘doctrinal’ and not a ‘dispensational’ analysis we should have to give serious attention to the
Calvinistic doctrine of ‘The decrees’ which find a place in the Westminster Confession thus:
   ‘Q.     What are the decrees of God?
    A.     The decrees of God are His eternal purpose according to the council of His will, whereby for His own
           glory, He hath ordained whatsoever comes to pass’.
We must take cognizance of the great and glorious fact of Divine purpose, but this will be considered under the
headings ELECTION p. 255, ELECTION6, & PREDESTINATION3. The matter before us is simpler and deals with
decrees published by the early Church and which has a bearing upon the constitution of the one Body of Ephesians.
The Greek word translated ‘decree’ is dogma, with which we can couple the verb dogmatizomai. There are six
occurrences in all, which we will set out before going further.

    Luke 2:1.    ‘There went out a decree from C -sar Augustus’.
   Acts 16:4.    ‘They delivered them the decrees for to keep’.
   Acts 17:7.    ‘These all do contrary to the decrees of C -sar’.
   Eph. 2:15.    ‘The law of commandments contained in ordinances’.
   Col. 2:14.    ‘The handwriting of ordinances that was against us’.
    Col. 2:20.   ‘Why ... are ye subject to ordinances?’
    Before we can hope to deal with these passages with any clearness it will be necessary to rid our minds of the
secondary and more modern meaning that is associated in common speech with the words ‘dogma’ and ‘dogmatic’.
Such expressions as ‘a tenet or doctrine sometimes held deprecatingly, an arrogant declaration of opinion’, ‘He
wrote against dogmas with a spirit perfectly dogmatic’ (Dr. Israeli). ‘A way of thinking built upon principles, which
have not been tested by reflection’. ‘Where there is most doubt, there is often most dogmatism’ (Prescott). The
growth of this popular meaning is a sad reflection upon human nature. Whenever we become convinced of the truth
or importance of any subject we are prone to become ‘dogmatic’, i.e. to assert with self-opinionated zeal and
authority that which after all may rest upon the slender basis of a private opinion.
                                                                                                      DECREES     111
    This, however, is not the meaning of dogma and dogmatizo as employed in the New Testament. The ‘decree’ of
C -sar that commanded all the world to enrol for taxation was a dogma, but not in the modern secondary sense. The
‘decrees of C -sar’ cited by the Jews as a pretext for the punishment of the believers in Thessalonica were known as
the Julian Laws, and by them ‘whoever violated the majesty of the State was declared a traitor’, and these ‘decrees’
are called dogmas also. The remaining occurrences refer to the decrees issued by the council at Jerusalem (Acts 15),
and to certain ‘ordinances’ which contained an element of ‘enmity’ and which were dissolved at the change of
dispensation when ‘the both’ were created ‘one new man’. On three occasions when the apostle spoke of ‘opened
doors’ for service, we discover that enemies of the truth were close at hand (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 2:12; Col. 4:3).
    At the close of Acts 14 and as a result of his first missionary journey, the Church at Antioch learned with some
measure of surprise, that God had ‘opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles’ (Acts 14:27). This is immediately
followed by the controversy of Acts 15, which issued in those temporary placating measures called ‘the decrees’ in
Acts 16:4. Acts 15:1-35 is a complete section. Its place in the structure of the Acts as a whole can be seen in The
Berean Expositor, Vol. 27, page 149, where it is in correspondence with Paul’s first missionary journey. The
following extract will be sufficient for our present purpose.

                                                 Acts 13:4 to 15:35
A 13:4 to 14:28. a Departure from Antioch.
                 a Return to Antioch.
A 15:1-35.        a Men of Jud -a raise question.
                    b AFTER THE MANNER OF MOSES.
                  a Men that have hazarded their lives.
   Acts 15 falls into two main sections.
 (1) Acts 15:1-12, where the Pharisaic attempt to impose the yoke of the law upon the Gentile believer before he
     could reckon himself ‘saved’ is emphatically repudiated both by Peter, ‘put no difference between us and
     them’ (Acts 15:9) and by the council, ‘To whom we gave no such commandment’ (Acts 15:24).
 (2) Acts 15:13-35. The testimony of James and of the council.
    Peter’s argument was unanswerable. The law as a means of salvation was obsolete. The Jews themselves, who
had the law by nature, were saved by grace, through faith. The emphasis on there being ‘no difference’ - the central
feature of the structure - must have rejoiced the heart of the apostle of the Gentiles (see Rom. 3:22; 10:12).
    This noble testimony to salvation by grace coming from the leading apostle of the Circumcision, silenced the
disputants and prepared an audience for Barnabas and Paul. It should be noticed that the order in naming these
apostles changes in the narrative. While they are at Antioch it is ‘Paul and Barnabas’, but when they arrive at
Jerusalem, the order is reversed. This reversed order is maintained in the actual letter drafted by the council, but it
should be noted that where Luke is recording the facts himself, he reverts to the old order (Acts 15:22). It seems
clear that Barnabas spoke first:
   ‘Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and
   wonders God had wrought among the Gentiles by them’ (Acts 15:12).
   The obvious parallel between the miracles and experiences of Peter and of Paul would not fail to make an
impression. For example:

   PETER.     (1) The healing of the lame man (Acts 3,4).
              (2) The conflict with the sorcerer, SIMON (Acts 8:9-24).
   PAUL.      (1) The healing of the lame man (Acts 14).
              (2) The conflict with the sorcerer, BAR-JESUS (Acts 13).
                                DECREES                                                                             112
To the Jew, confirmation by miracle would be a stronger argument than almost anything else, and it would seem,
judging from the interval of silence that followed ‘after they had held their peace’ (Acts 15:13), that the multitude as
a whole were convinced.
   From Galatians 2 we gather that the apostle, knowing only too well how easily a multitude can be swayed, and
knowing that there were false brethren secretly at work, communicated the gospel which he preached among the
Gentiles privately to them that were of reputation. Peter, James and John, therefore, were convinced that Paul’s
apostleship and gospel were of the Lord, and took their stand for the truth at the public gathering.
    We must now pass on to the testimony of James, and before examining his words in detail, we give the structure
of the passage.
C 15:13-21. Men and Brethren. f       James ... me.
                                     g Gentiles visited.
                  JAMES.              h1     The agreement of
                                      h1     The knowledge of the
              ‘My sentence is       f James ... my.
              that we trouble        g Gentiles turn to God.
              not the Gentiles’.      h2     Write that they abstain.
                                      h2     Moses is preached.
    James takes up the claim made by Peter - calling him by his Hebrew name Simeon - and, directing his argument
to those who revered the Old Testament writings, draws attention to a passage from one of the prophets:
   ‘As it is written, After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I
   will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: that the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all
   the Gentiles, upon whom My name is called, saith the Lord, Who doeth all these things which were known from
   the age’ (Acts 15:15-18).
   It should be noted that James does not say: ‘This fulfils what is written by the prophet’, he simply says: ‘To this
agree the words of the prophets’. The word translated ‘agree’ is sumphoneo, which gives us the word ‘symphony’
and as a noun is translated ‘music’ in Luke 15:25.
   We could therefore interpret James’ meaning as follows:
   ‘The inclusion of the Gentile upon the same terms as the Jew is in harmony with such a passage as Amos 9:11,12
   (which in the Septuagint Version reads as above) and it is therefore clear that the spirit in which Peter enjoins us
   to act now, is that in which the Lord has revealed, He will act in the future. He has known these things, which
   He has commenced to do, since the age, and to object, or to impose restrictions, is but to tempt God as our
   fathers did in the wilderness, with dreadful consequences, as we all know’.
    The fact that James could give such hearty support to the position taken by Paul and subsequently by Peter, was
a shattering blow to the Judaizing party in the Jerusalem Church. A little man might have been content with this
victory and have ignored the susceptibilities of the Jewish believers. Not so, however, the apostle James. He
realizes the feelings of shock and abhorrence which would almost inevitably result from the Jewish Christian
coming into contact with the revolting customs of the Gentiles, and he therefore gives a double sentence:
 (1) With regard to the immediate question, as to whether believing Gentiles must submit to circumcision and the
     law of Moses, before they can be sure of salvation, my answer is ‘No’. ‘My sentence is, that we trouble not
     them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God’.
   In the body of the letter sent to the Gentiles it is categorically stated that such teaching was a ‘subverting of
souls’ and that no such commandment had been given by the leaders at Jerusalem (Acts 15:24).
 (2) My sentence is not, however, harsh or mechanical. I am by nature and upbringing a Jew, and I know the
     horror that seizes the mind at the bare possibility of contact with those who have partaken of meat offered to
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       idols, or with those who have not been particular about the question of blood. While we yield no ground
       with regard to justification by faith, we must not forget that we are called upon to walk in love, to remember
       the weaker brethren, and to be willing to yield our rights if need be. My sentence, therefore, is that we write
       to the Gentiles that believe ‘that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things
       strangled, and from blood’ (Acts 15:20).
    Three of these items we can readily understand as being offensive to a Jewish believer, though inoffensive to a
Gentile. One, however, is a grossly immoral act and cannot be classed as in the same category. The reason for its
inclusion here is not that James meant for a moment to suggest that sexual immorality was a matter of indifference,
but rather that, knowing how the Gentile throughout his unregenerate days looked upon this sin as of no
consequence, James realized that he was likely, even after conversion, to offend by taking too lenient a view. This
is brought out most vividly in 1 Corinthians, an epistle that deals with the application of the decrees sent from
Jerusalem, and which we must examine before this study is complete.
   James follows his counsel of abstinence by a reference to Moses:
   ‘For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath day’
   (Acts 15:21).
     His meaning appears to be that there was no need to fear that, by reducing the appeal to only four points, the
scruples of the more rigid Jewish believer would be invaded. Moses was preached every Sabbath day in the
synagogue, and the synagogue was the nursery of the Church. If we will but put ourselves in the position of the
early Church we shall see the wisdom of this decision. The coming into the synagogue of men whose practices
filled the body of the people with horror, would be a serious hindrance to the advance of the gospel. It might even
mean the destroying, for the sake of ‘meat’, of one for whom Christ died. We shall see presently that Paul’s
spiritual application of the decrees of Jerusalem went much further than James’ four items. He would not eat meat,
or drink wine, or do anything that would cause his brother to stumble.
    Such, then, was the two-fold decision of the Church at Jerusalem, a decision which, taking the state of the affairs
at that time into account, must commend itself to all who have any sympathy with the teaching of the apostle Paul.
Such a state of affairs was not ideal, and could not last. It was, as the decrees put it, a question of imposing ‘no
greater burden than these necessary things’ - much in the same way as the apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 7 enjoined
abstinence ‘because of the present distress’ (1 Cor. 7:26).
    The assembled Church, together with the apostles and elders, agree with one accord to the appeals of Peter and
James, and their decision is recorded in a letter sent by the hands of Barnabas, Paul, Silas and Judas. This letter is of
intense interest, not only on account of its teaching, but also because it is the earliest Church letter in existence. Let
us take it out of its setting for the moment and look at it as a letter, complete in itself.
   ‘The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and
   Syria and Cilicia:
   Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your
   souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law: to whom we gave no such commandment:
   It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved
   Barnabas and Paul, men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have sent
   therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth.
   For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things:
   That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication:
   from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well’ (Acts 15:23-29).
    Such is the letter itself. Its inter-relation with the context is best seen by expanding the structure of this section as
                               DECREES                                                                            114
                                                    Acts 15:22-29
B 15:22-29. Antioch, Syria      IT SEEMED GOOD.
            and Cilicia.       o To apostles, elders and whole church.
                                p Send chosen men.
              ‘We gave no such q Chief men among the
              commandment’.               brethren.
                                    r Greeting. No such
                              n IT SEEMED GOOD.
                               o Assembled with one accord.
                                p Send chosen men.
                                  q Men who hazarded their lives
                                    r Tell you the same things.
                              n IT SEEMED GOOD.
                               o To the Holy Spirit and to us.
                                p Lay no other burden.
                                  q That ye abstain.
                                    r Fare ye well.
   Three times ‘it seemed good’ occurs. First, ‘it seemed good to the apostles and elders, and the whole church’.
Secondly, ‘it seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord’. And thirdly, ‘it seemed good to the Holy
Spirit, and to us’. To break this threefold cord, the whole Church, with the apostles and elders, together with
Barnabas and Paul, and Silas and Judas, as well as the Holy Spirit Himself, would have to be regarded as in the
wrong. Any system of interpretation necessitating such an assumption is self-condemned.
    We must now return for a moment to the word dogma. This word is derived from the Greek dokeo ‘to think’,
but which does not refer to that process of reflection and ratiocination which is the characteristic of reasoning,
thinking, perception and analysis, for dokeo originally means ‘to seem’, and so can indicate an opinion ‘which may
be right’ (John 5:39; Acts 15:28; 1 Cor. 4:9; 7:40), but which may be wrong (Matt. 6:7; Mark 6:49; John 16:2). It
will be seen that the structure throws into prominence the words IT SEEMED GOOD, and the third couples together
‘The Holy Ghost and us’.
    We now turn to Paul’s application of these decrees, as we find it in his first epistle to the Corinthians. In
chapters 5 to 7 the apostle reproves the Church with regard to fornication, while in chapters 8 and 10 he deals with
the question of meats offered to idols. It will obviously be profitable to consider the apostle’s own interpretation of
the Jerusalem ordinances as revealed in these chapters.
    It appears that the Corinthian conception of morality allowed a man to ‘have his father’s wife’, and not only so,
but the offence was made a matter of boasting. The apostle had already written to this Church, commanding them
not to company with men guilty of such offences, but they had misunderstood him. He takes the opportunity now of
correcting the misunderstanding by saying in effect:
   ‘If I had meant that you were not to company with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or
   extortioners, or with idolaters: you would need to go out of the world. What I enjoin has reference to a brother
   who practises any of these things - with such an one no not to eat; but I have no idea of attempting to judge the
   world or of setting up a code of morals for the ungodly’ (1 Cor. 5:9-12).
   He clinches his exhortation by showing that the sin of immorality is a sin against a man’s own body, and that
body, if redeemed, should be regarded as a temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Cor. 6:13-20).
   In 1 Corinthians 7 the apostle deals with the question of marriage, and explains that ‘for the present necessity’ it
would be as well for all to remain unmarried. But these statements were not to be taken as commandments for all
time, nor even for all believers at that time. It was a counsel of abstinence, because the Lord’s coming and the
dreadful prelude of the Day of the Lord were still before the Church. With the passing of Israel a change came, and
the apostle later encouraged marriage, as we find in his Prison Epistles. The fact that Ephesians 5 sets aside
                                                                                                         DECREES     115
1 Corinthians 7 does not make 1 Corinthians 7 untrue for the time in which it was written - any more than the setting
aside of the decrees of Acts 15 makes Acts 15 a compromise or a mistake. Each must be judged according to the
dispensation that obtained at the time. The dispensation of the Mystery had not yet dawned either in Acts 15 or
1 Corinthians 7.
    With regard to the pollution of meat offered to idols, the apostle agrees that, strictly speaking, ‘an idol is nothing
in the world’ (1 Cor. 8:4) - and therefore one might say: Why should I refuse good food, simply because someone
who is ignorant and superstitious thinks that its having been offered to a block of wood or stone has polluted it?
This is true, rejoins the apostle in effect, but ‘take heed lest by any means this liberty of yours becomes a
stumbling-block to them that are weak’. The thing that must be uppermost in the mind, is not the safeguarding of
our own so-called liberties, but the safeguarding of the weaker brother for whom Christ died. To achieve this, the
apostle is willing to go much further than ‘the four necessary things’ of the Jerusalem decrees. In 1 Corinthians 8:13
he writes:
   ‘If meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh (even though it satisfy the most scrupulous Jew) while the
   world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend’.
   A further interpretation of the spirit of the decrees is found in Chapter 10:
   ‘All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify
   not. Let no man seek his own, but every man another’s wealth. Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat,
   asking no questions for conscience sake ... but if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat
   not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake ... conscience, I say, not thine own ...’ (1 Cor. 10:23-29).
    If we can but keep in mind those words, ‘not thine own’, we shall have no difficulty in understanding the
principles involved in the decrees of Acts 15. Those who condemn Acts 15, should, if consistent, more strongly
condemn the apostle Paul.
    If man has failed under the law of Sinai, it is not surprising to find that he fails many times under grace. The
moderate request that the Gentiles should abstain from the ‘four necessary things’, while the Jewish believers had
‘Moses preached in the synagogue every Sabbath day’ would lead, in time, wherever the flesh became prominent, to
a line of demarcation between the Churches of Jud -a and those of the Gentiles. This gradually grew to become ‘a
middle wall of partition’, a division that could not be permitted in the Church of the one Body. The one Body was
not, however, in view in Acts 15. Only those things known of the Lord ‘since the age’, only those things that
harmonized with the Old Testament prophecies were in operation in Acts 15, and nowhere throughout the Acts is
there a hint that a Jew ceased from being a Jew when he became a Christian. On the contrary, he became the better
Jew, for he was believing the testimony of the law and the prophets. Even justification by faith, as preached by
Paul, was to be found in the law and the prophets and was, therefore, not part of a mystery or secret purpose.
    We have, therefore, in Acts 15 two vastly different themes. One is eternally true, and independent of
dispensational changes. The other is relatively true, but to be set aside when that which is perfect has come. The
former is doctrinal truth, the latter the practical manifestation of graciousness and love.
   Returning to Acts 15 we come to the conclusion of the matter.

                                                     Acts 15:30-35
A 5:30-35.     ANTIOCH.                  a Apoluo. Dismissed.
               The Answer.                b The epistle delivered.
                                           c Paraklesis.
               Paul and Barnabas,                  Consolation.
               Judas and Silas.            c Parakaleo. Exhorted.
                                         a Apoluo. Dismissed.
                                          b Teaching and
116            DEPOSIT; DEVIL; DIFFER; DIFFERENCE                                                                   116
   It was inevitable, human nature being what it is, that two systems of Christian practice, involving questions of
sanctification, clean and unclean observances, compelling often Jewish believers to sit at separate tables from
Gentile believers, should erect a ‘middle wall’ between them, and create an ‘enmity’ which could not be allowed,
when the dispensation of the Mystery, the creation of ‘the both’ into one new man was ushered in with Paul’s prison
ministry. It is to this ‘decree’ of Acts 15, that Paul refers in Ephesians 2:15, under the figure of the middle wall of
partition, and it is to this decree to which he refers in the parallel epistle to the Colossians:
   ‘Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the
   sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ’ (Col. 2:16).
   ‘Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye
   subject to the decrees, (Touch not; taste not; handle not; which all are to perish with the using;)?’ (Col. 2:20).
    The greater must include the lesser. If the believer be dead to the rudiments of the world, he must also be dead
to any fleshly distinction, however much it may have been right to ‘lay upon’ the Gentile believer ‘no greater burden
than these necessary things’. For the meaning of ‘the middle wall of partition’, see the article entitled MIDDLE
WALL3 for the bearing both of the middle wall and of the decrees of Acts 15 on the subsequent teaching of the
Mystery, see also, articles entitled BOTH p. 125, RECONCILIATION4, ACCESS p. 13, ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
p. 19, BAPTISM p. 106, and LORD’S SUPPER2.


DEVIL. See article entitled SATAN4, also PRINCIPALITY AND POWER7. Devil is the translation of two Greek words
diabolos and daimon. The latter should be translated ‘demon’ in order to preserve the distinction. For the place that
‘demons’ occupy in the closing days of this dispensation, see the article LAST DAYS AND LATTER TIMES2 where the
teaching of 1 Timothy 3:1-5 will be examined, and the true character of the ‘doctrines of devils’ made manifest.

DIFFER. For an examination of Philippians 1:10 margin: ‘Things that differ’, see article entitled EXCELLENT p. 306.

DIFFERENCE. For a note on the difference between ‘Doctrinal’ and ‘Dispensational Truth’, and their relationship
one with the other, the reader is referred to the Introduction to this Part 1 of An Alphabetical Analysis, and to the
article entitled EXCELLENT p. 306.

   The word dispensation is the translation of the Greek oikonomia, a word that has become well known in the
anglicized form ECONOMY. Crabb discriminates between economy and management thus:
   ‘Economy has a more comprehensive meaning than management: for it includes the system and science of
   legislation as well as that of domestic arrangements, as the economy of agriculture ... political, civil, or religious
    It is a secondary and derived meaning of the word, that uses it as a synonym of frugality, for a truly economical
use of money, sometimes may mean very lavish spending. We can speak of the ‘economy of nature’, and by so
doing refer to the operations of nature in generation, nutrition, preservation and distribution of plants and animals.
Macaulay writing of David Hume said: ‘David Hume, undoubtedly one of the most profound political economists of
his time’.
    The Greek oikonomia is made up of the word oikos ‘house’ and nemo ‘to administer’, ‘to deal out’, ‘to
distribute’. The word oikonomia is employed by Plato for the management of a household and oikonomia and
oikonomos and oikonomeo are found in the LXX. In Isaiah 22:19,21 where the A.V. reads ‘station’, ‘government’,
                                                                                         DISPENSATION      117117

the LXX reads oikonomia ‘stewardship’. Oikonomos translates the Hebrew Al ha Beth ‘over the house’ in 1 Kings
4:6; 16:9; 18:3 and in four other places. We have gone thus far afield in order that the reader may have first-hand
information concerning the use of the term from ancient to modern times. We now give a concordance of the three
words that are found in the Greek New Testament.

     Luke 16:2.     Thou mayest be no longer steward.

    Luke 16:2.      Give an account of thy stewardship.
    Luke 16:3.      Taketh away from me the stewardship.
    Luke 16:4.      When I am put out of the stewardship.
   1 Cor. 9:17.     A dispensation (of the gospel).
     Eph. 1:10.     That in the dispensation of the fulness.
      Eph. 3:2.     The dispensation of the grace of God.
      Eph. 3:9.     The dispensation of the mystery (R.V.).
     Col. 1:25.     According to the dispensation of God.
    1 Tim. 1:4.     A dispensation of God which is in faith (R.V.).

   Luke 12:42.      That faithful and wise steward.
     Luke 16:1.     Rich man, which had a steward.
     Luke 16:3.     The steward said within himself.
     Luke 16:8.     Commended the unjust steward.
   Rom. 16:23.      Erastus the chamberlain of the city.
     1 Cor. 4:1.    Stewards of the mysteries of God.
     1 Cor. 4:2.    It is required in stewards ... found faithful.
       Gal. 4:2     Is under tutors and governors.
       Tit. 1:7.    Blameless, as the steward of God.
    1 Pet. 4:10.    Good stewards of the manifold grace of God.
   ‘The Greek word rendered dispensation is oikonomia and refers to the act of administering. By the figure
Metonymy, the act of administering is transferred to the time during which that administering is carried on’ (How to
Enjoy the Bible, Dr. E. W. Bullinger).
    How many ‘dispensations’ are indicated in the Scriptures? This is a question that is more easily asked than
answered. Every single believer who has been entrusted with stewardship of truth adds to the number of
‘dispensations’, but this aspect of the matter is of course not intended by the question. When we refer to the
different ‘dispensations’ we refer to those subdivisions of the ages, in which the revealed will of God, carrying
differing obligations, has been made known, and put into force, and in practically every case, the administration or
stewardship of these separate and differing administrations, are found to have been entrusted to some chosen servant
of the Lord. Moses, for example, is inseparable from the dispensation of law, and ‘Moses verily was faithful in all
his house’ (Heb. 3:5).
    The following subdivision of the Purpose of the Ages does not claim to be perfect or complete, but no real
distinction in administration has been ignored, though some may have been merged (as for example the special
stewardship of John the Baptist, the period under Saul before the accession of David and others, which would swell
the list unduly).
                             DISPENSATION                                                                          118

                                             Outstanding Dispensations
                 (N.B. - Some may overlap, and more than one can run together at the same time).
(1)    Innocence. Adam unfallen. Paradise enjoyed.
(2)    Adam to Noah. The Fall to the Flood.
(3)    Noah to Babel. N.B. - Some features of Genesis 9 remain unchanged.
(4)    Babel to Abraham. The Nations and the Nation.
(5)    Abraham to Egypt. The Exodus marks a critical change.
(6)    Exodus to Sinai. The covenant 430 years after the promise.
(7)    Sinai to Jericho. The forty years wandering.
(8)    Jericho to Saul. The land entered.
(9)    David to Christ. Here there are subdivisions which we have not noted.
(10)   The Earthly Ministry of Christ, His Birth, Life, Death, Resurrection, Ascension.
(11)   Pentecost to Peter in Prison, Acts 2 to 11.
(12)   Paul’s First Ministry. The Gentile a wild olive contrary to nature.
(13)   Paul’s Prison Ministry. The dispensation of the grace of God and the dispensation of the Mystery.
(14)   The Resumption of Pentecost. The seven churches of Revelation 2,3.
(15)   The Day of the Lord. The Apocalypse.
(16)   The Millennial Kingdom and Revelation 20.
(17)   The Period between the end of the Millennium and the Great White Throne.
(18)   The End. The goal reached. God all in all.
    No significance must be attached to the numbers that stand before any one dispensation. Paul’s Prison Ministry
happens to be No. 13 in this list, but the very questionable period from Sinai to Jericho is No. 7. Anyone is at liberty
to add further subdivisions as the study of the Word makes such dispensations, administration, or stewardships clear.
    A word perhaps is called for in connection with the subheading that suggests that two dispensations may run
together. If a dispensation is but another name for an age it is clear that two ‘ages’ cannot run together, but in any
one period of time there may be more than one stewardship in exercise. Galatians 2:7-9 makes it clear that Paul had
an apostleship and a stewardship that differed from that of Peter, but which was exercised during the self-same
period. Or again, Romans 1:18 to 2:29 and Acts 17:25-28 make it clear that at the same period that Israel had the
law, the covenants and the service of the tabernacle with all its rich typical teaching, the nations of the earth were
under a dispensation of conscience and the witness of the works of creation.
    John’s Gospel with its insistence upon the Giver of life, is addressed to those who did not know the meaning of
the Hebrew word Rabboni and so could not be Jews. It was written after the whole of Paul’s ministry had ceased, it
can be preached to-day without invading the smaller circle of faith encompassed by the Prison Epistles (see the
article JOHN2). It will be seen that a mere list of dispensations cannot set forth the whole truth of the matter, and
must be used with discrimination. The office of Dispensational Truth is to decide whether any particular doctrine be
it command, promise, calling or prophecy - does or does not pertain to any particular individual or company, and the
recognition of these varying dispensations is therefore essential if we would walk worthy of our calling, and preach
the truth for the present time.
   Before attempting to explain or expound any particular portion of Scripture, the following interrogation, which is
but the recognition of the fact that there are a succession of dispensations observable in the Bible, will prove a
valuable guide.
 (1) Is the verse in question in the Old Testament or in the New Testament.?
 (2) If in the Old Testament is it in the Law, or the prophets, before or after Abraham, before or after David, etc.?
                                                                                                        DIVISION    119
 (3) If in the New Testament is it in the Gospels, if so which, for each gospel has its own peculiar viewpoint (see
 (4) If in the Acts, is it in the period covered by Pentecost (Acts 2 to 12) by the early ministry of Paul (Acts 13 to
     19), by the interval (Acts 20 to 28) or by the Prison Ministry of Paul?
 (5) Most objections to the teaching of the Mystery, and most of the confusion that is so evident, are the result of
     continually harking back to epistles before Acts 28, as for example, a believer may appear to be following
     and endorsing your teaching concerning the constitution of the Church of the one Body in Ephesians, only to
     betray confusion by quoting Galatians 3:27-29.
     (See the article on ELECTION, p. 255, for an analysis of the dispensational portion of Romans, namely
     Romans 9 to 11. See also OLIVE TREE3 and ISRAEL2).

   Instead of postponing the consideration of the great principle of ‘right division’ to the section which deals with
words commencing with ‘R’ we bring the subject forward, by reason of its importance, and give a partial
consideration to it here. It is the key that unlocks the dispensations and should govern our entire approach to the
Scriptures. The Scripture that enjoins the practice of this principle is 2 Timothy 2:15, ‘study to shew thyself
approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth’.
   This verse divides naturally into three parts:
 (1) The approval of God.
 (2) The unashamed workman.
 (3) The essential principle of interpretation.
    In chapter 1 of 2 Timothy there is an anticipation of the great principle of right division, for the apostle
emphasizes ‘the testimony of the Lord and of me His prisoner’. He refers to that calling that goes back ‘before age
times’ but is manifest ‘now’ that he is a prisoner. He draws attention to his own special ministry to the Gentiles and
the ‘good deposit’ entrusted to him and afterwards committed to Timothy, when he urged upon him the importance
of having a pattern of sound words which he had heard of him, and in chapter 2 he exhorts Timothy to commit to
faithful men ‘the things he had heard of him’. What is all this but the application of right division? Here a
distinction between the apostle’s earlier ministry and his ‘prison ministry’ is intimated. Here is a recognition of the
distinctive calling of Ephesians 1, ‘before the foundation of the world’. Here is the claim that the apostle, preacher
and teacher of the Gentiles, is Paul, and here the distinction is made between ‘that good deposit’ and other parts of
God’s purposes.
    If Timothy is to be unashamed of his work he must know and appreciate these distinctions, otherwise (by
occupying himself with service that belongs to other callings and dispensations, and so not being engaged in ‘God’s
building’), his work, being revealed by fire, will be found worthless. While Timothy might be expected to perceive
the necessity of right division, Paul is anxious that he should not be left to his own inferences. How then shall the
apostle best put the principle that is vaguely seen at work right through chapter 1? Shall he once more go back in
mind to the child Timothy at his mother’s knee? Shall he visualize the teaching of those holy Scriptures that had
made Timothy wise unto salvation? Does he remember that a Jewish mother would most certainly teach her boy
some of the Proverbs? and that Timothy’s father, being a Greek, and living in Galatia, would most certainly have
read the Greek version of the Old Testament, known as the Septuagint? We cannot tell, but this we do know, that
Timothy needed no explanation of the term ‘right division’. We can dismiss all attempts by commentators to
discredit this fact and feel perfectly safe in doing so, because we shall be ‘comparing spiritual things with spiritual’.
In the Bible used by Timothy occurs the following verse:
   Pasais hodois sou gnorize auten, hina orthotome tas hodous sou (Paroimai 3:6).
   ‘In all thy ways acquaint thyself with it (fem. ref. to sophia wisdom, in verse 5) in order that it may rightly divide
   thy paths’ (Prov. 3:6).
                                DIVISION                                                                            120
   We find the same word in Proverbs 11:5, where it is again used of a ‘way’. These are the only occurrences in the
LXX. We are not now concerned with the differences here observable between the A.V. and the LXX but are
desirous that all shall see that the words used by Paul in 2 Timothy 2:15 and known by Timothy are identical.

   Orthotomeo, ‘To rightly divide’.
   Temno, ‘to cut’, does not occur in the New Testament but several combinations of the word are found.
      ‘Sharper’, Tomoteros. ‘Sharper than a two-edged sword’ (Heb. 4:12).
      ‘Sharply’, Apotomos. ‘Rebuke them sharply’ (Tit. 1 13).
      Peritemno and peritome refer to circumcision, and there is no need to stress the literal meaning of either the
   Greek or the English. The word finds its place in our own language, and in such surgical expressions as
   anatomy, tracheotomy, and phlebotomy, the primary meaning of cutting is retained unaltered.
    With this evidence before him, the reader will need no refutation of the many suggestions put forward as
translations, such as ‘handling aright the Word of Truth’. Again, there is no possibility of mistaking what was to be
rightly divided. It was not the believer’s conduct or service or anything to do with himself, but the ‘Word of Truth’.
Just as Timothy was subsequently exhorted to ‘preach’ the Word, so is he here commanded to ‘divide’ the Word
aright. What this principle involves when put into operation cannot be detailed here. Besides a number of volumes
and smaller booklets, thirty-seven volumes of The Berean Expositor have been published, and they all have been
subject to this one great principle. Right division distinguishes dispensations. It does not confound Kingdom with
Church, Gentile with Jew, Mystery with Gospel, Earth with Heaven. It is beyond us, however, to attempt even a
summary of its bearings, for there is no item of Scriptural teaching to which the principle does not apply.
    Moreover, let us repeat that what is here to be ‘rightly divided’ is, and remains, the Word of Truth. No ‘higher
critical’ cutting up of the Scriptures is countenanced by this Word, and indeed we have only to read on to find in
2 Timothy 3:16 one of the most emphatic statements concerning the inspiration of the Scriptures that the New
Testament contains. We can, however, easily rob the Word of its ‘truth’ if we fail to ‘rightly divide’ it. We can
confound law and grace, to our undoing; we can preach Moses where we ought to preach Christ. We can be
concerned with ‘earthly things’, to our loss, if our calling is associated with ‘things above where Christ sitteth at the
right hand of God’. If we attempt to spiritualize the promises made to the fathers, we rob the word of promise of its
truth. If we misinterpret Israel as of the Church; if we confound the Bride with the Body; if we preach the gospel of
the circumcision to the Gentile to-day; if we do any of these things, we rob the Word of its Truth.
    One glorious result of ‘rightly dividing the word of truth’ is that every statement of God may be taken without
alteration. For instance, in the case of the promise, ‘the meek shall inherit the earth’, a rightly divided word has no
need to substitute ‘heaven’ for ‘earth’.
   ‘Let us heed this word of exhortation. If we are not occupied with that part of God’s purpose which has a
   present application, we shall most certainly be ashamed of our work. In other words, whether found in Genesis,
   Romans, Ephesians or the Revelation, "Dispensational Truth" is all the truth there is’.
    Happy is the workman who, though suffering under the disapproval of tradition, is approved unto God; that
workman who will have no need to be ashamed of his work, because he has obeyed the great all-covering principle
of interpretation - ‘Rightly dividing the Word of Truth’.
   Passing from the meaning of ‘Right Division’ let us take an illustration of the application of this principle from
the ministry of the Lord Himself. In Luke 4:16-21 we read that the Saviour upon returning from Galilee to
Nazareth, entered the synagogue and stood up for to read. He was given the book of the prophet Isaiah and He
found the place where it was written:
   ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor; He hath sent
   Me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at
   liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord’ (Luke 4:18,19).
   According to Moses Maimonedes, a public reading of the Scriptures should consist of some twenty to
twenty-five verses, and had the Saviour read the whole of Isaiah 61, even though it contained but eleven verses, no
                                                                                                       DIVISION   121
one would have been surprised. What He did, however, was something extraordinary. He read one verse, and one
sentence of the second verse, stopped, shut the book, and sat down. The second verse of Isaiah 61 reads:
       ‘To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn’.
but had He continued His reading so as to include the reference to the day of vengeance, He could not have said, as
He did, THIS DAY IS THIS SCRIPTURE fulfilled in your ears, for the day of vengeance, even after nineteen hundred
years, has not yet come. There is but a comma, in our English version, between the two periods, yet that comma
represents a gap of nearly two thousand years. In the original Hebrew or the Greek from which the Saviour read,
there would have been no punctuation mark at all. The Lord by no means set aside the dreadful fact of future
judgment, He simply kept both references in their true dispensational place. This same gospel, at chapter 21 speaks
of that future day, saying: ‘For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled’
(Luke 21:22). The relations between these two passages may be set out thus:

   The Acceptable                                    The Day of
        year of4←-----Error! Reference source not found.the Lord(over 1900 years) of our God.
       fulfilled                                       fulfilled
    at first advent                                 at 2nd advent
    The books of the Bible were all originally addressed to some particular hearer or company, and before we take
all that is written in the Scriptures as truth for ourselves, we should observe several things which in reality will be
but the application of ‘Right Division’. If we hold the faith that is common to evangelical protestants we shall
strenuously maintain the great doctrine of Justification by faith apart from works of the law, and by so doing we of
necessity ‘divide’ the Word of truth, for the law of Moses is equally as inspired Scripture as is the epistle to the
Romans. And so the principle of right division enables us to say:
       ‘While the Word of God is written FOR all persons, and FOR all time, yet it is true that not every part of it is
       addressed TO all persons or ABOUT all persons IN all time’ (How to Enjoy the Bible, Dr. E. W. Bullinger).
    Hence, we can say that the Scriptures refer to three companies or classes, ‘Jew, Gentile and Church of God’, or
we can say that the Scriptures relate to three spheres of blessing, ‘The Earth, The Heavenly Jerusalem and Far above
all’. Yet again, the Scriptures are concerned with The Kingdom of Israel, The Bride of the Lamb and the Church
which is His Body. Some of the epistles are specifically addressed to the Dispersion.
       ‘To the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting’ (Jas. 1:1).
       ‘To the strangers scattered throughout Pontus ... Bithynia’ (1 Pet. 1:1).
To which should be added the epistle to the Hebrews, for Peter, writing to the Dispersion said, ‘our beloved brother
Paul ... hath written UNTO YOU’ (2 Pet. 3:15). The question of the authorship of the epistle to the Hebrews, together
with its distinctive teaching, is discussed in the article entitled HEBREWS2. This principle of interpretation ‘right
division’ observes the ‘sundry times’ and ‘divers manners’ in which God has spoken, and these different ‘times’ are
called for convenience ‘dispensations’. We will not enlarge upon this here, as the subject is treated with some
degree of fulness in the article entitled DISPENSATION, p. 225. The Ages too have their differences, and the article
AGE, p. 47, deals with this aspect of truth. Dr. Bullinger devotes seventy-five pages of the book How to Enjoy the
Bible to the unfolding of what he has called ‘the one great requirement’, the reading of which is illuminative. We
give the subdivision of the theme as set out in the Contents, but can give no quotations owing to limitation of space.

                                             THE GREAT REQUIREMENT
  (1) One part of the PAST not necessarily to be read into another part of the PAST.
    (a) Matt. 10:5,6 and 28:19,20.
    (b) Luke 9:3 and 22:35,36.
                                 DIVISION                                                                             122
 (2) The PAST not to be read into the PRESENT.
   (a)  Law and Grace.
   (b)  Imprecatory Psalms.
   (c)  The Sabbath.
   (d)  The Kingdom.
   (e)  The Gospels.
   (f)  The Sermon on the Mount.
   (g)  The Lord’s Prayer.
   (h)  The Priesthood.
   (i)  Baptisms.
   (k)  The prophecy of Amos. Amos 9:11,12, Acts 15:14-18
   (l)  The title ‘Son of Man’.
 (3) The PRESENT not to be read into the PAST.
   (a)  The Mystery.
   (b)  ‘Sons of God’.
   (c)  The ‘Church’.
 (4) The FUTURE not to be read into the PRESENT.
   (a)  The Great Tribulation.
   (b)  The 144,000.
   (c)  Sundry Prophecies. Psa. 2; Isa. 2; Isa. 40.
   (d)  The Day of the Lord.
 (5) One part of the FUTURE not necessarily to be read into another part of the FUTURE.
   (a) The Advents.
   (b) The Resurrections.
   (c) The Judgments. 2 Cor. 5:10; Matt 25:31-36; Rev. 20:11-15.
 (6) The truth and teaching of the CANONICAL ORDER to be distinguished from the CHRONOLOGICAL                         AND
   (a)    The Tabernacle.
   (b)    The Great Offerings.
   (c)    The Four Gospels.
   (d)    1 Samuel 16 to 18.
   (e)    The book of Jeremiah.
   (f)    The Pauline Epistles.
The reader may not agree with every interpretation and every conclusion arrived at by the Doctor under these heads,
but the very contemplation of these subdivisions is of itself suggestive and provocative of individual Berean-like
   For the chronological order of the epistles, and the chronology of the Acts the reader is referred to the article
bearing the title CHRONOLOGY, ACTS AND EPISTLES p. 146.
    The expansion of this principle of right division is only limited by the limits of Scripture itself, and this Analysis,
under whatever subdivisions it may fall, is from first to last but an exhibition and exposition of this great principle.
Having given the term an examination and the application of the principle an illustration we must leave its full
unfolding to the separate articles as they appear in the alphabetical order of their occurrence. Under the heading
RIGHT DIVISION4, a few further notes will be found. The subject is so vital, that no apology will be necessary for
this double emphasis.

DUE T IME. The apostle follows the statement that Christ is the Mediator and the One Who gave Himself a ransom
for all, with the words ‘To be testified in due time’ (1 Tim. 2:6).
                                                                                                 DUE TIME 123123
    Instead of slowly accumulating Scripture evidence, and then announcing the conclusion to which that evidence
points, we open this study with a proposition, and then proceed to establish its truth, the bearing of this proposition
upon the words of 1 Timothy 2:6 just recorded will then, we trust, be recognized by all. The proposition is this:
‘Every dispensational change, or every vital link in the dispensational development is the subject of positive witness
in the New Testament’. The word translated ‘to be testified’ in 1 Timothy 2:6 is marturion, the noun ‘witness’ is
martur, and the verb ‘to witness’ is martureo. Other variants are made up by combining the root of the word with
pro before kata down or against, epi upon and sun with. Lexicographers differ considerably with regard to the
supposed etymology of the word martus. One deduced it from the ancient word mare ‘the hand’ another from meiro
‘to divide or decide’; another derives it from the root mart which means a mark, and yet another from a Sanscrit root
meaning to remember. It is evident that the origin of the word is lost in obscurity, and that it would be very unwise
and unsafe to build a doctrine upon such uncertain foundations. No such ambiguity shadows the origin of the
English word ‘witness’, it is derived from witan ‘to know’, the synonym ‘testimony’ being derived from the Latin
testes ‘a witness’.
     The great dispensational change ushered in with the advent of Christ was the change from law to grace, and this
in itself was a subject of many subdivisions as we shall see. The first witness of the New Testament is John the
Baptist. ‘There was a man sent from God, whose name was John, the same came for a witness ... John bare witness
... John bare record ... I saw and bare record’ (John 1:6,7,8,15,32,34). John’s testimony is that Jesus is the Christ,
the Light of men, the Lamb of God, the King. He declares that he himself was sent as a forerunner, in fulfilment of
the prophecy of Isaiah 40:3-5, and preached: ‘Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand’ (Matt. 3:1,2). This
witness of John, was endorsed by the Saviour Who said: ‘Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth’
(John 5:33). An element of miracle is found in connection with the birth of this first witness who was to go before
the Lord ‘in the spirit and power of Elijah’ (Luke 1:17). John could say ‘that He should be made manifest to Israel,
therefore am I come baptizing with water’ (John 1:31).
    The second witness is John the apostle. The attention of the reader of John’s gospel is focussed upon the
‘finished’ work of the Son of God (John 4:34; 17:4; 19:30). This last reference is John’s own testimony as to what
took place at the Crucifixion.
   ‘And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe’
   (John 19:35).
John has much precious truth to make known, and for the grace and glory revealed in his ‘gospel’ we thank God, but
let us never forget that he was also one of a chain of witnesses who ‘saw and heard’ and whose record is an essential
link in understanding the purpose of the ages.
   The witness of the early Acts is to the Resurrection.
   ‘Ye shall be witnesses unto Me’ (Acts 1:8).
   ‘Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that He was taken up from us, must one be ordained to
   be a witness with us of His resurrection’ (Acts 1:22).
    Here there is an unbroken chain of evidence, from the baptism of John unto the Ascension. To this, of course,
could be added the supplementary witness recorded in Acts 5:29-32, ‘and we are His witnesses of these things; and
so is also the Holy Ghost Whom God hath given to them that obey Him’. Or again as it is written in Acts 10:39 and
41. At the conversion of the apostle Paul, another witness appears who was destined to carry the torch of truth to its
furthermost bounds. The night following his apprehension by the Roman guard, the Lord appeared to Paul and said:
‘Be of good cheer, Paul; for as thou hast testified of Me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome’ (Acts
23:11). Here then is a further extension of evidence, linking the apostolic witness at Jerusalem with far-off Rome.
At his conversion, Ananias, who had been sent by the Lord, said to Paul: ‘The God of our fathers hath chosen thee,
that thou shouldest know His will, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear the voice of His mouth. For thou shalt
be His witness unto all men of what thou hast seen and heard’ (Acts 22:14,15).
    The witness of Paul is twofold. The first part of his testimony ended at Ephesus (Acts 20:21), ‘testifying both to
the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ’.
                               DUE TIME                                                                            124
    This testimony, however, came to an end: ‘And now, behold, I know that ye all, among whom I have gone
preaching the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more’ (Acts 20:25). The reason for this is given in verses
22-24. ‘And now I go bound in the spirit unto Jerusalem ... bonds and afflictions abide me. But none of these things
move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry,
which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God’. The twofold witness of the
apostle is categorically stated in Acts 26:16. ‘I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and
a witness BOTH of these things which thou hast seen (Acts 22:14,15) and of those things in the which I will appear
unto thee’. The testimony here is unmistakable. ‘Both’ must refer to two things. It cannot be used of one only.
‘These things’ are set over against another group called ‘those things’. ‘I have appeared’ is placed in contrast with ‘I
will appear’, and the whole commission is concluded with a reference to the Gentiles in the present ‘unto whom now
I am sending thee’ (as an apostle apostello).
    This ‘prison’ ministry to the ‘Gentiles’ constitutes the final witness of the apostle, and leads us to 1 Timothy
2:6,7, ‘to be testified in due time. Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle (I speak the truth in Christ,
and lie not;) a teacher of the GENTILES in faith and verity’. Here is a witness which is upon oath - so solemn, so
important, so opposed is the testimony here given. The translation ‘to be testified in due time’ is too tame a
rendering to represent the apostle’s intention here. The A.V. margin draws attention to the fact that the original does
not use the verb ‘to testify’ but the noun ‘a testimony’, and the words translated ‘in due time’ are in the original
kairois idiois ‘seasons peculiar’ or ‘its own season’. We meet the same terms in Titus 1:1-3 where we read: ‘Paul, a
servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God’s elect; and the acknowledging of the
truth which is after godliness; in hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began,
but hath in due times (kairois idiois) manifested His word through preaching, which is committed unto me according
to the commandment of God our Saviour’.
    Again, in 2 Timothy 1, Paul writes: ‘Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony (the witness still going on)
of our Lord, nor of me His prisoner ... according to His own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus
before the world began, but is now made manifest ... whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a
teacher of the Gentiles’ (2 Tim. 1:8-11). Both the passages in Titus and the one here go back to a promise and a
purpose made ‘before the world began’, literally ‘before age times’ and which finds the time of its testimony NOW,
and the instrument of its revelation Paul in his three fold office.

                  Preacher       
                  Apostle         of the Gentiles.
   The time had come when ‘all men’, not Jews and proselytes only were the object of Divine love. This ministry
was entrusted to the apostle Paul, the only one designated ‘The apostle of the Gentiles’. This testimony had its ‘own
peculiar season’ for making its blessed theme known.
   The translation ‘in due times’ entirely hides the peculiar character of these times from the reader. Idios means
anything peculiarly one’s own. Thus an idiograph means a trade mark, which must of necessity be ‘peculiarly one’s
own’. An idiom is a mode of expression peculiar to a language. An idiosyncrasy is a peculiarity of temperament or
constitution, something peculiar to and distinguishing an individual. Even the words idiot and peculiar when taken
to mean one who is of weak intellect, are so used because such persons are ‘on their own’, and different from the
normal. The word ‘peculiar’ in like manner is derived from the Latin peculium ‘private property’.
   We have it, therefore, on the highest of all authority, that:
 (1) Dispensational changes are not left to the process of deduction, they are the subjects of witness and
 (2) The present dispensation is differentiated from all that goes before it, by the fact that it has its own peculiar
     apostle, Paul, who ministered in his own peculiar condition ‘the prisoner of Jesus Christ’ to his own peculiar
     company ‘the Gentiles’, relative to a peculiar period ‘before age times’, regarding a calling that has its own
     peculiar seasons, which season is drawing near to its close, as a comparison of the signs of the times with
     2 Timothy 4 will make clear.
                                                                                                            EARTH 125

     By the testimony of 1 Timothy 2:6,7, Dispensational Truth is for ever lifted above the fog of speculation and
placed upon the unimpeachable ground of accredited testimony - for which let all true Bereans praise God and take
courage. Today, no such personal ‘testimony’ can be given. All that we can do as preachers and teachers is to abide
by these initial records, and see to it that all our dispensational subdivisions harmonize with the witness that God has
appointed. We rejoice that we are not called upon to ‘prove’ by any process of argument the distinctive character of
the dispensation of the Mystery. Paul was alone commissioned to make that testimony clear and he has done so for
all time.

EARTH. This word is the translation of several different Hebrew and Greek words, but not only must these
necessary distinctions be observed, but we shall find that there are different meanings attached to identical words
and that the recognition of these differences makes for a clear apprehension of Dispensational Truth. In the first
case we will tabulate the different words used in the Old and New Testaments.
Hebrew or Aramaic words employed.
 (1) Adamah, Gen. 1:25.        (2) Ara, Dan. 2:35.
 (3) Erets, Gen. 1:1.          (4) Arqa, Jer. 10:11.
 (5) Cheres, Lev. 15:12.       (6) Yabbesheth, Dan. 2:10.
 (7) Aphar, Gen. 26:15.
Greek words employed:
 (1) Ge, Matt. 5:5.                 (2) Oikoumene, Luke 21:26.
 (3) Ostrakinos, 2 Tim. 2:20.       (4) Katachthonios, Phil. 2:10.
    Some of these words, though listed, will not detain us, for they are not used in any way that impinges upon
Dispensational Truth. For example the word used by the Chaldeans in Daniel 2:10 means ‘the dry’ as distinct from
the sea (Psa. 95:5). Ara and arqa are Chaldean variants of the Hebrew erets. The peculiar thing to note concerning
Jeremiah 10:11 which uses both ara and arqa, is that this one verse in Jeremiah is written in Chaldee instead of
Hebrew, as though this verse were intended as a very definite witness that Israel should make during their captivity.
Cheres refers to earthenware, and aphar means ‘dust’ (Gen. 18:27). The word adamah is rendered by the
Septuagint ge, even as is the Hebrew word erets, but adamah applies more particularly to the substance of the earth,
the soil, the mould, although, by a well-used figure, extending the meaning of the word to include a region, land or
tract of country. So we read: ‘There was not a man to till the ground’ (Gen. 2:5). It was the ‘ground’ that was
cursed, and when Cain bemoaned that he was cursed from ‘the earth’ it is the ground still that is in mind.
   Erets. This is the word that is mostly translated ‘earth’. Usage employs this word in a variety of ways:
 (1) The earth, as opposite to heaven, Genesis 1:1. In Genesis 2:4 ‘heaven and earth’ comprise the universe. By
     the figure of synecdoche (see The Companion Bible, Appendix 6) the word is used for the inhabitants of the
     earth (Gen. 9:19).
 (2) The earth, land or continent as opposite to the sea (Gen. 1:28).
 (3) A land or a country. ‘The whole land of Havilah’ (Gen. 2:11), ‘The land of Nod’, ‘Unto thy seed will I give
     this land’ etc., ‘Get thee out of thy country’ (Gen. 12:1). Very often erets and haerets are used of Palestine,
     as ‘The land of all lands’ (Joel 1:2).
 (4) A piece of land, land belonging to a village or city
     (Gen. 23:15).
 (5) The ground as in Genesis 18:2, but not quite in the same sense as the ground or soil represented by adamah.
    Coming to the New Testament the only words that we need to consider are the Greek words ge and oikoumene.
Let us consider oikoumene first. This word is derived from the Greek oikeo ‘to inhabit’ and looks upon the earth as
a place prepared and fitted for inhabitants. It is used to indicate the Roman Empire, not only in the New Testament,
Luke 2:1, Acts 11:28, but in secular writers, for example, Polybius, born 203 B.C., wrote a ‘Universal History’ in
forty books, in which he says, ‘the Romans in a short time subdued the whole inhabited world (pasan ten
oikoumene). In like manner the LXX uses the term for the Babylonish Empire (Isa. 13:11; 14:17) and Alexander’s
empire is so called by the historian Aelian, (V.H. iii: 29); and the Greek dominion is thus denominated by
Demosthenes. Rome, it will be seen, is put into its true place in the image of Daniel 2 by the use of this term.
Strictly speaking apart from one reference, there is no necessity to consider this word oikoumene here, for it is only
translated ‘earth’ once in the A.V. of the New Testament namely in Luke 21:26 and as Luke has used the word most
definitely of the Roman Empire (Luke 2:1; Acts 11:28; 19:27; 24:5), this passage should be translated ‘world’
accordingly, which indeed is what we find in the R.V. There is, therefore, but one word, the word ge that is
translated rightly earth in the New Testament. The student will recognize the word in such English terms as
geography, geometry and geology. This word, like the Hebrew erets is used in several senses:
 (1)   The earth, as distinguished from the heavens (Matt. 5:18; 6:10).
 (2)   The dry land as distinct from the seas (Luke 5:11).
 (3)   A particular tract of land, a country (Matt. 2:6).
 (4)   The land of Palestine in particular (Acts 7:3,4).
 (5)   Land for cultivation (Matt. 13:5; Heb. 6:7).
 (6)   The ground in general (Matt. 10:29; 25:18).
    There was created in the beginning, the heaven and the earth (Gen. 1:1), and there shall be a new creation when
the purpose of the ages is attained.
   ‘Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth
   righteousness’ (2 Pet. 3:13).
   ‘And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there
   was no more sea’ (Rev. 21:1).
    The interval is occupied by the present earth, and it is of supreme importance to remember that at the forefront of
the scriptural revelation, the reader is warned that the word ‘earth’ is going to be employed in a limited sense. ‘And
God called the dry land "earth"‘ (Gen. 1:10), which is comparable to the earlier passage ‘and God called the
firmament "heaven"‘ (Gen. 1:8). This temporary heaven and earth is the stage upon which is enacted the great story
of the ages, and is to pass away. This aspect of truth will be more fully discussed in the article entitled THREE
SPHERES5, but it must be remembered by every reader, that to ignore the definition given in Genesis 1:10 will be to
ruin the import of many a subsequent reference.
    The term ‘earth’ must often be used with limitation when interpreting the Scriptures, and much
misunderstanding will arise if this limitation be forgotten or ignored. The emphasis that a spiritualizing system of
interpretation laid upon ‘heaven’ has robbed the believer of the joy of remembering that this earth itself will not be
abandoned by the Lord, but will be a sphere of blessing in the days to come. This spiritualizing of terms has found a
place even in a Greek lexicon which is open before us at the moment. It reads against the Greek ge, ‘The land of
Canaan, but figuratively and spiritually denoting heaven, Matthew 5:5’. According to this method of interpretation
the words of the Lord, ‘the meek shall inherit the EARTH’ mean, that they will inherit HEAVEN! This of course we
only quote to repudiate as both absurd and harmful. There is practically nothing said in the gospel according to
Matthew of any believer ‘going to heaven’, the prayer of that period includes the petition, ‘Thy kingdom come, Thy
will be done on EARTH as it is in heaven’.
    The heavenly and the super-heavenly callings are the subject of further revelation, made known in the epistles
and in the book of the Revelation, and it is the essence of true interpretation to keep these callings distinct. Those
who read these words to-day have no connection with the earth as a sphere of future blessing, and the consideration
of this subject is only of service as a part of the greater study of the different spheres and callings of which the earth
is but one, and apart from its relationship with the heavenly spheres and callings, it need not have been included in
this analysis, as the earthly sphere and calling of the Scriptures is practically unknown in the Scriptures that relate to
                                                                                                            EARTH 127

the present dispensation. Before leaving this word ‘earth’ we will use its varied meanings to illustrate the parallel
variety of uses that we find of the word ‘heaven’, on the principle that we should proceed from the known to the
    The reader should know, but he may need reminding, that a concordance is a human invention, and should
therefore be treated as such. A concordance deals simply with the occurrences of words, and it is entirely outside its
scope to deal with the meaning of words. Further, while it is a good servant, it is a bad master. Let us show what we
mean. We turn to any concordance and open at the word ge. We note that the occurrences occupy several columns
of print. We are assured that we have before us every occurrence of the word ge. So far, so good. But what do we
know about this word? We notice that the first occurrence in the New Testament reads ‘the ge of Judah’ (Matt. 2:6),
and we might (if we did not already know better) think that ge was something particularly connected with the Jews.
   The next reference is more extended but not fundamentally different. ‘The ge of Israel’ (Matt. 2:20). We cannot
here go through the 251 occurrences, so we omit a few lines and at Matthew 5:5 read, ‘they shall inherit the ge’
while at Matthew 13:5 we read, of seed, that it ‘had no deepness of ge’. We pass over the gospels and our eye lights
on 1 Corinthians 15:47, ‘the first man is of the ge’. We glance at Hebrews, where we find that ‘In the beginning the
Lord laid the foundations of the ge’ (Heb. 1:10), and that this ‘ge’ ‘drinketh in the rain’ (Heb. 6:7), that if the Lord
‘were on ge He would not be a Priest’ (Heb. 8:4), and that Israel were led ‘out of the ge of Egypt’ (Heb. 8:9).
    The reader, however, is not misled by this assortment. He knows that the one word ge denotes the earth as
distinct from heaven, the ground into which the seed may be sown, or any particular land, whether of Judah, Egypt
or elsewhere. But the reader should remember that he does not get this from the concordance. A spirit being,
wishing to convince other spirit beings, who had no personal acquaintance with the earth, that these various
meanings of the one word were fantastic and untrue, might impress some of his hearers by a formidable concordance
of passages. To us it would prove nothing, but to them it might prove an end of all argument.
    Now let us reverse the point of view and ask, what do we know of ‘heaven’ by acquaintance with it? Is it all one
undivided space? Is there a top and bottom to it? Can it be measured by miles? Is it three-dimensional space? Is
there anything outside or over heaven? If so, can anything that is over the heavens also be spoken of as in heaven?
How can we answer? If at this point another, equally ignorant by acquaintance with the heavens, should produce a
concordance of occurrences of the word ‘heaven’, the long list of words might impress the fearful, but it would no
more ‘prove’ anything about ‘heaven’ than the list of occurrences of the word ge proved that ‘land’ and ‘ground’
and ‘earth’ were all one and the same in meaning and intention.
   Let us now come from the known to the less known, and the unknown. Let us turn from ge ‘earth’ to ouranos
‘heaven’. The concordance presents us with a list of 283 occurrences. Let us proceed as we did with ge.
   ‘The kingdom of ouranos (plural) is at hand’ (Matt. 3:2).
   ‘Behold the fowls of the ouranos (sing.)’ (Matt. 6:26).
   ‘The ouranos (sing.) is red and lowring’ (Matt. 16:3).
   ‘The stars shall fall from ouranos (sing.)’ (Matt. 24:29).
   ‘The ouranos (sing.) gave rain’ (Jas. 5:18).
   ‘Descending out of ouranos (sing.) from God’ (Rev. 21:10).
Here we find that ‘stars’ and ‘fowls’ and ‘rain’ and the ‘New Jerusalem’ all belong to ouranos, in the singular, but
that the kingdom which the Lord came to establish upon earth was the kingdom of ouranos in the plural.
    We read in Ephesians 4:10 that the Lord ascended ‘far above all ouranos’ (plural), and that we have a Master in
ouranos (plural) (Eph. 6:9). It is easy to pour ridicule upon the attempt to distinguish things that differ, and, as we
know less of the heavens than we do of the earth, the attempt is sometimes sadly successful. But ‘Bereans’ are not
daunted by columns of words, they ‘search and see’ whether the things taught about these words ‘are so’. They use
the concordance as a servant, but do not let it become their master. Furthermore, what arguments could be invented
as to the basic distinction that must be observed between the heavens (plural) or heaven (singular)! Yet Matthew
3:16 says ‘heavens’ (plural) and John 1:32 says ‘heaven’ (singular). John 3:13 says, concerning the Ascension, ‘The
                            EARTHLY THINGS                                                                           128
Son of man which is in heaven’ (singular), whereas Hebrews 8:1 says He is in the heavens (plural) and Ephesians
4:10 that He ascended far above all heavens (plural).
   Now, just as, from one point of view, a Jew living at Jerusalem could be described as living in (en) the ge (in the
land), he could also be described as living upon (epi) the ge (on the surface on the earth) without involving a
contradiction. So also, and in a greater number of ways, can the heaven be spoken of without confusion and

EARTHLY T HINGS. The word epigeios occurs seven times in the New Testament as follows:
     John 3:12.      ‘If I have told you earthly things’.
  1 Cor. 15:40.      ‘There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial’.
  1 Cor. 15:40.      ‘The glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another’.
    2 Cor. 5:1.      ‘If our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved’.
     Phil. 2:10.     ‘Things in earth, and things under the earth’.
     Phil. 3:19.     ‘Who mind earthly things’.
      Jas. 3:15.     ‘Earthly, sensual, devilish’.
   Let us take these references in order:
     John 3:12.      ‘If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of
                      heavenly things?’
   The ‘earthly things’ which had been spoken of by the Lord to Nicodemus included the necessity of the new birth,
and consequently the use of the word ‘earthly’ here, cannot be this sense as opposed to that which is bad or
unspiritual, it relates simply to the sphere of blessing.
    Much of what the Lord taught him should have been known by Nicodemus. He was a teacher of Israel, if not
‘the teacher of Israel’, as the presence of the article may indicate, but the Lord says he was ignorant of ‘these
things’, yet he might have gathered the necessity of the spiritual begetting from Ezekiel 11:19,20:
   ‘And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their
   flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh: that they may walk in My statutes, and keep Mine ordinances, and do
   them: and they shall be My people, and I will be their God’.
   Without this new spirit, no man of Israel should ‘see’ or ‘enter’ the kingdom of God.
   The Lord follows this statement concerning the flesh and the spirit with these words:
   ‘Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again (begotten from above). The wind bloweth where it
   listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, or wither it goeth: so is every one
   that is born (begotten) of the Spirit’ (John 3:7-8).
    This is the only occasion in the New Testament where the words to pneuma are translated ‘the wind’. The word
in John 6:18 is anemos and this is so translated thirty-one times. The word ‘listeth’ is thelo, ‘to will’, and is found in
John 5:21, ‘quickeneth whom He will’. This word occurs twenty-three times in John’s gospel, and in twenty-two of
the references personal will is intended. The word ‘sound’ is phone and is always translated ‘voice’ in John’s
Gospel, except in 3:8 (see John 1:23; 3:29; 5:25,28,37; 10:3,4,5,16,27; 11:43; 12:28,30; 18:37). The verse therefore
should be translated thus:
   ‘The Spirit breatheth where He willeth, and thou hearest His voice, but thou knowest not whence He cometh or
   whither He goeth; thus is everyone that hath been begotten of the Spirit’.
    To one who, like Nicodemus, was familiar with the Old Testament prophecies, the connection between John 3:6
and 8, and Ezekiel 11:19 (quoted above) and Ezekiel 37:9, ‘Prophesy unto the wind ... breathe upon these slain that
they may live’, and Ezekiel 37:12-14, ‘I will open your graves ... and ye shall live’, would be obvious, and to us who
read John’s Gospel and remember the remote context of John 5:21-29 with the parallels, ‘quicken whom He will’,
‘all that are in the graves shall hear His voice’, further associations will be suggested.
                                                                                               EARTHLY THINGS 129
    Nicodemus, however, apparently still held by the tradition of his sect and still holding to the advantages of being
a physical descendant of Abraham, could only reply, ‘How can these things be?’ The Lord, perhaps with sorrow at
the thickness of the veil that still blinded his eyes, said: ‘Art thou the teacher of Israel, and knowest not these
things?’ Dr. Lightfoot tells us that there were four sorts of teachers. The teacher of children, public teachers in the
synagogues, those who had their ‘midrashoth’, or divinity schools, like the schools of Hillel and Shammai or
Gamaliel, and the Sanhedrin, the great school of the nation. Of this company of the great doctors and teachers of the
Sanhedrin, Nicodemus was one.
   ‘Their divinity, that they taught and learned, was generally to this tenor: - to build upon their birth privilege from
   Abraham, to rest in the law, to rely upon their own works, to care for no faith but historical, to patter over
   prayers as efficacious ... How was it imaginable, that ever the doctrine of the new birth should be dreamed of
   among them, who looked for salvation upon such principles and terms as these’ (Dr. Lightfoot, Vol. 5, page 44).
     The doctrine of the new birth is not a new revelation, it belongs to the Old Testament, and the Lord implied as
much when He said to Nicodemus: ‘If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I
tell you heavenly things?’ (John 3:12).
    1 Corinthians 15:40.- Lifted out of their context, the words ‘celestial bodies’ might easily refer to the sun, moon
and stars, but when placed against the contrast ‘terrestrial bodies’ this is seen to be impossible, for there is but one
terrestrial body, namely the earth itself. The theme of 1 Corinthians 15 is ‘resurrection’, and as the structure of
1 Corinthians 15 must be given somewhere in this analysis, it might as well find its place here.

                                   The structure of 1 Corinthians 15 as a whole
A 15:1-11. The evidence and evangelistic importance of the Resurrection of Christ.
A 15:12-34. The fact of the Resurrection of Christ and of man.
A 15:35-58. The manner of the Resurrection.
   After the opening witness of verses 1-11, the remainder of the chapter is concerned with two aspects of the
Resurrection, the fact verses 12-34, and the manner verses 35-58.

                                               1 Corinthians 15:12-58
A 15:12.  The fact of Resurrection ‘How?’
  B 15:13-33. Adam and Christ. Death destroyed. ‘When?’
     C 15:34.    Exhortation. ‘Awake’.
A 15:35.  The manner of Resurrection. ‘How?’ ‘With what?’
  B 15:36-57. The first and last Adam. Death swallowed up. ‘When?’
     C 15:58.    Exhortation. ‘Be steadfast’.
    There is much food for thought here. Many Christians wonder how it is possible for the individual dead body to
be raised, and ask many questions which need never arise. One might put them a question in this form. A certain
man 3,000 years ago died, and was buried. Five hundred years later, the elements that composed the first man’s
body became the body of another man. He also died, and each 500 years the same elements became the body of
another man. At the resurrection whose body would it be, for all these men had it? The answer would be, ‘Ye do
err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God’. First of all, Scripture does not speak of the resurrection of
the body, but of the resurrection of the dead. The body is given by God at the resurrection and will be in accord
with the believer’s rank. ‘There are heavenly bodies, and earthly bodies’. These words do not refer to ‘heavenly
bodies’ of astronomy, but to the resurrection bodies of believers. In resurrection, there will be some raised to sit at
the right hand of God far above all; some will walk the streets of the New Jerusalem; some will inherit the earth, and
for each sphere of blessing an appropriate body will be given. ‘How’ God preserves the identity and individuality of
each soul is not emphasized, possibly the explanation would not have been intelligible to us even if it had been
revealed. Then as to the differing ‘ranks’:
   ‘There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for (one) star
   differeth from (another) star in glory. SO ALSO IS THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD’ (15:41,42),
                            EARTHLY THINGS                                                                            130
that is, it too is raised with a different body, and the glory of the one raised believer will differ from that of another,
‘every man in his own rank’. The contrasts between the body which we have ‘in Adam’ and that which God will
give ‘in Christ’ are given:

       Corruption         contrasted with incorruption.
       Dishonour          contrasted with glory.
       Weakness           contrasted with power.
       A natural body     contrasted with a spiritual body.
    The ‘sowing’ here in each of the four instances must not be translated as of the death and burial of a believer.
When seed is sown it must be alive, or nothing will come of it. If living seed be sown, it dies, and lives again. That
is the teaching here. The ‘sowing’ is our birth into the life of the Adamic race, ‘raising’ is our new birth into the life
of Christ.
    2 Corinthians 5:1.- The subject is still the resurrection, but the term ‘earthly’ is used of the present mortal body,
which is likened to the booth in which Greek plays were enacted, and so emphasizes the transient character of this
‘earthly’ life.
    Philippians 2:10.- Here we have three, and not two subdivisions of the universe ‘things in heaven, and things in
earth, and things under the earth’, the last term being an illustration of the saying, ‘revelation is not always
explanation’ for we have no idea who ‘things under the earth’ comprise or involve. It is here added to indicate the
Lord’s supremacy in the entire universe.
    The use of the word epigeios in Philippians 3:19 needs a consideration of the context. The apostle has by his
exhortation, thrown the believer back upon the example both of the Lord and of himself, he now proceeds to enforce
the need for observing this example both positively, ‘be followers together of me’, and negatively, ‘and mark them
which walk so as ye have us for an ensample’ (Phil. 3:17). The words of verses 18 and 19 are a parenthesis, the
whole passage being constructed as follows:
A 17-.     Positive. Be followers together of me ... us for an ensample.
  B -17-.     Negative. Mark them which walk.
  B 18,19.    Negative. Their end - destruction.
A 20,21.   Positive. Our citizenship is in heaven ... we shall be changed.
   Five things are enumerated by the apostle when speaking of those whose example was to be avoided.
 (1)   They were the enemies of the cross of Christ.
 (2)   Their end was destruction.
 (3)   Their god was their belly.
 (4)   Their glory was in their shame.
 (5)   They minded earthly things.
    It is impossible to believe that a church of so high a spiritual standard as that of Philippians could need a solemn
warning not to follow a worldly crowd, yet at first sight such a list as that given above does not seem of possible
application to a believer. Let us examine them a little more closely, and let us start with the last named ‘who mind
earthly things’. It will be conceded after a moment’s thought, that the unsaved man of the world has no option, he
can mind nothing else. Philippians 3 is a section complete in itself, and the word ‘mind’ phroneo occurs in it as

A 3:15-.   As many as would be perfect (one thing, to hen
           verse 13) be thus minded.
  B 3:-15.    Otherwise (heteros) minded.
A 3:16.    Whereto ... outstripped others ... mind the same thing (to auto).
  B 3:19.     Who mind earthly things (ta epigeia).
                                                                                                            ELECTION 131

          It will be seen that those who mind earthly things are in correspondence with those who think differently from
      the apostle in his single-eyed effort to attain the prize. ‘Earthly things’ therefore need not mean things positively
      sinful, but things that come in between the runner and his goal; ‘every weight’ as Hebrews 12 suggests.
          ‘Earthly things’, are in the original ta epigeia (Phil. 3:19).
          ‘Things on the earth’ are ta epi tes ges (Col. 3:2). ‘Earthly things’ are spoken of in John 3:12, James 3:15,
      1 Corinthians 15:40, 2 Corinthians 5:1, and in Philippians 2:10 and 3:19. In each case, ‘earthly things’ are set over
      against ‘heavenly’, ‘from above’ and ‘celestial’. Those, therefore, who mind earthly things, are those who do not act
      in accordance with their heavenly citizenship (Phil. 3:20) and whose example must be shunned by all who seek the
      prize of the high calling. The example of Abraham, as set out in Hebrews 11:8-16, who desired a better country that
      is an ‘heavenly’ can be added to the example of the apostle here. The reference in James 3:15 is not very intimately
      related to Dispensational Truth and we must therefore recognize the limitations set in this analysis and conclude our
      study of the words ‘earth’ and ‘earthly’ here. Under the heading ‘world’ other aspects of this great subject will be
      considered, and a fuller presentation of the dispensational import of the Greek oikoumene and the Hebrew tebel will
      be offered.

      ELECTION. This great word underlies the whole purpose of grace, and mainly belongs to doctrine, but it is used in
      Romans 9 to 11 in the exposition of Dispensational Truth, as it pertains to that part of the purpose of God that relates
      to Israel, and we therefore give an analysis of these three great chapters together with a few comments on those
      passages which speak of election, but necessarily leave the great question of Election itself untouched. The matter
      will come up again when we deal with the peculiar constitution of the Church of the one Body when examining the
      distinctive teaching of Ephesians, and again when dealing with the word Predestination. Romans 9 to 11 is
      bounded at either end with the tremendous thought that ‘God is over all’ (Rom. 9:4,5 and 11:33-35).
          We must first of all obtain a view of these chapters as a whole.

                                                          Romans 9 to 11
      A 9:1-5.   Sorrow.
                 Doxology. ‘Over all (panton), God blessed unto the ages’ (9:5).
B 9:6-29. The Remnant saved. Mercy on some.
           Corrective as to ‘all Israel’ (9:6).
           C 9:30 to 11:10. The stumbling stone. The Lord of all
                             Christ the end of    that believe.
                             the law.             No difference.
         B 11:11-32. All Israel saved. Mercy on them all.
                     Corrective as to the Remnant (11:1-5).
     A 11:33-35. Song.
                 Doxology ‘Of Him, through Him, and to Him are all
                             things (ta panta). To Him be glory unto the ages’ (11:36).

                                                  The Nation and the Remnant
          The fact that the bulk of the nation was in a state of unbelief at the time that Paul wrote, did not in any way
      throw doubt upon the accuracy of prophecy, and the promises. Rather the reverse, for there are a number of
      references in the Old Testament to Israel’s apostasy, and the preservation of a remnant. Isaiah, in a day of departure,
      speaks of this remnant in 1:9; 10:21,22, etc., and is quoted in Romans 9:27 :
          ‘Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved’.
      On the day of Pentecost, Peter omitted the close of Joel 2:32 because the appeal was to the nation. Subsequent
      events, however, proved that what Joel had prophesied was fulfilled. The omitted words ‘and in the remnant whom
                               ELECTION                                                                           132
the Lord shall call’ were applicable then, and will again be true in the future day of Israel’s restoration. When,
therefore, we read in Romans 11:26, ‘and so all Israel shall be saved’ we must read the words ‘all Israel’ in the light
of Romans 9:6-9. The ‘all Israel’ that shall be saved is not co-extensive with the total number of Abraham’s
descendants, but indicates a definite company - ‘children of promise’, a ‘reckoned seed’.

                                           Dispensational not Doctrinal
    Had the apostle, when writing Romans 9, intended to discuss the doctrines of free will, and eternal election and
reprobation, he would have been obliged to have introduced many different arguments. His purpose in this chapter
is much simpler. He is pointing out that the whole history of the people of Israel is the outworking of an elective
purpose, and that if this elective purpose is satisfied for the moment by the salvation of a remnant, then there can be
no truth in the suggestion that the Word of God has failed. When seen in their true context, the words ‘hate’ and
‘love’ in verse 13 create no insuperable difficulty, but if the apostle’s object in Romans 9 is misunderstood, then we
must expect confusion, and the inevitable evils that flow from a false representation of the sovereignty of God. Just
as the advocates of eternal punishment can only find a basis for their dreadful creed by ignoring the qualifying
statements of Scripture, and applying what is peculiar and limited to what is universal, so in Romans 9, we can only
build up the Calvinistic doctrine of eternal reprobation, with the allied error which regards sin as part of the Divine
decree, if we fail to see that Paul is here dealing with the dispensational question of Israel’s rejection and failure.
We give the structure of the passage just considered.

                              The remnant, and the Word of God (Romans 9:6-13)
A 9:6-8.      THE WORD OF GOD.
  B 9:6-8.        IN ISAAC,    a All out of Israel, these are not
                  A SEED          all Israel.
                  RECKONED       b The seed of Abraham, these
                                    are not all children.
                                  c In Isaac the seed shall be
                               a The children of the flesh, these
                                  are not the children of God.
                                 b The children of promise.
                                  c Counted for a seed.
  B 9:9.       TO SARAH        a At this time.
               A CHILD           b Will I return.
               PROMISED.          c Sarah shall have a son.
  B 9:10-13. TO REBEKAH        a Rebekah ... Isaac. Common
               A NATION           parentage.
               CHOSEN.           b Purpose according to
                                  c Greater, lesser, loved,
    The rejection of the Jewish people in the apostle’s own time was no more contrary to the promises of God than
the rejection of the ten tribes who were carried away into captivity by the Assyrians; for though the number carried
away were like the sand in multitude, a remnant returned. Instead of reproaching God with the smallness of the
remnant, the apostle says that we should rather be glad to think that a remnant had been spared at all, for as Isaiah
has already said, the people had become like Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Lord, apart from His sovereign will,
might have left them also to perish.
   Before concluding, let us review this intensely difficult passage in broad outline.
                                                                                                 ELECTION 133

                                                Romans 9:6-29
                                                First Proposition
   God’s promise has not been broken by the failure and rejection of the bulk of Israel (6-13).
     (a) The children of ABRAHAM (7-9).
         Everything depends upon what we understand by ‘Israel’. We have Abraham’s children, Ishmael and
         Isaac, but in Isaac the seed was called.
     (b) The children of ISAAC (10-13).
             The purpose of God according to election was signally manifested in the choice of Jacob, and the
         rejection of Esau.
                                              Second Proposition
   God is therefore just when He shows mercy on some, and allows others to go the natural road to perdition. This
   is later proved from the argument from ‘the same lump’ (14-18).
       (a) As to MERCY. - This prerogative is claimed by God Himself in Exodus 33.
       (b) As to HARDENING. - This is written large in His dealings with Pharaoh.
                                               Third Proposition
   God, therefore, has always acted in accordance with His sovereignty, and in harmony with Old Testament
   Scripture (19-29).
      (a) Man, as a creature, has no right or power to reply to God.
      (b) God has dealt with ‘vessels of wrath’ and ‘vessels of mercy’ according to His sovereign will.
                                               Fourth Proposition
   In the inclusion of Gentiles and the saving of a remnant of Israel, God is acting in harmony with Old Testament
       (a) Quotation from Hosea. - He calls a people ‘My people’ who once were ‘not My people’.
       (b) Quotation from Isaiah. - He saved but a remnant at the captivity of Israel years before.

                                         Structure of Romans 9:14-29
                                      The Sovereignty of God Established.

   B 15-18. MOSES AND MERCY.                    Divine election
             PHARAOH AND HARDENING.             established from
                                                the law.

   B 20-24. POTTER         Divine election, an essential prerogative
             VESSELS.      of the Creator, illustrated from common                                usage.
A 25.     AS HE SAITH.

   B 25-29. HOSEA - NOT MY PEOPLE.       The purpose of
               ISAIAH - REMNANT.            Divine election
   further illustrated                                                   from the Prophets.

  The two apparently opposite aspects of truth represented by sovereignty and responsibility meet together in
Romans 11:1,2, summed up in the word ‘foreknew’. (See articles on PREDESTINATION3, and PURPOSE3).
                                ELECTION                                                                               134
   Were the Bible nothing but Romans 9:14-29 we might all be Calvinists. Were it nothing but Romans 10, we
might all be Arminians. As it is, we cannot be either to the exclusion of the other, for each system contains an
element of truth, in spite of the admixture of error.

                                               Discovering the Structure
    Romans 9:30 to 10:21 deals with the question of Israel and righteousness, and it has been suggested that the
subject is handled in a threefold way: Israel’s failure in spite of the prophets (9:30-33); Israel’s failure in spite of the
law (10:1-11); and Israel’s failure in spite of the gospel (10:14-21). Upon examination, however, it would seem that
this subdivision of the subject-matter is not justified. It will be observed that the apostle uses twice over one
particular quotation from the prophet Isaiah: ‘Whosoever believeth on Him shall not be ashamed’ (Rom. 9:33;
10:11). This fact must certainly be given a place in any structural outline. Further, we notice that the Greek word
skandalon ‘offence’ (Rom. 9:33) and ‘stumbling block’ (Rom. 11:9,10), is used in two passages with evident and
intentional parallelism. This, too, must find a place in the structure, and extends the section beyond the limits of
Romans 10. Again, we observe that the subject-matter of Romans 9:30-32, the fact that the Gentiles attained what
they did not follow after - is echoed in Romans 11:6,7. These items are decisive, and demand recognition. We
accordingly give them their place in the structure, which is as follows:

                                                 Romans 9:30 to 11:10
                                             ‘The Election hath obtained It’
A 9:30-32. a What shall we say then?
              b Gentiles followed not; yet attained.
                  Israel followed; yet attained not.
                  c Faith versus Works.
  B 9:33. Skandalon. The rock of offence.
     C 9:33. Kataischuno. Whoso believeth, not ashamed.
         D 10:1-10. d Paul’s prayer for Israel.
                          e Israel ignorant and not submissive.
                              f The word of faith which we preach.
     C 10:11. Kataischuno. Whoso believeth, not ashamed.
         D 10:12 to 11:3.     f The word of faith that was preached.
                      d Elijah’s intercession against Israel.
                          e Israel gainsaying and murderous.
A 11:4-7. a What saith the oracle of God.
                  c Grace versus Works.
              b Israel seek, but obtain not.
                  Election obtain.
  B 11:9,10. Skandalon. The stumbling stone.
    In the earlier verses of Romans 11 the apostle has shown that the failure of the bulk of the nation of Israel in no
way invalidates God’s purpose of His faithfulness. We have seen that the prophets foretold ‘a remnant according to
the election of grace’, and we also learn that the defection of Israel has been overruled to bring about the
reconciliation of the Gentile world. Looking on to the close of the chapter, we find that ‘all Israel’ shall be saved,
because ‘the gifts and calling of God are without repentance’. The words ‘all Israel’, ‘Jacob’ and ‘Zion’ together
with the prophecy alluded to, preclude our making any deduction from these verses but one - namely, the national
restoration and blessing of Israel according to the terms of the New Covenant. Quite a number of questions suggest
themselves as we read this section, but it is evident that the apostle, when he wrote about the olive tree, had no
intention of introducing a theological argument at this point. He had one and only one purpose before him - to
                                                                                                      ELECTION 135

show, by the figure of the olive tree, how the Lord had used Gentile believers, in order, if it were possible, to
‘provoke’ the nation of Israel ‘to emulation’. This, and this only, is the reason for introducing the figure, and the
recognition of this will save us from almost endless argument as to the ultimate destiny of the branches that
  Before attempting any exposition of these verses, it will be wise to see what particular parts of the passage are
emphasized by the structure, which we set out opposite:

                                                  Romans 11:11-32

   B c 11.            PROVOKE. ‘If’.
       d 12.             FULNESS of Israel.
     c 13-15.         PROVOKE. ‘If’.
       d 16.             FIRSTFRUIT.
     c 17-24.         PROVOKE. ‘If’.
       d 25.             FULNESS of Gentiles.


   B e 26.   All Israel shall be saved.
       f 26.     Deliverer: turn away ungodliness.
           g 27.     The covenant.
             h 28.       Enemies. Gospel. For your sakes.
             h 28.       Beloved. Election. For the fathers’ sakes.
           g 29.     The gifts and calling.
       f 32.     Concluded in unbelief.
     e 32.   Mercy upon them all.
    It is evident that the apostle is speaking here of the dispensational aspect of truth, for no Gentile could be
justified by being placed in the position forfeited by one of the natural branches of Israel’s olive tree. No believer,
who is justified by faith, can ever be separated from the love of God, or can ever be condemned (Rom. 8), so that the
threat of excision in Romans 11:22 must refer to the dispensational position which then obtained.
    The introduction of the figure of the olive tree, especially the strange use of the grafting of a wild olive, is
considered separately under the title OLIVE TREE3. We pass on here to the conclusion of the question of the bearing
of election on the dispensational place of Israel. At the first advent, the bulk of the nation rejected the Saviour, and
but a remnant according to election was saved, but at the consummation ‘All Israel shall be saved’ (Rom. 11:26).
This is in fulfilment of the terms of the New Covenant, and fully recognizes the sinful character of this elect people,
while magnifying the sovereignty of electing grace.
   ‘As concerning the gospel, they are ENEMIES for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are     BELOVED    for
   the fathers’ sakes. For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance’ (Rom. 11:28,29).
    Thus this dispensational chapter opens with sorrow and ends with song. At the beginning is set out in detail the
privilege of Israel ‘according to the flesh’ but at the end the salvation of Israel by sovereign grace. The elect
remnant, like the Pentecostal harvest were a kind of firstfruits, a pledge of the great ingathering when Israel shall
look upon Him Whom they pierced, and become at long last a kingdom of priests in the earth. For a fuller dealing
of the place of Israel in the purpose of the ages, see ISRAEL2.

T HE END. This English word is employed in the A.V. to translate more than a dozen Hebrew words, and seven
Greek words. Those of dispensational importance, however, are two. They are the Greek words telos and sunteleia.
                                   END                                                                                136
Telos means ‘the end’ in the sense of completion, fulfilment, or realization, not so much the end in the sense of
   ‘It denotes strictly, not the ending of a departed state, but the arrival of a complete or perfect one’ (Dr. E. W.
   Bullinger, Greek Lexicon).
Thus in Greece, one might have been invited to a party celebrating the happy fact that the firstborn son had come to
the end of his life, not of course that he had died or ‘ceased to live’, but that he had attained to the great goal of life
and reached man’s estate. Closely associated with this word are the derived words teleios and teleioo, which are
translated ‘perfect’ again with the basic idea of attaining a goal, not of being sinless or flawless. It is an easy
transition then for the word to indicate maturity as over against infancy. This aspect, however, is discussed under
the heading PERFECTION OR PERDITION3, and is also a feature in the structure of the epistle to the HEBREWS2 which
should be consulted. When we examine the Scriptures which contain the other word sunteleia we shall have to
include one or two references to telos in the context, but the one passage that demands consideration at the moment
is 1 Corinthians 15:24. The structure of 1 Corinthians 15 will be found in the article entitled EARTHLY THINGS p.
249, and the twenty-fourth verse is a part of the teaching of the apostle concerning the relationship of resurrection
with the goal of the ages. In verses 20-23 the figure that is stressed is the ‘firstfruits’ both in connection with the
first (20) and second coming (23).
    The Corinthians are now taken one step further in the endeavour to impress upon them the fundamental
importance of the resurrection. The very goal of the ages is impossible without it. This is shown in the verses that

                                                1 Corinthians 15:24-28
A 15:24.   The end.
  B a 15:24-. WHEN He delivers up the kingdom.
         b 15:-24. WHEN He abolishes all rule.
           c 15:25-. FOR He must reign.
              d 15:-25. Till all enemies under feet.
              d 15:26.    The last enemy; death abolished.
           c 15:27.    FOR He hath put all things under His feet.
         b 15:-27. WHEN. The one exception.
     a 15:28-. WHEN. The Son Himself subjected.
A 15:-28. That God may be all in all.
    There is no word for ‘cometh’ in the original of verse 24. It simply reads ‘then the end’. Some understand the
words to mean ‘then the end rank’ but we can find no justification for such a rendering. Cremer, in his note on to
telos, says that this word does not primarily denote the end, termination, with reference to time, but the goal
reached, the completion or conclusion at which anything arrived, either as issue or ending; or as a result, acme,
consummation, e.g., polemon telos, ‘victory’ (literally ‘the end of war’, end, not measuring time but object); telos
andros, ‘the full age of man’ (not the end of man - death), also of the ‘ripening of seed’. In Luke 1:33 and Mark
3:26 the idea of termination seems uppermost. The idea of issue, end, conclusion, is seen in Matthew 26:58, ‘to see
the end’; James 5:11, ‘Ye have seen the end of the Lord’; 1 Peter 4:17, ‘What shall the end be of them that obey not
the gospel?’
    The idea of a goal reached is seen in Romans 6:21, ‘the end of those things is death’; Philippians 3:19, ‘whose
end is destruction’. So also 2 Corinthians 11:15; Hebrews 6:8. When the apostle wrote the words of 1 Corinthians
15:24, ‘then the end’, what goal had he in view? What is the object of resurrection? Does it not take man back into
the place intended for him in the Divine purpose, for which sin and death had for a while rendered him unfit? The
goal, this end in view, is contained in the words of 1 Corinthians 15:28, ‘that God may be all in all’. Although ‘the
end’ is mentioned immediately after the resurrection of those that are Christ’s at His parousia, it is not attained
without a reign of righteousness and a rule of iron. The uninterrupted statement of the end is as follows:
                                                                                                            END 137

   ‘Then the end, when He shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father ... with the object that God
   may be all in all’.
    The reader is aware, however, that the end is not attained in this unbroken sequence. The first ‘when’ is
conditional upon the second, ‘when He shall have abolished all rule and all authority and power’. This will not be
effected by one grand miraculous stroke, but by the reign of Christ as king, ‘For He must reign till He hath put all
enemies under His feet’. He reigns ‘till’, His reign has one supreme ‘end’, and that end cannot be reached while one
unsubdued enemy exists.
   In this category comes death, the last enemy of mortal man. ‘Even death, the last enemy, shall be abolished’.
This is included in the Divine purpose, ‘For He hath put all things under His feet’. The resurrection therefore is
absolutely essential to the fulfilment of the great purpose of God.
    But it may be asked: Can such an expression as ‘destroyed’ or ‘abolished’ speak of resurrection? Take the
statement of 2 Timothy 1:10:
   ‘But now is made manifest by the manifestation of our Saviour Jesus Christ, Who abolished (katargeo) death,
   and illuminated life and incorruptibility through the gospel’ (Author’s translation).
    This refers to the Lord Himself, in the first instance. He abolished death when He arose from the dead. Not only
did He abolish death, but He commenced that destruction of all rule and power which He will carry through when
He sits upon the throne of His glory:
   ‘That through death He might destroy (katargeo) him that had the power of death, that is, the devil’ (Heb. 2:14).
  Other passages illustrating the meaning of katargeo (‘put down’, ‘destroyed’, 1 Corinthians 15:24-26) are
Romans 6:6; 1 Corinthians 2:6; 1 Corinthians 13:11; 2 Corinthians 3:7; Ephesians 2:15; and 2 Thessalonians 2:8.
    When we read ‘all rule and all authority and power’, we may be inclined to make too wide a sweep, but the
corrective of verse 26 enables us to see that we are dealing with enemies. There are two distinct actions, and two
distinct classes in view in these verses. The enemies are ‘abolished’, but others are ‘subdued’. This word ‘subdued’
(hupotasso) is a cognate of tagma, ‘order’, ‘rank’ of verse 23, and looks to the perfect order and alignment that will
characterize the kingdom of Christ. It is used of Christ Himself in the words, ‘Then shall the Son also Himself be
subject unto Him ... that God may be all in all’.
    The first occurrence of the word is beautiful in its suggestiveness. That One of Whom it was prophesied that ‘all
things should be subjected beneath His feet’ did not presume to act out of harmony with the Father’s will for Him
during His boyhood, for:
   ‘He ... came to Nazareth (with His parents), and was subject unto them’ (Luke 2:51).
In Romans 8:7 the two words ‘enmity’ and ‘subjection’ are seen to be irreconcilable:
   ‘The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be’.
    The word ‘subject’ involves the idea of a ‘willing surrender’. All must come down in that day. Some by being
‘abolished’ or ‘destroyed’, others by a willing surrender like unto that of the Son of God Himself. In Romans 8:20 it
is revealed that the creation has become involuntarily subjected to vanity, and this cries aloud for that willing
submission of all things to the true goal of all creation which is summed up in Christ. The word is used in
Philippians 3:21, where the transforming of the body of humiliation is said to be according to the self-same energy
whereby He is able to subject all things to Himself. Surely this cannot include the power that destroys - it is foreign
to the thought. Destruction or subjection is the idea of 1 Corinthians 15.
    While 1 Corinthians 15 is mainly concerned with the human phase of the great purpose of God, as expressed in
the words ‘in Adam’, nevertheless the reference to ‘all rule and all authority and power’ goes beyond the sphere of
Adam. Before the Son delivers up the kingdom, all rule, authority and power (arche, exousia, dunamis) will be
abolished. Ephesians 6 reveals that the Church of the one Body has principalities and powers among its spiritual
enemies, and Colossians 1:16-20 shows that some principalities and powers will be reconciled. Once again we are
forced to see that the reign of Christ before ‘the end’ is reached will be a process of discrimination. Some will be
                                  END                                                                               138
‘destroyed,’ others will be ‘reconciled’, and when all enemies will have been abolished and all the redeemed and
unfallen brought into perfect line (subjection carries with it the idea of perfect order and harmony) with the great
Archetype of all, then ‘the end’ is reached and God will be all in all.
    There is a tendency on the part of some expositors to wander outside the passage and introduce subjects which
are quite foreign to the intention of the apostle. This is so with regard to the word ‘death’. What ‘death’ is intended
in verse 26? The subject is introduced in verse 21 definitely and exclusively. There can be no doubt as to what is
   ‘By man came death ... as in Adam all die’ (1 Cor. 15:21,22).
   ‘Death is swallowed up in victory’ (1 Cor. 15:54).
   Its sting is removed (verse 55), which sting is sin (verse 56).
  By comparing the two balancing portions of this chapter together we shall get further and fuller light upon the
whole subject. The two portions are balanced in the structure:
 15:13-33.   Adam and Christ. Death destroyed. ‘When?’
 15:36-57.   The first and last Adam. Death swallowed up. ‘When?’
 (1)   The differences of every one’s ‘order’ are amplified (15:23 with 15:37-44).
 (2)   The nature and relation of Adam is explained (15:21,22 with 15:45,47,49).
 (3)   The nature and relation of Christ is explained (15:20-22,28 with 15:45,47,49).
 (4)   The meaning of the destruction of death is given (15:26 with 15:54).
 (5)   The time periods are illuminated (15:24 with 15:54).
   These amplifications by the apostle of his own words are worth more than libraries of other men’s thoughts, and
give us inspired explanations which to see is to come under an obligation to accept and hold against all theories.
    Sunteleia. This word occurs six times in the New Testament and always in combination with the words tou
aionos ‘of the age’, namely in Matthew 13:39,40,49; 24:3; 28:20 and Hebrews 9:26. The first passage gives the clue
to the meaning of the phrase ‘the end of the age’, ‘The harvest is the end of the world’ (Matt. 13:39). When the
apostles asked the Lord:
   ‘What shall be the sign of Thy coming, and of the end of the world?’ (Matt. 24:3),
they used an expression familiar in their mouths as household words, for the Septuagint uses the word sunteleia for
the harvest ingathering. In Exodus 23:14-16 we learn that Israel were enjoined to keep three feasts in a year:
 (1) The feast of unleavened bread.
 (2) The firstfruits of their sowing in the field.
 (3) The ingathering, at the end of the year.
   The word ‘ingathering’ is this word sunteleia, a term in common use in Palestine. The apostles’ question is
practically ‘What shall be the sign of Thy coming, and the true antitypical harvest ingathering at the end of the age?’
The Lord in His reply differentiates between ‘the end’ telos and ‘the end’ sunteleia, saying that even though they
may hear of wars and rumours of wars, ‘the end’ telos is not yet, only after all has taken place, that is predicted in
verses 7-14, will ‘the end come’ (Matt. 24:14).
    When these simple facts and essential differences are known, the great commission of Matthew 28:20 will be
seen in its true dispensational light. ‘Go ye therefore, and teach (make disciples of) all nations, baptizing them in the
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have
commanded you: and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the sunteleia of the age, Amen’ (Matt. 28:19,20). There is
no reference here to the gospel of the grace of God, indeed, that gospel was not then known. The commission
speaks of ‘making disciples’ of all nations matheteuo, a word never employed in the epistles. The baptismal
formula is never used so far as the subsequent record of the Acts and epistles is concerned, and the main feature of
this commission is the teaching to ‘observe’ commandments already given, and which belong to the dispensation of
the King’s advent, not to the extension of the gospel of grace among the Gentiles as it is today. Matthew 28:19,20
                                                                                                       ENMITY      139139
will have glorious results in its own proper season, but it is a poor substitute for the preaching of the ‘One Mediator’
which Paul declared was the testimony for its own peculiar season, namely now during the intervening dispensation
of grace during Israel’s blindness.
    Just as the ‘end’ of 1 Corinthians 15:24 transcends everything that the lesser ends of Matthew 24 or 28 can
comprise, so the commissions given to the apostles and witnesses at different times deal with narrower or wider
phases of the one great purpose and should be kept apart, and not confused. Neither the commission of Matthew 28
nor that of Mark 16, Luke 24 or John 21 are the marching orders of the Church today, these can only come through
the one apostle who has been given to the Gentiles today, namely the apostle Paul. See the article APOSTLE (p. 82)
for fuller exposition of this and related themes.

ENMITY. For a fuller discussion of this dreadful term, the doctrinal import should be included, which speaks of the
condition of the carnal mind (Rom. 8:7), the friendship of the world (Jas. 4:4), the great enemy of God and man,
Satan ‘the enemy that sowed them is the devil’ (Matt. 13:39), and finally death itself (1 Cor. 15:25). These,
however, we must leave, and concentrate our attention on that use of the words enmity and enemy that has a bearing
on Dispensational Truth. Echthros, enemy, occurs thirty-two times of which occurrences, two are translated ‘foe’
(Matt. 10:36, Acts 2:35). Echthra occurs six times, five times being translated ‘enmity’ and once ‘hatred’. We give
a concordance of this word.

    Luke 23:12.      They were at enmity between themselves.
     Rom. 8:7.       The carnal mind is enmity against God.
     Gal. 5:20.      Witchcraft, hatred, variance.
     Eph. 2:15.      He ... abolished in His flesh the enmity.
     Eph. 2:16.      Having slain the enmity thereby.
       Jas. 4:4.     The friendship of the world is enmity with God?
     The idea of an invading army which the word ‘enemy’ is so likely to conjure up in the mind just now, is not
uppermost in the use of the word in the New Testament. This meaning is found in such a passage as Luke 19:43, but
it is rare. The enemies of the New Testament are the members of one’s household (Matt. 10:36), or like Israel, by
reason of their rejection of Christ and the gospel (Rom. 11:28), or again, by reason of antagonism that exists in the
mind against all that is spiritual and true (Phil. 3:18; Rom. 5:10; Gal. 4:16). The passage with which we are chiefly
concerned is Ephesians 2:15,16 but we shall obtain light on the essential character of enmity by giving a thought to
the other occurrences of echthra.
   ‘And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between
   themselves’ (Luke 23:12).
    Luke who records this fact, records also the Divine commentary in Acts 4:26-28. Both the enmity and the
friendship of these rulers was one of policy, not of deep-seated principle.
   ‘The carnal mind is enmity against God’ (Rom. 8:7).
The enmity between Herod and Pilate was economical, and could be exchanged for friendship by the pressure of self
interest, but the carnal mind is not merely AT enmity against God, it is enmity, and is unchangeable. This enmity
belongs to no one dispensation but is universal ‘for there is no difference for all have sinned and come short of the
glory of God’.
    ‘Now the works of the flesh are these ... hatred’ (Gal. 5:19,20). These works of the flesh are placed over against
the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22), and are the indices of the two natures in the child of God.
   ‘For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other:
   so that ye cannot do the things that ye would’ (Gal. 5:17).
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In this epistle to the Galatians, ‘the flesh versus the spirit’ is one of a number of antonyms, like ‘faith versus works’
or ‘law versus grace’, and the enmity or hatred that is one of the works of the flesh that is here mentioned is one of
the many characteristics of the old nature. This enmity is too deep-seated for any sort of ‘religion’ to change, and
the Galatians were being seduced from the only safe ground, the finished work of Christ, to attempt some measure
of amelioration or deliverance by their own efforts. It is this that drew from the apostle this challenging epistle. See
GALATIANS2 for analysis and structural outline.
    ‘The friendship of the world is enmity with God’ (Jas. 4:4). Friendship with the world, must not be confused
with the Christian grace of love to enemies, for even God Himself so loved the world as to give His only begotten
Son. The world as at present constituted is under the domination of the great enemy of truth, and friendship in these
circumstances is but treason and betrayal. The kingdoms of this world will one day become the kingdom of the
Lord, but until that radical change takes place, friendship with the world, can only mean enmity with God.
    Thus briefly we have considered the references to enmity apart from the one great dispensational passage
Ephesians 2:15,16. The setting of this passage has been partly considered in the article entitled BOTH (p. 125) which
it would be advisable to read once more, and a fairly exhaustive analysis of the whole passage will be found under
the title MIDDLE WALL3. Light too will be received by re-reading the article entitled DECREES (p. 212) which deals
with Acts 15. We must allow these different articles to speak, and cannot afford the space for repetition here, but
will supplement their findings by giving fuller heed to the implications of the word ‘enmity’ as it is used in this great
passage. This enmity is said to be ‘even the law of commandments contained in ordinances’, and as a result of the
cross, the enmity is said to have been slain, making reconciliation possible ‘so making peace’. It existed between
‘the both’ who had now been made one and a survey of the conditions under which the Church grew, with its strong
association with the Jewish synagogue, the ceremonial scruples of Jewish Christians, the ‘four necessary things’
enjoined upon the believing Gentiles, which form ‘the decrees’ (Acts 16:4), the consequent friction that would arise
out of two codes of sanctification, all this and more was like the middle wall of partition which stood in Herod’s
temple, and which forbade the foreigner on pain of death from access. The inscription containing this prohibition
together with its translation, will be found in the article entitled MIDDLE WALL3 and cannot be repeated here.
   The ‘breaking down’ of the middle wall of partition is interpreted as being typical of the ‘abolishing’ of this
enmity that the decrees fostered, and that this enmity and the ensuing peace were not the enmity of a sinner’s heart
against God, and the consequent place that flows from being justified, the whole context proves. Sin had already
been dealt with (Eph. 2:1-10), but the disability of being a Gentile quite apart from individual sins, was a barrier
between man and God. Israel, whatever their condition, were a people in covenant with the God of their father
Abraham, but the Gentile, however upright he may have been personally, was a stranger from the covenants of
promise, having no hope and without God in the world.
    All this, as well as the distance suggested by the decrees of Acts 15, was fully and finally removed at the opening
of the dispensation of the Mystery, ‘the both’ as two separate entities disappearing and in their place, a newly
created new man, in which no precedence could be claimed by the Jew, no disability felt by the Gentile, but in place
of the enmity induced by these distinctions, is the Church of the one Body, a calling unknown until revealed at Acts
28, which gives an access and provides an acceptance that all the resources of inspired language used in Ephesians
and Colossians together, scarcely conveys to the believer the grace and the glory of this parenthetical dispensation
that intervenes between the blindness of Israel, and the day of their restoration.

    To these who have seen that Acts 28 is the dispensational boundary, the epistle to the Ephesians is like the
Magna Carta is to English freedom. There, the member of the Body of Christ learns the nature and sphere of this
high calling, and with this epistle as his standard he can freely range all Scripture, receiving blessing and
illumination from Law, or Prophets, from Psalm or Gospel, yet without confusing the various callings or robbing
others of their own peculiar blessings. Ephesians is one of five PRISON EPISTLES3 and under that heading the
                                                                                                          EPHESIANS 141
inter-relationship of these epistles has been set out. Let us first of all see the structure of the epistle, and then seek to
discover some of its distinctive teaching. Upon examination, it will be found to divide itself up into two main
portions, chapters 1 to 3:13 being mainly DOCTRINAL, chapters 4 to 6 being mainly PRACTICAL, the whole pivoted as
it were upon the great central prayer, chapter 3:14-21.
   This balance of subject matter we have set out in the form of a tree, each branch bearing three fruits, and each
branch corresponding with another on the other side of the tree.
   The epistle to the Ephesians has seven sections of Doctrine, seven corresponding sections of Practice, and a
central section devoted to Prayer that leads up to ‘All the fulness of God’.

       Doctrine (1:3 to 3:13).                 Practice (4:1 to 6:20).
      (a) The Will of the Father.             (a) Walk worthy of calling.
      (b) The Work of the Son.                (b) Forbear in love.
      (c) The Witness of the Spirit.          (c) Keep the unity.
  (2) THE THREEFOLD PRAYER                (2) THREEFOLD MEASURE (4:7-19).
142                              EPHESIANS                                         142
      (a) That ye may know.-Hope.              (a) The gift of Christ.
      (b) That ye may                          (b) The fulness of Christ.
      (c) That ye may know.-Power.             (c) The measure of every part.
                      (1:19 to 2:7).                            (4:20-32).
      (a) Quickened together.                  (a) Put off old man.
      (b) Raised together.                     (b) Put on new man.
      (c) Seated together.                     (c) Put away the lie.
 (4) THREE WORKS (2:8-10).                     (4) THREEFOLD WALK
                                                                (5:1    to
      (a) Not of works.                        (a) Walk in love.
      (b) We are His work.                     (b) Walk as light.
      (c) Unto good works.                     (c) Walk circumspectly.
 (5) THREEFOLD PEACE (2:11-19).                (5) THREEFOLD STAND (6:10-
      (a) Far off nigh.-Peace.                 (a) Stand against Devil.
      (b) Two made one.-Peace.                 (b) Withstand evil day.
      (c) He came and                          (c) Stand having ‘worked out’.
 (6) THREEFOLD UNION (2:19-22).            (6) THREEFOLD EQUIPMENT
      (a) Citizens together.                   (a) Girdle and breast-plate.
      (b) Framed together.                     (b) Shoes and shield.
      (c) Builded together.                    (c) Helmet and sword.
      (a) Heirs together.                      (a) Open mouth.
      (b) Members together.                    (b) Speak boldly.
      (c) Partakers together.                  (c) As I ought.
                                               The Central Prayer (3:14-21)
           (a) That He would grant strength.
           (b) That ye may be able to comprehend.
           (c) That ye might be filled unto all the fulness of God.

                                          THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS
                                 The Structure of the epistle as a whole
                            b 1:2. SALUTATION.
                                      Grace and Peace.
  B 1:3 to 2:7. c 1:3-14. ALL SPIRITUAL BLESSINGS.
                  d 1:15-19. PAUL’S PRAYER.
                               That He may give.
                               That you may know.
                               The hope, riches, power of the
             e 1:19 to 2:7. THE MIGHTY POWER
                                                                                                        EPHESIANS 143
                                          energeo ‘seated ‘.
     C 2:8-10. GOSPEL. New Creation and Walk.
            (The shortest section of the epistle).
        D 2:11-19. THE NEW MAN. Once aliens.
            E 2:19-22. FITLY FRAMED TOGETHER,
                          sunarmologoumene, Apostles and
                          Prophets, Foundation ministry.
               F 3:1-13. PRISONER OF CHRIST JESUS.
                              ‘The same body’.
                   G 3:14-21. CENTRAL PRAYER.
                                  ‘All the fulness of God’.
               F 4:1-6.       PRISONER IN THE LORD.
                              ‘There is one body’.
            E 4:7-19. FITLY JOINED TOGETHER,
                          sunarmologoumenon, Apostles, etc.
                          And adjusting ministry.
        D 4:20-32. THE NEW MAN. Once aliens (see verse 18).
     C 5:1 to 6:9. PRACTICE. New Creation and Walk.
               (The longest section of the epistle).
   B 6:10-20.         e 6:10-13. THE MIGHTY POWER
                                      WORKED OUT .
                                      katergazomai ‘stand’.
               c 6:14-18. ALL SPIRITUAL ARMOUR.
                   d 6:19,20. PRAYER FOR PAUL.
                                  That utterance may be given.
                                  That I may make known.
                                  The mystery of the gospel.
    A 6:21-24. EPISTOLARY. a 6:21,22. TYCHICUS’ COMMISSION.
                                  b 6:23,24. SALUTATION.
                                                 Peace and grace.
    We read in the R.V. at Ephesians 1:1 that ‘some very ancient authorities omit at Ephesus’, and some have leaned
to the idea that the epistle to the Laodiceans, mentioned in Colossians 4:16 is the epistle to the Ephesians. For a
fuller examination of this question, the reader is directed to an article in The Berean Expositor, Vol. 35, page 169,
where the matter is considered from several angles, and the conclusion arrived at, is there thus stated.
   ‘The truth of the matter seems to be that the epistle was originally addressed to the Ephesians, but that copies of
   it were circulated among the churches, and that in some few of these copies a space had been left so that the
   name might be filled in’.
    The question of whether any particular epistle was or was not addressed to Ephesians, Galatians, Romans or
Corinthians is mainly of historic interest only, and if that were the only thing that mattered we could no more take
‘Ephesians’ to ourselves than we could ‘Hebrews’. For no reader to-day lives in literal ‘Ephesus’. We therefore
have to remember that a personal letter addressed to a specific company, long passed away, remains a living
message from the living God, to all those whose dispensational position and characteristics are comparable with the
original recipients. As we, Gentile believers, today, are on this side of Acts 28, we cannot be, if we wished to be,
‘wild olives’ grafted contrary to nature into the olive tree of Israel. As we have believed the testimony of the Lord’s
prisoner, we have as much right to the epistle to the Ephesians, as any believer living in Ephesus in the years A.D.
    It is one thing to be able to answer to the description ‘to the saints which are at Ephesus’ but quite another ‘to the
faithful in Christ Jesus’. By virtue of redemption the believer is a ‘saint’ even though his walk may be far from
‘saintly’ (see 1 Corinthians where the Corinthians are called ‘saints’ yet were rebuked for gross immorality). It is
144                           EPHESIANS                                                                          144
otherwise with the word ‘faithful’. No one is ‘faithful’ by reason of redemption, faithfulness is an act of a
responsible agent, however much it may be the outcome of Divine grace. It is obvious that pistos ‘faithful’ cannot
be translated simply by the word ‘believing’ in such passages as:

   ‘But God is faithful’ (1 Cor. 10:13).
   ‘But as God is true’ (2 Cor. 1:18).
   ‘This is a faithful saying’ (1 Tim. 1:15).
   ‘Faithful high priest’ (Heb. 2:17).
   The word occurs in the Prison Epistles nine times as follows:

   ‘The faithful in Christ Jesus’ (Eph. 1:1).
   ‘Faithful minister’ (Eph. 6:21).
   ‘The ... faithful brethren’ (Col. 1:2).
   ‘A faithful minister’ (Col. 1:7).
   ‘A faithful minister’ (Col. 4:7).
   ‘A faithful ... brother’ (Col. 4:9).
   ‘Faithful men’. ‘Faithful saying’. ‘He abideth faithful’. (2 Tim. 2:2,11,13).
    ‘The saints’ therefore are ‘the faithful’ and both are ‘in Christ Jesus’. The double title suggests the
two-foldedness of their calling. As saints they have been redeemed, called, sanctified and assured of glory. This,
however, does not mean that because salvation is not of works, it is not unto works. Those who are thus called and
sanctified are expected to respond. They rise and walk in newness of life, and this is largely expressed in
faithfulness. More than half the passages cited from the Prison Epistles, are connected with service. It is therefore
not entirely to be unexpected, that some who are most certainly believers in Christ, yet who are prevented from
being ‘faithful’ by reason of undispensational views, tradition and denominational bonds and practices, the fear of
men, the refusal to contemplate a lonely path, ‘the other things’ that choke the Word, fail to ‘see’ the transcendent
glory of the calling here revealed, who say with the traditionalists who were before them ‘the old is better’.
    We have called Ephesians 1:3-14 ‘the charter of the Church’ because it includes some of the distinct features that
make this Church a unique company in the Scriptures. One way in which the teaching of Ephesians 1:3-14 can be
set before the eye of the reader is to take the recurring word ‘according’ as the pivot, and make a simple alternation
as follows:

A Eph. 1:3. BLESSING.
  B Eph. 1:4. PURPOSE. ‘According as He chose us’.
  B Eph. 1:5-8. PURPOSE. ‘According to the good pleasure of His will’.
A Eph. 1:9-. REVELATION.
  B Eph. 1:-9-10. PURPOSE. ‘According to His good pleasure ‘.
  B Eph. 1:11-14. PURPOSE. ‘According to purpose ... will’.
   This fourfold revelation of blessing beyond compare is interlinked with four statements of purpose, immutable
grace, irreversible will, unfaltering counsel, and unalterable purpose.
 (1)   Eph. 1:4. ‘According as He hath chosen us in Him before the foundation of the world’.
 (2)   Eph. 1:5. ‘According to the good pleasure of His will’.
 (3)   Eph. 1:9. ‘According to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in Himself’.
 (4)   Eph. 1:11. ‘According to the purpose of Him Who worketh all things after the counsel of His own will’.
   The word ‘according’ could be translated ‘in harmony with’, ‘in accord’. Viewed externally, the promises of
God appear to be baulked by evil, and threatened with extinction, yet viewed from the Divine standpoint, there is
complete ‘accord’. He rules and overrules. We read in the Old Testament that Jacob and his mother ‘believed God’,
                                                                                                      EPHESIANS 145
but they attempted to help God fulfil His purposes by using the despicable means of fraud and deceit. What Jacob
received from Isaac by deceit, he never enjoyed. Isaac pronounced the words ‘plenty of corn and wine’ (Gen.
27:28), but what a hollow mockery this promise must have sounded when Jacob was obliged to send his sons down
to Egypt to buy corn! Nevertheless, in God’s own time and way, the original promise made to Jacob was given
freely and without constraint (Gen. 28:3,4).
  While this alternation of ‘blessing’ and ‘purpose’ is useful, it does not quite present the structure of this passage.
Upon reading carefully, it will be perceived that Ephesians 1:3-14 is punctuated three times with the refrain:
   ‘To the praise of the glory of His grace’ (Eph. 1:6).
   ‘To the praise of His glory’ (Eph. 1:12).
   ‘Unto the praise of His glory’ (Eph. 1:14).
On one occasion we remember likening this passage to a hymn of three verses and a refrain, and made the
suggestion that someone in the congregation might be led to write such a hymn for our use. The next week a fellow
believer and reader of The Berean Expositor who was present at the meeting, handed to us the following hymn,
which is incorporated in the hymn book used at the Chapel of the Opened Book and in many meetings along similar
lines up and down the country. The reader may like to see this, and if he so chooses, to interrupt his reading by a
song of praise.
                                                     Ephesians 1.
                  Blessed be our God and Father,
                  Who such wondrous love hath shown,
                  Choosing us in Christ our Saviour
                  Ere the world was overthrown;
                  We shall see Him face to face,
                  Praise the glory of His grace.
                  Blessed be our Lord Christ Jesus,
                  God’s own well-beloved Son,
                  Who from sin and bondage frees us,
                  Shares the glories He has won;
                  With Him in the highest place,
                  Praise the glory of His grace.
                  Blessed be the Holy Spirit:
                  Love, joy, peace, and life, and light,
                  All the blessings we inherit
                  Reach us through the Spirit’s might;
                  Men of every clime and race
                  Praise the glory of His grace.
                  Threefold cord that nought can sever
                  Father’s love and Saviour’s grace,
                  Spirit’s might, in one endeavour
                  Saves our fallen human race,
                  And of sin leaves not a trace,
                  Praise the glory of His grace.

   With this song of praise in our ears and hearts, we may the better appreciate the structure of Ephesians 1:3-14
which is as follows:

                                     Ephesians 1:3-14. All spiritual blessings
  A a 3. Blessed be God.
146                             EPHESIANS                                                                          146
         b 3. The believer blessed - IN CHRIST.
       B    c 4. The Father’s choice - Us.
               d 4. The Father’s object - HOLY.
                   e 4. The Father’s motive - LOVE.
     B      c 5. The Father’s predestination - Us
               d 5. The Father’s object - ADOPTION.
                   e 5. The Father’s motive -
                          GOOD PLEASURE.
  A a 6. Praise of glory of grace.
         b 6. The believer accepted - IN BELOVED.
  C1 7.     Redemption IN WHOM (en ho).
     Dl 7,8.       According to riches of grace (kata).
  C2 8,9. Mystery of His will.
     D2 9.         According to His good pleasure (kata).
  C3 10,11. Inheritance IN WHOM (en ho).
     D3 11.        According to purpose (kata).
         E 12.     The praise of His glory.
            F 12.     The prior hope.
               G f 13.        Hearing.         The word ... your
                      g 13.      Believing.        salvation.
               G f 13.        Seal.            The Spirit ... our
                      g 14.      Earnest.          inheritance.
            F 14.     The purchased possession.
         E 14.     The praise of His glory.
   We have seen that the opening section of Ephesians is threefold, and deals with:
       (1)    The WILL of the Father (Eph. 1:3-6).
       (2)    The WORK of the Son (Eph. 1:7-11).
       (3)    The WITNESS of the Spirit (Eph. 1:12-14).
Each department in this great passage is devoted to one phase of the truth and together make up the charter of the
Church. We go back in time to ‘before the foundation of the world’ (Eph. 1:4), and on to the future day of
redemption (Eph. 1:14 with 4:30). This redemption comes under the heading ‘The Work of the Son’ for He alone is
the Mediator, He alone the Redeemer, for He alone offered Himself without spot an offering and a sacrifice for sin.
The Spirit’s seal and earnest follows, and does not precede this great redemptive work; the Witness of the Spirit
combines together the ‘Promise’ given before age times (2 Tim. 1:8-10 and Eph. 1:4) and the ‘Redemption’
accomplished by Christ.
   In Ephesians 1:3-6 we have ‘The Will of the Father’.
    WHAT does the believer inherit? The answer is: ‘All spiritual blessings’. WHERE will this inheritance be
enjoyed? The answer is: ‘In heavenly places’. WHEN was this will made? The answer is: ‘Before the foundation of
the world’. WHO will inherit? The answer is: those who receive ‘The adoption’. WHY did the Father thus choose?
The answer is: ‘The good pleasure of His will’.
   While these five subdivisions of this mighty subject do not actually state all that is written, it will be found that
they will help us as we endeavour to grasp something of the stupendous revelation which is here made to us.
   ‘All spiritual blessings’.
   ‘Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in
   heavenly places in Christ’ (Eph. 1:3).
                                                                                                        EPHESIANS 147
    Our blessings are not so much in mind in this opening passage as an overwhelming sense of grace. ‘Blessed be
God’. No petition rises to the Father, no confession, no vows of reform, no statement of failure, but thanksgiving
and worship, full and free ascends unto the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. No blessing is sought or
desired, ‘all blessings’ are acknowledged. The opening words of this glorious revelation are NOT ‘May I be
blessed’, but ‘May HE be blessed.’ This note struck so early, should never be forgotten by the reader as he follows
his guide through chamber after chamber of unspeakable glory.
    ‘He hath blessed us’. The word ‘blessings’ eulogia is derived from the verb ‘to bless’ eulogeo, which is a
compound of eu ‘well’ and lego ‘to speak’. The reader will recognize that this word is the origin of the English
‘eulogy’ a word meaning a high form of praise. Once, the word translated ‘blessings’ in Ephesians 1:3 is actually
translated ‘fair speeches’ namely in Romans 16:18 which reveals the primary meaning of the word. Eu is an adverb,
and is found in Ephesians 6:3: ‘That it may be well with thee’. It is of frequent use as a particle in combination with
other words as is most familiar to the reader in the word evangel or ‘gospel’ where the letter ‘u’ is pronounced ‘v’ in
    Writing to the believer, before the great dispensational landmark of Acts 28, Paul speaks of ‘the blessing of
Abraham’ coming on the Gentiles, but Abraham is never mentioned in the ‘Prison Epistles’, and no blessing of
Abraham is associated either with ‘heavenly places’ or ‘before the foundation of the world’. There are some terms
used in the Scriptures, which by their very nature, and the place they occupy in the scheme of salvation, come over
and over again in the writings of the apostles. Such terms as ‘faith’, ‘redemption’ ‘justification’ will come to the
mind immediately, and are found in many of the epistles whether written before or after Acts 28. No one moreover
could deny the use of the word ‘blessing’ when speaking of these great doctrines of salvation, yet the fact remains
that Romans 15:29, ‘the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ’, 1 Corinthians 10:16, ‘the cup of blessing
which we bless’ and Galatians 3:14, ‘the blessing of Abraham’ are the only other occurrences of the word in Paul’s
epistles. So far as the Prison Epistles are concerned, Ephesians 1:3 stands alone, the word ‘blessing’ meeting us in
the very opening words of the new revelation, and never again employed in any capacity by the apostle. Terms such
as ‘seated together’ and ‘blessing’ receive emphasis by their glorious solitariness. They stand alone and are beyond
    These blessings of Ephesians 1:3 are moreover peculiar in this, that they are ‘all spiritual’. As the record stands
in the A.V. ‘all spiritual blessings’ must be considered as plural. The fact is, however, that in the original the word
is singular, and a literal rendering is ‘In (or with) every blessing (that is) spiritual’. Where the Greek word
pas ‘all’ is used of one it means ‘the whole’, ‘entire’ or ‘all the ...’ but if it be used to cover several items, it means
‘every’. Green, in his handbook says that where the adjective pas ‘all’ in the singular number is written without the
article ‘the’ it signifies ‘every’, but with the article it means ‘the whole of’ the object which it qualifies. Thus pasa
polis means ‘every city’, pasa he polis or he pasa polis ‘the whole city’, and he polis pasa would have a slightly
different meaning - either ‘the city, all of it’ or ‘the city in every part’.
    The Church of the One Body is blessed ‘with every blessing that is spiritual’. This is even wider in its scope
than to say ‘all spiritual blessings’ for if the number of the blessings were but few - say four, they could be defined
as ‘all spiritual’, whereas the mind reels as it endeavours to grasp the fact that there is no blessing that comes under
the category of ‘spiritual’ that is omitted. It is highly improbable that while we are in this life we shall be able to
appreciate a tithe of what is here so freely bestowed.
    We turn our attention from this vision of unspeakable glory, to consider the nature of the blessings thus
bestowed. They are ‘spiritual’ Greek pneumatikos. Pneuma ‘spirit’ is derived from the idea of ‘breath’ and goes
back to the equivalent terms that are found in the Hebrew. It would be a mistake, however, just here and now, to
attempt a dissertation of the origin and usage of pneuma for that would take us so far afield that we should be in
danger of forgetting our immediate quest. We discover that pneumatikos occurs three times in Ephesians.
               ‘All spiritual blessings’ (Eph. 1:3).
               ‘Hymns and spiritual songs’ (Eph. 5:19).
               ‘Spiritual wickedness’ (Eph. 6:12).
   Without comparison or consideration we might have been tempted to think that ‘spiritual’ blessings, must mean
any blessing that comes from God, that they must be good, that they must refer to redemption and so on. But
148                            EPHESIANS                                                                          148
Ephesians 6:12 gives us pause, for there we read of ‘spiritual WICKEDNESSES’. It is manifestly absurd to speak of
‘good’, ‘holy’ or ‘Divine’ wickedness, and therefore we realize that the word spiritual has other and different
connotations if it can be used in the same epistle of both ‘blessings’ and ‘wickedness’. In Ephesians 6:12 ‘spiritual’
wickedness is set over against ‘flesh and blood’. It is evident that the word ‘spiritual’ is the opposite of the word
‘corporeal’, and this is what we find elsewhere. Paul writing in the epistle to the Romans, places the idea of the
‘spiritual’ over against the ‘carnal’. ‘For we know that the law is spiritual pneumatikos; but I am carnal sarkinos’
(Rom. 7:14). ‘For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister
unto them in carnal things’ (Rom. 15:27). In 1 Corinthians he not only contrasts spiritual with carnal, but with
   ‘The natural man (psuchikos) ... but he that is spiritual’ (1 Cor. 2:14,15).
   ‘It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body’
   (1 Cor. 15:44).
    The ‘carnal’ things of Romans 15:27 were good. We can learn from other passages, that the apostle was very
earnest in his endeavour to fulfil the injunction received at Jerusalem that in the exercise of his ministry among the
Gentiles, he should remember the poor saints at Jerusalem, and quite a large portion of the epistles to the Corinthians
is occupied with this ‘collection’. These ‘carnal’ things would include food and drink and clothing, and other
necessities of this life. The ‘natural’ is placed over against the spiritual, for the spiritual is supernatural and is
enjoyed on resurrection ground. In complete contrast with the spiritual blessings of the Mystery, are the ‘carnal’ or
‘natural’ blessings of the law.
   ‘Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field ... blessed shall be thy basket and thy
   store ... The LORD shall command the blessing upon thee in thy storehouses ... The LORD shall make thee
   plenteous in goods ...’ (Deut. 28:3-13).
   ‘Blessed is every one that feareth the LORD; that walketh in His ways. For thou shalt eat the labour of thine
   hands: happy shalt thou be, and it shall be well with thee. Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of
   thine house: thy children like olive plants round about thy table’ (Psa. 128:1-3).
    How completely opposite all this is from the experience of the believer under the dispensation of grace. Like
Paul, he may know what it is to suffer need, to be in want, to know what it is to be continually in trouble. He will
have no guarantee of a settled dwelling place, he has no promise of special protection during periods of danger, his
‘basket and store’ may show impoverishment, while the ungodly may appear to prosper. It would be foolish to
assess a man’s spiritual worth today by the size of his bank balance, or the weight of his watch chain. Ephesians 1:3
does not speak of daily bread, of dwelling place, of home comforts, or of business success, it visualizes a new plane,
the spiritual, which is on resurrection ground. The earnest of our inheritance is not a bunch of grapes as it was when
the spies returned with the grapes of Eshcol, neither are our enemies men of flesh and blood, but spiritual foes.
    The individual believer, like the rest of mankind, must needs find the means of living and provide things honest
in the sight of all men, but these come to him as the blessings of the wilderness. They are no more ‘spiritual
blessings’ than the ‘manna’ of the wilderness was the fruit of the land of promise. A member of the One Body may
be rich or poor, sick or well, in trouble or tranquil, but such conditions have no reference to ‘every blessing that is
spiritual’ for two reasons.
                  (1)    By reason of their nature.
                  (2)    By reason of their sphere.
   The second reason refers of course to the words ‘in heavenly places’ and this we must now examine.
    In heavenly places. En tois epouraniois. We have said elsewhere that this phrase is unique, that it occurs in the
epistle to the Ephesians and nowhere else. The unwary can easily be disturbed when they read that in spite of what
we have said, epouranios occurs in fifteen other places, outside of Ephesians, as widely distributed as Matthew,
John, 1 Corinthians, Philippians, 2 Timothy and Hebrews. We have been accused of misleading God’s people and
of misquoting the Scriptures, and yet, in spite of all that has been or can be said we repeat that the phrase ‘in
heavenly places’ en tois epouraniois is unique, occurring nowhere else than in the epistle to the Ephesians.
                                                                                                        EPHESIANS 149
    The word ‘heavenly’ epouranios most certainly occurs elsewhere, this we have never denied. We read in
Matthew 18:35 of ‘My heavenly Father’, and in John 3:12 of ‘heavenly things’, in 1 Corinthians 15:40 of ‘celestial
bodies’ and in Hebrews of those who ‘tasted the heavenly gift’. No one, so far as our knowledge permits us to say,
has ever maintained that those Hebrews who had tasted of the heavenly gift, had actually ascended up to heaven
itself in order to taste it. Many things may be heavenly in origin and in character that are not enjoyed ‘in heaven’.
First let us consider the implications of this term ‘in heavenly places’. What justification is there for the added word
‘places’? The reader will agree that the word ‘places’ answers the question ‘where?’ and our first consideration
must be to examine the Scriptures to see whether ‘this is so’. Pou is an adverb of place, and is used elliptically
instead of the full expression eph hou topou ‘in what place’. We read in Colossians 3:1, ‘seek those things which
are above WHERE Christ sitteth on the right hand of God’. Presently we shall see that ‘heavenly places’ is
synonymous with ‘where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God’, and that it is moreover allied with the word ano
‘above’ which also is directly connected with these heavenly places. This one passage, Colossians 3:1 establishes
that Christ is represented as being someWHERE, and if He is said to be seated at the right hand of God in heavenly
places in Ephesians, no more need be said on that score. That such a statement is true, every reader is aware, for
Ephesians 1:21,22 directs our wondering attention to the exalted position of Christ, Who being raised from the dead
was set ‘at His own right hand in the heavenly places’. Now this sphere of exalted glory is further defined, it is said
to be ‘Far above all principality and power’ (Eph. 1:21). The simple connective ano is sufficient to take us to
‘where’ Christ sitteth at the right hand of God (Col. 3:1), consequently the intensive huperano employed by the
apostle, and translated ‘far above’ in Ephesians 1:21, cannot, certainly mean less, it must mean more than the simple
ano. If we allow the apostle to speak for himself, we shall be left in no doubt as to the nature of this exaltation. In
Ephesians 4 we read:
   ‘He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that He might fill all things’ (Eph.
    Let us notice one or two important features in this passage. ‘He ascended up’ anabaino literally means ‘to go
up’ as one would a mountain (Matt. 5:1); or as the false shepherds who ‘climb up’ some other way (John 10:1). The
Ascension is put in contrast with His ‘descent’ katabaino. This also primarily means ‘to go down’ as rain descends
(Matt. 7:25); or when one descends a mountain (Matt. 17:9). Ephesians 4 tells us that His descent was to ‘the lower
parts’ katoteros and that His ascent was ‘far above all heavens’, and lest we should be tempted for any reason to set
a limit to this ascent, we are further informed that this descent and this ascent was in order that He may ‘fill all
things’. Consequently, the Saviour ascended to the highest conceivable position in glory.
    Now this position described as huperano, ‘far above all heaven’ is found in Ephesians 1:21: ‘Far above all
principality and power’. They are coextensive in scope and meaning. In other parts of the New Testament we read
of this Ascension and one or two passages give further meaning and point to the phrase we are examining ‘in
heavenly places’. For when the apostle speaks of the Ascension, when writing to the Hebrews, he says of Christ that
He ‘is passed into the heavens’, which the R.V. corrects to read ‘passed through the heavens’. The word here is
dierchomai ‘passed through’ as Israel passed through the Red Sea (1 Cor. 10:1) or as the proverbial camel is spoken
of as going through the eye of a needle (Matt. 19:24). Again, in Hebrews 7:26 Christ is said to have been made
‘higher than the heavens’. We can therefore understand that the epi in the compound epouranios does really
indicate position and place - every reference so far considered points to that one fact, this is ‘where’ Christ sits, this
is ‘where’ all spiritual blessings will be enjoyed.
    We have not yet concluded our examination, however. Christ is said to be ‘in heaven’ (Heb. 9:24) in the
self-same epistle that says He ‘passed through the heavens’. How can this be? The Hebrew reader acquainted with
the first chapter of Genesis would need no explanation. The heaven, which is ‘at the right hand of God’ is the
heaven of Genesis 1:1. The heavens through which Christ ‘passed’ and above which He ascended are called the
‘firmament’ or ‘expansion’ in Genesis 1:6. This ‘heaven’ spread out during the ages, ‘as a curtain’ and ‘as a tent to
dwell in’ is to pass away. The Lord is far above this limited ‘heaven’ and so is the sphere of blessing allotted to the
Church of this dispensation. While there are references in the Old Testament Scriptures as well as in the New
Testament which show that saints of old knew that there were ‘heavens’ beyond the limited firmament of Genesis
1:6, no believer ever entertained a hope that the sphere of his blessing was THERE where the exalted Christ now sits
150                            EPHESIANS                                                                            150
‘far above all heavens’, yet this is what we are now to learn. The expression en tois epouraniois occurs five times in
Ephesians as follows:
A Eph. 1:3. ‘In heavenly places’. Dispensation of fulness of times.
                                   Mystery of His will.
                                   The purpose in Himself.
  B Eph. 1:20. ‘In heavenly places’. Principality and power.
                                      Power, strength, might.
                                      Power inwrought.
      C Eph. 2:6. ‘In heavenly places’. Quickened.
                                         Raised together.
A Eph. 3:10. ‘In heavenly places’. Dispensation of the grace of God.
                                   The Mystery.
                                   The purpose of the ages.
  B Eph. 6:12. ‘In high places’ (A.V.) Principality and power.                               (heavenly   places    R.V.)
  Strong, power, might.
                                         Power worked out.
    We will not attempt to examine these references here, but each one will come before us in its turn, and will be
given the attention that such a revelation of grace demands. We have been concerned with one thing only in this
study. To establish two things:
 (1) That ‘in heavenly places’ refers to a sphere, a place, a condition that answers to the question ‘WHERE?’
 (2) That ‘in heavenly places’ is unique, and is found only in the Epistle to the Ephesians.
    The Mystery, concerning which Ephesians was written, is the only calling of believers that goes BACK so far,
even to ‘before the foundation of the world’ (an expression that awaits examination), it is the only calling of
believers that goes UP to where Christ ascended when He passed through the heavens, when He ascended up ‘far
above all heavens’. If these two features alone do not make the calling of the Church of the One Body UNIQUE,
language is emptied of its meaning, and our attempt to let the Scriptures speak for themselves is so much waste of
time. If ‘unique’ means ‘having no like or equal; unmatched, unparalleled, unequalled, alone in its kind of
excellence’, these references to the phrase en tois epouraniois do most certainly indicate a sphere of blessing
‘unparalleled, unmatched, unequalled’ in all the annals of grace or glory.
    The unique blessings of the Church of the One Body are ‘according’ to an elective purpose. Now, it is by no
means true to say that ‘election’ or ‘predestination’ is a peculiarity of the dispensation of the Mystery, the very
distribution of these terms sufficiently disproves such a statement, and no one has ever put such a proposition
forward. Yet there is something unique in Ephesians 1:4, that when once perceived, makes the calling of the Church
of the One Body, completely separate from that of any other company spoken of in the Scriptures. The peculiarity
of this calling does not rest on the word ‘foundation’ whatever that word shall ultimately prove to be, it rests on the
word ‘before’, this is the unique feature.
    All other callings are related to a choice and a purpose that is dated ‘from’ or ‘since’ the foundation of the world,
this calling of Ephesians alone, is related to a choice and a purpose that goes back ‘before’ that era.
   As a certain amount of doctrine must be built upon these two prepositions ‘before’ and ‘from’, some
acquaintance with them seems called for.
   Pro ‘before’ is a preposition that indicates time, place or preference.

 (1) Before in respect of place:
     ‘The Judge standeth before the door’ (Jas. 5:9).
 (2) Before in respect of time:
     ‘Judge nothing before the time’ (1 Cor. 4:5).
                                                                                                  EPHESIANS 151
 (3) Before in respect of preference:
     ‘He is before all things’ (Col. 1:17).
   Apo ‘from’ is a preposition that indicates separation or origin. The primary use of apo is with reference to
place, but by a recognized transition, it can be employed of the distance of time, of the temporal terminus ‘from
   ‘From that time Jesus began to preach’ (Matt. 4:17).
   ‘From two years old and under’ (Matt. 2:16).
   ‘From the beginning of the world’ (Eph. 3:9).
    The two expressions ‘from the foundation of the world’ and ‘before the foundation of the world’ occur as

                                              FROM THE FOUNDATION
 (1) With reference to the use of parables, in speaking of ‘the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven’:
      ‘That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will
      utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world’ (Matt. 13:35).
 (2) With reference to the separation of the nations at the second coming of Christ:
      ‘Then shall the King say unto them on His right hand, Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom
      prepared for you from the foundation of the world’ (Matt. 25:34).
 (3) With reference to the character of those who killed the prophets sent to them:
      ‘That the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this
      generation’ (Luke 11:50).
 (4) With reference to the typical character of the Sabbath:
      ‘As I have sworn in My wrath, if they shall enter into My rest: although the works were finished from the
      foundation of the world’ (Heb. 4:3).
 (5) With reference to the character of the offering of Christ:
      ‘Nor yet that He should offer Himself often ... for then must He often have suffered since the foundation of
      the world’ (Heb. 9:25,26).
 (6) ‘Every one whose name hath not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the
      Lamb that hath been slain’ (Rev. 13:8, R.V. margin).
   ‘They whose name hath not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world’ (Rev. 17:8, R.V.).

                                              BEFORE THE FOUNDATION
 (1) With reference to Christ alone:
    (a) ‘Thou lovedst Me before the foundation of the world’ (John 17:24).
    (b) ‘As of a lamb without blemish and without spot: Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of
         the world’ (1 Pet. 1:19,20).
 (2) With reference to the Redeemed:
      ‘Chosen us In Him before the foundation of the world’
      (Eph. 1:4).
    Comment upon the most obvious difference between these two sets of passages is unnecessary. Let us, however,
not miss one precious item of doctrine that is revealed by comparing the three references to ‘before the foundation’
together. In John 17:24 Christ was ‘loved’ agapao, in 1 Peter 1:19,20 He was ‘without blemish and without spot’
amomos. In Ephesians 1:4 the believer is said to have been chosen before the foundation of the world ‘in love’
agape, to be ‘blameless’ amomos. Here, those who were chosen in Christ, were looked upon as being so closely
identified with Him, that the same terms are used. No wonder that as we proceed we read of further identification
with the Beloved that not only speaks of being ‘crucified together with Christ’, but ‘raised together’, ‘seated
together’ and ultimately to be ‘manifested together with Him in glory’. These two sets of terms ‘before’ and ‘since’
152                            EPHESIANS                                                                           152
indicate two distinct time periods. Further studies will show that ‘before’ and ‘since’ the age times is a somewhat
similar set of terms, but before this we must arrive at some understanding of the meaning of the word ‘foundation’.
    Our thoughts naturally turn to such passages as Job 38:4 and Isaiah 48:13 where the Lord speaks of ‘laying the
foundation of the earth’. Now, happily, we have a New Testament quotation in Hebrews 1:10, where the word
‘foundation’ is expressed by the word themelion, but when we turn to any of the passages where the words ‘before’
or ‘from’ the foundation of the world occur, themelion is not found, but instead the word katabole is employed. It is
impossible to argue, that Paul for some peculiar reason would not and did not employ the word themelion, for it
occurs as the translation of the foundation of a temple in Ephesians 2:20, ‘the foundation of the apostles and
prophets’, and again in 1 Corinthians 3:10 and 2 Timothy 2:19. There must be, therefore, some good reason for
choosing so different a word as katabole.
    This word has entered into our own language as a biological term - metabolism, being the name given to the
process in an organism or a living cell, by which nutritive material is built up into living matter, and this process is
divided into (1) constructive metabolism, which is called anabolism, by which protoplasm is broken down into
simpler substances to perform special functions; and (2) destructive metabolism, which is called katabolism. In its
biological use, katabole indicates ‘destruction’.
    It is strange, if the word means to place upon a foundation, that it should have been adopted by scientists to
indicate disruption. The verb kataballo is used three times in the New Testament.
   ‘Cast down, but not destroyed’ (2 Cor. 4:9), and
   ‘The accuser of our brethren is cast down’ (Rev. 12:10),
indicate clearly the meaning of the word. In Hebrews 6:1 the word is used with themelion, the true word for a
foundation, and there it appears to have its primitive meaning ‘cast down’ but not in the sense of overthrowing, but
of laying a foundation.
   Examples can be adduced to show that in some passages of classical Greek, the words katabole and kataballo
approximate to the translation of the A.V. and speak of laying a foundation, but there are many references that can
be brought forward to prove exactly the opposite sense. Liddle and Scott in their Lexicon give in explanation of
kataballo to throw down, cast down, overthrow, lay down, to strike down, kill, to bring down to nothing, to let fall,
drop down, to cast off, reject, neglect, abandon and only in the middle voice are examples given of laying down a
foundation. So under katabole, the meaning is divided between laying foundations and paying down instalments,
and periodical attacks of illness and generally any disease, a cataract in the eye. It will be seen that classical usage
points in two ways, but with the preponderant weight in favour of the translation ‘overthrow’.
    The Septuagint version knows no such diversity. This version comes down solid for the translation ‘overthrow’
and uses the verbal form of themelion (foundation, Eph. 2:20) when it wishes to speak of laying a foundation, see for
example Joshua 6:26, 2 Chronicles 8:16 and Job 38:4. If the apostle wished to speak of ‘laying a foundation’ he had
this word themelioo right to hand. In Ephesians 1:4, he evidently did not wish to speak of ‘laying’ a foundation, and
so chose by divine inspiration a word that consistently means in the Septuagint ‘overthrow’. It should be
remembered, moreover, that there is no word for ‘foundation’ in Ephesians 1:4 apart from katabole, the word under
   It is possible to dig out from the writings of antiquity examples that go to prove that katabole and kataballo are
employed to mean ‘to lay a foundation’, and similar examples can be found of most important words. When,
however, the believer learns that the Septuagint consistently uses kataballo to mean ‘overthrow’ and employs
themelioo to mean ‘lay a foundation’ the matter is settled. If the apostle, when writing to the Ephesians, introduced
a word with a new meaning from that which had been associated with it in the sacred books of the Jews for over two
centuries, then it would have been necessary for him to have warned his readers of the change.
    With these prefatory remarks, the reader is invited to consider the scriptural meaning of the words of the apostle
translated in the A.V., ‘before the foundation of the world’.
    Kataballo occurs some thirty times in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament Scriptures. It will strengthen
the faith of many, and deepen the conviction of most, if these references which contain the word kataballo are
                                                                                                       EPHESIANS 153
quoted, but to avoid occupying a disproportionate amount of space, verses will not be given in full. We will also
quote from the A.V. instead of giving translations of the LXX version, except in those cases where the LXX has an
entirely different text. Those who have access to the LXX will not be hindered, and those who cannot refer to it will
be helped.

 2 Samuel 20:15.       (LXX 2 Kings.) ‘Joab battered the wall, to throw it down’.
 2 Kings 3:19,25.      (LXX 4 Kings.) ‘Ye (they) shall fell (felled) every good tree’.
     2 Kings 6:5.      (LXX 4 Kings.) ‘As one was felling a beam’.
    2 Kings 19:7.      (LXX 4 Kings.) ‘I will cause him to fall by the sword’.
  2 Chron. 32:21.      ‘They ... slew him there with the sword’.
       Job. 12:14.     ‘Behold, He breaketh down, and it cannot be built again’.
         Job 16:9.     ‘He teareth me in His wrath’.
        Job 16:14.     ‘He breaketh me with breach upon breach’.
      Psa. 37:14.      (LXX 36.) ‘To cast down the poor and needy’.
      Psa. 73:18.      (LXX 72.) ‘Thou castedst them down into destruction’.
  Psa. 106:26,27.      (LXX 105.) ‘To overthrow them in the wilderness’.
       Prov. 7:26.     ‘She hath cast down many wounded’.
       Prov. 18:7.     (LXX 8.) ‘A fool’s mouth is his destruction’.
     Prov. 25:28.      ‘Like a city that is broken down, and without walls’.
         Isa. 16:9.    ‘Esebon and Eleale have cast down thy trees’ (LXX translation).
         Isa. 26:5.    ‘The lofty city, He layeth it low’.
         Jer. 19:7.    ‘I will cause them to fall ... before their enemies’.
        Ezek. 6:4.     ‘I will cast down your slain men before your idols’.
     Ezek. 23:25.      ‘Thy remnant shall fall by the sword’.
      Ezek. 26:4.      ‘They shall destroy the walls of Tyrus, and break down her towers’.
      Ezek. 26:9.      ‘He shall cast down with his swords’ (LXX translation).
     Ezek. 26:12.      ‘He shall cast down thy walls’ (LXX translation).
      Ezek. 29:5.      ‘I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness’.
     Ezek. 30:22.      ‘I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand’.
     Ezek. 31:12.      ‘Have cast him down upon the mountains’ (LXX translation).
     Ezek. 32:12.      ‘Will I cause thy multitude to fall’.
      Ezek. 39:4.      ‘Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel’.
      Dan. 11:12.      ‘He shall cast down many ten thousands’.
    This is rather a formidable list, and the verification of each reference is no light task, yet we believe it is
impossible for any reader not to be impressed with the solidarity of its witness. Every single reference is for the
translation ‘overthrow’, not one is for the translation found in the A.V. of Ephesians 1:4. This, however, is not all.
If each reference be read in its context, the references will be found to be those of battle, of siege, of destruction, of
judgment, which tilt the beam of the balances still further. If still further we discover what Hebrew words have been
translated by kataballo in the LXX our evidence will be complete. These we will supply, for the benefit of any who
may not have the facilities to discover them.

  Naphal.        ‘To cast down, to fall’ (LXX ref. 2 Sam. 20:15 and sixteen other references).
  Haras.         ‘To crush’ (LXX ref. Job. 12:14; Ezek. 26:4,12).
  Shacath.       ‘To mar, corrupt or destroy’ (LXX ref. Ezek. 26:4).
  Natash.        ‘To leave, spread out’ (LXX ref. Ezek. 29:5; 31:12).
  Nathats.       ‘To break down’ (LXX ref. Ezek. 26:9).
  Parats.        ‘To break forth’. (LXX ref. Job 16:14).
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  Taraph.       ‘To tear’ (LXX ref. Job 16:9).
    Not a solitary Hebrew word is here that means to build, to lay a foundation, to erect, but a variety of words all
meaning destruction, spoiling, causing to fall. This is ‘proof positive’, no reasoning is necessary except the most
elementary recognition of fact when it is presented. From every point of view, the word katabole in Ephesians 1:4
should be translated ‘overthrow’. The Church of the one Body consequently is blessed with peculiar blessings, these
blessings are to be enjoyed in a peculiar sphere, and now we learn, they are according to a purpose made and to a
peculiar period.
    Where, and what is intended by the words: ‘The overthrow of the world’? We can do two things at this point.
Summarily deal with this particular passage, and condense all that we have to say into the closing paragraphs of this
article, or, seeing the importance of the subject, we can devote a complete article to its examination. The reader is
accordingly directed to articles entitled TOHU AND BOHU, FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD8, CHERUBIM p. 138, and
ANGELS p. 69, for other aspects of this great subject.
    We cannot give an exposition of Ephesians in this analysis, but we believe that the exhibition of these distinctive
features, when supplemented by reference to articles bearing such titles as BODY p. 119; MYSTERY3; PRINCIPALITY
AND POWER7; BAPTISM p. 106; HEAD2; PRISON EPISTLES3; DISPENSATION p. 225, and the like will make it
abundantly clear that in the epistle to the Ephesians we have a fundamental epistle for the Church of the present

EPISTLE. We are not, at the moment, concerned with any particular epistle, but with the true significance of the
Greek word epistole. A superficial acquaintance with language may lead a reader to say, ‘epistle is most evidently
but the Anglicized form of the Greek epistole and should therefore be adopted without demur’. This, however, takes
no notice of the subtle changes that words undergo in the course of time. Did the apostle desire the high priest to
send ‘letters’ or ‘epistles’ to Damascus (Acts 9:2)? Did the Corinthians compose ‘epistles’ or merely send ‘letters’
of approval? (1 Cor. 16:3). To the uninstructed, it would seem quite obvious that the French word demandez should
be translated by the English word ‘demand’, but that is not so. The English word has developed a peremptoriness
that is absent from the French, and so demandez is better translated by the word ‘ask’.
   So while on the surface ‘epistle’ appears to be the normal translation of epistole, it is too formal a word and
many times the more homely word ‘letter’ must be used. The question therefore before us is, are Paul’s epistles to
be considered as ‘epistles’ in the formal sense or ‘letters’ in the homely sense? The following quotation from
Deissmann’s Bible Studies will express the difference that we must make between ‘letters’ and ‘epistles’.
   ‘Men have written letters ever since they could write at all. Who the first letter-writer was we know not. But
   this is quite as it should be: the writer of a letter accommodates himself to the need of the moment; his aim is a
   personal one and concerns none but himself, - least of all, the curiosity of posterity. We fortunately know quite
   as little who was the first to experience repentance or to offer prayer. The writer of a letter does not sit in the
   market-place. A letter is a secret and the writer wishes his secret to be preserved; under cover and seal he
   entrusts it to the reticence of the messenger. The letter, in its essential idea, does not differ in any way from a
   private conversation; like the latter, it is a personal and intimate communication, and the more faithfully it
   catches the tone of the private conversation, the more of a letter, that is, the better a letter, it is. The only
   difference is the means of communication. We avail ourselves of far-travelling handwriting, because our voice
   cannot carry to our friend: the pen is employed because the separation by distance does not permit a tête-à-tête.
   A letter is destined for the receiver only, not for the public eye, and even when it is intended for more than one,
   yet with the public it will have nothing to do: letters to parents and brothers and sisters, to comrades in joy or
   sorrow or sentiment - these too, are private letters, true letters. As little as the words of the dying father to his
   children are a speech - should they be a speech it would be better for the dying to keep silent - just as little is the
   letter of a sage to his confidential pupils an essay, a literary production; and if the pupils have learned wisdom,
   they will not place it among their books, but lay it devoutly beside the picture and other treasured relics of their
   master. The form and external appearance of the letter are matters of indifference in the determination of its
   essential character. Whether it be written on stone or clay, on papyrus or parchment, on wax or palm-leaf, on
   rose paper or a foreign postcard, is quite as immaterial as whether it clothes itself in the set phrases of the age;
                                                                                                          EPISTLE     155
   whether it be written skilfully or unskillfully, by a prophet or a beggar, does not alter its special characteristics in
   the least. Nor do the particular contents belong to the essence of it. What is alone essential is the purpose which
   it serves; confidential personal conversation between persons separated by distance. The one wishes to ask
   something of the other, wishes to praise or warn or wound the other, to thank him or assure him of sympathy in
   joy - it is ever something personal that forces the pen into the hand of the letter-writer. He who writes a letter
   under the impression that his lines may be read by strangers, will either coquette with this possibility, or be
   frightened by it; in the former case he will be vain, in the latter, reserved, in both cases unnatural - no true
   letter-writer. With the personal aim of the letter there must necessarily be joined the naturalness of the writer’s
   mood; one owes it not only to himself and to the other, but still more to the letter as such, that he yield himself
   freely to it. So must the letter, even the shortest and poorest, present a fragment of human naivete - beautiful or
   trivial, but, in any case, true.
   Here are two ‘letters’ taken from a collection of papyrus discovered in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt, and dating from or
near the same period in which Paul wrote his epistles.

                               Letter of recommendation from Theon to Tyrannos
                                                     About A.D. 25
   ‘Theon to his esteemed Tyrannos, many greetings. Herakleides, the bearer of this letter, is my brother. I therefore
   entreat you with all my power to treat him as your protégé. I have also written to your brother Hermias, asking
   him to communicate with you about him. You will confer upon me a very great favour if Herakleides gains your
   notice. Before all else you have my good wishes for unbroken health and prosperity. Good-bye’.
       Address: ‘To Tyrannos, dioiketes’.

                          Letter of consolation from Eirene to Taonnophris and Philon
                                                    Second century
   ‘Eirene to Taonnophris and Philon, good cheer. I was as much grieved and shed as many tears over Eumoiros
   as I shed for Didymas, and I did everything that was fitting, and so did my whole family, Epaphrodeitos and
   Thermuthion and Philion and Apollonios and Plantas. But still there is nothing one can do in the face of such
   trouble. So I leave you to comfort yourselves.
   Athyr 1’.
       Address: ‘To Taonnophris and Philon’.
   Coming to the question of the true nature of Paul’s epistles, we further quote from Deissmann:
   ‘The written words of a letter are nothing but the wholly inartificial and incidental substitute for spoken words.
   As the letter has a quite distinct and transitory motive, so has it also a quite distinct and restricted public - not
   necessarily merely one individual, but sometimes, according to circumstances, a smaller or larger company of
   persons: in any case, a circle of readers which can be readily brought before the writer’s mind and distinctly
   located in the field of inward vision. A work of literature, on the other hand, has the widest possible publicity in
   view: the literary man’s public is, so to speak, an imaginary one, which it is the part of the literary work to find’.
   At first sight there is confessedly a great difference between the epistle to Philemon, with its personal appeal,
and the epistle to the Romans with its logical presentation of fundamental doctrine. Both are, however, true letters
written to known readers, without any thought of posterity, without any idea that a wider public would ever read
them. That they prove to be a part of all Scripture which is given by inspiration of God, in no wise alters the
personal intention of the original writer.
    Instead, therefore, of conceiving of Paul writing ‘epistles’ with an eye to a future public, we have the privilege
and the sacred joy of seeing him dealing in private with the problems of the infant Church. Had the Lord intended
that we should learn Doctrinal and Dispensational Truth in a formal manner, Paul could have most surely framed the
most complete and authoritative compendium of Christian doctrine that the mind of man could conceive and the
                 ETERNAL, EVERLASTING, FOR EVER                                                                  156
Church demand. As it is, we have to exercise faith, patience and prayer, and can only piece together as the spirit of
wisdom and revelation is granted to us, the majestic doctrine that underlies, but is never fully expressed in the
‘epistles’ of the apostle to the Gentiles. See the CHRONOLOGY OF THE ACTS (p. 146) for the relationship that exists
between the affairs of the Church at the time, and the epistles that were prompted by those selfsame times.

Eternal is the translation of the Hebrew:
   olam and its New Testament equivalent:
aion and aionios which has been examined under the heading AGES.
   The other words so translated are the Hebrew:
   qedem which means ‘what is before in time or place’, and the Greek:
   aidios ‘perpetual’ (Rom. 1:20).
Everlasting is the translation of the Hebrew:
   ad ‘continuity or duration’ (Isa. 9:6; Hab. 3:6),
   olam, age, or time, the end of which is secret,
   qedem (Hab. 1:12),
   and the Greek:
   aidios (Jude 6), and
   aionios (John 3:16) everlasting.
For ever, is either the translation of the Hebrew:
   le or ad olam ‘unto the age’ (Gen. 3:22),
   ad duration (Job 19:24),
   la netsach to pre-eminence (Psa. 77:8),
   tsemithuth, extinction (Lev. 25:23,30),
   le-orek yamim for length of days (Psa. 23:6),
or the Greek words:
    eis aiona to the age (Heb. 5:6),
    eis hemeran aionos to the day of the age (2 Pet. 3:18),
    eis to dienekes continuously (Heb. 10:12,14) and
    aionios (Phile. 15).
The duplication ‘for ever and ever’ is but the duplication of some of the terms recorded above.
   le-netsach netsachim, to perpetuity (Isa. 34:10),
   le-olam-va-ed, to the age and beyond (Exod. 15:18),
   min ha olam ad ha olam, from the age to the age
   (Neh. 9:5), and
   eis aionas aionon, to ages of ages (Rev. 14:11),
   eis ton aiona tou aionos, to the age of the age
   (Heb. 1:8),
   eis tous aionas ton aionon, to the ages of the ages (2 Tim. 4:18).
    In the list of words given above will be found every Hebrew and Greek word that is translated in terms of
eternity, and an examination of the primary meanings of these words, together with their scriptural usage, will prove
to be a helpful corrective. The human mind cannot truthfully conceive of that which had no beginning. All our
experience forces us to believe that that which had no beginning in the past, cannot have an existence in the present,
and this if pursued with remorseless logic would eliminate God Himself.
    Happily the Bible does not burden the mind with the inexplicable. With blessed sanity the Sacred Record opens
with the words, ‘In the beginning’. Those who come to God ‘must believe that He is’, and in the same way, they
must accept the limitations imposed upon both revelation and their own nature. Eternity is not a Biblical theme.
The great theme of the Bible is the Redemptive purpose of the ages. What took place before the ages began, and
what will take place when the ages are past, is not the subject of Divine revelation. We shall be wise to accept with
gratitude what the wisdom of God has provided, and avoid introducing into the limited purpose of the ages, the
unlimited notions of Eternity. Time enough for us to attempt the vaster undertaking when we know even as we are

EXCELLENT . This word is used in the New Testament to translate Greek words meaning something widely
‘different’ (Heb. 1:4), something ‘surpassing’ (1 Cor. 12:31), something ‘fuller’ (Heb. 11:4), as well as the title
‘most excellent’ used of Theophilus, or of Felix with which aspect of the subject we are not here concerned. The
reference to Abel’s offering being ‘fuller’ than that offered by Cain (Heb. 11:4) is of intense significance, but the
subject of the Atonement is doctrinal, and it is entirely beyond the scope of this present analysis, which is
particularly concerned with Dispensational Truth. The other aspects of the term, however, do bear upon
Dispensational Truth and must here be considered.
     Diaphero, is composed of dia ‘through’ and phero ‘to bear’ and the English ‘differ’ from the Latin dis apart and
fero to carry or to bear is almost an exact equivalent. Diaphero occurs thirteen times, and the varied ways in which
it is translated give a fairly comprehensive picture.

 (1) Carry. Here, in Mark 11:16 the word is employed in its primitive meaning.
 (2) Drive up and down. This translation given in Acts 27:27 of the passage of a ship in the grip of a tempest is a
     vivid application of the essential meaning of diaphero.
 (3) Publish. The idea of ‘carrying through’ when applied to the declaration of a message is the next stage in the
     application of the word.
 (4) More value and better. Matthew 6:26; 10:31. We now find the word used in a more figurative sense,
     difference in value being the idea, rather than difference in place and position.
 (5) Differ. 1 Corinthians 15:41 and Galatians 2:6.
 (6) To make matter. Here in Galatians 2:6: ‘It maketh no matter to me’, which passage Moffatt translates, ‘it
     makes no difference to me what their status used to be’, the word begins to assume its fuller figurative
 (7) Excellent. Romans 2:18; Philippians 1:10. These two references must be considered, but first we must look
     at the cognate word.
   Diaphoros. This word occurs but four times, thus:
     Rom. 12:6.      ‘Gifts differing according to the grace ... given’.
      Heb. 1:4.      ‘Obtained a more excellent name’.
      Heb. 8:6.      ‘Obtained a more excellent ministry’.
     Heb. 9:10.      ‘Meats and drinks, and diverse washings’.
    The passages that claim our attention are Philippians 1:10 and Hebrews 1:4, these having particular bearing upon
the dispensational aspect of truth. The A.V. of Philippians 1:10 reads, ‘that ye may approve things that are
excellent’, the margin reads, ‘try the things that differ’. It is impossible to approve things that are excellent without
trying things that differ, and so whatever translation we adopt, we reach the same end. The verse before us, is
echoed in 2 Timothy 2:15 where we have the injunction, ‘rightly divide the word of truth’, and the sequel in
Philippians 1:10, ‘that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ’ is to the same effect as that of
2 Timothy 2:15, ‘approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed’.
    We must remember that there is a need to realize the difference made in the Scriptures, between fundamental
doctrinal truth, which remains true, however much the dispensational teaching may change, and the changing
teaching, sphere, constitution and privileges that are dispensational in character. ‘All have sinned’ was true before
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Paul wrote the epistle to the Romans, it remains true today, and will remain true until the New Creation. This
statement consequently is prefaced by the apostle with the words, ‘There is no difference’. The failure to
discriminate between fundamental truth and Dispensational Truth, has led some to be persuaded against endorsing
its findings and of employing the principle in interpretation, the following somewhat simple argument, therefore,
may possibly help to put the matter in a clearer light. What would you think of the following argument?

   ‘Englishmen eat, drink and sleep. Frenchmen eat, drink and sleep, therefore Englishmen are Frenchmen’.
    You would not think very highly of the intelligence of anyone who would put forward such a trifling statement
as a serious argument. You would need no training in formal logic to set it aside as ridiculous. You might even go
further and say, ‘Why waste precious time by speaking of it at all?’ The reason is, that the truth of God in one great
particular is sometimes attacked with as foolish an argument as that given above.
    You may have been exercised in your reading of the Scriptures as to the evident differences that are to be found
in the Gospels, the Acts, the epistles and the Book of Revelation, for example, differences as to spheres of blessing,
such as, ‘the meek shall inherit the earth’, and ‘all spiritual blessings in heavenly places’. You may have discerned a
real difference between ‘The Kingdom’ and ‘The Church’, or between ‘The Bride’ and ‘The Body’, and then
someone has demolished the whole of your conception of truth by saying something like this:
   ‘All the redeemed are saved by the same precious blood, they receive the same gift of life, they read the same
   inspired Book, they worship the same God, they own and are owned by the same Father, therefore all these
   so-called differences are fanciful and highly dangerous.’
    Now while you readily perceive the fallacy in the argument about Englishmen being Frenchmen because both
eat, drink and sleep, you may not so readily perceive the selfsame fallacy in the argument that denies all the
differences concerning different companies of the redeemed taught by the Scriptures, simply because such
companies have some things in common.
   Let us see whether this figure of the two nationalities will help us in appreciating what is known as
‘Dispensational Truth’.

   Things that are the same                    Things that differ
   Englishmen                              England is a Monarchy.
   Eat,                                    English money standard
   Drink,                     ENGLAND             is the £.
   Sleep.                                  English rule of the road
                                              is ‘Keep left’.

                                             English        Channel

   Frenchmen                               France is a Republic.
   Eat,                                    French money standard is
   Drink,                     FRANCE              the Franc.
   Sleep.                                  French rule of the road
                                                  is ‘Keep right’.

    It is most obvious that the similarities noted on the left-hand side cannot neutralize the most evident differences
that are recorded on the right-hand side. Let us set out the case for Dispensational Truth in exactly the same way,
using the two countries to represent two dispensations, and using the English Channel for the dispensational
boundary, noting on the left-hand some things that are similar in both dispensations, and on the right some things
that are different.
Things that are the same                       Things that differ
The Word of God.        Dispensation          The people of Israel a present
Redemption by the         covered             factor.
 blood of Christ.          by the             The presence of miraculous
God the Father.            ACTS               gifts.
                                              The hope of Israel.
                    ------- Acts 28 -------
The Word of God.            The               The people of Israel absent.
Redemption by the       Dispensation          The absence of miraculous
blood of Christ.           of the             gifts.
God the Father.           Mystery             The hope of glory.

    Throughout the Acts of the Apostles and the epistles of the period, the Jew is ‘first’ (see Rom. 1:16). The
Kingdom of Israel is ever before the mind (see Acts 1 to 6); when the apostle Paul reached Rome, he did not visit
the Church so far as we are told, but sent for the elders of the Jews. After an all-day conference, the people of Israel
were solemnly dismissed by the quotation of Isaiah 6:9,10, and, for the first time since the call of Abraham, the
salvation of God was sent to the Gentiles without reference to the people of Israel.
    Upon examining the epistles written by Paul during his imprisonment (that is, after the change of dispensation
had been made) we discover that the people of Israel, the fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, are all conspicuous by
their absence. We have crossed the English Channel as it were, and have left a ‘Kingdom’ for a ‘Republic’.
    The second feature we have indicated on the diagram is the presence of miraculous gifts. The apostle - who
worked miracles during the Acts of the Apostles - sent Timothy a prescription for his ‘often infirmities’ in the
dispensation that followed, and many are the wrecks that have resulted from the attempt to live as though the
miraculous gifts of the Acts period were to-day still the rule and not the exception.
    When we cross the Channel and step on to the shores of France, we find ourselves at once surrounded with a set
of circumstances that differ from those obtaining in our own country. If we should be so foolish as to persist in
ignoring, for example, the change in money, we should put ourselves and others to a great amount of trouble, and
soon find life impossible; while if we were so foolish as to attempt to ignore the change from the ‘left-hand’ turn to
the ‘right-hand’ turn, we should probably pay for our foolishness with our lives, and most certainly endanger the
lives of others.
    Lastly, what is ‘hoped for’ is a good index to a calling. The reader will remember the phrase, ‘the hope of your
calling’. The epistle to the Romans was the last to be written before the Acts came to a close, and whatever was the
hope of the Church then will represent what was its hope right through the period:
   ‘There shall be a root of Jesse, and He that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in Him shall the Gentiles trust
   (hope R.V.)’.
   ‘Now the God of (that) hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing’ (Rom. 15:12,13).
    The apostle refers to Isaiah 11, which speaks of the millennial reign of Christ, when the wolf shall dwell with the
lamb, and when the Lord will set His hand the second time to recover the remnant of His people Israel. This is in
line with the statement of the apostle in Acts 26 and 28:
   ‘The hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers: unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving
   God day and night, hope to come’ (Acts 26:6,7).
   ‘For the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain’ (Acts 28:20).
    In the Prison Epistles of Paul, Israel has gone, and with Israel the hope connected with that nation. In its place is
‘the hope that is laid up in heaven’, ‘which was preached unto every creature under heaven’ (see Col. 1:5,23,27;
3:4). We will not enlarge on these differences further, as they form the subject matter of the bulk of this analysis.
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    We turn to Hebrews 1:4 for a word on the statement ‘a more excellent name’. For a full examination of this subject,
    particularly as it fits the theme of HEBREWS2, the article dealing with this epistle should be consulted, as also for
    parallel teaching, the article on PHILIPPIANS3, and the one dealing with the PRIZE3. Here we will deal with the actual
    wording of the passage and its relation with the context. The simplified structure of Hebrews 1 and 2 is as follows:

                                                      Hebrews 1 and 2
       A 1:1,2.   God once spoke by prophets. Now by His Son.
         B 1:2-14. The Son. His glories. Better than angels.
       A 2:1-4.   God once spoke by angels. Now by the Lord.
         B 2:5-9.   The Son. His sufferings. Lower than angels.
        It will be seen that the relationship of the Son to angels, is not connected with His own inherent superiority, as
    Creator to creature, but in relation with His mission ‘His sufferings’ and its sequel ‘His glory’. We scarcely need a
    revelation from heaven to tell us that One, Who can be described as ‘the express image of His (God’s) person’ must
    necessarily be far above angels, it goes without saying; but Hebrews 1 is teaching us that He ‘obtained’ this position
    ‘by inheritance’. The Saviour had a glory that was His ‘before the world was’ (John 17); He voluntarily ‘emptied
    Himself’ (‘made Himself of no reputation’ Phil. 2), and the glory that He thus relinquished as the Image of the
    invisible God, He receives back as the one Mediator, and this glory He will share with His redeemed people (John
    17:22). That great prophetic chapter of suffering, namely Isaiah 53, is introduced by words that magnify the wonder
    of His subsequent exaltation.
           As many were astonied at thee
              (reference to suffering and shame)
           So shall many nations be startled (R.V.)
              (reference to His unprecedented exaltation) (Isa. 52:14,15).
    and this glorious simile is introduced with the triumphant words:
       ‘Behold, My Servant shall deal prudently, He shall be EXALTED and EXTOLLED, and be VERY HIGH’ (Isa.
    The exact sameness of the wording as given in the references above of Hebrews 1:4 and 8:6, may mislead the
    English reader. In Hebrews 1:4 the word is ‘obtain by inheritance’ kleronomeo, whereas in Hebrews 8:6 the Greek
    word translated ‘obtained’ is tugchano, a word which came to mean something that ‘happened’ (1 Cor. 15:37), but
    which originally meant ‘to hit’, especially ‘to hit a mark with an arrow’, as in Homer, and then in a secondary sense
    ‘to hit upon’ by chance. There is no chance work in Hebrews 11:35, the only other reference in this epistle, for the
    obtaining of a better resurrection was by voluntary suffering. The ministry of Christ as the Mediator of the New
    Covenant, has no reference to the Church of the Mystery, but it is so glorious that the old covenant is entirely set
    aside (see the argument of 2 Cor. 3). The more excellent name of Hebrews 1:4, and the more excellent ministry of
    Hebrews 8:6, are part of a series of ‘better things’, and before considering this part of our study, we will set out the
    occurrences of the word ‘better’ as it is found in Hebrews.

                                                     Better, in Hebrews
    A 1:4.          Christ at the Right Hand (3).
                    Better than angels, more excellent name.
     B a 6:9.                   Things that accompany salvation.
           b 7:7,19,22.            Better priesthood, hope and covenant.
A      8:6.         Christ at the Right Hand (1).
                    Better covenant, promises, more excellent ministry.
     B     b 9:23.                 Better sacrifice.
         a 10:34; 11:16,35,40. Things that accompany salvation.
           b 12:24.                Better than Abel’s offering.
    The more excellent way (1 Cor. 12:31). The theme of 1 Corinthians 12 is indicated in the opening sentence, it is
‘concerning spiritual gifts’ and whatever differences there may exist between one gift and another, all are of ‘the
same spirit’. These gifts include miracles, healings, government and prophecy. Yet, wonderful as each or any of
these supernatural gifts may be, the apostle at the close of the chapter says, ‘and yet show I unto you a more
excellent way.’ Literally the words ‘more excellent’ read ‘according to an hyperbole’. An hyperbole is an
exaggeration, ‘it consists in magnifying an object beyond its natural bounds . . . our common forms of compliment
are almost all of them extravagant hyperboles’-Blair. Even Blair here unconsciously slips into an hyperbole, for an
extravagant hyperbole is according to his own dictum ‘an extravagant extravagance’! The word hyperbole occurs
seven times in the New Testament and where the phrase kath hyperbole is used, the letters k.h. will be put in
brackets after the quotation.

    Rom. 7:13.       Might become exceeding sinful (k.h.).
  1 Cor. 12:31.      Shew I unto you a more excellent way (k.h.).
    2 Cor. 1:8.      We were pressed out of measure (k.h.).
    2 Cor. 4:7.      The excellency of the power.
   2 Cor. 4:17.      A far more exceeding and eternal weight (k.h.).
   2 Cor. 12:7.      Through the abundance of the revelations.
     Gal. 1:13.      Beyond measure I persecuted the church (k.h.).
   To understand the way that was exceedingly superior to the possession or employment of spiritual gifts, we must
read 1 Corinthians 13:
   ‘And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all
   faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing’ (1 Cor. 13:2).
    The reason for this excellence is discovered in the close of the chapter. ‘Charity never faileth’ but prophecies,
tongues and knowledge shall cease and vanish away. They are after all ‘in part’ and are to be likened to childish
things which are put away upon arriving at adulthood.
    With 1 Corinthians 12 and 13 before us, and with the apostle’s own statement in 1 Corinthians 12:31 and 13:11
we perceive that the cry, ‘Back to Pentecost’ may be but the cry of a full-grown man who cries ‘back to the nursery’.
The presence of spiritual gifts in an assembly today is no sign of maturity, rather the reverse. For a fuller treatment
of 1 Corinthians 12, see the article entitled BODY (p. 119); for the reference to immaturity, see the article entitled
BABES (p. 102); for the dispensational place of miracles, see MIRACLE3, and for the place of 1 Corinthians 12 in the
epistle as a whole, see 1 CORINTHIANS. The epistle as a whole is given an exposition in the book entitled The
Apostle of the Reconciliation.

This Alphabetical Analysis is published by the Berean Forward Movement, which was founded to foster and to
further the testimony to DISPENSATIONAL TRUTH and the claims of the principle of RIGHT DIVISION which
has characterized the teaching of the author, Charles H. Welch, since he published the first number of The Berean
Expositor in 1909.
There are four basic tenets of this movement, which commend the work to all Fundamentalists:
1. The Inspiration of All Scripture.
2. The principle of interpretation, Right Division.
3. The deity of Christ.
4. The all-sufficiency of His one sacrifice.
   The publications of the Berean Forward Movement are under the control and guidance of the Berean Publishing
162                                                                                                      162
   Overleaf will be found a selection of works designed to help the believer and the Christian worker.
                                                 London Centre:
                                          The Chapel of the Opened Book,
                                    52A Wilson Street, London, EC2A 2ER
Berean Expositor, by Annual Subscription.
Life Through His Name.
Just and The Justifier.
Testimony of the Lord’s Prisoner.
Parable Miracle and Sign.
Dispensational Truth.
This Prophecy.
The Prize of the High Calling.
The Form of Sound Words.
The Burden of Prophecy.
The Four Gospels.
An Alphabetical Analysis, Parts 1-10.
Studies in the Book of Job.
Things Most Surely Believed.
Accepted in the Beloved.
The Deity of Christ.
Right Division and the Gospel.
Grace and Glory.
True From the Beginning.
United Yet Divided.
Far Above All.
Dispensational Place of the Lord’s Supper.
That Blessed Hope.
Ephesians via Romans.
Sin and Its Relation to God.
The Dispensational Frontier.
Who Then is Paul ?.
Right Division.
Number in Scripture - Dr. Bullinger.
The Giver and His Gifts - Dr Bullinger.
The Apocalypse - Dr Bullinger.
Analytical Concordance - Young.
The Companion Bible - in buckram.
                    in full leather.
Englishman’s Greek Concordance.
Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance.
                     Part 2

       Terms and texts used in the study of

         ‘Dispensational Truth’

                   F   to   L


                    Author of

              Dispensational Truth
               Just and the Justifier
          The Prize of the High Calling
       The Testimony of the Lord’s Prisoner
            Parable,Miracle and Sign
            The Form of Sound Words
                  This Prophecy
             Life Through His Name


First printed                                   1957
Reset and reprinted                             2003

ISBN for the complete set of 10 volumes: 0 85156 200 0

         ISBN for this volume: 0 85156 202 7

Main articles are printed in full capitals thus: GOSPEL.   Subsidiary articles
are printed in small capitals thus: Fables.

      Please ignore the article ‘the’ when using the Index,
i.e., ‘The Fathers’ appears simply as ‘Fathers’ and so throughout.

      A Subject Index to all 10 Parts of this Alphabetical Analysis has been
included at the end of each Part.

                  Note: The book Numbers will be right but the page
                    numbers will only be right in the books

Subject Index        i
To the Reader        v


Fables        1
Fail 3
Faithful      4
Family        5
Far Above     All    8
Fathers       9
Fellowship    14
Fig Tree      18
Firmament     21
Firstfruits         23
Flesh         24
Flesh and     Blood 25
Flock and     Fold 27
Forbidding    29
Fore -Hope    30

F continued          Page
Fulfil      34
Fulness     35

Gather      45
Generations 47
Gentile     49
Giants      55
Glory 60
Good Deposit         63
GOSPEL      66
Habitation 75
Hasting unto the Coming       78
Head 81
Healing      83
Heathen      89
HEAVEN       89
Heavenly Places  95
HEBREWS      101
Heirs, Fellow -Heirs  115
Hid, Hide, and Hidden         125
High Calling     132
High Priest 132
HOPE 132
Hour 162
House 171
Husband      183

I      Page
IN ADAM     184
ISRAEL      213
Jerusalem   226
Jesus 229
Jew    231
JOHN 232
Joint -Heirs/Body/Partakers,
                      see Heirs, Fellow-Heirs   115
Judgment Seat     239
KINGDOM     243
Knowledge, see Acknowledge1
Last Days and Latter Times    251
LAW    260
Letter      266
Lie    268
Lord’s Day 274
Lo -ammi    297

                              A Subject Index
                    (to all 10 Parts of this Analysis)
                will be found at the end of each Volume
                                    TO   THE   READER

      To The Reader
      A distinction has been made in the type used to indicate subsidiary
headings from those which are of first importance.

      Titles of main articles are printed in Helvetica bold type capitals, and
are placed in the centre of the page, thus:


      Titles of subsidiary articles are printed in Helvetica bold type small
capitals, and are placed at the left -hand margin of the paragraph, thus:


Cross References
      Cross references to articles in Parts 1, and 3 to 10 of
An Alphabetical Analysis, are indicated by superscript numbers.   For example:

Sons of God4   refers to the article with that heading in Part 4 of An
Alphabetical Analysis.

Resurrection4,7   refers to the articles with that heading in Parts 4 and 7,
respectively, of An Alphabetical Analysis.

      If the reference is to another page in this book, the page number is
printed in brackets after the title of the article. For example:

Hid (p. 125) refers to the article with that heading on page 125 of this book.


      Where the meaning of a term can be illuminated by the structure of the
section in which the term occurs, that structure is given, and as the scope of
a passage is of first importance in the interpretation of any of its parts,
these structures, which are not ‘inventions’ but ‘discoveries’ of what is
actually present, should be used in every attempt to arrive at a true
understanding of a term, phrase or word that is under review. Under the
heading Interpretation (p. 191), the uninitiated believer will receive an
explanation and an illustration of this unique feature of Holy Scripture. In
like manner, other exegetical apparatus such as Figures of Speech, and all such
helps, are indicated under the same main heading.

Received Text   (Textus Receptus)

      This is the Greek New Testament from which the Authorized Version of the
Bible was prepared. Comments in this Analysis are made with this version in

      Where there are textual variances between the Received Text and the
Nestle Greek Text (or other critical texts) such variances are noted. The
phrase ‘in the Received Text’ is printed in brackets next to the word or words
in question.
Fables. The word translated ‘fable’ in the A.V. is the Greek muthos, and the
five occurrences are as follows:
      1 Tim. 1:4 Neither give heed to fables.
      1 Tim. 4:7 Refuse profane and old wives’ fables.
      2 Tim. 4:4 Shall be turned unto fables.
      Tit. 1:14   Not giving heed to Jewish fables.
      2 Pet. 1:16 Not followed cunningly devised fables.

       Most of us have been influenced at some time or another by the wisdom and
the instruction of Aesop’s fables. He so persistently inculcated morality that
the people of Delphos took his life by throwing him from the top of the rock!
Aesop’s fables fall under the heading of parables, and have no other purpose to
serve but instruction. Fables, however, are never spoken of with approbation
in the New Testament, and Peter’s description ‘cunningly devised’ (sophizo)
could be applied to the four occurrences in Paul’s epistles. Some of the
fables mentioned by Paul appear to refer to the Cabalistical interpretation of
the Scriptures favoured by the Gnostics. In no passage is the fable considered
as an innocent and useful mode of conveying truth, but as the weapon of the

      In 1 Timothy 1:3,4 it is opposed to sound doctrine,
it ministers questions and is contrary to ‘a dispensation
of God’. The A.V. reads ‘godly edifying’, the R.V., however, reads ‘a
dispensation of God’, the Greek reading oikonomian, ‘dispensation’, instead of
oikodomian, ‘edifying’. In 1 Timothy 4:6-8 the fable is put over against
‘words of faith and sound doctrine’, and to godliness which is profitable both
for the life that now is, and of that which is to come. Titus 1:13,14 places
the fable in antagonism to the soundness in the faith, and declares that these
fables ‘turn away from the truth’. It is this ‘turning away’ from the truth
that is the deadly result of the fable, and which alas will be the character of
the closing days of this dispensation. If the reader opens a modern commentary
on the Bible, he is more than likely to meet the word ‘myth’ before he has read
many pages, and the word myth is the word translated fable in 2 Timothy 4:4.

      ‘They shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto
      fables (or myths)’.

      When it is realized that the two words mystery and myth are derived from
the same source, it will be seen that when the truth of the Mystery is
withstood, there may be a judicial turning of the mind to myth. This ‘turning
away’ of 2 Timothy 4:4 is but the consequence of an earlier movement. ‘All
they which are in Asia be turned away from me’, said Paul in chapter 1, and
that fatal turning away from Paul that is so characteristic of much teaching
today, can but lead to the apostasy of which Paul prophesied. Let us hold fast
the faithful testimony of the Mystery, even though all around us are seen to be
turning to their myths. The one is of God and of the truth, the other is of
the Devil and of the lie. We shall need the whole armour of God for the evil
day that is drawing near. The Mystery is ‘truth for the times’. (See the
article Mystery, The3 for fuller expansion of this theme).

            Since writing these notes, a letter from a clergyman dealing with
the interpretation of Job 19:26 has come to hand. In it he makes the following
      ‘I will say no more about translations, etc., but would mention that you
      and those holding your views are destroying the truths of Christ for the
      sake of the Old Testament religion which you conveniently put in its
      place, because it is easier to be a Jew than a Christian. Our Lord used
      the Jewish scriptures, solely because He was speaking to Jews and they
      would not have understood any other. If He had been born a Greek He
      would have used their wonderful scriptures; or if born in China, He would
      have used Laotzu and Confucius and so on. Through all of these and
      others, Vedas, Pitakas, Upanishads, Avesta and so on, God was speaking in
      "sundry times and divers manners in times past" and through all we can
      (or should) see the many and varied reasons why man could not grasp all
      the truth, and learn from all these various lessons. But with you people
      who are so conceited that you know it all without, there is no hope’.

      ‘So also, as our Lord said, He would be with them in "a little while"
      (not centuries after) in the person of the spirit of Truth, and of course
      has been. The physical sciences for instance have been a most important
      means of His continuous revelation (here comes a personal note). If at
      that time I could have got some sense into some of you people as to what
      God was saying so plainly through electronics 30 years ago, we should be
      in a very different state today ...’.

We make no comment. The letter at least shows that Paul’s prophecy concerning
the last days was not overdrawn; men are most evidently having their ears
turned away from the truth, and turned unto myths.

Fail. The argument of the apostle in 1 Corinthians 13:8 -11 is blunted by the
fact that where the Spirit has repeated the word katargeo four times in this
passage, the A.V. gives four different renderings thus:
                  Whether there be prophecies, they shall fail.
                  knowledge, it shall vanish away.
                  that which is in part shall be done away.
                  I put away childish things.

The R.V. uses ‘done away’ for the first three passages, altering to ‘put away’
in the fourth. In Young’s Literal Translation, the four occurrences of
katargeo are rendered by ‘become useless’, which, though inelegant, does put
the reader wise as to the repetition. Katargeo is rendered
in the A.V. by such terms as abolish, bring to nought, cumber, destroy, do
away, make of none effect, make void, put away, vanish away; and if this is
remembered when the argument of the apostle in 1 Corinthians 13 is read, the
transient nature of Pentecostal gifts will need no further demonstration.

      If the four occurrences of katargeo in 1 Corinthians 13:8 -11 are
compared with the four in 2 Corinthians 3, the gifts will be seen to have no
more claim to permanence or to belong to the dispensation of grace than the old
covenant itself. To facilitate this comparison we give the references in 2
Corinthians 3.


      2   Cor.   3:7    Which glory was to be done away.
      2   Cor.   3:11   If that which is done away.
      2   Cor.   3:13   To the end of that which is abolished.
      2   Cor.   3:14   Which veil is done away in Christ.

See also the article Hid (p. 125).
Faithful, in Ephesians 1:1, Colossians 1:2 and 2 Timothy 2:2.

      The epistle to the Ephesians is addressed to believers
in a twofold character, ‘saints and faithful’. Saints are primarily such by
reason of redemption, their after-saintliness* is a matter of growth in grace.
See Doctrinal Analysis under the heading Sanctification7. A company like the
church at Corinth could be addressed as ‘saints’ yet rebuked for carnality. It
is otherwise with the conception of faithfulness. No one can be made
‘faithful’ by imputation, it is a personal attribute, embracing some degree of
responsibility, and is the essential qualification for a steward (Matt.
25:21,23; Luke 12:42; 16:10; 1 Cor. 4:2). If this be recognized, then we can
see that the teaching of the Ephesians is not addressed to all the redeemed as
such, it is addressed to the believer as a steward, and this may account for
the limited acceptance of this epistle by believers generally. The article
entitled Acknowledge1 presents this personal and responsible side of truth in
much the same light, and the reader would profit by referring to that article,
of which the present is but a supplement. This sense of stewardship and
responsibility is found in Paul’s injunction to Timothy:

      ‘The things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same
      commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also’ (2
      Tim. 2:2).

For further light upon this aspect of the truth, see articles entitled
Dispensation1, and Good Deposit (p. 63). There are some of the Lord’s people
who, having realized the depth of the teaching of the Mystery, and how
difficult many find it to understand, have thought to help the general reader,
or ‘the babe’, by writing on the subject in simple language and with much more
extension -- but the attempt is vain because illogical. An adult person would
not be right in saying ‘this steak which I am enjoying is not fit for a baby as
it is -- I will cut it up smaller’-- the truth would be that a steak is no food
for a baby at all, and what the babe in Christ needs is not Ephesian truth put
through a mincer, but the milk of the Word. (See the article Babes1).

      Balancing the opening emphasis upon faithfulness is the exceptional
addition to the closing benediction of the words ‘in all sincerity’
(aphtharsia, ‘incorruptibility’) Ephesians 6:24. These are words full of
solemn import and many departures from the teaching of Ephesians may be
explained by these searching qualifications required of those who profess to
hold and teach the truth of the Mystery.

Family. This word occurs but once in the New Testament, where it translates
the Greek word patria (Eph. 3:15). Patria itself occurs three times:

      Luke 2:4    Of the house and lineage of David.
      Acts 3:25   In thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth.
      Eph. 3:15   Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named.

      Patria is obviously a derivative of pater, ‘father’, and is itself one of
a ‘family’ of words derived from this ‘parent’ stock. So we have patroos ‘the
fathers’, patris ‘country’, patriarches ‘patriarch’. The family therefore is a
community owning a common father. The R.V. reads at Ephesians 3:15 ‘every
family’ instead of ‘the whole family’ as in the A.V. The employment of the
English word ‘family’ here has somewhat limited the teaching of the apostle.
The word ‘family’ is derived from the Latin famulus, a servant, whereas the
Greek word so translated here is derived from the word ‘father’. Joseph was of
the lineage of David, but scarcely of his family. The blessing of Abraham is
to flow out to all kindreds of the earth, rather than to all families.

      Patria is a word in common use in the LXX, where we read many times of
‘the house of the fathers’, as in Exodus 12:3, and in Numbers 1:2, we read that
the census of Israel was to be taken ‘after their families, by the house of
their fathers’. As late as the prophet Zechariah, the people of Israel were
still spoken of as ‘the family of the house of David’ or ‘the family of the
house of Nathan’ (Zech. 12:12 -14), but it must be noted that the Greek word
used here is not patria but phule ‘tribe’. The word family is more domestic in
its implications than the word house, lineage or race. We speak of a
respectable family, or of the royal family, but we speak of an illustrious
house and of the house of Bourbon or of Hanover.

      Strictly speaking, it is not too happy a thought that the One Father has
many families, and so while we must acknowledge that the translators of the
A.V. knew very well that the words pasa patria must mean ‘every’ patria, not
‘the whole’ patria, yet, because they chose to use the word ‘family’ they
sacrificed the grammar to the higher claims of truth. If we do not use the
word ‘family’ here, but use something more in line with the LXX usage like
lineage, kindred, father’s house, we shall be nearer to the intention of the
apostle in Ephesians 3:15.

      ‘Of Whom’. This expression can refer to the Father, or to the Lord Jesus
Christ, and commentators are divided in their opinion. As no one can be a
child of God apart from redemption, and no one can call God ‘Father’ apart from
Christ, we incline to the interpretation that the words ‘of Whom’ refer to
Christ, although of course, ultimately, even though through Him, all fatherhood
must go back to the Father Himself. In Deuteronomy 18:8, we find the word
‘patrimony’, a word that translates the Hebrew al ha aboth ‘concerning the
father’s (clans)’ or kata patrian of the LXX. An allied term, patronymics,
deals with the name of a clan or tribe; in Greek, this was indicated by the
ending ides, as Tydides -- the son of Tydeus; in English by the word son, as
Johnson -- the son of John. NormanFrench patronymics are often formed by the
prefix Fitz as Fitzwilliam; Irish and Scotch by Mac., Mc and O’. It is utterly
impossible to incorporate all this into a translation of Ephesians 3:15 but
something of this meaning is implicit in the wording.

      The epistle to the Colossians not only speaks of Christ as the Head of
the Church, but of all principality and power (Col. 1:18; 2:10), reconciliation
is applied to things in heaven as well as things on earth (Col. 1:20,21). Dr.
Lightfoot cites a Rabbinical authority, saying, ‘The mother’s family is not to
be called a family’, hence the genealogies of Scripture come through the male
line. Wetstein cites passages from Rabbinical writings to show that the Jews
spoke of angels as the upper family and His people on the earth as His lower
family. All of whatever race, rank or sphere, bear the name of their Head. We
append a note given in The Companion Bible on page 1771 as a supplement:

      ‘1. The word "family" is an unfortunate rendering of the Gr. patria.
      Our English word takes its derivation from the lowest in the household,
      famulus, the servant, or slave. The Latin familia was sometimes used of
      the household of servants, and sometimes of all the members of a family
      under the power of a paterfamilias. But the idea of patria is Hebrew, a
      group or class of families all claiming descent from one pater (father),
      e.g. the twelve tribes of Israel. "Joseph was of the house and lineage
      (family, Gr. patria) of David" (Luke 2:4). The word occurs only in Luke
      2:4, Acts 3:25, Ephesians 3:15, and denotes a clan all descended from a
      common stock.
      ‘2. To apply this: -- God has many families in heaven and earth, both in
      this age and in that which is to come. But with selfish disregard of
      this fact we see only one family, and that of course must be the
      "church", for that is the family to which we belong. Thus we claim
      everything for ourselves, especially if blessing, mercy or glory is
      attached, and so we completely ignore the fact that many of these
      families of God are named in Scripture. In Ephesians 1:21 we have
      "principality", "power", "might", "dominion"; the first two being again
      mentioned in 3:10, the principalities and powers in the heavenlies to
      whom God is even now manifesting His manifold wisdom by means of the
      church (His body) as an object lesson. Others are mentioned in
      Colossians 1:16, 1 Peter 3:22. What these heavenly families may be we do
      not know. The Greek words reveal to us no more than the English do,
      because they pertain to the unseen world of which we know nothing.

      ‘To limit this verse to the "church" as many do, and to interpret it in
      wholly un -Scriptural terms of the "church militant" and the "church
      triumphant", and in hymn -book diction to sing
                                    "One family we dwell in Him,
                                    One church, above, beneath;
                                    Though now divided by the stream,
                                    The narrow stream of death",

      is not only to lose the revelation of a great truth of God, but to put
error in its place. Rightly divided, the families of God named in the New
Testament are: in heaven, principalities, powers, might, dominion, thrones,
angels and archangels. Among the families on earth are Israel, the Israel of
God (Gal. 6:16) and the church of God (1 Cor. 10:32)’.

Far Above All. For a full discussion of the position of the Ascended Christ
and His relationship with the Church, the reader is directed to the article
entitled Three Spheres5. Here we deal with the words ‘far above all’ without
reference to the wider context.

      Huperano occurs but three times in the New Testament:

      Eph. 1:21   Far above all principality and power.
      Eph. 4:10   That ascended up far above all heavens.
      Heb. 9:5    And over it the cherubim of glory.

      The first reference relates the Ascension of the Saviour above the
principalities and powers in heavenly places. He is said to be ‘far above all’
such. In Ephesians 4:10, His Ascension is related to the heavens themselves.
He is there said to have ascended up far above all heavens. Here, the
Scripture does not simply say ‘He ascended into heaven’, which would have been
true, it particularizes, and speaks in terms that can only be fully appreciated
when we have learned from the Scriptures, that for the period and purpose of
the ages, a temporary heaven, called in Genesis the firmament, has been spread
over the earth, which ‘heaven’ is to depart as a scroll in the last day. The
Saviour is shown in Hebrews as being ‘made higher than the heavens’ (Heb. 7:26)
and as having ‘passed through’ (dierchomai) the heavens (Heb. 4:14 R.V.), which
but confirms the statement of Ephesians 4, that He ascended up far above all
      The question of how ‘far’ huperano indicates is not answered by the word
itself, but by the context. The cherubim of glory were not ‘far’ above the
mercy seat, the nature of the case limiting this superior position to a matter
of inches, but the exaltation of the Lord’s house to the top of the mountains,
and so far above the hills, may indicate thousands of feet (Isa. 2:2), while
the present position of the Ascended Lord is so high, that no higher place can
be conceived by the mind of man; He is at the right hand of God in the super -
heavens, far above all principality and power. This is the unique sphere of
blessing of the church of the Mystery, and any and every attempt to belittle
the high exaltation of the church must of necessity belittle the high
exaltation of its Head. All other callings find their sphere either in the New
Earth or in the New Jerusalem which, though ‘heavenly’ in character, is obliged
to descend to the earth at the end, because the heaven in which the City is
reserved is destined to pass away. The only redeemed company that has a place
in the original heavens of Genesis 1:1, which are never to pass away, is the
Church which is His Body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in all. Their
‘citizenship’ (R.V.) is (an abiding fact) in heaven (Phil. 3:20).

The Fathers. While every man and woman living must have had a father, the term
‘the fathers’ is peculiarly reserved to refer to the patriarchs, Abraham,
Isaac, Jacob and David, and in a wider sense to the house of Israel, and it is
one of the unique blessings of Israel, that ‘the fathers’ belong to them. If
any reader of these lines should maintain that God made promises to his
‘fathers’ is he in a position to prove who his ‘fathers’ were? The writer of
these lines is named ‘Welch’, his forefathers for several generations were men
of Devon, but beyond that he knows nothing. Israel, however, were in an
entirely different position. Their genealogies were scrupulously kept and it
was an essential part of their religion to maintain the integrity of each
tribe. So, when Paul spoke of his brethren according to the flesh he included
‘the fathers’ among their privileges.

                                 Romans 9:3 –5

                      Israel’s Dispensational Privileges

            A     According to the flesh                          Brethren
                  B     Who are                                   Israelites
                        C     To whom pertaineth the              Adoption
                              D     And the                       Glory
                                    E     And the                 Covenants
                                    E     And the giving of the   Law
                              D     And the                       Service
                        C     And the                             Promises
                  B     Whose are the                             fathers
            A     According to the flesh                          Messiah.

      When God spake in times past, He spoke ‘to the fathers’ (Heb. 1:1). When
Peter addressed Israel he spoke to them of the covenant which God had made with
‘our fathers’ (Acts 3:25). When Paul stood before his judges he declared that
he lived in hope of the promise made unto ‘our fathers’ (Acts 26:6). The place
that ‘the fathers’ occupy in the purpose of God can be assessed by reading
Romans 11:26 -29:

      ‘And so all Israel shall be saved ... As concerning the gospel, they are
      enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved
      for the fathers’ sakes.       For the gifts and calling of God are without

      In studying dispensational truth, therefore, the presence or absence of
‘the fathers’ as a factor will be an index that must not be neglected. While
the word ‘forefathers’ found in 2 Timothy 1:3 translates an entirely different
Greek word, namely progonos, Paul’s reference to it provides an illustration of
this dispensational fact.

      ‘I thank God, Whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience’ (2
      Tim. 1:3).

                  2 Timothy 1:1 -7 Salutation and Remembrance

A     1:1-2.      Salutation    a        1.   Paul an apostle.
                                         b      1. Will of God. Promise of life.
                                a        2.     Timothy. Beloved son.
                                         b      2.    Grace, mercy and peace.
A     1:3 -7.     Remembrance                   c     3.    My forefathers.
                                                      d     3.    Pure conscience.
                                                            e     3.    Remembrance.
                                                                  4.    Remembrance.
                                                                  5.    Remembrance.
                                                      d     5.    Unfeigned faith.
                                                c     5.    Thy grandmother and
                                                            e     6,7. Remembrance.

      It will be observed that Paul places his reference to his ‘forefathers’
in correspondence with that to Timothy’s ‘grandmother and mother’, and his own
‘pure conscience’ with the ‘unfeigned faith that was in Timothy, Lois and
Eunice’. What is the significance of this? Is it conformity or contrast? We
learn that Timothy’s mother and grandmother were Christians, for the same faith
that dwelt in Timothy at the time of Paul’s writing to him had dwelt also in
his mother and his grandmother. Could Paul say the same of his progenitors?
He could not. Were they not Israelites, Hebrews, Pharisees? Did not Paul’s
parents send him to the school of Gamaliel? Was he not trained after the
‘straitest sect’ of his religion? What therefore does Paul intend by this
double reference to his forefathers and to Timothy’s parents?

      Among other things in this hour of their trial he would remind Timothy of
any and every advantage and encouragement that would stand him in good stead;
of the careful training in the Scriptures he had received from infancy (2 Tim.
3:15); of the example that had been before him all the intervening years since
he first received the call to follow the apostle (Acts 16; 2 Tim. 3:10,11); and
of the gift that was in him (2 Tim. 1:6); even as he had reminded him of the
prophecies that went before the bestowal of that gift (1 Tim. 4:14).

      But he would not only remind Timothy of all these things, he would also
help him if possible by contrast. The word which the A.V. translated
‘forefathers’ is progonos,. and is used but once only elsewhere in the New
Testament, namely in 1 Timothy 5:4. To the intelligent and submissive student
this fact is enough to settle the apostle’s meaning in the second passage.
Timothy could have no idea that Paul spoke of distant and long -dead
‘ancestors’ where he exhorts: ‘Let them learn first to show piety at home and
to requite their parents’ (1 Tim. 5:4), and there is no necessity to depart
from the same meaning in 2 Timothy 1:3. How could Paul say that he served God
‘from’ his parents, or even ‘from’ his forefathers, with a pure conscience? On
the contrary, his conversion made the most severe and decisive rupture with his
upbringing and former manner of life. In 1 Timothy 1:13 he recounts that he
had been a blasphemer, a persecutor and injurious, acting in ignorance and
unbelief. In Galatians 1:13,14 he says:

      ‘For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews’ religion,
      how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it:
      and profited in the Jews’ religion above many my equals in mine own
      nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers’.

      Did Paul continue in this ‘Jews’ religion’? Was he still an exceeding
zealot for the ‘tradition of his fathers’? We know he was not. Philippians
3:1 -9 provides a most complete refutation of such an idea. Before Agrippa,
the apostle in answering for himself the charges laid against him, said:

      ‘My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first among mine own
      nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews; which knew me from the beginning,
      if they would testify, that after the most straitest sect of our religion
      I lived a Pharisee’ (Acts 26:4,5).

A little earlier, before Felix, he had said:

      ‘But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy,
      so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are
      written in the law and in the prophets’ (Acts 24:14).

Lastly, in Acts 23:1 Paul opened his defence with the words:

      ‘Men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until
      this day’.

      It is evident that Paul’s point of view was not that of the Pharisee or
of the traditionalists of his nation. He had most certainly left the religion
of his parents, but his contention was that he had not left the God of his
fathers; that he still believed all that the law and prophets taught, and that
though it was now in a way that his contemporaries called ‘heresy’ it was ‘so’
that he worshipped the God of his fathers.

      We must look more closely therefore at 2 Timothy 1:3 for, on the surface,
this fact does not appear. We note that the apostle uses the word apo, ‘from’,
when he says ‘from my forefathers’. This preposition which is usually
translated ‘from’ carries with it the idea of (a) source or (b) severance, that
is, either ‘from’ or ‘away from’. In 2 Timothy 1:1 we have the word in
composition, ‘apostle’ meaning one sent from another and combining the idea of
‘source’ with ‘severance’, the apostolic commission having been derived
entirely from the Lord, though exercised during the period of the Lord’s
absence from the earth. In the second verse apo is used in the benediction,
‘Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father’. Here ‘source’ is most evidently
the meaning of the preposition.

      We find apo in combination in 2 Timothy 1:15, where severance is
uppermost; ‘All in Asia be turned away from me’. So also in 2:19 and 21,
‘depart from’ and ‘purge from’. In 3:15 the expression ‘from a child’ uses the
idea of ‘distance’, transferred to time, as we would say ‘ever since you were a
child’. In 4:4 and 18, we have once more the idea of severance uppermost:
‘They shall turn away their ears from the truth’; ‘The Lord shall deliver me
from every evil work’.

      It is therefore clear from the usage of the word that while ‘from’ may
sometimes refer to source, yet its primary meaning is severance, ‘away from’.
We, accordingly, understand the apostle to say, that although he now worshipped
and served God away from his parents and all their traditions, and even though
such worship was called by his own people ‘heresy’, he nevertheless had a pure
conscience in so doing. We too could echo the apostle’s sentiments, saying:
‘The way they call "Ultra -dispensationalism", so we worship and so we

Fellowship. This word, with one exception, is the translation in the A.V. of
koinonia or its cognates. The exception is 2 Corinthians 6:14, ‘what
fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness?’ where the Greek word is
metoche, a word better translated ‘partnership’, even as metochos is translated
in most places ‘partaker’.

      We give a selection of the occurrences of koinonia, giving place
particularly to those passages that have a dispensational bearing.


      Acts 2:42   ‘They continued stedfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and
      fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers’.
      Gal. 2:7 -9 ‘When they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was
      committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter ...
      and when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the
      grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right
      hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto
      the circumcision’.
      Eph. 3:9    ‘And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the


      Rom. 11:17 ‘Thou being a wild olive tree, were graft in among them, and
      with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree, boast not
      against the branches’.

      The ‘fellowship’ of Acts 2:42 was expressed by having all things ‘common’
koinos (Acts 2:44; 4:32).

      ‘And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by
      the apostles. And all that believed ... had all things common; and sold
      their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had
      need’ (Acts 2:43 -45).

      In the few lines of this last quotation we have compressed that which is
expanded in Acts 3, 4 and 5. In those chapters we have recorded the
prophetically significant miracle of healing, and the equally significant
miracle of judgment that caused ‘great fear’ to come upon all the church.
There is also a fuller statement concerning the having of things in common in
Acts 4:32-37, which compels us to ask whether the selling of possessions and
community of goods was not a real part of the meaning and purpose of Pentecost.
There have been companies of believers, who, taking Pentecost as their basis,
have sought consistently to follow out its practice, but the having of all
things in common does not seem to have captured their mind in the same way as
has the gift of tongues. Yet how can one speak of ‘continuing in the apostles’
doctrine and fellowship’ without realizing that this koinonia (fellowship)
refers to and is expressed by the having of all things in common (eichon
hapanta koina)?

      Turning to Acts 4:32 -37, we observe that there is a re -statement of
this ‘fellowship’, and as in Acts 2:42 -46, so here, the account of this new
state of affairs is punctuated by reference to the witness of the apostles to
the resurrection of the Lord. The reader will see that verse 33 of Acts 4 is,
as it were, slipped in and breaks the flow of the narrative. This, however, is
as intentional as the equally strange insertion found in Acts 1:15. The
resurrection of the Lord, as testified by the apostles, was intimately
associated with the restoration of the Kingdom to Israel, and to the time of
the restitution of all things which had been spoken by the prophets. No Jew
would need to be told that just as the feast of Pentecost with its emphasis
upon the word ‘fifty’ was a recurring, annual reminder of the day of Jubile, so
the final, prophetic, fulfilment of all that Pentecost stood for would be the
real, great Jubile toward which all prophecy pointed.

      Believing therefore the ‘apostles’ doctrine’, these believers put their
faith into practice. If the Jubile was near, all would receive their own
inheritance, all forfeitures would be cancelled, all buying and selling of land
and possessions would come to nought; consequently, although no one could sell
or buy his inheritance, he could sell whatever else he had purchased, and use
the proceeds for the common good, while awaiting the Lord from heaven.

      The case of Barnabas is specially mentioned. He was a Levite, and
‘having land, sold it, and brought the money and laid it at the apostles’ feet’
(Acts 4:37). In Jeremiah 32:6 -14 we have the case of Jeremiah (who, like
Barnabas, was of the priestly tribe). He bought land to demonstrate his faith
in the Lord’s promised restoration (Jer. 32:15), and Barnabas sold land to
demonstrate the same conviction. The law that governed the sale of land is
found in Leviticus 25. The voluntary act of Barnabas in selling his acquired
land and placing the proceeds at the apostles’ feet, is in direct contrast with
the action of Ananias. He too sold a possession; he too laid the proceeds at
the apostles’ feet, but with the difference that he kept back part of the
price, while pretending that he had given all. The apostle makes it quite
clear that there was no compulsion about the selling of the land when he says,
‘while it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in
thine own power?’ Ananias sinned in that he lied to the Holy Spirit. The sin
of Ananias was the sin of Achan.

      The reader will find that the very words used of Achan in Joshua 7:1 are
used of Ananias. The LXX reads enosphisanto apo tou anathematos, ‘appropriated
for themselves a part of that which was devoted’. Acts 5:2,3 twice applies
this peculiar expression to Ananias and Sapphira: ‘kai enosphisato apo tes
times’, ‘and kept back part of the price’. This is no place to discuss the
passage in Joshua, but the interested reader is urged to weigh over the
arguments contained in the article on ‘Achan, the troubler of Israel’, on pp.
37 -41 of Volume 26 of The Berean Expositor, which show that the word ‘accursed
thing’ should be understood as ‘a devoted thing’, i.e. devoted to the Lord.
Peter and the apostles stood somewhat in the same position as did Joshua, and
wielded the same awful discipline.
      Pentecost anticipates the Millennium and has no bearing upon the doctrine
and practice of the Church of the One Body. See articles entitled Acts of the
Apostles1 and Pentecost3. The passage quoted previously from Galatians 2 shows
that the gospel committed to Paul differed from the gospel that had been
committed to Peter, James and John. The structure of the section containing
the verses quoted will be found in the article
entitled Galatians (p. 37). The R.V. at Ephesians 3:9 reads ‘dispensation’
where the A.V. reads ‘fellowship’. The two Greek words so translated differ
very little from each other, koinonia being fellowship and oikonomia being
dispensation. The structure of Ephesians 3 appears to demand this change, as
can be seen in the article entitled Ephesians1. The reference to the olive
tree in Romans 11 belongs to the great dispensational portion of Romans, namely
chapters 9 to 11.

      The structure and exposition of these chapters are given in the article
entitled Romans4, and the point of the apostle’s argument is revealed in the
article entitled Olive Tree3. These should be consulted. The basis of the
word fellowship is something that is ‘common’ like a ‘common faith’ or a
‘common salvation’. The bulk of the references is of a practical nature,
manifesting in deed, and by the sharing of expenses, the blessings which all
shared alike in grace. The believer should be willing ‘to communicate’ (1 Tim.
6:18), which is used in that passage almost synonymously with readiness ‘to
distribute’. The Philippians, not only knew about ‘the fellowship’ of the
sufferings of Christ (Phil. 3:10), they had fellowship with Paul in the gospel
also (Phil. 1:5; 4:15).

Fig Tree.   The Companion Bible at Judges 9:8 -15 says:

      ‘The Olive tree    =     Israel’s religious privileges (Rom. 11).
      The Fig tree       =     Israel’s national privileges (Matt. 21).
      The Vine     =     Israel’s spiritual privileges (Isa. 5)’.

      The fig tree appears in one or two passages that have a dispensational
bearing. The barren fig tree, Matthew 21:18 -20, Mark 11:13,14.

      ‘And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, He came, if haply He might
      find anything thereon: and when He came to it, He found nothing but
      leaves; for the time of figs was not yet. And Jesus answered and said
      unto it, No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And His disciples
      heard it’ (Mark 11:13,14).

      The time of year was a few days before Passover, for the Lord had just
ridden into Jerusalem on the ass. The people had cried ‘Hosannah to the Son of
David’, yet only a few days pass and the same people cry ‘Away with Him, let
Him be crucified’. The fig tree often has fruit of two or three years’ growth,
and elaborate measures are laid down in the Talmud for computing the age of the
fruit for tithing purposes. The time of figs had not yet come, and so if the
Lord went seeking fruit He expected to find some of the last one or two years
still hanging on the tree. This particular fig tree was remarkable for its
display of leaves, and as leaves and fruit often appeared together, it seemed
to give some sort of special promise. It was a fitting symbol of the nation of
Israel. Their ‘hosannahs’ proved to be ‘nothing but leaves’, the season for
figs had not yet come, and Israel will not see the Lord they rejected until in
the fullness of time they shall again say, ‘Blessed is He that cometh in the
name of the Lord’ (Matt. 23:39).
      The parable of the fig tree and all the trees (Matt. 24:32; Luke 21:29).
The fig tree and its growth is used by the Lord in the great prophetic chapter,
Matthew 24:

      ‘Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and
      putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: so likewise ye, when
      ye shall see all these things, know that it (margin He) is near, even at
      the doors’ (Matt. 24:32,33).

      Luke 21, consistently with the peculiarly Gentileward trend of its
gospel, adds the reference concerning ‘the times of the Gentiles’ (verse 24)
and adds to the fig tree ‘all the trees’ (verse 29). We are therefore
instructed to observe the movements that will take place in the nation of
Israel, but not only so, to observe also the movements that will take place
among the Gentiles too. These movements are beginning to take shape before our
eyes, and while the hope of the Mystery is unrelated either to the prophecies
of Israel or the Gentiles as such, yet seeing that the dispensation of the
Mystery must take place in time, and before the hope of Israel is realized, we
can say with solemn emphasis that ‘Now is our salvation nearer than when we

      We read in Amos 7:14 that the prophet was ‘a gatherer of sycomore fruit’,
and an examination of this claim will yield an important lesson concerning
Israel, their sufferings, and ultimate blessing. The R.V. reads ‘a dresser of
sycomore trees’. The LXX uses the word knizo ‘to scrape, to make to itch, to
nettle’. It may not seem, at first sight, a subject worthy of such importance
as to hold up our exposition, but there is more here than appears on the
surface. Theophrastus, the successor of Aristotle, in his History of Plants,
tells us that the sycomore fruit ‘does not ripen till it is rubbed (knizo) with
iron combs, after which rubbing it ripens in four days’. Hasselquist, a
Swedish naturalist, says: ‘It buds the latter end of March, and the fruit
ripens in the beginning of June; it is wounded and cut by the inhabitants at
the time it buds, for without this precaution, they say, it will never bear

      The Fig, the Vine and the Olive are employed to set forth the peculiar
privileges of Israel (Judges 9:8 -13), the Fig probably stands for Israel’s
national privilege. The Sycomore has a leaf like the mulberry (Gk. moron) and
fruit like the fig (Gk. sykon), hence the name in the Greek New Testament is
sykomoros. The point that Amos seems to make here, and which has a typical
teaching, is that Israel, like the sycomore, will not bear ripe fruit apart
from great tribulation. Already, we learn from Amos 1:3 that Damascus had
‘threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron’, and when we remember that
‘tribulation’ is derived from the Latin tribulum ‘a threshing sledge for
separating grain from the husk, a wooden platform studded with sharp bits of
flint and with iron teeth’ (Lloyd’s Encyclopaedic Dictionary), the figure
begins to take a deeper significance.

      Further, the Lord says ‘For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the
house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall
not the least grain fall upon the earth’ (Amos 9:9). Because the word
translated ‘grain’ is once translated ‘one small stone’ in 2 Samuel 17:13, some
have thought that Amos 9:9 should be translated ‘not the smallest stone’, but
this is unnecessary and untrue. It is the very object of sifting to get rid of
‘small stones’ and leave the grain behind, and Amos’s simile loses all point if
the language be changed. In 2 Samuel 17:13 any word meaning ‘a small particle’
would have done quite as well as ‘one small stone’. Further, the word
translated ‘grain’ is the Hebrew tseror, from tsarar ‘to vex’, ‘to be in a
strait’, ‘narrow’, and is found in Amos 5:12 where it is translated ‘afflict’.
The one small ‘grain’ is one that is oppressed and has passed through
affliction, yet being one of the elect cannot fall upon the earth and be lost.
It will be seen that there are many lessons to be learned from ‘the fig tree’,
but we are concerned in this analysis particularly with those that have a
dispensational bearing, and must be content with what we have seen. (See Olive
Tree in article on Romans4).

Firmament. Many who oppose the teaching of the first chapter of Genesis on
scientific grounds, are often guilty of a very unscientific approach to this
part of the Scriptures. The chapter is dismissed as myth and legend, because
it is supposed to teach that God created the universe in six days! This,
however, is not the teaching of Genesis 1. At Genesis 1:2, a great gap occurs,
and this has been discussed in the articles devoted to Ephesians1 and
Overthrow3,7. The work of the six days was not a creation, in the sense of
Genesis 1:1, but a reclamation and a reconstitution of the earth for man. For
example, all that is said of the work of the third day is that upon the
gathering together of the waters which are now called ‘seas’, ‘the dry land’
appeared -- but the land was there all the time even though submerged. It is
this dry land that is ‘called’ earth, and this stated fact every truly
scientific reader must note and credit -- otherwise misunderstandings and
misinterpretations are bound to occur. It is the same with the ‘heaven’ of the
second day. There, in Genesis 1:6 -8, we have a ‘firmament’ which is ‘called’
heaven, but this must not be confused with the heaven of Genesis 1:1. The
present ‘firmament’ is temporary. It spans the ages, but is to pass away as
Isaiah 34:4 and 2 Peter 3:10 make clear.

      Some have been stumbled by the word ‘firmament’ as though the book of
Genesis endorsed the mythology of the heathen and taught that over our heads
was a solid vault. Our translators were influenced by the Latin Vulgate which
reads firmamentum. By this word it sought to translate the Greek of the
Septuagint, which used the word stereoma. Yet it may be as unfair to these men
of old to import into the terms they employed such a conception of solidity, as
it would to affirm that reasonable men today actually believe that over their
heads is a ‘sky’ which is ‘blue’, for most know that the azure colour we see is
produced by refracted rays of light; but who among us, knowing all this, would
wish to alter such terms as ‘above the bright blue sky’ etc.?

      The Hebrew word which is used in Genesis 1:6 is raqia, which is derived
from the root word raqa meaning ‘to spread out’. This word is used of the thin
plates of gold that were beaten and used in the work of the tabernacle (Exod.
39:3), and of spreading abroad the earth (Isa. 44:24). Riq, ruq and raq
likewise give us the idea ‘to empty’ (Gen. 42:35), ‘to draw out’ (Lev. 26:33),
‘lean’ (Gen. 41:19), and so by a recognized transition this root becomes a
‘particle of extenuation’ being translated ‘only’ (Gen. 6:5), ‘save’ in the
sense ‘except’ (1 Kings 8:9), and referring to the ‘thinness’ of the os
temporis the Hebrew raqqah is used in Judges 4:21, for the bone of the temples.
Finally the Hebrew word raqiq is translated ‘wafer’ seven times in the book of
the law (e.g. Exod. 29:2). Something extended is the basic meaning of all
these derived uses, and that is what is meant by the firmament of Genesis 1:6.

      The entire point of this revelation has been missed by the interposition
of mere human cleverness. Had men but humbly enquired the purpose of this
attenuated firmament over their heads, they might have learned something of the
redemptive character of this world in which we live, for Isaiah declares ‘He
... stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent
to dwell in’ (Isa. 40:22) where the figure of the tabernacle is too plain to
be missed. In like manner, pseudoscience has been so busy pouring ridicule
upon the primitive idea of the ‘foundations’ upon which the earth is
‘fastened’, according to Job 38:6, that they have missed for themselves, and
scared the timid from appreciating, that the word here used is the very word
employed over and over again by Moses, to speak of the ‘sockets’ upon which the
tabernacle rested. This intention on the part of the Lord will become more
evident when we examine the meaning and usage of pleroma, to which article,
Pleroma3 and its chart, the reader is most earnestly directed. Our present
quest is limited to the implications contained in the reference to a
‘firmament’, the temporary heaven which is to pass away. Solomon evidently
knew that there were ‘heavens’ above the present ‘heaven’.

      ‘Behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee’ (1 Kings
Moses too (Deut. 10:14) and the Psalmist also (Psa. 148:4) knew of this

      This fact is basic to the teaching of the epistle to the Ephesians, for
Christ is there said to have ‘ascended up far above all heavens that He might
fill all things’ (Eph. 4:10). The heavenly places where Christ now sits is
far above the temporary ‘firmament’ of Genesis 1:6, and the church of the One
Body is the only redeemed company whose sphere of blessing takes them up beyond
this firmament to the heaven of heavens at the right hand of God. The
recognition of these two ‘heavens’ makes it scripturally true to speak of
‘three spheres of blessing’, namely (1) the earth, (2) the heavenly Jerusalem,
(3) the heavenly places where Christ now sits. In the beginning there were but
two spheres, namely ‘The heaven and the earth’ (Gen. 1:1). When God is all in
all at ‘the end’ there may be but two spheres once again, but during the ages
and until the consummation, there are three. For a fuller examination of this
theme the reader is referred to the articles entitled Three Spheres5, Heaven
(p. 89), and allied themes.

Firstfruits. This word is used doctrinally in connection with the resurrection
(1 Cor. 15:20,23) and of the believer who has the firstfruits of the spirit
(Rom. 8:23), into which most wonderful aspect of truth we are not able at the
moment to enter. But see Resurrection4,7. All that we can say of these two
references is that the term ‘firstfruits’ here is used in the sense of
something anticipatory, and in the nature of a pledge. So James speaks of the
believer as ‘a kind of firstfruits of His creatures’ (Jas. 1:18) and Paul
speaks of the believing remnant of Israel as a firstfruit, pledging the
character of, and the salvation of, all Israel at the end. For an expansion of
this thought see the article Remnant9, also the structure of Romans 9 to 11
given both under the heading Election1,6 and Romans4. (See also In Adam, p.

Flesh. This word, which translates the Greek sarx, occurs in a variety of ways
and contexts, and although this analysis is concerned with the dispensational
point of view, it may be wise to set out the sixfold subdivision, which is a
digest of a longer treatment of the theme found in Cremer’s Biblico -
Theological Lexicon.

      (1). Flesh. James 5:3. Flesh and bone, the substance of the body, Luke
      24:39; Ephesians 5:30.
      (2). Corporeity according to its material side, which, as an organic
      whole is called soma, body. So 1 Corinthians 15:39. The corporal part
      of man, Acts 2:26.
      (3). It mediates and brings about man’s connection with nature Genesis
      2:23,24; 1 Corinthians 6:16. So the contrast between ‘children of the
      flesh’, and ‘children of the promise’, Romans 9:8. It indicates kinship,
      Romans 9:3; 11:14; 1:3 and all mankind are designated ‘all flesh’ (John
      (4). It denotes human nature in and according to its corporeal
      manifestation. 1 John 4:2 ‘Jesus Christ is come in the flesh’. 1
      Timothy 3:16 ‘Manifest in the flesh’.
      (5). All that is peculiar to human nature in its corporeal embodiment is
      said to belong to it. This is specially the aspect of Paul’s epistles
      and his use of sarx. It is in contrast with the new creation, 2
      Corinthians 5:16,17. It stands in contrast with pneuma, Spirit, the
      divine nature, in a metaphysical and moral sense. Romans 8:3; Galatians
      3:3; 5:17. Thus sarx comes at length, in distinct and presupposed
      antithesis to pneuma, to signify --
      (6). The sinful condition of human nature, in and according to its
      bodily manifestation. So we have ‘the flesh of sin’ (lit.), Romans 8:3;
      ‘satisfying of the flesh’, Colossians 2:23; ‘an occasion to the flesh’,
      Galatians 5:13. Such expressions as ‘the mind of the flesh’, Romans
      8:6,7; ‘the lusts of the flesh’, Galatians 5:16,24; and ‘the wills of the
      flesh’, Ephesians 2:3 (lit.), may be explained by the fact that sarx
      denotes sinfully conditioned human nature.

We are concerned mainly with the employment of the term by the apostle in
Romans 9:3 -5 as compared with Ephesians 2:11,12, where the ‘advantage’ of
being a Jew, and the ‘disability’ of being a Gentile is stressed. These two
passages are set out according to their structure in the article entitled
Adoption1. It becomes abundantly clear from these passages that whatever
blessing Israel may have had in the past or may yet enjoy in the future ‘in the
flesh’ no such hope can be entertained by any member of the One Body. Its
blessings as well as its legitimate foes are ‘spiritual’, outside of which,
whether viewed as being ‘in the flesh’ or ‘in the world’, the Gentile is looked
upon not only as the ‘uncircumcision’ but as being without hope, without
Christ, and without God. The apostle moreover went so far as to say, ‘Even
though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now we know Him so no more’ (2
Cor. 5:16 R.V.), and this before the dispensation of the Mystery was ushered
in. How much less therefore can any fleshly advantages obtain now, since the
middle wall has been broken down, the enmity that was abolished in His flesh
has gone, and the veil, that is to say His flesh, removed? For further light on
this aspect of the subject, the reader is directed to the article entitled
Middle Wall3.

Flesh and Blood. These words by an accepted figure of speech (synecdoche)
represent human nature, man as such, man as opposed to God, to angel or spirit.
So, Christ said to Peter on the occasion of his great confession:

      ‘Blessed art thou, Simon Bar -jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed
      it unto thee, but My Father which is in heaven’ (Matt. 16:17).
Similarly, Paul sets aside all human intervention in connection with his call
and commission, saying:
      ‘When it pleased God ... to reveal His Son in me, that I might preach Him
      among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood’
      (Gal. 1:15,16).

      When speaking of the resurrection, and answering the question ‘with what
body do they come?’ he says in 1 Corinthians 15:

      ‘Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the
      kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption’ (1 Cor.

      In the two other places where the A.V. used the phrase ‘flesh and blood’,
namely in Ephesians 6:12 and Hebrews 2:14, the order of the words is reversed
in the original ‘blood and flesh’. It has been hastily assumed by some that
the phrase ‘flesh and blood’ is the common and accepted formula in the
Scriptures to represent human nature, but when we turn to the Old Testament we
discover that where the expression ‘flesh and blood’ would come naturally to
our lips, the language of the Old Testament differs; there the usual form is
‘flesh and bones’. When Adam beheld his wife, and realized her most intimate
oneness with himself, he did not say ‘she is of my flesh and blood’ but ‘this
is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh’ (Gen. 2:23). What should we do
with any attempt to reason from the absence of reference to the word ‘blood’
here, that Adam purposely intended to affirm that his wife was a bloodless
creature? We should reject it as unworthy of serious consideration. When Jacob
arrived at the home of his mother’s brother, Laban said to him, ‘surely thou
art my bone and my flesh’ (Gen. 29:14), and he would have been astonished had
Jacob interposed by saying -- surely I am of the same blood also! Or yet once
again, when David would remind certain that they were his brethren, he said ‘ye
are my brethren, ye are my bones and my flesh’ (2 Sam. 19:12).

      We hesitate to bring the most sacred Person of the Saviour into an
atmosphere of ridicule, but in the light of these passages, what can we do but
reject that interpretation of the words of the risen Christ, as recorded in
Luke 24:39, ‘a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see Me have’, that argues
from the absence of the word ‘blood’ that the Lord intended us to understand
that His risen body was bloodless. One might just as reasonably argue from
Hebrews 2:14 and the absence of the word ‘bones’ that He had no bony skeleton.
All that the Lord intended was to establish His identity, and invited the
disciples to ‘see’ and to ‘handle’ and one would not so readily ‘see’ the blood
of a person as his erect human form, and ‘handling’ would reveal the hidden
bony structure. The human body is an organized whole. Where there is no
blood, no oxygen is required, and where no oxygen is needed, nostrils would be

      Further, the slightest acquaintance with the process of digestion demands
the blood stream as its goal, and the Lord demonstrated the reality of His
risen humanity, by eating some broiled fish and a portion of honeycomb. We do
not know the nature of ‘heavenly’ or ‘spiritual’ bodies, and all speculation is
cut short by the apostle in 1 Corinthians 15. It is unwise to argue from the
Lord’s risen body to our own, for He saw no corruption. All that we hope to
have accomplished by this short note is to call the reader’s attention to a
shallow yet dangerous form of argument, which not only vitiates the teaching of
the particular passage, Luke 24:39, but is applied with equally harmful results
to other subjects which are presented to us in similar figurative ways. For
fuller details see Resurrection4,7 and Hope (p. 132).
Flock and Fold.     In John 10:16, the Saviour is recorded as saying:

         ‘And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must
         bring, and they shall hear My voice; and there shall be one fold, and one

      The R.V. reads: ‘And they shall become one flock’, which recognizes that
there are two Greek words here, one aule, translated ‘fold’, and one poimne,
which is better translated ‘flock’. Poimne is related to poimen a ‘shepherd’,
but aule refers rather to the enclosure of the fold, and is translated in John
18:15 ‘palace’, while the verb aulizomai is rendered ‘lodged’ (Matt. 21:17) and
‘abode’ (Luke 21:37). It was Israel who said:

         ‘We are the people of His pasture, and the sheep of His hand’ (Psa.

It was the Saviour who said:

         ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans
         enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’
         (Matt. 10:5,6).

      It was Peter who was commissioned to feed the sheep, and his epistles are
addressed to the dispersed of Israel. In John 10 the Lord envisaged another
company of the redeemed, a company who never were of the fold of Israel, yet
who shall eventually be united with that people and make one flock. Among the
lessons of dispensational importance are the following. The fact that the
greater gathering is called a flock and not a fold suggests that there is no
confusion, no carrying over of Israel’s distinct position and sphere by giving
it to the Gentiles. There is no justification here or anywhere in the
Scriptures to use the term ‘spiritual Israel’ of any company of believing
Gentiles; that is but confusing the ‘fold’ with the ‘flock’. However distinct
these two companies may be, they are yet to be united under one Shepherd. The
ministry of John is at work today in a wider circle than that covered by the
Mystery and the epistle to the Romans. Many believers today are manifestly
‘John 3:16’ believers, and their destiny is indicated in this reference to the
future flock and Shepherd.

      Members of the church of the Mystery are neither called sheep, nor will
they ever be brought into union with the ‘fold’ of Israel to form one ‘flock’.
The one common characteristic that unites the two companies envisaged in John
10 is that they both hear the voice of their Shepherd (John 10:2,3,4,16,27).
This too is the characteristic of all who believe unto everlasting life (John
5:24,25) and looks forward to the day of resurrection for its fulfilment (John
5:28,29). The distinguishing mark of all these ‘sheep’ of whatever ‘fold’ they
be is given in John 18:37 ‘every one that is of the truth heareth My voice’.
Such are ‘of God’ according to John 8:47. There is therefore great blessing in
store for many today to whom the dispensation of the Mystery is a closed book,
and if they do not own Him as the ‘one Head’, what a privilege it will be to
know Him as the ‘one Shepherd’. Differences in sphere, calling and destiny
there most certainly are, even one star is said to differ from another star in
glory, yet only sovereign grace causes us to differ, and we have nothing but
what we have received. Grace reigns and it is nothing less than our duty, to
say nothing of our love, to readily accept all that the Scriptures reveal
concerning these things that differ. (See article on John, p. 232).
Forbidding (Acts 28:31). Anything that illuminates that great dispensational
section of the Acts, namely the 28th chapter, is of importance. The last verse
ends with the words ‘no man forbidding him’, akolutos ‘unhindered’. Paul had
known hindrances in his ministry, being on one occasion ‘forbidden’ (koluo) of
the Holy Ghost (Acts 16:6), or ‘let’ or ‘hindered’ by circumstances (Rom.
1:13), but these were temporary and local. There was a much more formidable
hindrance that persisted throughout the whole of his ministry as recorded in
the Acts, and that was the intense and fanatical opposition of his own people,
the Jews. This is vividly set forth in the attitude of Elymas, who ‘withstood’
the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles, seeking to turn away the deputy
from the faith (Acts 13:8), and upon this typical Jew the judgment of blindness
fell, a foreshadowing of what actually fell in Acts 28.

      Following this instance of Elymas, the Acts records a long series of
opposition by the Jews, and such words as ‘contradicting and blaspheming’ (Acts
13:45); ‘stirring up’ (Acts 13:50 and 14:2); ‘persuading’ and ‘stoning’ (Acts
14:19) and so on throughout the record. Gentiles as such either gave heed to
the apostle, or left him unmolested. Roman rulers treated him with toleration
and even respect; it was the Jew who was the active opponent of the apostle’s
message. Paul summed up the position early in the record, and wrote thus to
the Thessalonians:

      ‘The Jews: who both killed the Lord Jesus, and their own prophets, and
      have persecuted us; and they please not God, and are contrary to all men’
      (1 Thess. 2:14,15).

Here is a damning list indeed -- ‘killed’ their Messiah and their prophets;
‘persecuted’ the apostles; ‘please not’ God, and ‘contrary’ to all men. Could
anything be added to make their condition worse? Yes, here it is: ‘forbidding
us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to fill up their sins
alway: for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost’ (1 Thess. 2:16).
‘Forbidding’ here is the Greek verb koluo, and it is because of the cessation
of this attitude consequent upon Israel’s dismissal in Acts 28 that the record
ends with the word akoluo ‘unforbidden’.

      In addition, we learn that the apostle Peter would, apart from the vision
given him, have ‘forbidden’ the Gentile Cornelius to be baptized, and even
suggests that he would have ‘forbidden’ (Gk. kolusai) God (Acts 10:47; 11:17).
Thus at the close of Peter’s section of the Acts, we have the word ‘forbidden’,
while at the end of Paul’s section we have ‘unforbidden’. What a light these
references throw upon the changing dispensations!

Fore-Hope. No such term is found in the English Bible, but as it is used
sometimes as an alternative to the translation of Ephesians 1:12, ‘who first
trusted’, and the passage is of dispensational importance, we must give it
a place in our studies. The passage which contains the word thus tentatively
translated is Ephesians 1:12, ‘who first trusted in Christ’ proelpikotas. The
Greek word is composed of pro ‘before’ and the perfect participle of the verb
elpizo ‘to hope’. Very great differences of opinion have been expressed by
commentators. For example, The Companion Bible says that the pronoun ‘we’ here
refers to the saved members of the Pentecostal church, closed by the judgment
pronounced in Acts 28:25,28. Bloomfield, who does not see any dispensational
significance in Acts 28, agrees so far as to say that if the ‘we’ refers to
Gentiles, the pro must thus be sunk, or have assigned to it a frigid sense,
hence it is better to suppose that it refers to the Jewish Christians.
Conybeare and Howson’s comment is that proelpizein might mean, as some take it,
to look forward with hope; but the other meaning ‘who have hoped’ appears most
obvious, and best suits the context. Compare proelthontes (Acts 20:13) ‘we
went before’. Macknight’s paraphrase reads, ‘The inheritance is bestowed even
on us Jews ... who before He came, hoped in Christ for salvation’, and he
quotes Chandler here, who refers to such passages as Luke 2:25,38 in contrast
with Gentiles who had no hope in Christ before He came (Eph. 2:12). Bishop
Wordsworth’s comment is: ‘us who before had hoped. The participle with the
article indicates the cause ... the preposition pro is explained by kai humeis
(ye also) which follow. We of the natural Israel were led by our Prophets to
preconceive hopes in Christ. You Gentiles received the word of truth, and
embraced the Gospel’. Dr. Weymouth gives a free rendering, ‘we who were the
first to fix our hopes on Christ’. The Concordant Version translates ‘we, who
are in a state of prior expectancy in the Christ’, with the comment, ‘the
perfect or complete form of the verb marks a state rather than an action. The
Circumcision looked for signs and did not expect the Messiah until after great
affliction. Those who were under Paul’s ministry were expecting Him at any

      The reader will perceive that we have before us a passage upon which a
great deal of thought has been expended and concerning which a variety of
conclusions have been drawn. The book of Proverbs tells us that in the
multitude of counsellors there is safety (Prov. 11:14); but in 10:19 we read
the warning, ‘in the multitude of words there wanteth not sin’, and so while we
must ponder every honest rendering and comment, we must also remember that
truth is not arrived at by the vote of a majority -- rather it appears from the
testimony of history that the majority has usually been wrong. One of the
items that must be settled is the question, To whom does the apostle refer when
he says ‘we’ and ‘ye’?

      It is the opinion of the majority that the ‘we’ were either (1) the Jews,
who were taught by their prophets to expect the Messiah, or (2) the Pentecostal
Church, who by reason of the fact that this church came into being at the time
when the Ephesians were darkened heathen, must therefore have hoped before in
Christ, or (3) that the ‘we’ refers to those who were joined together with the
apostle in the hope of their calling. Let us put this notion to the test. We
will read Ephesians 1:3 -14, using the reference ‘we’ and ‘us’ as of a company
distinct from the Ephesian church and see what happens. We will not push the
matter to such an extreme as to question the scope of the word ‘our’ in the
words ‘our Lord Jesus Christ’, but continue ‘who hath blessed us, not you ...
chosen us, not you ... that we should be, not you ... having predestinated us,
not you ... made us, not you, accepted ... we have redemption, not you ... He
abounded toward us, not you ... He made known to us, not you ... we, not you,
have obtained an inheritance, that we, not you, should be to the praise of His
glory who first hoped in Christ, In Whom ye also, not us, were sealed with that
holy spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance, not yours,
until the day of redemption’.

      We sincerely hope every reader will realize that this is taking a leaf
out of Euclid’s book, wherein he says, ‘which is absurd’. We have but to read
verses 13 and 14 together to realize the impossibility of thus interpreting the
apostle’s language. We must therefore turn our attention to other features if
we are to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. Up till now our thoughts have
revolved around the conception that pro must refer to time, but it might be
well to remember that it can apply to position too. Taking as a key the word
‘predestination’ that occurs twice in this section, we find that ‘high favour’
is put in correspondence with ‘fore -hoping’ thus:

Eph. 1:5,6.       A     Predestined as children.
                          B         According to good pleasure of His will.
                                C         To praise of glory of His grace.
                                    D     Highly favoured in the Beloved.
Eph. 1:11,12.     A           Predestined as inheritance.
                        B           According to His purpose ... will.
                              C           To praise of His glory.
                                    D     Who were in a state of prior hope in
      Pro in composition may indicate place, time or preference. Romans 3:9
provides an example of preference, ‘Are we better (proechomai) than they?’
Romans 12:10 will provide another, ‘In honour preferring (proegeomai) one
another’. Yet again we read in 1 Timothy 5:21, ‘Without preferring (prokrima)
one before another’.

      Guided by the structure which in its turn indicates the direction of the
argument, we see that the emphasis is placed upon the dignity and the greatness
of the position given to the church here. We therefore reject the translation
‘fore -hope’ in favour of ‘prior -hope’, but realize that this is still
ambiguous, as the word ‘prior’ also can refer either to time, ‘a prior
engagement’, as well as a position, ‘the Prior’, or head of a religious house.
We repudiate completely the attempt to distinguish ‘we’ from ‘you’ that would
make them two companies or callings, and can find no justification for
interposing the hopes of either the Jews or of the Pentecostal Church into this
great Prison Epistle. As we discover upon reading further, ‘hope’ is
intimately associated with ‘calling’ (Eph. 1:18). The state of prior hope in
which these believers were found refers to the dignity of their calling ‘far
above all’ where Christ sits at the right hand of God. This is a ‘Prior Hope’

Fulfil (Pleroo). This word is used very frequently in passages which speak of
the fulfilling of prophecy and other Scripture, such as ‘that it might be
fulfilled’ (Matt. 1:22), ‘that the Scripture might be fulfilled’ (John 17:12),
but this meaning is entirely foreign to the usage of pleroo in the Prison
Epistles, the only apparent exception being Colossians 1:25, which reads in the
A.V. ‘to fulfil the Word of God’, making the apostle teach that the
dispensation of the Mystery, instead of being a secret hid in God and never
committed to writing in the earlier days, ‘fulfilled’ the Word of God, in the
same way that the birth of Christ ‘fulfilled’ the prophecy of Isaiah. There
are fourteen occurrences of pleroo in the Prison Epistles, thirteen of them
being translated ‘fill’, ‘complete’, ‘supply’ and ‘fulfil’ in the sense of
completing, and once ‘supply’. Let us see these references together.

      Eph.   1:23   Him that filleth all in all.
      Eph.   3:19   Might be filled with all the fulness of God.
      Eph.   4:10   That He might fill all things.
      Eph.   5:18   Be filled with the Spirit.

It is impossible to substitute ‘fulfil’ in these passages without loss.

      Phil. 1:11    Being filled with the fruits.
      Phil.   2:2   Fulfil ye my joy.
      Phil. 4:18    I am full, having received.
      Phil. 4:19    My God shall supply all your need.

Here the one occurrence ‘fulfil’ is translated by Cunnington ‘fill up’.
      Col.   1:9   That ye might be filled.
      Col. 1:25    To fulfil the Word of God.
      Col. 2:10    And ye are complete in Him.
      Col. 4:12    Perfect and complete in all the will.
      Col. 4:17    That thou fulfil it.
      2 Tim. 1:4   That I may be filled with joy.

It will be seen that the word pleroo is not used by the apostle in the sense of
‘fulfilling’ a prophecy or a Scripture, so much as ‘filling full’, ‘completing’
and ‘perfecting’. Colossians 1:25,26 should read

      ‘Whereof I am made a minister according to the dispensation of God which
      is given to me for you to complete the Word of God, even the Mystery’.

The Scriptures may be likened to a pyramid, built up in a succession of layers,
but not being complete until the top stone, itself a perfect pyramid, is added
to the structure. All dispensations that have preceded the present
dispensation of the Mystery have come to a temporary end, have gone into a kind
of lo -ammi period, to be resumed at some future time, but there is no
indication in Scripture that the dispensation of the Mystery will be cut off,
be succeeded by yet another fresh intervention, and be picked up again after a
long interval in the future. See the article entitled Pleroma3 for an extended
examination, with chart, of the term ‘fulness’.

Fulness (Eph. 1:22,23).

      Two writers, one Cunnington who made a   translation of the New Testament,
and Dr. J. Armitage Robinson, have made such   suggestive comments on Ephesians
1:22 and 23, that we feel obliged to let the   reader have the benefit of their
helpful words. The intervening comments are    by A.T. in an article published in
The Differentiator.

      ‘Cunnington furnishes an unusual thought, "the fulness of Him who all in
      all is receiving His fulness". The last four words express the Middle
      Voice force of "getting or doing something for oneself". Cunnington has
      here a footnote, "cf. Phil. 2:7; process of cancelling the Emptying".
      Here we have a most beautiful thought. When Christ Jesus (note the term)
      emptied Himself, He must have emptied Himself of His fulness. But after
      resurrection He got back His fulness -- "in Him delights the entire
      fulness to dwell" (Col. 1:19); "in Him is dwelling the entire fulness of
      the Deity bodily" (Col. 2:9).
      ‘But the glorious thing for us is not alone that He got back the fulness
      He formerly possessed. Even that pristine fulness would be incomplete
      without His Body, the Church. We are, as it were, the fulness of His

      ‘In his Exposition of Ephesians (1907) J. Armitage Robinson, D.D., states
      that verse 23 is perhaps the most remarkable expression in the whole
      epistle. He says the Church is described as "the fulness of Him who all
      in all is being fulfilled". Paul would appear to mean "that in some
      mysterious sense the Church is that without which the Christ is not
      complete, but with which He is or will be complete. That is to say, he
      looks upon the Christ as in a sense waiting for completeness, and
      destined in the purpose of God to find completeness in the Church. This
      is a somewhat startling thought".
      ‘Dr. Robinson gives a new thought from Col. 2:9, "for in Him dwelleth all
      the fulness of the Deity in a bodily way, and ye are filled (or,
      fulfilled) in Him". This is usually taken to refer to the Godhead
      residing in the Lord’s body in all its completeness. But Dr. Robinson
      says this would be to neglect Paul’s special use of the terms "fulness"
      and "body" in his epistles. The empty deceit of the philosophical
      despoiler can only give tradition and world -elements in place of the
      heavenly Christ. For in Christ dwells all the fulness of the Deity,
      expressing itself through a body: a body, in which you are incorporated,
      so that in Him the fulness is yours. The next words in Col. 2:10 might
      be taken as confirming this thought, literally, "And you are, in Him,
      ones -having -been -filled -full".
       ‘Dr. Robinson continues, "Thus St. Paul looks forward to the ultimate
      issue of the Divine purpose for the universe. The present stage is a
      stage of imperfection: the final stage will be perfection. All is now
      incomplete: in the issue all will be complete. And this completeness,
      this fulfilment, this attainment of purpose and realisation of ideal, is
      found and is to be found (for to St. Paul the present contains implicitly
      the future) in Christ -- in Christ ‘by way of a body’; that is to say, in
      Christ as a whole, in which the head and the body are inseparably one.
      Even beyond this the apostle dares to look. This fulfilled and completed
      universe is in truth the return of all things to their creative source,
      through Christ to God, ‘of Whom and through Whom and unto Whom are all
      things’, -- ‘that God may be all’"‘.

See article on Body1.

      The questions ‘Where is Galatia?’, ‘What cities did the apostle visit?’,
‘When was the epistle to the Galatians written?’ have been considered in the
article entitled Chronology, Acts and Epistles, in Part 1, and evidence has
been provided to show that this epistle was the first written by the apostle

      The opening words sound like the challenge of one entering the arena.

                  ‘Paul, an apostle not of men,
                                    neither by man,
                                    But by Jesus Christ’.

      The relationship of Galatians with the remaining epistles of Paul,
written during the Acts, will be seen set out in the article mentioned above.

      Assuming that the reader is acquainted with these introductory studies,
we now turn our attention to the epistle itself.

                             Galatians as a whole

A     1 to 2:14. The apostle’s authority. ‘Though an angel from heaven’.
      Faith a     Jerusalem               Bondage.
      v.          b     Circumcision not compelled.
      Works             c     Persecution for the gospel.
      B 2:15 to 4:12.         d     I am crucified with Christ.
      Cross                         e     Not I but Christ.
      v.                                  f     Redeemed from curse.
      Law                                       g      Covenant and Adoption.
A     4:13 to 6:13.     The apostle’s infirmity. ‘As an angel of God’.
      Spirit a    Jerusalem               Free.
      v.          b     Circumcision availeth nothing.
      Flesh             c     Persecution for the cross.
      B 6:14 -16.             d     I am crucified to the world.
      Cross                         e     Not circumcision: but new creature.
      v.                                  f     Peace.
      World                                     g      Israel of God.
A     6:17,18.    The apostle’s marks in his body.
      and               Benediction and sign manual (see 2 Thess. 3:17,18).

      The great controversy that shook the Galatian Church and which called
forth this vehement epistle revolved around the question of justification,
whether it was by faith, or works, or a blend of both.

      We might have thought that this mighty theme would meet us at the very
forefront of the epistle, but it is not so. One whole chapter and a part of
the second is occupied in establishing the absolute independence and authority
of the apostleship of Paul, so important to all subsequent teaching, and so
important to a correct appreciation of dispensational truth this apostleship of
Paul really is. The first chapter therefore can be set out as follows:

A     1:1 -5.     Paul’s apostleship      Not from men.
                                          Neither through man.
                                            But through Jesus Christ.
      B     1:6 -10.    ‘Ye received’
A     1:11,12.    Paul’s gospel             Not according to man.
                                            Neither from man nor teaching.
                                            But by revelation.
      B     1:13,14.    ‘Ye heard’
A     1:15 -17.   Paul’s authority          Not flesh and blood.
                                            Neither apostles.
                                            But unto Arabia.
      B     1:18 -24.   ‘They had heard’.

      The importance of the due recognition of Paul’s apostleship is considered
in the article entitled Apostle1, which should be read as an extension of this
chapter of Galatians. This recognition is given by those ‘who seemed to be
pillars’ at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:9), and the theme of Galatians 2:1 -14 revolves
around the word ‘compel’ as it refers to the circumcision of the Gentile
believer (Gal. 2:13,14), and ‘the truth of the gospel’ (Gal. 2:5,14) for the
sake of which Paul gave place by subjection ‘not for an hour’ (Gal. 2:5),
glorious hour indeed in the history of the fight of faith. For the structure
of Galatians 2:1 -14 see the article entitled Gospel (p. 66). The remainder of
the epistle is devoted to the subject of ‘adoption’ illustrated as it is by the
nature of the Galatian will (Gal. 2:15 to 4:12). This great section is in
correspondence with Galatians 6:14 -16, the former showing the relationship of
the Cross to the Law, the latter the relationship of the Cross to the World.

                             Galatians 2:15 to 4:12

                                  Cross v. Law

A     2:15 -20.   a Phusis ‘By nature’ Jews.
                         b Build again palin.
                           c Personal ‘I am dead to the law’.
      B     2:21 to 3:7.    d Atheteo Frustrate.
                              e Ei gar For if righteousness came by law.
                  C    3:8 -12. f The Scripture preached beforehand.
                                  g Justification by faith ek pisteos.
                                    h Hupo       Under a curse.
                        D     3:13 -20.    I Exagorazo Redeemed     Heirs.
                                               j Covenant prior to law.
      B     3:15 -21.      d Atheteo Disannul.
                             e El gar For if law could give life.
                  C 3:22,23.    f The Scripture concluded.
                                    g Promise by faith ek pisteos.
                                       h Hupo    Under sin and law.
                        D 3:24 to 4:7.     j Schoolmaster before Christ.
                                         i Exagorazo   Redeemed     Adoption.
A     4:8 -12.    a Phusis ‘By nature’ gods.
                        b Turn again palin.
                          c Personal ‘Be as I am’.

      The Galatian will is explained in the article on Adoption1 and the word
Covenant1,8 is also considered in the article that bears that name. Two
features more must suffice for this brief analysis of a mighty epistle.
Galatians 5:10-12 and 6:1,2 place over against one another ‘the troubler’ who
shall ‘bear his judgment, whoever he be’, and ‘the restorer’ who is enjoined to
‘bear one another’s burden’. The law of love is put in correspondence with the
law of Christ (Gal. 5:13,14; 6:2,3). The question of the authorship of the
epistles is one that is very near the basis of the truth for the present time,
and as one feature, namely the matter of Paul’s signature or sign -manual and
handwriting, comes before us at the close of Galatians, we will devote a larger
space to it than may at first seem proportionate, as it will provide an answer
to the question that arises with the study of every succeeding epistle
attributed to Paul, and particularly the authorship of the epistle to the
Hebrews. A full discussion of Hebrews and its authorship necessarily involves
many more items and proofs than the one dealt with here, and these will be
found in the article Hebrews (p. 101).

      We come therefore to the closing section of Galatians, namely 6:11 -16,
which opens with the words:

      ‘Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine    own hand’
      (Gal. 6:11) which the R.V. retranslates:

      ‘See with how large letters I have written (margin "or, write")    unto you
      with mine own hand’.

      It is remarkable what differences of opinion have been expressed by
commentators concerning the meaning of these words, but they may be summarized
under the following headings:

      1.      That Paul wrote the whole of the epistle to the Galatians with his
              own hand, and calls this epistle ‘a large letter’.
      2.      That the words ‘how large a letter’ refer to the length of the
              epistle, being equivalent to ‘how long an epistle’.
      3.      That Paul wrote the whole of the epistle to the Galatians with his
              own hand, and calls the Galatians’ attention to ‘the large letters’
              he used, referring to the size of the characters, and not to the
              length of the epistle.
      4.      That Paul dictated, as was his usual custom, the bulk of the
              epistle, but at verse 11 he took the pen from the hand of the
              amanuensis and wrote the postscript himself.
      5.      That the postscript alone was written ‘with large letters’.
      6.      That the large letters were a sign of the apostle’s earnestness,
              the largeness of the letter used, being equivalent to the use of
              CAPITALS or Italics on the printed page.
      7.      That the large letters were not adopted by the apostle for the sake
              of emphasis, but that owing to his defective eyesight (already
              alluded to, to arouse the latent affection of the Galatians) he
              could not write other than with ‘large letters’.
      8.   Finally, Deissmann’s opinion that to soften the angry tone of some
           previous portion of the epistle, Paul concludes with a little joke, so
           that ‘his dear silly children’ should understand that with the large
           letters ‘The Galatians knew that the last traces of the seriousness of
           the punishing schoolmaster had vanished from his features’
           (Bibelstudein, p. 263).

      We need spend no time on Deissmann’s fancy, but must give attention to
the alternatives set out under the first seven headings. This we will not do
by taking them seriatum, but by examining the actual wording of the passage.

      First, the structure of the sentence, and the literal meaning of the
words used.
      Idete pelikois humin grammasin egrapsa te eme cheiri.

      Idete ‘Ye see’. The word is emphatic, and not to be translated ‘ye see’
but rather ‘see ye’, ‘look ye’, drawing attention to a feature of unusual
interest. In Galatians 5:2 the apostle uses ide ‘behold’, as though he said
‘mark this well’.

      Pelikois. Ellicott says that the word ‘strictly denotes geometrical
magnitude ‘how large’, in contradistinction to arithmetical magnitude expressed
by posos ‘how many’. Pelikos is so used in the LXX of Zechariah 2:2. In
Hebrews 7:4 the idea of magnitude in an ethical sense is expressed by this same
word. We must therefore avoid confusing the idea of ‘how large’ with ‘how
many’ or ‘how lengthy’.

      Grammasin. Once only does gramma signify ‘epistles’, namely in Acts
28:21, where the Jews at Rome declared ‘we neither received letters out of
Judaea concerning thee’. This, however, is an isolated usage of the term and
not one used by Paul here, but by the Jews. Where Paul desires to speak of an
epistle he uses the regular word epistole, and that seventeen times, which,
together with five references in the Acts and two in 2 Peter, is very strong
evidence in favour of translating this word in Galatians 6:11 ‘letters’ and not
‘an epistle’. Grammasin is in the plural dative, and we are compelled to
translate these words as it is translated in Luke 23:38, ‘and a superscription
also was written over Him in letters of Greek and Latin and Hebrew’. Paul
himself has so used the word grammasin in 2 Corinthians 3:7. ‘In letters
having been engraved in stones’. The fact that the word is plural prevents us
from translating ‘epistle’ and no sense can be extracted from the translation
‘ye see how large epistles I have written to you’.

      Egrapsa. This word is in the aorist tense, but it is extremely difficult
to decide whether this is the ‘epistolary aorist’ where Paul refers to the time
at which the letter is received, or whether it should be translated ‘I wrote’
or in idiomatic English ‘I have written’, referring to the entire epistle. It
was the custom of Paul, and of writers in his own day, to employ the services
of a trained scribe, and one, evidently a believer, has his name inserted in
the epistle to the Romans: ‘I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you’
(Rom. 16:22). It is common knowledge that Romans 16:25 -27 was added as a
‘postscript’ to the epistle, and Alford has suggested that ‘we may almost
conceive him (Paul) to have taken his pen off from one of them (the pastoral
epistles) and to have written it (Rom. 16:25 -27) under the same impulse’. He
gives a list of words and expressions found in the postscript and in the
pastoral epistles that point to this conclusion. For example, ‘my gospel’ is
found in 2 Timothy 2:8, kerugma ‘preaching’ in 2 Timothy 4:17 and Titus 1:3,
chronon aionion ‘age times’ in 2 Timothy 1:9 and Titus 1:2 etc.

      The apostle makes a pointed reference to his ‘sign manual’ when writing
to the Thessalonians -- for they had been deceived by a letter purporting to
come from himself (2 Thess. 2:2), consequently he draws their attention to a
feature in his salutation.

      ‘The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is the token in every
      epistle: so I write. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all’
      (2 Thess. 3:17,18).

Here the apostle draws attention to two features:
      (1).     The handwriting, ‘so I write’.
      (2).     The form of salutation, ‘Grace ... with you’.

      The apostle did not always call attention to the fact that he concluded
his epistles with a note in his own hand. He does in 1 Corinthians 16:21, ‘The
salutation of me Paul with mine own hand’, and again in Colossians 4:18. The
form of the salutation varies in small particulars in the several epistles, but
always includes the words ‘Grace ... be with ...’, no other apostle being
permitted by the Holy Ghost to end an epistle thus. As this is a matter of
first importance let us not begrudge the time spent in noting this evidential
feature, especially as Paul himself has been at pains to call our attention to

                   ‘The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand’.

Romans.                    ‘The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.   Amen’
(Rom. 16:20).
                                 Repeated in his postscript (Rom. 16:24).
1 Corinthians.             ‘The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand.
                                 ... The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with
                           you ... Amen’ (1 Cor. 16:21 -24)
2 Corinthians.             ‘The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of
                           God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you
                           all. Amen’ (2 Cor. 13:14).
Galatians.                 ‘Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with
                           your spirit. Amen’ (Gal. 6:18).
Ephesians.                 ‘Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ
                           in sincerity. Amen’ (Eph. 6:24).
Philippians.               ‘The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.
                           Amen’ (Phil. 4:23).
Colossians.                ‘The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my
                           bonds. Grace be with you. Amen’ (Col. 4:18).
1 Thessalonians.           ‘The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen’
                           (1 Thess. 5:28).
2 Thessalonians.           ‘I Paul add the greeting with my own hand, which is the
                           credential in every letter of mine ... May the grace
                           of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen’ (2
                           Thess. 3:17,18 Weymouth 1909).
1 Timothy.                 ‘Grace be with thee. Amen’ (1 Tim. 6:21).
2 Timothy.                 ‘The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be
                           with you. Amen’ (2 Tim. 4:22).
Titus.                           ‘Grace be with you all. Amen’ (Titus 3:15).
Philemon.                  ‘The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your
                           spirit. Amen’ (Phile. 25).
Hebrews.                   ‘Grace be with you all. Amen’ (Heb. 13:25).

      Here is a consistent witness, made even more definite by observing the
concluding words of the epistles of Peter, James, John and Jude. In this list
the epistle to the Hebrews finds a place, and while we do not limit the
evidence of its Pauline authorship to this one feature, an unbiased reader
cannot but feel that unless some evidence to the contrary is forthcoming, the
epistle to the Hebrews is as clearly signed by the apostle Paul, as any one of
his accepted epistles. If the word egrapsa be taken as the epistolary aorist,
then the actual words written with large letters will be the postscript
Galatians 6:11 -18. If, however, egrapsa refers to what has already been
written, then the apostle must be supposed to have departed from the usual
custom, and have written the whole epistle with his own hand. The aorist
usually refers either (1) to a former letter (1 Cor. 5:9), or (2) to an epistle
now concluded (Rom. 15:15), or (3) to a foregoing portion of the epistle (1
Cor. 9:15).

      ‘With this partially conflicting evidence it seems impossible to decide
      positively whether St. Paul wrote the whole epistle or only the
      concluding portion’ (Ellicott).

      Our own conclusion which coincides with that of Lightfoot, Conybeare and
Howson and The Companion Bible, is that the ‘large letters’ written with Paul’s
own hand refer to the postscript only. Conybeare and Howson print as a note
the following illustrative incident:

      ‘The writer of this note received a letter from the venerable Neander a
few months before his death ... his letter is written in the fair and flowing
hand of an amanuensis, but it ends with a few irregular lines in large rugged
characters, written by himself, and explaining the cause of his needing the
services of an amanuensis, namely, the weakness of his eyes (probably the very
malady of St. Paul). It is impossible to read this autograph without thinking
of the present passage, and observing that he might have expressed himself in
the very words of St. Paul -- Idete pelikois humin grammasin egrapsa te eme
‘Humin, "to you". Standing after pelikois, "large", this word can scarcely be
taken with "I write" or "I wrote" to you, it is connected with pelikois, as
though the apostle said "how large, mark you!"‘

      Whether the large letters were for emphasis, a thought already incipient
in the figure of the ‘placard’ (‘evidently set forth’) of Galatians 3:1, or
whether Paul’s handwriting was unlike that of a trained slave, rather
irregular, to which may be added the affliction of his eyes, which he mentions
in Galatians 4:15, may not be easy to decide, but emphasis there is from
whatever single or combined causes. Whether Paul wrote the whole epistle with
his own hand, whether all the epistle was written in large letters, whether the
postscript only was written by his hand, and the postscript only in large
letters, the fact remains that we have an emphatic personal summary given by
the apostle at the close of this most personal epistle.

      In Hebrews, we have a ‘summary’ given in chapter 8:1 where we learn that
‘a seated priest in a heavenly sanctuary’ sums up what he had been teaching in
the first seven chapters. Here, in Galatians 6:12 -16, we have the apostle’s
own underlining, and we should be foolish in the extreme if we neglected so
evident a guide to the understanding of the main theme of this most important

Gather. This word is used both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament
to indicate part of the goal of more than one dispensation and calling.

      ‘Hear the word of the Lord, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles
      afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep
      him, as a shepherd doth his flock’ (Jer. 31:10).

This gathering will be under the New Covenant, where ‘scattering’ is exchanged
for plucking up and breaking down, and ‘gathering’ by building and planting
(Jer. 31:28 -40), and this will be final and age -lasting.
      ‘If those ordinances depart from before Me, saith the Lord, then the seed
      of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me for ever’ (Jer.

At the first advent of their Messiah, Israel knew not the day of their

      ‘O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them
which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children
together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would
not!’ (Matt. 23:37),

but at the second coming this gathering will take place:

      ‘Immediately after the tribulation of those days ... shall appear the
      sign of the Son of Man in heaven ... and He shall send His angels with a
      great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together His elect from
      the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other’ (Matt. 24:29 -31).

See also Deuteronomy 30:3 and Isaiah 43:5,6; 54:7.

      In God’s good time Israel shall be restored, but, although the Mystery
itself was never a subject of Old Testament prophecy, it was fully revealed
that upon the defection of Israel, the Gentiles would be enlightened. ‘It is a
light thing’ when compared with the entire plan of the ages, that Christ should
raise up the tribes of Israel; ‘though Israel be not gathered’, Christ was to
be given ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ (Isa. 49:5,6), and this was quoted
by the apostle Paul upon the defection of Israel, in Acts 13:47.

      The word that is translated ‘end’ in the phrase ‘the end of the world’,
in Matthew 24:3, contains the idea of gathering, particularly that of the
gathering of harvest. The Greek word sunteleia is a word that meant in
classical Greek ‘a joint or common contribution for the public burdens’, but
which was used in the LXX upon its first employment to refer to ‘the feast of
the ingathering’ at the end of the year (Exod. 23:16). This allusion to the
harvest is most certainly intended in the question of the disciples, even as it
is included in the Saviour’s prophecy of the second coming (Matt. 24:3,31).

      No such ‘gathering’ as any of those already indicated finds a place in
the Prison Epistles, the words in Ephesians 1:10, ‘He might gather together in
one’, having a very different meaning and association. The Greek word used in
Ephesians 1:10 is found nowhere else in either the LXX or the Greek New
Testament except in Romans 13:9 where it is translated ‘is briefly
comprehended’ -- the ordinary meaning of the word. The R.V. reads ‘to sum
up’, which is its classical meaning, but there are contextual and spiritual
reasons for believing that the word chosen, anakephalomai, should be translated
‘to head up’, by reason of the great and blessed fact that the supreme title of
Christ in this epistle is kephale or ‘Head’. Whatever word however may be
employed, of either Israel, Gentile or Mystery, the Scriptures make it clear
that at the end the climax blessing and seal of all that has gone before can be
expressed in this one word ‘gather’. It is a lovely word, a homely word, a
word associated by the Saviour Himself with a hen and her brood, and the farmer
and his corn. While isolation and loneliness may often be the price that must
be paid for faithful stewardship today, a gathering together of those of like
precious faith can be, and often is, a foretaste of joys to be experienced in
the days to come. This has been the comment many times by those who have
attended the Anniversary or Foundation Day ‘Gatherings’ at the Chapel of the
Opened Book, for which we are grateful.

Generations. In Matthew 1:1, ‘The book of the generation of Jesus Christ’, the
Greek word used is genesis, so that just as the creation of heaven and earth in
the beginning is the ‘Genesis’ of the Old Testament, the birth of the Saviour
at Bethlehem is the ‘Genesis’ of the New Testament. In Matthew 3:7; 12:34 and
23:33, where we meet the dreadful title ‘generation of vipers’, the word
gennema means progeny, produce or offspring. In 1 Peter 2:9 the ‘chosen
generation’, we have the word genos in the original, a word meaning a race or
descent. The one other word, and the one mostly used, is genea, and ‘denotes
an age or generation from the point of view of race (as aion does from that of
duration)’ (Dr. E.W. Bullinger). Metaphorically, genea indicates ‘a race of
men very like each other in endowments, pursuits, character; and especially in
a bad sense, a perverse race (Matt. 17:17; Acts 2:40)’ (Grimm -Thayer). The
note of time is sounded in such passages as Acts 15:21, ‘For Moses of old
time’, and in Ephesians 3:5,21, ‘other ages’, ‘all ages’. Our special interest
in this analysis is with a passage in Matthew, and one or two in Ephesians and
Colossians. First, the passage in Matthew.

      ‘This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled’
      (Matt. 24:34).

      The difficulty that such a statement creates in view of the contextual
reference to the second coming is removed by drawing attention to the
untranslated particle an, and to the employment of the subjunctive mood, which
indicates uncertainty, an uncertainty that arose by reason of the fact that all
was conditional upon the repentance of the nation (see The Companion Bible).

      ‘This generation shall not pass till (that is, provided that the
conditions are fulfilled) all these things be fulfilled’.

Thayer’s note on an says: ‘It is a particle indicating that something can or
could occur on certain conditions ... sometimes the condition is not expressly
stated, but is easily gathered from what is said: Luke 19:23 and Matthew 25:27
(I should have received it back with interest, if thou hadst given it to the
bankers)’. This is but one of many examples that illustrate the ‘gap’ theory,
a principle acknowledged by the Lord in Luke 4:16 -20, and more fully
considered under the headings Lo -Ammi (p. 297), and Right Division4.

      Three occurrences of genea found in Ephesians and Colossians are
important, especially as the connection between Ephesians 3:5 and Colossians
1:26 is veiled in the A.V.

      ‘Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men’ (Eph. 3:5).
      ‘Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations’
(Col. 1:26).
      Where it is ‘the mystery of Christ’, the apostle is content to show that
this particular aspect of Divine truth is more fully revealed today, than it
had been in other generations, using the lesser of the two words employed in
Colossians 1:26. Where, however, as in Colossians 1:25,26, Paul is speaking of
‘The Mystery’ and not ‘the mystery of Christ’, he uses two words, ‘ages and
generations’, and while we today may not limit the term ‘generations’ to
Israel, a survey of the occurrences of genea in the New Testament will show
that, with one exception, that is the case. The ‘ages’ are vaster in their
sweep, going back to the beginning of the world, and as Paul, in Colossians
1:25,26, is dealing with the great secret of the present dispensation, both
terms are used. The exception mentioned a few lines above is Ephesians 3:21,
where the A.V. reads:

      ‘Unto Him be glory in the Church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages,
      world without end. Amen’.

This is corrected in the R.V. margin, which reads ‘Gr. all the generations of
the age of the ages’, which instead of looking back, as does Ephesians 3:5 and
Colossians 1:26, looks down the vista of time to the consummation when God
shall be all in all. See This Generation9 in the volume devoted to Prophecy
for another approach to this problem.

Gentile. The English word Gentile comes from the Latin, and means one
belonging to the same class or clan (gens). Gens in Latin indicates the race
and surname, and in Roman law a Gentile indicated a member of the same gens.
The Scriptural standpoint, however, is that of the Hebrew, and the word Gentile
in the Bible refers to the non -Jewish nations of the earth. The Greek word
translated Gentile is ethnos, and this has given rise to a number of words in
English such as ethnology, the science which treats of the various races of
mankind. Ethnos is probably derived from ethos, ‘custom, manners, etc., and
means a people bound together by similar habits, manners and customs’. Those
of our readers who may use Dr. Bullinger’s Greek Lexicon, should be apprised
of a slip in the explanatory note under the word Gentile. It reads: ‘In the
Old Testament those who were not of Israel (this of course is true) and in the
New Testament those who are neither of Israel nor of the Church, see 1
Corinthians 10:32’.

      It is the reference to 1 Corinthians 10:32 that needs care, for a
superficial reading uses this verse to indicate the threefold division, ‘Jew,
Gentile and Church of God’. The fact is, however, that the word translated
‘Gentile’ in this verse is hellen, which is the more limited term ‘Greeks’
as opposed to the ‘Barbarians’. Both, however, were ‘Gentiles’ in the eye of
the Jew, but while all Hellens were Gentiles, all Gentiles were not and could
not be Hellens. The word ‘Gentile’ meets us in the Old Testament first in
Genesis 10, where the progeny of Japheth, the son of Noah, is given:

      ‘By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every
      one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations’ (Gen.

      The R.V. corrects this by reading, ‘Of these were the isles of the
nations divided’, for until we have a Jew, we cannot have a Gentile, the one
being used to distinguish the rest of the population of the earth from the
Hebrew nation, and the Hebrew nation did not exist until after the call of
Abraham in Genesis 12. The Hebrew word thus translated is goi, a word derived
from a root, meaning to form into a mass or a body. It is used in Job 30:5,
where it is rendered ‘among (men)’. Goi indicates a congregation of men
associated together. The word goi, in the plural, occurs six times in Genesis
10, being translated ‘nations’ with the exception of the rendering of verse 5
already noted. It is evident that the word Gentile could not be used in
Genesis 12:2, in the promise to Abraham, ‘I will make of thee a great nation’,
neither could the word Gentile be used in such a passage as Exodus 19:6, ‘an
holy nation’.

      We find the word translated ‘heathen’ on occasion (Deut. 4:27), and
‘people’ as in Joshua 3:17, but after considering all the factors in the case,
there can be no doubt but that ‘nation’ or ‘nations’ is the most satisfactory
translation of the singular goi and the plural goyim. The same can be said of
ethnos in the New Testament. There it is translated Gentiles, heathen, nation
and people. Luke 2:32 renders the word ‘Gentiles’, while Luke 7:5 when,
referring to Israel, renders it ‘nation’, as does also John 11:48. Acts 4:25
translates it ‘heathen’ and Romans 10:19 translates it ‘people’. The epistle
to the Galatians uses ‘heathen’, ‘Gentiles’ and ‘nations’ for the one word
(Gal. 1:16; 2:2; 3:8). What we found to be true in the Old Testament we find
to be true in the New Testament. In the plural the word indicates the non -
Jewish nations, which we may call Gentiles, but when used of Israel in the
singular it must keep its primitive signification of nation. Owing to the fact
that goyim means the Gentiles, the Jew has developed an aversion to the word,
and does not readily use the singular goi of his own nation. The reader will
have noticed that the returned people of Israel now occupying Palestine are
referred to as Israeli. This means literally ‘of Israel’, the full title being
‘the goi of Israel’, the goi, however, being suppressed and left unsaid.

      There are one or two outstanding passages where the use of the word
‘Gentile’ is of dispensational significance. In Matthew 10, the twelve
apostles were given their first commission, a commission that was concerned
with preaching the kingdom of heaven, a preaching which was confirmed by extra
-ordinary miracles. This commission was severely limited:

      ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans
      enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’
      (Matt. 10:5,6).

It is patent, therefore, that the term ‘Gentile’ was opposed to ‘Israel’ in
this command to the twelve.

 It is moreover made evident from Matthew 16, both from our Lord’s own
statement and ‘from that time forth began’ (16:21), and from Peter’s reaction
(16:22), that those who had thus preached the gospel of the kingdom with signs
following, had done so without knowing that Christ must suffer and die! For a
fuller examination of this and kindred subjects see article entitled Gospel (p.
66). Also under the heading Gospel will be found an examination of the four
gospels and an exhibition of their distinctive teaching. A special note of
comparison to which the reader is referred is that which sets out the
distinctive differences of Matthew and Luke, and we will not repeat ourselves
here, except to give the references that Luke makes to the Gentiles, and which
indicate the peculiar trend of his gospel:

      ‘A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of Thy people Israel’
      (Luke 2:32).

      The significance of this passage will be appreciated when it is
remembered that Simeon was ‘waiting for the consolation of Israel’ (Luke 2:25),
yet under the power of the Holy Ghost, he put the Gentile first:

      ‘Until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled’ (Luke 21:24).

      If the corresponding section of Matthew 24 be read, it will be observed
that Luke adds the reference to the times of the Gentiles, a feature which
Matthew does not include. Upon reaching the Acts of the Apostles, it is not
until we reach the seventh occurrence of ethnos, namely in Acts 9:15, that we
find the term used with any sense of favour. See the article entitled People9
for further exposition.
In Matthew 12:18,21, which immediately follows the rejection indicated in
Matthew 11:20 -24 and immediately precedes the introduction of ‘mystery’ into
Matthew 13 (see Parable3), we have a reference to the Gentiles which is similar
to that of Acts 13:46,47, and for similar reasons, culminating as it does at
Acts 28, with the complete setting aside of Israel, the full and independent
evangelizing of the Gentiles, and the introduction of the Mystery in the prison
epistles that followed (Acts 28:17 -31). See the article on Acts 28, The
Dispensational Boundary1.

      It is the thrice asserted claim of Paul, that he was
the apostle to the Gentiles (Rom. 11:13; 1 Tim. 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11). In addition
to these passages Paul declared that he was the ‘minister of Jesus Christ to
the Gentiles’ (Rom. 15:16), that he was separated to preach Christ among the
Gentiles (Gal. 1:16) and that this peculiar office was recognized by Peter,
James and John at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:8,9).

      Further, Paul claimed that the dispensation of the grace of God had   been
entrusted to him ‘for you’ Gentiles, and that he had been commissioned to
preach among the Gentiles, the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to make   known
the riches of the glory of this Mystery among the Gentiles (Eph. 3:1,2,8;   Col.
1:27). The door of faith was opened unto the Gentiles at Paul’s first
missionary journey (Acts 14:27). The times of the Gentiles, which refers
rather to the political, than the ecclesiastical element, will come to an   end
when the kingdoms of this world become the kingdom of our Lord and of His
Christ. (See the article Revelation4).

      It has been suggested that the word ethnos, translated Gentile, refers in
many instances to the dispersed of Israel, who had so long lived among the
heathen as to have become in the eyes of their more orthodox fellows
‘uncircumcision’ and ‘aliens from the commonwealth of Israel’, terms that we
have generally accepted as a description of the Gentiles before their
conversion. As this new interpretation impinges upon the teaching of Ephesians
and does not allow the normal meaning of the word Gentile to appear until
Ephesians 3, no one can object if this interpretation be suspect; or that it
should be subjected to criticism, so long as the enquiry be conducted in the
interests of Truth. The article to which we refer provides a concordance of
all the references to ethnos in the New Testament from which we extract the
following from the Acts of the Apostles. Acts 2:5; 4:25; 7:7,45; 11:1,18;
13:19,46,47. Let us use these references as a test. Acts 2:5 speaks of the
‘nations’ ethnos among which the ‘Jews’ who came to Pentecost lived. Some of
them, namely Parthians, Medes and Elamites (Acts 2:9 -11) are undoubtedly
Gentiles in the accepted sense. Acts 4:25 quotes from Psalm 2 ‘Why do the
heathen rage?’ and in verse 27 these ‘heathen’ or ‘Gentiles’ are differentiated
from Israel, and linked with Herod and Pontius Pilate. The writer of the Acts
gives no indication that he believed that the word ethnos could, and did, refer
to some of the dispersion of Israel. Acts 7:7 uses the word ethnos to indicate
the ‘Egyptians’ and 7:45, like 13:19, refers to the ‘Canaanites’ as indicated
in Genesis 15:19 -21. Here Gentiles as differentiated from Israel must be
intended. Acts 11:1 and 18 refer to Cornelius who was a centurion of the
Italian band, and called by Peter ‘one of another nation’ (Acts 10:28). The
word Peter employed is allophulos, and is found in the Septuagint of Exodus
34:15, Isaiah 2:6 and 61:5, as well as six times in Judges as the equivalent of
‘Philistines’. It is impossible therefore to believe that the acknowledgment
of Acts 11:18, ‘Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto
life’, can refer to Gentiles as such, but that a similar testimony in Acts
14:27 may not. Acts 13:42,46 and 47 are associated with Isaiah 49:6, which can
only mean Gentiles in the generally accepted sense.

      While we must encourage every believer to exercise the Berean spirit
(Acts 17:11) we must not close our eyes to the Satanic travesty, equally
mentioned in the same chapter of the Acts, namely the Athenian spirit of ever
telling or hearing ‘something newer’ (kainoteron) (Acts 17:21).

      The Authorized Version, while containing faults that have been exposed by
both friend and foe, still maintains an eminent position in spite of several
versions that have followed it. Where the A.V. reads ‘Gentiles’ in Genesis
10:5, the R.V. reads ‘nations’. There is no question that ‘nations’ is a good
rendering, as verses 20,31 and 32 reveal. Why, it may be asked, did the A.V.
choose to translate the first occurrence of the Hebrew Goyim by the word
‘Gentiles’? May it not be that instead of accusing them of ignorance, we should
credit them with intelligent insight? True there can be no ‘Gentiles’ where
there are no ‘Jews’, yet knowing what was written in Deuteronomy 32:8 they may
have intended to indicate that all these ‘nations’ would be ‘Gentiles’ as soon
as Israel came into view.

      ‘When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance (a ref. to
      Gen. 10:5,32), when He separated the sons of Adam, He set the bounds of
      the people according to the number of the children of Israel’.

      The Greeks made a similar distinction, calling the other nations of the
world ‘Barbarians’, which is accepted without comment by the writers of the New
Testament The accepted meaning of the word ‘Gentile’ in the English tongue is
‘any nation other than the people of Israel’. It is impossible that any
objection we may lodge at this time of day could or should dislodge this word
from the dictionary and literature of the centuries. The wiser course is to
use the term with discrimination, in other words, to practise Right Division
even in the terms we are compelled to employ.

Giants. The question of who and what were the ‘giants’ mentioned in the Old
Testament is wider than the limited scope of this analysis, but one set of
references found in Deuteronomy 1 to 3 has a bearing, by analogy, upon the
warfare of the church and its spiritual foes in high places. The first three
chapters of Deuteronomy deal with events just before and just after the forty
years in the wilderness. The material is abundant, and our purpose is best
served by selecting that which illuminates principles rather than by giving an
exposition of the book in detail. The structure of Deuteronomy 1 to 3 brings
into prominence certain salient features, and we will first of all place that
structure before the reader.
                               Deuteronomy 1 to 3

A     1:1 -3. a   Moses spake unto all Israel.
                  b In wilderness over against Red Sea.
                        c Eleven days by way of Mount Seir.
      B     1:4 -7.           d Sihon and Og slain.
                                    e Ye have dwelt long enough.
                                          f Turn you, and take your journey.
                                                g Mount of Amorites, all places
                                                      nigh, land of Canaanites.
            C     1:8. I have set the land before you ... possess it.
                  D     1:9 -45.    h We will send men before us. Ye rebelled.
                                          i Lord wroth with Israel.
                                                j Not one of that generation
                                                shall go over.
                                                        k Save Caleb, son of
                                            i Lord angry with me.
                                                  j Thou shalt not go in thither.
                                                        k But Joshua the son of
                                      h We will go up and fight. Ye rebelled.
                         E     1:46. Abode in Kadesh.
A     2:1 -3.     b Into the wilderness by way of the Red Sea.
                  a As the Lord spake unto me.
                         c Compassed Mount Seir many days.
      B     2:3 to 3:11.       e Ye have compassed the Mount long
                                      f Turn you northward.
                                            g Edom, Moab, Ammon etc.
                            d Sihon and Og slain.
            C     3:12 -20.    God hath given you this land to possess it.
                  D      3:21 -28.            h   Joshua commanded.
                                                i Lord wroth with me.
                                                  j Thou shalt not go over.
                                                    k Joshua -- he shall go over.
                         E     3:29. Abode in valley over against Beth -peor.

Two things stand out in this structure:

      (1)   That God had given Israel the land to possess, which He had sworn
to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (1:8 and 3:18).
      (2)   That the people failed to enter in because of unbelief, Joshua and
            Caleb being the exceptions.

      Allied with these facts we have the intimidating presence of the giants,
the sons of Anak, the unbelief that suggested the sending of the spies, and the
failure even of Moses in the matter of sanctifying the Lord in his high and
responsible office.

      Our subject at the moment is the presence of the Canaanites and other
enemies that barred the way, when Israel were ready to go up and possess the
land. A pronounced difference is made between the attitude that Israel were to
adopt towards Esau, Moab and Ammon, and their attitude toward Sihon and Og:
      ‘Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so
      much as a foot breadth; because I have given mount Seir unto Esau for a
      possession’ (Deut. 2:5).
      ‘Distress not the Moabites, neither contend with them in battle: for I
      will not give thee of their land for a possession; because I have given
      Ar unto the children of Lot for a possession’ (2:9).
      ‘And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress
      them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of
      the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the
      children of Lot for a possession’ (2:19).

      In contrast with these prohibitions, we read concerning Sihon and Og and
their lands:

      ‘Behold, I have given into thine hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon,
      and his land: begin to possess it, and contend with him in battle’
      ‘Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan
      came out against us ... thou shalt do unto him as thou didst unto Sihon
      king of the Amorites’ (3:1,2).

      The destruction of Sihon and Og was an utter destruction: ‘Men, women and
children of every city were destroyed; none were left’ (2:33,34; 3:3 -6).

      The lesson underlying this differentiation is as fundamental to the
Church as it was to Israel. Let us seek to understand it.

      First, let us observe one difference between these two classes. Esau was
the brother of Jacob; Ammon and Moab were both the sons of Lot, the nephew of
Abraham. Sihon, on the other hand, was an Amorite (2:24), and Og one of the
remnant of the ‘Rephaim’; the former was a Canaanite (Gen. 10:16), the latter
one of the evil seed whose origin is indicated in the opening verses of Genesis
6. The first thing, then, to remember is that here are the two seeds --
Israel, Esau, Moab and Lot belonging to one line; Sihon, Og, the Canaanite and
the Rephaim belonging to the other. In one case God gives possessions and
preserves; in the other, He deprives of possessions and destroys.

      Before Israel cross over the river Arnon, Moses reminds them of a
principle already in operation. When God had promised the land to Abraham, he
was told, in effect, that his children would not be allowed to enter into
possession until the iniquity of the Amorites was full (Gen. 15:16). Let us
observe what Moses said, and its application both to Israel and to ourselves:

      ‘The Emims dwelt therein in times past, a people great, and many, and
      tall, as the Anakims; which also were accounted giants (Rephaim)’ (Deut.
      ‘The Horims also dwelt in Seir beforetime; but the children of Esau
      succeeded them, when they had destroyed them from before them, and dwelt
      in their stead; as Israel did unto the land of his possession, which the
      Lord gave unto them’ (Deut. 2:12).
      ‘That (i.e. Ammon’s inheritance) also was accounted a land of giants
      (Rephaim): giants dwelt therein in old time; and the Ammonites call them
      Zamzummims; a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; but the
      Lord destroyed them before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in
      their stead’ (Deut. 2:20,21).
      It will be seen that in each case the original holders of the land were
the ‘giants’, the progeny of evil. In each case these were destroyed and their
land was inherited ‘in their stead’ by descendants of Abraham, Esau, Moab and
Ammon. There are also the added words: ‘As Israel did unto the land of his
possession’ (2:12).

      While, however, all these peoples have this in common, Israel itself is
always considered separately and alone. Moab and Edom are but household
servants in the day of the true David’s triumph: ‘Moab is my washpot; over Edom
will I cast out my shoe’ (Psa. 108:9). These relative positions indicate that
among the one great circle of the true seed, there will be many differences in
‘glory’ and ‘sphere’: all receiving a ‘justification unto life’, but not
all ‘reigning in life’ (see Rom. 5:12 -21). Israel were forbidden to ‘meddle’
with these other nations, linked as they were by ties of blood. The same word
is repeated in Deuteronomy 2:24, where it is translated ‘contend’. The two
passages emphasize the absolute distinction made between these two seeds.
Israel were forbidden to ‘contend’ with Edom, Moab and Ammon; but commanded to
‘contend’ with Sihon.

      We notice also that Israel were to pay for all the meat and drink that
they consumed while passing through these territories; and they were reminded
of the fact that through all their wanderings in the wilderness they had lacked
nothing (Deut. 2:7). A request for a passage ‘through thy land’ was also sent
to Sihon, King of Heshbon:

      ‘Let me pass through thy land: I will go along by the high way, I will
      neither turn unto the right hand nor to the left. Thou shalt sell me
      meat for money, that I may eat; and give me water for money, that I may
      drink: only I will pass through on my feet ... until I shall pass over
      Jordan into the land which the Lord our God giveth us’ (Deut. 2:27 -29).

      From this it appears that, had Sihon permitted Israel
to pass through his territory, and had he supplied them with food and water as
requested, Israel would not have destroyed his nation and inherited his land,
Israel’s true inheritance being strictly beyond Jordan.

      Let us now endeavour to express, in terms of church doctrine and
dispensational truth, what this means to those whose blessing is defined
according to the epistle to the Ephesians. Israel’s inheritance was not
enjoyed as soon as it was promised; a period of waiting, of bondage, and of
redemption intervened -- waiting until the iniquity of the Amorite was full.
The inheritance of the church of the Mystery was allotted ‘before the overthrow
of the world’ (Eph. 1:3,4) but the members of that church are found in the
bondage of sin and death, needing redemption (Eph. 1:7). Their inheritance is
future (Eph. 1:14). The sphere of their inheritance is in ‘heavenly places’
and far above ‘principalities and powers’. This church is related in the flesh
with other companies of God’s children, just as Israel was related to Edom,
Moab and Ammon; but as many of these are associated with this world, fellowship
is restricted. Their endeavour is to live peaceably, not to strive, and to
live as those whose primary object is to ‘pass through’ this world, asking for
no favours and wanting little more than ‘meat and drink’. Ephesians 6:12
speaks of this church as not ‘wrestling’ with ‘flesh and blood’; just as
Deuteronomy 2 speaks of Israel not ‘meddling’or ‘contending’ with Esau, Moab or
Ammon. Ephesians 6:12 says that the foes of the church are ‘spiritual
wickednesses’, which are the ‘world holders of this darkness’. These fallen
principalities and powers, whose inheritance in the heavenlies is lost, and in
whose realm of glory the church is soon to appear, act as Sihon acted when he
would not let Israel ‘pass by him’ (Deut. 2:30). The result of this is that
the church whose real foes are ‘over the Jordan’, and whose real conflict is
depicted at the overthrow of Jericho, has to stand against the opposition of
these spiritual Amorites, ‘the world holders of this darkness’. See Angels,
Fallen1; In Adam (p. 184); Seed4; and Sons of God4.

Glory. This word, as applied to man in its higher meaning, speaks of honour,
reputation and magnificence, but such is human nature, it is also used as a
synonym for boasting. So in Romans 5:2 we read ‘and rejoice in hope of the
glory of God’ where the Greek word so translated is doxa, while in Romans 5:3
we read ‘we glory in tribulations also’ where the Greek word is kauchaomai ‘to
boast’. In this reference the ‘boasting’ is legitimate and right, but it is
only too easy to glory (boast) in ‘appearance’ or ‘after the flesh’ or in
‘self’ (2 Cor. 5:12; 11:18; Gal. 6:13; Eph. 2:9). In this article we restrict
ourselves to the examination of glory in its highest meaning, and in the first
place consider the derivation of the Greek word doxa.

      Doxa, glory, is one of a group of words derived from dokeo which means
‘to seem’. At first sight such a parenthood seems impossible for such an
offspring. In what way can the glory of God be associated with the word ‘to
seem’? First let us rid ourselves of a false inference; mere appearance, is not
in view, but something far deeper and real. This will be made evident as we
survey the other members of the verbal family. Let us take the word dokimos
for a start. This word occurs seven times as follows:

      Rom. 14:18 Acceptable to God, and approved of men.
      Rom. 16:10 Salute Apelles approved in Christ.
      1 Cor. 11:19       They which are approved.
      2 Cor. 10:18       Not he that commendeth himself is approved.
      2 Cor. 13:7 Not that we should appear approved.
      2 Tim. 2:15 Study to shew thyself approved unto God.
      Jas. 1:12    When he is tried.

      Here it will be seen that the ‘seeming’ has been tested, and proved to be
no mere appearance, but a manifestation of reality within. So we have
dokimion, the ‘trying’ of faith, the ‘trial’ of faith (Jas. 1:3; 1 Pet. 1:7).
In the latter passage, the figure is that of trying or testing gold with fire
‘though it be tried (dokimazo) with fire’. Hence we have ‘the fire shall try
every man’s work’ (1 Cor. 3:13), and ‘let every man prove his own work’ (Gal.
6:4). ‘Prove all things, hold fast that which is good’ (1 Thess. 5:21) and
‘Try the spirits whether they are of God’ (1 John 4:1). If glory is the result
of testing such as this, it can be no mere seeming, it is the acknowledgment
that the subject has been put to the test and approved. It may at first seem
improper for anyone to think of putting God to the test, but such a passage as
that in Romans 3 must be given a place.

      ‘For what if some did not believe? shall their unbelief make the faith of
      God without effect? God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a
      liar; as it is written, That Thou mightest be justified in Thy sayings,
      and mightest overcome when Thou art judged’ (Rom. 3:3,4).

      When Paul says of man, that all have sinned and come short of the glory
of God (Rom. 3:23), he in reality says that man has failed under the test, he
has come short of the Divine standard. The hope of the church of the Mystery
is that when Christ our life shall appear or be manifested, then we shall be
manifested with him in (en) glory (Col. 3:4). The hope of the believer before
Acts 28 was to meet the Lord in (eis) the air (1 Thess. 4:17), while the hope
of the people of Israel is that in that day His feet shall stand upon (epi) the
Mount of Olives. These indicate the three spheres of blessing with their
corresponding hope. Some have felt that the words ‘in glory’ of Colossians
3:4, indicate simply the glorious character of the Lord’s manifestation, and
that it could be used of 1 Thessalonians 4 or any other phase of His coming.
While such a sentiment is in itself true, we must not allow a specious
interpretation to invalidate the high glory of our hope. The Colossians were
directed to seek those things which are above, and lest we shall fall into the
error of saying those things which are above are simply spiritual, without
reference to place or sphere, the apostle immediately follows with the
explanatory clause ‘Where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God’. Again in
verse 2, ‘above’ is placed over against ‘earth’.

      Under the heading Hope, p. 132, we have endeavoured to show that hope is
a realization of calling, and the calling of this church places its hopes and
its blessings ‘in heavenly places’ and potentially they are spoken of as
already ‘seated together’ there. Colossians 3:4 is but the realization of what
they have held by faith, and nothing less than ‘the right hand of God, where
Christ sitteth’ will fill that realization so that hope shall be unashamed. On
the Mount of Transfiguration, the Saviour ‘appeared in glory’ (Luke 9:31) and
three of His disciples, together with Moses and the prophet, beheld His glory.
The time had not then come for the believer himself to be manifested in that
glory, but as Peter said, the vision in the holy mount made the word of
prophecy ‘more sure’*. The many aspects of this subject that are related with
the Lord Himself, and the great doctrines of Redemption, constitute a study in
itself and would take us too far afield.

      We must be content here with these few pointers, but we believe if they
are followed out in all their connections, the word ‘glory’ will appear still
more glorious by reason of the fact that it reveals the full unimpeachable
justification of God Himself, of Christ the Redeemer, and of all the saved of
all callings and spheres. The glory that awaits us will be a splendour beyond
the present knowledge and experience of man, but its splendour will be
something richer and fuller than brilliance even though that brilliance
outshine the sun in its strength, it will be the glory, that will manifest how
right God has been in all His ways, He will be justified as will every one of
His redeemed people.

      We may have speculated as to the essential difference that there may be
between ‘the crown of glory’ (1 Pet. 5:4) and ‘the crown of righteousness’ (2
Tim. 4:8). It would appear from what we have seen to be the basic idea in the
word doxa, that these two crowns represent but two aspects of the same thing.

The Good Deposit. The word ‘deposit’ does not occur in the New Testament but
it is used by expositors in an endeavour to translate with greater accuracy the
meaning of the apostle in the claim made by him in 2 Timothy 1:12.

      First, let us see the passages concerned, as they appear in the A.V.

      ‘For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not
      ashamed: for I know Whom I have believed, and am persuaded that He is
      able to keep that which I have committed unto Him against that day’ (2
      Tim. 1:12).
      ‘That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost
      which dwelleth in us’ (2 Tim. 1:14).
      ‘And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same
      commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also’ (2
      Tim. 2:2).

      The structure of 2 Timothy 1:8 -18 is divided into three sections by the
words ‘not ashamed’:

A     1:8 -12           Timothy - Be not ashamed of the testimony ... prisoner
A     1:12 -14    Paul - Not ashamed of suffering as prisoner
A     1:15 -18    Onesiphorus - Not ashamed of chains of prisoner.

There can be no doubt but that the prison ministry of the apostle is uppermost
in this passage, and faithfulness in spite of great opposition is encouraged.
We are concerned at the moment with the second of these subdivisions and so
will set out more fully the structure of that passage.

A     1:12 -14.   Paul -- Not ashamed of suffering as prisoner.
                        Subject -- The Good Deposit.
                        Time Period -- That Day.
                  a     12.         He is able to guard.
                        b     12.         The Deposit.
                              c     13.   Have a form of sound words which
                                          thou hast heard of me.
                  a     14.         Do thou guard.
                        b     14.         The Good Deposit.

      As we have introduced a new translation into the structure, we will deal
with that first. The words of the A.V., ‘that which I have committed unto Him’
(2 Tim. 1:12), are, in the original, ten paratheken mou, and those of verse 14,
‘that good thing which was committed unto thee’, are ten kalen paratheken. It
will be seen that, with the exception of the two words mou, ‘of me’, and kalen,
‘good’, the same words are used in both passages. The R.V. margin informs us
that the Greek means ‘my deposit’. If we turn to 1 Timothy 6:20 we shall find
the same words used there, ‘O Timothy, keep that which has been committed to
thy trust’, ten paratheken.

      In 2 Timothy 2:2, where we read ‘the things that thou hast heard of me
among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able
to teach others also’, the verb paratithemi is used. Moreover, in 1 Timothy
1:18, the apostle uses the same verb where he says: ‘This charge I commit unto
thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that
thou by them mightest war a good warfare, holding faith and a good conscience’
(1 Tim. 1:18,19).

      It is evident that the apostle has some specific body of truth in view
when he uses this word paratheke. This is not only obvious by the way in which
he uses it, but in the way in which he hedges it round. He closely associates
it with what he calls ‘things heard of me’, and even the gospel itself is that
gospel of which Paul was made the herald, and which, in 2 Timothy 2:8, he
denominates ‘my gospel’. We shall therefore be well advised to go on with our
search, so that we may have the full advantage of all the apostle has to say of
this ‘good deposit’.
      As the A.V. stands (2 Tim. 1:12), the apostle appears to be committing
something to the safe keeping of the Lord, and a popular hymn has fixed this
interpretation in the minds of thousands. The margin of the R.V. reads ‘or
that which He hath committed unto me. Gr. my deposit’, and over against verse
14 the R.V. margin reads ‘Gr. The good deposit’. This entrusted truth is
associated with Paul as the Prisoner of Jesus Christ with a purpose that goes
back before age times, and with himself as the accredited Preacher, Apostle and
Teacher of the Gentiles. These features link the good deposit with the truth
revealed in Ephesians, where Paul is again spoken of as the Prisoner of Christ
Jesus, where the purpose goes back to before the foundation of the world, and
where the truth entrusted is described as ‘The Mystery’ (Eph. 3:1 -14) for
which he also suffered.

      This good deposit was ‘kept’ or ‘safeguarded’, phulasso, (1) by the Lord,
until that day; (2) by the Holy Ghost or pneuma hagion, spiritual power
especially given at the beginning; (3) by holding fast the form of sound words
which Timothy had heard of Paul; and finally, by committing the same to
faithful men who should be able to teach others also (2 Tim. 2:2). That is the
only ‘apostolic succession’ that is valid, but it is a succession that has had
little or no continuity. For this good deposit the apostle had been saved and
commissioned. To make all men see its beauty and its grace he spent his life,
for it he gladly suffered prison and ultimately death, and those of us who have
caught a glimpse of its glory must in our measure hold it faithfully, even
though our faithfulness be limited by our frailty. We have already seen that a
dispensation is a stewardship, here in this good deposit we have that body of
truth that constituted the dispensation or stewardship of the apostle while
Israel remained in their blindness, while the hope of Israel was suspended, and
while the New Covenant ceased to be operative. It is in the interest of that
good deposit that this analysis has been prepared, and to safeguard its
teaching is the chief object of its publication. May 2 Timothy 2:2 in some
measure, however small, be among the blessed consequences of this effort.


      For a full examination of this most blessed word, the doctrinal
associations of Redemption7, Forgiveness6 and Justification6 would have to be
included. See these themes in the volumes of this Analysis which are devoted
to doctrine. This is beyond our present limits, our concern in this section is
the Dispensational aspect of truth, and the preaching of the Gospel will be
clear and convincing or beclouded and unconvincing largely as the preacher
realizes the dispensational changes that have influenced the gospel that should
be preached. From one point of view, of course, we can most truthfully say
‘there is only one gospel’, and by that we mean that all men everywhere,
whether Jew or Gentile, are sinners, that it is one God Who saves, and One
Offering that provides the basis of such salvation. But if we intend by the
expression ‘there is only one gospel’ to sweep aside all the dispensational
differences that are observable, we shall be hinderers and not helpers, and we
shall give forth an uncertain sound. Let us first of all tabulate the
different ‘Gospels’ that are spoken of in the New Testament:

      (1)   The gospel of the Kingdom (Matt. 4:23).
      (2)   The gospel of Jesus Christ ... the Kingdom of God (Mark 1:1,14).
      (3)   The gospel preached to every creature with signs following (Mark
      (4)   The gospel of God (Rom. 1:1).
      (5)   The gospel of His Son (Rom. 1:9).
      (6)   The gospel of Christ (Rom. 1:16).
      (7)    My gospel (Rom. 2:16; 16:25; 2 Tim. 2:8).
      (8)    The glorious gospel or the gospel of the Glory of Christ (2 Cor.
      (9)    The gospel of the Uncircumcision (Gal. 2:7).
      (10)   The gospel of the Circumcision (Gal. 2:7).
      (11)   The gospel of the Grace of God (Acts 20:24).
      (12)   The gospel of Your Salvation (Eph. 1:13).
      (13)   The gospel of Peace (Eph. 6:15).
      (14)   The gospel of the Glory of the Blessed God (1 Tim. 1:11).
      (15)   The Everlasting gospel (Rev. 14:6).

      In addition we can add Ephesians 3:6, and 2 Timothy 1:10,11, where the
gospel is defined as that of which Paul had been a minister, a preacher, an
apostle and a teacher of the Gentiles. It would be as untrue as it would be
absurd to say that because we have compiled a list of fifteen different titles
of the Gospel, that there are fifteen ‘gospels’, but it would be equally
harmful and untrue to sweep aside all the manifest differences that are here,
and reckon them of little or no importance. Let us take an extreme case to

      The everlasting gospel (Rev. 14:6). Without turning aside to discuss the
word ‘everlasting’ let us note the following features about this ‘gospel’. The
exhortation is to ‘fear’, the reason is because the hour of ‘judgment’ has
come, and worship is directed to Him Who made heaven and earth, and the
fountains of waters. Not only is this ‘gospel’ notable for the terms employed,
it is even more notable for the obvious omissions. Not one word as to faith,
no mention of Christ, no reference to redemption, no promise of life, no
allusion to the forgiveness of sins. It is an extreme case certainly, but it
nevertheless challenges us, and calls us to realize that what may be a ‘gospel’
in one era may be no such thing in another. By the time this gospel is
preached, materialistic science will have done its worst. God as a Creator and
Moral Ruler will have ceased to exist in the mind of man except as an historic
specimen, and the man who fears God as Judge and Creator in those future
godless times will be a saved man. Let us now go to the head of the list:

      The gospel of the kingdom (Matt. 4:23). It will be noted that this
gospel of the kingdom is evidently expressed in verse 17 in the words ‘Repent:
for the kingdom of heaven is at hand’. It will further be noted that healing
all manner of sickness and disease was its accompaniment. In Matthew 10, the
‘twelve’ are commissioned to preach this gospel of the kingdom, and here we not
only have the accompaniment of healing,

      ‘Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out demons’
      (verse 8),

but the restriction:

      ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles’.

      Among those thus commissioned in Matthew 10 was ‘Simon, who is called
Peter’. There is no reason to doubt that he preached this gospel with signs
following. Yet in Matthew 16, we find him making it manifest that he did not
know that Christ should suffer and be killed (Matt. 16:21 -23). So therefore
we have in the gospel of the kingdom another example of a preaching with most
evident Divine approval that had no place in it for ‘Jesus Christ and Him
crucified’. It would be as evil for anyone to preach this gospel of the
kingdom today as it would be to preach the everlasting gospel -- neither is a
message for the present dispensation, and these two extreme cases make it
abundantly clear that, apart from a knowledge of dispensational truth, there is
every likelihood that the very gospel that is preached will be a garbled

      Even if we transfer our allegiance to Mark 16:15 -20 and say that here
this gospel must include the sacrifice of Christ, for the one offering had been
made, here ‘every creature’ cancels the limits imposed in Matthew 10, here ‘Go
ye’ countermands ‘Go not’, yet we still have to face the fact that

      (1)   ‘He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved’ which is
      entirely opposite to the present -day teaching ‘He that believeth is
      saved’, whether he sets forth his faith by subsequent baptism or not.
      (2)   ‘These signs shall follow them that believe’ and an honest reading
            of what those signs comprise, will compel most of us to admit that
            we have therefore
            no evidence of our salvation if Mark 16 is dispensationally true
            for us today.

      That such conditions obtained during the Acts of the Apostles it is easy
to show.
      (1)   Baptism preceding salvation:

      ‘Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ,
      for the remission of sins’ (Acts 2:38).
      (2)   They shall take up serpents:
      ‘A viper ... fastened on his hand ... he felt no harm ... others ...
which had diseases ... came, and were healed’ (Acts 28:1 -9).
Mark 16 therefore was fulfilled during the Acts, and its terms obtained right
up to the last chapter. In fact these conditions belong to ‘the hope of
Israel’, a hope expressed in Acts 1:6 and confessed in Acts 28:20, and which
therefore is in the background of all the intervening ministry of the apostles.
(This feature is discussed more fully under the headings Hope, p. 132; Second
Coming4; and Miracles3). That there were two phases of this gospel during the
same period a reference to Galatians 2:7 makes clear. Before dealing with any
one verse, let us see the section as a whole.

                               Galatians 2:1 –14

A     2:1,2.      a      Paul goes to Jerusalem for the faith.
                         b     Barnabas stands fast.
      B     3 -5.              c     Titus not compelled.
                                     d     Paul’s stand for the truth of the
            C     6 -10.                   e     Seemed to be somewhat.
                                                 f     Added nothing to me.
                                                       g Gospel of
                                                       g Gospel of Circumcision
                                           e     Seemed to be pillars.
                                                 f     Remember the poor.
A     2:11 -13.   a      Peter comes to Antioch. Faith overthrown.
                         b     Even Barnabas carried away.
      B 14.                     d   Peter’s walk against the truth of the
                            c       Gentiles compelled.

                   (For the structure of the whole epistle,
                        see article Galatians, p. 37).

      Paul went up to Jerusalem ‘by revelation’, and his purpose is expressed
in the words ‘I communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the
Gentiles’, which, to say the least, makes it appear that those at Jerusalem did
not preach exactly the same message. Whether we are prepared to recognize a
difference or not, we are not left without evidence that Peter, James and John
were convinced.

      ‘But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision
      was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter
      ... they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship’ (Gal. 2:7

      Into the differences that are to be observed between such expressions as
‘The gospel of the grace of God’ and ‘The gospel of the glory of the blessed
God’ and what constitutes ‘My gospel’ in the three references made by Paul, we
do not here enter. Romans 2:16 will fall to be considered in its place when
the epistle to the Romans is before us, as also will the closing verses of
Romans 16. Romans 16:25 -27 will be given a fuller scrutiny in the article
entitled Mystery3. All that we hoped to accomplish in this article was to
demonstrate the essential part that dispensational truth has to play, even in
the preaching of the simple gospel, in spite of the prejudice that many
evangelical believers have against the whole subject.

      If the reader is still unconvinced, let him limit himself to the gospel
of Matthew, find the three references to eternal life in that gospel, and then
ask himself if he could, with a good conscience, make those three references,
without modification, his gospel message today? If he cannot do so he has no
alternative but (1) to deny the inspiration of Matthew’s gospel or (2) to admit
the place of dispensational truth. (See Right Division4).


      The dispensation of the Mystery, entrusted to Paul, is called ‘the
dispensation of the grace of God’ (Eph. 3:2). The gospel which accompanies
this dispensation is called ‘the gospel of the grace of God’ (Acts 20:24).
Grace therefore is a word of fundamental importance both in dispensational and
doctrinal truth. The Greek word so translated is charis, the only exception
being in James 1:11 where a word meaning beauty of outward appearance is used.
The Greek word is derived from chairo ‘to rejoice’, and in the classics charis
does not rise much above the idea of a favour, but like many another Greek word
it has taken on deeper and richer values by its employment in the Scriptures.
The word charis is employed in the LXX version to translate the Hebrew chen,
and it will be profitable to consider this word before analysing the Greek New
Testament. Chanan, the root, means ‘to deal graciously’ (Gen. 33:11) and the
fact that in a number of passages the A.V. translates the word ‘have mercy’
(Psa. 4:1) and ‘have pity’ (Prov. 19:17) and ‘to beseech’ or ‘make
supplication’ (Deut. 3:23; 1 Kings 8:33) shows something of its depth of
meaning. The substantive chen is often combined with the verb ‘to find’, as
‘Noah found grace’ (Gen. 6:8) or ‘found favour’ (Gen. 30:27), especially to
find grace and favour ‘in thy sight’ (Gen. 39:4) and ‘in thine eyes’ (Gen.
30:27). While this Old Testament usage has an effect upon the meaning of
charis, it remains for the New Testament in view of the finished work of
Christ, to give this term its richest meaning.


      ‘The import of this word has been in a peculiar manner determined and
defined by the peculiar use of it in the New Testament and especially in the
Pauline epistles ... so that we may say it depended upon Christianity to
realize the full import, and to elevate it to its rightful sphere’ (Cremer).

      While charis is used in the New Testament to indicate a kindly
disposition, it is especially used to indicate that attitude of God to man
‘which, as a free act, excludes merit, and is not hindered by guilt, but
forgives sin; it thus stands out in contrast with works, law and sin’ (Cremer).

      We may learn something of the distinctive meaning of ‘grace’ by observing
the terms with which it is contrasted.

      Grace is contrasted with opheilema ‘debt’ (Rom. 4:4).
      Grace is contrasted with erga ‘works’ (Rom. 11:6; Eph. 2:8,9).
      Grace is contrasted with nomos ‘law’ (Gal. 5:4).

      Grace has not only a place in doctrine and gospel, but permeates the
truth of the Mystery. This can be shown by examining the way in which ‘grace’
is used in Ephesians.
                               Grace in Ephesians

A     1:2.        Grace to you.      --         Salutation.
      B      1:6. Grace       a      1:7        Riches in Redemption.
                  exhibited          b    2:5         Saved.
                  in          a      2:7        Riches in ages to come.
                  Salvation.         b    2:8         Saved.
            C     3:2.        The Dispensation of the grace of God.
      B     3:7 to 4:29. Grace a     3:7        Acc. to gift of Grace.
                  manifested         b    3:8         Grace to preach.
                  in            a    4:7        Acc. to gift of Christ.
                  Service.           b    4:29 Grace to minister.
A     6:24.       Grace be with you.      --          Benediction.

      ‘How truly does the divine arrangement of this word emphasize its place
      and importance. No salutation is complete without it, and the parting
      benediction is enriched by it. It runs through the whole fabric of
      redemption, covering the ages past and to come with its unction. It
      gives its name to the special dispensation committed to the apostle Paul,
      marking it off as pre -eminently one of grace. It vitalizes the outcome
      of redemption, namely service, being as necessary for the inspired and
      gifted apostle while preaching the Word, as for the individual believer
      in his everyday conversation. To realize grace is to realize God’s
      purpose’ (The Berean Expositor, Vol. 6, pp. 18,19).

      Charisma is used only by Paul, except for the one reference in 1 Peter
4:10, and is unknown in profane Greek. Philo used it to indicate something
freely given, and it is with this peculiar emphasis that it is used by Paul.

      (1).   A free gift (Rom. 5:15,16; 6:23; 11:29).
      (2).   Gifts, in the sense of miraculous gifts (Rom. 12:6; 1 Cor. 12:4; 2
             Tim. 1:6).

      Charitoo. This word occurs but twice, once in the salutation of the
angel to Mary, ‘Hail (thou that art), highly favoured among women’ (Luke 1:28),
and once in Ephesians, ‘wherein He hath made us accepted in the Beloved’ (Eph.
1:6). The church of the Mystery is indeed ‘highly favoured’, and occupies as
unique a place among the companies of the redeemed as does Mary among women.

      Charizomai has two related meanings:

      (1).   To freely give (Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:12; Phil. 2:9).
      (2).   To freely forgive (Luke 7:42; Eph. 4:32; Col. 2:13).

      Charin. The accusative case, is used as a preposition and is translated
‘because’, ‘for this cause’, and while we must now recognize that the word can
be employed with no specific reference to ‘grace’, the conception ‘on behalf
of’ which underlies ‘because’ etc. shows its gracious origin.

      Chairo      ‘to rejoice’ (Phil. 1:18).
      Chara ‘joy’ (Phil. 1:4).

      In addition to these seven aspects of Grace, we must mention Eucharisteo
‘I give thanks’, a word preserved in the English Eucharist (Matt. 15:36; 26:27;
Eph. 1:16).
      The doctrinal foundation of grace is laid by the apostle in the Epistle
to the Romans, and upon the doctrines there revealed, the superstructure of
Ephesians is erected. The dispensation of the Mystery is therefore one of pure
‘joy’, it is characterized by the ‘freeness’ of its gifts, and allows neither
the sinfulness of its subjects nor their alienation as Gentiles in any measure
to limit the exceeding abundance of the riches that is poured out upon them.
Let us who rejoice in this truth see to it that all approach to legalism,
merit, self -assertion or self -denunciation, be eliminated from our
presentation of the ‘terms and texts, used in making known dispensational

Habitation, katoiketerion, occurs twice.

      Eph. 2:22   For an habitation of God through the Spirit.
      Rev. 18:2   Is become the habitation of devils (demons).

      The goal of the mystery of godliness, and the goal of the mystery of
iniquity is in some measure suggested by these two most opposite passages. The
passage in Ephesians 2 is of dispensational importance in more ways than one.
The church of the Mystery is likened to a ‘temple’, and it should be observed
that the word employed here by the apostle is naos ‘the innermost shrine’ and
not hieron, the whole sacred structure in which money changers could erect
their tables, or where doves could be bought and sold. Naos is used in Matthew
27:51, ‘the veil of the temple’, and is translated ‘shrine’ in Acts 19:24. It
is where the ark could be seen (Rev. 11:19) and is contrasted with the court
(Rev. 11:1,2). This temple, like the tabernacle in the wilderness (Exod. 25:8)
and the tabernacle at the time of the end (Rev. 21:3) is for an habitation or
dwelling of God.

      Katoikeo means to dwell permanently, as opposed to paroikia which means
to sojourn. Paroikos, foreigner or sojourner, occurs in Ephesians 2:19, from
which the passage before us flows. Terms that have the root oik as their basis
are plentiful in this section. In 2:19 -22: paroikos ‘sojourner’ (2:19),
oikeios ‘household’ (2:19), epoikodomeo ‘to build upon’ (2:20), oikodome
‘building’ (2:21), sunoikodomeomai ‘to build together’ (2:22),katoiketerion
‘habitation’ (2:22). It is very evident from this preponderance of the word
oikos that we have, in the conception of a dwelling place, a most vital feature
in the Divine plan. The reference to the ‘family’ in Ephesians 3:15 carries
the idea forward, but the apostle’s immediate concern appears to be the
spiritual experimental acquaintance with this glorious fact of Divine dwelling.

      The Vatican MS. reads ‘a habitation of Christ’ instead of ‘God’, but this
may be a reflection back from a statement we must consider presently. The
words ‘through the spirit’ need to be examined. First we must remember that
there is no article ‘the’ used here. The words are literally ‘in spirit’.

Secondly, the translation ‘through’ is rather too wide. En pneumati is rather
the sphere in which anything operates or takes place. So in Revelation 1:10,
John was en pneumati in the day of the Lord, or as in Revelation 21:10 was
carried away en pneumati to the yet future day of the descent of the New
Jerusalem. To come nearer home, en pneumati which stands at the close of
Ephesians 3:5, as though it spoke of the inspiration of the apostles and
prophets, more truly stands at the head of verse 6, and reveals the only sphere
in which Gentiles can hope to be ‘fellow -heirs’ -- this term being placed over
against en sarki ‘in flesh’ of Ephesians 2:11.
      It is evident upon reading Ephesians 3:1 that the apostle does not finish
the sentence. The verb is missing. Instead, he enters into a careful
explanation of the claim he made of being ‘the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you
Gentiles’. That being accomplished, he reverts to his original intention at
verse 14 and continues. This is indicated by the repetition of the words ‘for
this cause’. He then leads on to the prayer ‘that Christ may dwell (katoikeo)
in your hearts by faith’ (Eph. 3:17). This association which the apostle makes
between the ‘dwelling place’ (katoiketerion) of Ephesians 2:22 and the
‘dwelling’ (katoikeo) of Christ in the individual heart by faith, can be made
evident thus.

        A     Eph. 2:22. The dwelling place.              The Temple.
              B     Eph. 3:1.  for this cause
                               (The parenthesis)
              B     Eph. 3:14. for this cause
        A     Eph. 3:17. The dwelling.                    Your hearts by faith.

      Not only does the apostle stress the dispensational privilege of the
Gentile during this present time under the figure of the innermost shrine of
the temple, he is also concerned that the experimental side of this most
wonderful truth shall be the believer’s desire. It is all too easy to think of
this calling as it embraces the whole, and to forget that it must of necessity
be concerned with every member. This same line of teaching is seen in
Ephesians 4. After having emphasized the unity of the spirit, he turns to the
individual, saying:

        ‘But unto every one (better "unto each one" as in the R.V.) of us is
        given grace’ (Eph. 4:7).

      The structure of Ephesians (see article Ephesians1) throws into
correspondence Ephesians 2:21,22 with Ephesians 4:16, where the words ‘fitly
framed together’ and ‘fitly joined together’ are translations of the Greek word
sunarmologoumene, thereby emphasizing the truth that the ‘Temple’ of the
doctrinal portion is ‘The Body’ of the practical portion, and by a strange
introversion, which however but enforces this relationship, the apostle speaks
of the temple ‘growing’ (Eph. 2:21) as well as being built and of the body as
being ‘edified’ or ‘built’ as well as ‘growing’. Paul uses the word naos in
his epistles seven times, as follows:

The holy temple           1 Cor. 3:16   Ye are the temple of God.
                          1 Cor. 3:17   If any man defile the temple of
Practical                 1 Cor. 3:17   For the temple of God
                          is holy.
                          1 Cor. 6:19   Your body is the temple of the
                          Holy Ghost.
Truth                     2 Cor. 6:16   What agreement ... temple ... with
                          2 Cor. 6:16   The temple of the living God.
The holy temple           Eph. 2:21     Groweth unto an holy temple.

      The Greek word naos is found in the New Testament forty -six times,
translated ‘temple’ in every place except one where it is rendered ‘shrine’
(Acts 19:24). The word naos occurs sixteen times in the Book of the
Revelation, more times than any other book of the New Testament, and is a key
to the judgments that fall and the character of the opposition at the time of
the end. It is the glory of the New Jerusalem that John records:

      ‘And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are
      the temple of it’ (Rev. 21:22).

      In like manner, neither the ‘temple’ character nor the ‘body’
relationship carries over to the eternal state, the last title of the church of
Ephesians being not ‘The Body’ but ‘The fulness of Him that filleth all in all’
(Eph. 1:23). See articles entitled Fulfil (p. 34), and Pleroma3.

Hasting unto The Coming. The margin of 2 Peter 3:12 reads ‘or hasting the
coming’, and this only makes the passage one of greater difficulty and also, by
reason of its implications, one of great importance. If we accept the
translation of the R.V. no difficulty remains, for that version reads
‘earnestly desiring’, but there is a suspicion in the back of the mind that
this translation cuts the Gordian knot, without unravelling it. The question,
can a believer or a body of believers ‘hasten’ the coming of the day of God?
cannot be dismissed by referring to the fact that Peter is writing to the
dispersion, to the circumcision or to Hebrews, for the problem still remains
‘in what way can any man hasten, or delay, the coming of the day of God?’ Let
us first of all note the actual word that is translated ‘hasting’. The Greek
word is speudo, and as it occurs only six times we give the complete
concordance to its usage.


      Luke 2:16     And they came with haste.
      Luke 19:5     Zaccheus make haste, and come down.
      Luke 19:6     And he made haste, and came down.
      Acts 20:16    He hasted if it were possible ... to be at Jerusalem.
      Acts 22:18    Make haste, and get thee quickly out of Jerusalem.
      2 Pet. 3:12   And hasting unto the coming of the day of God.

      Other forms of this same word are spoudazo ‘endeavour’ (Eph. 4:3),
‘study’ (2 Tim. 2:15), spoudaios ‘diligent’ (2 Cor. 8:22), spoude ‘diligence’
(Heb. 6:11), spoudaiws ‘instantly’ (Luke 7:4). The word is coupled with
prosdokao ‘to look for, wait or expect’. At the first advent there were a few
who were ‘waiting for the consolation of Israel’ or who ‘looked for redemption
in Jerusalem’ (Luke 2:25,38), and later in the same gospel we read the
exhortation ‘Let your loins be girded about ... like unto men that wait for
their Lord’ (Luke 12:35,36). If we ask the question ‘could men by their
attitude hinder the coming of the day of God?’ it will be difficult for us to
deny the possibility, by reason of the fact that the setting up of the kingdom
in the gospel of Matthew and in the Acts of the Apostles is conditioned upon
the repentance of Israel. We find that by their unbelief, the Lord could do no
more mighty works among them; ‘they would not’ when He desired to gather them,
their house was left unto them desolate by reason of their attitude. This
postponement of the fulfilment of the prophets is a real problem in this
epistle of Peter.

      There would have been no point in writing ‘For we have not followed
cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of
our Lord Jesus Christ’ (2 Pet. 1:16), if that coming had not been denied, and
Peter speaks of scoffers who shall arise in the last days saying ‘where is the
promise of His coming?’ (2 Pet. 3:3,4), and he himself admits that, while not
doubting the faithfulness of the Lord to all His Word, ‘the long-suffering’
which interposed so long a time before the realization of the promises, while
forming an integral part of Paul’s epistles, did indeed present ‘some things
hard to be understood’ (2 Pet. 3:15,16). To stem any tendency to drift, to
doubt, or to despair, the apostle Peter employs this word ‘hasten’ several
times. Perhaps by putting them together we shall see more clearly what his
intention is in the exhortation of 2 Peter 3:12. We will record the passages
in the order in which they occur in this second epistle. There are three forms
of the word used here, speudo, spoudazo, and spoude.

      2 Pet. 1:5 Giving all diligence, add to your faith.
      2 Pet. 1:10 Give diligence to make your calling and election sure.
      2 Pet. 1:15 I will endeavour that ye may be able ... to have ... in
      2 Pet. 3:12 Hasting unto the coming of the day of God.
      2 Pet. 3:14 Be diligent that ye may be found of Him in peace.

      It will be seen that Peter has had this need for ‘diligence’ before his
mind right through the epistle, even as he has had the scoffer at the second
coming very much at heart. In 2 Peter 3:14, a verse that follows and expands
the teaching of verse 12, he uses the word again:

      ‘Wherefore, beloved, seeing that ye look for such things, be diligent
that ye may be found of Him in peace, without spot, and blameless. And account
that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation’ (2 Pet. 3:14,15).

Here ‘be diligent’ is spoudazo, ‘hasting’ in verse 12   is speudo, and ‘seeing
that ye look’ is prosdokao, as it is in verses 12 and   13. Another item of
importance is that the apostle may have had in mind a   parable which he heard
the Lord speak, and concerning which he had asked the   question:

      ‘Lord, speakest Thou this parable unto us, or even to all?’ (Luke 12:41).
In this parable we have the exhortation ‘Let your loins be girded’ (Luke
12:35), even as in the first epistle Peter had said:

      ‘Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end’
      (1 Pet. 1:13).

      In both the parable and the epistle, the coming of the Lord is likened
unto ‘a thief in the night’ (Luke 12:39; 2 Pet. 3:10). In both there is
expressed the idea of being ‘found’ either in peace, or ‘watching’, and in both
is found the verb prosdokao, ‘to look for, or expect’ (Luke 12:46; 2 Pet.
3:12,13,14). It appears therefore that while the human agent can, speaking
after the manner of men, appear to delay or to hasten the outworking of the
purposes of God, the purpose of the apostle in writing 2 Peter 3:12 is more in
line with such a passage as Habakkuk 2:3,4:

      ‘For the vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the end it shall
      speak, and not lie: though it tarry, wait for it; because it will surely
      come, it will not tarry ... the just shall live by his faith’.

      Peter, it will be remembered, referred to an epistle written by the
apostle Paul to those of his own readers, the dispersed of Israel, and in
Hebrews 10, the epistle to which Peter evidently referred, we read:

      ‘Cast not away therefore your confidence, which hath great recompense of
      reward. For ye have need of patience, that, after ye have done the will
      of God, ye might receive the promise. For yet a little while, and He
      that shall come will come, and will not tarry. Now the just shall live
      by faith: but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in
      him. But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them
      that believe to the saving of the soul’ (Heb. 10:35 -39),

to which must be added the note, that the word ‘perdition’ (apoleia) is found
in 2 Peter 2:1,2,3; 3:7 and 16, where the perdition or destruction deprecated
in Hebrews 10:39 seems to be in view. The believer cannot ‘hasten’ the day
ordained by God, but he need be no automaton, he can share the attitude of his
Lord, ‘From henceforth expecting’, and shape his life accordingly.

Head. The word ‘head’ is usually the translation of the Hebrew rosh in the Old
Testament (Chaldee resh in Daniel) or the Greek kephale in the New Testament.
Both words occur too many times to allow the printing of a concordance here,
but the complete occurrences of all the forms of kephale in Paul’s prison
epistles may be of service. There are seven references as follows:


      Eph. 1:22   And gave Him to be Head over all things to the church.
      Eph. 4:15   Which is the Head, even Christ.
      Eph. 5:23   The husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the
            Head of the Church.
      Col. 1:18   He is the Head of the Body, the Church.
      Col. 2:10   The Head of all principality and power.
      Col. 2:19   Not holding the Head.

In addition to these seven occurrences of kephale, two other forms of the word
must be given:


      Eph. 6:17   And take the helmet of salvation.


      Eph. 1:10   He might gather together in one.

      (See the article Gather, p. 45, for notes on Eph. 1:10).

      Where, in other callings, Christ is given the title ‘King’ or ‘Prince’,
‘High -Priest’, ‘Captain’ or ‘Bridegroom’, He has the all -embracive title
‘Head’ in the dispensation of the Mystery. In harmony with this, the church of
the Mystery is called the ‘Body’, and the individual believer is likened to a
‘member’ of that body. It is very certain that in some passages the Greek word
kephale means the ‘sum’, even as in such a passage as Colossians 2:17 the Greek
word soma, usually translated ‘body’, means substance, for it is opposed by the
word ‘shadow’; but it is fantastic and unscholarly to assume that every
occurrence of kephale should be translated ‘sum’ and every occurrence of soma
should be translated ‘substance’. It was John the Baptist’s head, not his
substance, that was carried on a charger. The hairs of Mary’s head wiped the
feet of the Lord. The enemies of the crucified Saviour wagged their heads, not
their substances, in their derision.

      The figure of the ‘body’ is supplemented by the figure of ‘members’, and
we are not left guessing what those members are. They are specified in 1
Corinthians 12 as foot, hand, ear and eye, and these figures refuse to be
retranslated out of recognition.

      Again, if we appeal to the use of kephale in classical Greek, we find
that the first meaning given by Liddle and Scott is the head of man or beast
‘from head to foot’, and not until near the bottom of a long list do we come to
the meaning ‘sum’. Let us prove all things and hold fast that which is good.

      In Colossians we learn that Christ is also Head of all principality and
power, thereby linking the Church of the One Body with their heavenly
associates. Paul, in Colossians traces all defection and failure to ‘not
holding the Head’. We have in Christ the Head all that Israel will find in Him
as their Shepherd; we have all that the Hebrews find in Him as their great High
Priest, and all and more than all that is found in His other titles,
King, Prophet and the like. In Ephesians 1:22 there is a suggestion that the
relationship that now exists between the Church and Christ the Head, is an
anticipation of the goal of the ages, when all things shall be subject unto
Him. Ephesians 1:22 does not teach that at the present moment Christ is Head
over all things, but that He has been given as Head over all things to the
Church which is His body. Where other callings have their spiritual gifts,
their healings and their tongues, we find our all in Christ the Head. The
union of Head and member is so complete, the flow of life and power, direction
and growth so intimate, as to rule out the more spectacular manifestations of
the Spirit.

Healing. This word is a translation of one of two Greek words in the New
Testament, therapeia and iaomai. The word therapeia originally meant service
or attendance of any kind, and only in a secondary sense, the ministry of
healing. In the term therapeutics the word has the more restricted meaning of
the science of healing, with particular reference to the form, manner and time
which drugs should be administered. There are but four occurrences in the New
Testament and these are equally distributed between the two meanings of the


      Matt. 24:45   Made ruler over his household.
      Luke 9:11     Them that had need of healing.
      Luke 12:42    Shall make ruler over his household.
      Rev. 22:2     For the healing of the nations.

      Iaomai and iasis. The former indicates that the action is complete, the
latter that it is in progress. There is no agreement among authorities as to
the origin of the word, but in the LXX it translates the Hebrew word rapha ‘to
heal’. Iaomai occurs twenty -eight times, and iasis three times in the New
Testament. The bulk of the occurrences of iaomai are in the gospels; it is
found in but one of Paul’s epistles, namely Hebrews, in 12:13. James uses it
once (Jas. 5:16) and Peter once (1 Pet. 2:24). We give as a sample the
occurrences of iaomai in the Acts:

A Peter.    Acts 3:11.  The healing of the lame man.
                        Israel’s salvation in type (see Acts 4:12).
            Acts 9:34. The healing of the man sick of the palsy.
      B The Lord Himself. Acts 10:38. Healing all who were
                                    oppressed of the devil.
A Paul.     Acts 28:8. The healing of father of Publius.
            Acts 28:27. The healing (spiritual) of Israel.

Iama is used three times in 1 Corinthians 12 for gifts of ‘healing’ (1 Cor.

      Sozo is used of ‘saving the sick’ (Jas. 5:15), ‘made whole’ and ‘saved’
(Acts 4:9 and 12), and ‘healed’ (Acts 14:9), and a number of times in the
gospels it is translated ‘heal’ and ‘make whole’. The bearing of all these
passages on the subject of dispensational truth will be discussed presently.

      Soteria, which is usually translated ‘salvation’, is translated ‘health’
in Acts 27:34. It is possible that the passage in Ephesians 5:23 which reads
‘He is the saviour of the body’ should read ‘He is the healer’ even as a man is
said to ‘nourish and cherish’ his body.

      Diasozo, which is used generally for the idea of ‘escaping’ or being
‘saved’ by water, is rendered ‘made perfectly whole’ (Matt. 14:36) and ‘heal’
(Luke 7:3). The healing of sickness from the opening of the Saviour’s public
ministry to the end of the Acts of the Apostles
was in the nature of a miracle. The diseases that were healed were many and
various, few if any are not given a name, or are not recognizable by some
symptoms that are mentioned. Before looking at the typical teaching that
lies behind some of the cases of healing, let us make a
list of those diseases which are specified in the New Testament records. The
opening of Christ’s ministry was accompanied by a great output of miraculous

      ‘All manner of sickness (nosos, a disease of some standing) and all
      manner of disease (malakia, a weakness, softness) ... all sick people
      (kakos, ill, related to kakos meaning evil) ... torments (basanos), and
      those which were possessed with devils (daimonizomai), and those which
      were lunatic (seleniazomai, from selene, the moon), and those that had
      the palsy (paralutikos); and He healed them’ (Matt. 4:23,24).

Here is a summary of the scope and extent of the Saviour’s healing ministry; we
see that the whole land was moved from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, --‘a and
beyond Jordan, and every variety of sickness is represented. If in lesser
things it is a maxim that holds good that:

      ‘We may fool some of the people all the time, and can fool all the people
      some of the time, but no one can fool all the people all the time’,

then the truth and the magnitude of this initial record of the Saviour’s public
ministry is beyond criticism. There are seven occasions in the gospel of
Matthew where the Evangelist pauses to speak of these miraculous healings in
the mass. We have seen Matthew 4:23,24. Here are the other passages:

      ‘When the even was come, they brought unto Him many that were possessed
      with devils: and He cast out the spirits with His word, and healed all
      that were sick: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the
      prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses’
      (Matt. 8:16,17).
      ‘And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their
      synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every
      sickness and every disease among the people’ (Matt. 9:35).

      ‘And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with
      compassion toward them, and He healed their sick’ (Matt. 14:14).
      ‘And when the men of that place had knowledge of Him, they sent out into
      all that country round about, and brought unto Him all that were
      diseased; and besought Him that they might only touch the hem of His
      garment: and as many as touched were made perfectly whole’ (Matt.

      ‘And great multitudes came unto Him, having with them those that were
      lame, blind, dumb, maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus’
      feet; and He healed them: insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they
      saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the
      blind to see: and they glorified the God of Israel’ (Matt. 15:30,31).
      ‘And great multitudes followed Him; and He healed them there’ (Matt.

      In addition to these collective healings there are a number of cases
where the disease that was healed is specified. We give the order of their
occurrence in the gospel of Matthew:

      Leper cleansed. ‘Jesus put forth His hand, and touched him, saying, I
      will; be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed ... shew
      thyself to the priest’ (Matt. 8:3 -4).
      Palsy healed. ‘Speak the word only ... and his servant was healed in the
      selfsame hour’ (Matt. 8:8 -13).
      Fever cured. ‘He touched her hand, and the fever left her’ (Matt. 8:15).
            Dead. ‘My daughter is even now dead ... the maid is not dead, but
      sleepeth ... He ... took her by the hand, and the maid arose’ (Matt. 9:18
      Issue of blood. ‘An issue of blood twelve years ... If I may but touch
      His garment ... the woman was made whole from that hour’ (Matt. 9:20 -
      Blind. ‘Then touched He their eyes, saying, According to your faith be
      it unto you. And their eyes were opened’ (Matt. 9:29,30).
      Dumb and possessed of a demon. ‘The devil was cast out, the dumb spake’
      (Matt. 9:32,33).
      Withered hand. ‘It was restored whole, like as the other’ (Matt. 12:13).
            Lunatic. ‘Jesus rebuked the demon; and he departed out of him: and
      the child was cured from that very hour’ (Matt. 17:18).

      This list can be augmented from the other gospels, and reaches its zenith
in the raising of Lazarus from the dead after being buried for four days. Each
one of the cures reported in the above list was a recognized disease, there was
nothing vague about them, and in most instances were beyond the power of human
skill. In addition we must include the command given to the twelve when they
were sent out to preach the gospel of the kingdom.

      ‘As ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. Heal the
      sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out demons’ (Matt.
These healings are interspersed with references to Israel (Matt. 8:10; 9:33;
10:6; 15:24 and 31).
      Let us turn our attention to the references already given of iaomai, sozo
and soteria in the Acts. The healing of the lame man by Peter is used by him
to point the moral of his exhortation. This is made evident by observing that
the word ‘whole’ in Acts 4:9 is in the original sozo ‘to save’, and the word
‘salvation’ in verse 12, soteria, is preceded by the article ‘the’. In effect
Peter said: You have rejected Jesus of Nazareth, but I tell you that just as
this lame man stands before you ‘healed’ by the power of that rejected Saviour,
so I would warn you that ‘The Healing’, the great national ‘Salvation’ can come
through no other. So, when the moment had come for Israel to go out into that
long spell of blindness, the quotation of Isaiah 6:9,10 given by the apostle in
Acts 28:27, ends with the words ‘I should heal them’.

      The healing ministry of the gospels and the Pentecostal period are called
in Hebrews ‘the powers of the age to come’, heralding as they did the near
approach of the ‘kingdom of heaven’. The ‘so great salvation’, soteria,
‘healing’ was confirmed ‘with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and
gifts of the Holy Ghost’ (Heb. 2:3,4). Miraculous healing was one of the
special gifts granted to the church in Pentecostal times, 1 Corinthians 12:28
placing ‘gifts of healings’ together with the gift of apostles, miracles and
tongues. It is of importance to observe that the promise made in Mark 16:17,18
was in unabated force at the close of the period of the Acts, Paul being bitten
by a viper, but feeling no harm, and healing such a disease as dysentery (Acts
28:8) by a touch. After Acts 28 there is no record that Paul healed anyone
again. We are conscious that an argument built upon silence or omission is
weak, but this silence is supplemented by one or two positive references, which
all point in the one direction. Epaphroditus was a most valuable help to the
apostle. Any one of the names given to him by the apostle would have been
enough to warrant a miracle on his account -- ‘brother, companion in labour,
fellowsoldier, your messenger, and minister to my wants’. This most useful and
faithful fellow -servant had been sick, so sick that he had been ‘nigh unto
death’. Not only so but God had mercy on him, and Paul had been plunged into
sorrow. Paul, though a prisoner, could have sent a handkerchief or an apron
(Acts 19:12) or any other portion of his clothing, for these had been effective
in dealing with disease and evil spirits. Yet apparently he could do nothing
(Phil. 2:25 -30).

      Again, Timothy, loved as a son, and a faithful servant of the church,
suffered not only a particular stomach trouble, but ‘often infirmities’, yet no
miracle of healing was performed for his relief -- instead the apostle sent a
prescription (1 Tim. 5:23). It is not enough to claim that certain
undiagnosable diseases have been ‘cured’ while the sufferer was in a highly
emotional condition which so often characterizes ‘healing campaigns’ today.
Such cases of ‘healing’ should be sent to the local doctor for a certificate
even as Christ sent the leper to the priest. My youngest sister and her
husband worked for fifteen years among the lepers of India. Never, throughout
that period did a ‘Pentecostalist’ venture to demonstrate the reality of his
claim to share in the commission of Matthew 10, and so far as we have knowledge
no healing campaign has ever been organized by Pentecostalists among lepers.
We ask ‘why?’ and the answer is evident. Not only so, but the raising of the
dead is also included in these gifts, but there is no accredited instance where
such a power has been possessed or exercised. The gift of healing accompanied
the gospel of the kingdom, and when the people of the kingdom, namely Israel,
were set aside, the gifts went with them. See Miracle3, Pentecost3, Kingdom
(p. 243), and Acts1 for further notes. Individual faith is not in question, we
speak here only of gifts, as possessed during the period covered by the Acts.
Heathen. This is one of the translations given in the New Testament of the
Greek word ethnos, which word and its implications is more fully considered
under the heading Gentile (p. 49).


      There are five words employed in the Hebrew Old Testament translated
‘heaven’ and one Greek word so translated in the New Testament. Of the Hebrew
words, galgal (Psa. 77:18) refers to the ‘rolling clouds’, the word galgal
being elsewhere rendered ‘wheel’ and ‘rolling thing’. Shachaq, used in Psalm
89:6 and 37 means a ‘thin cloud’, and is elsewhere translated ‘cloud’, ‘sky’
and ‘small dust’. It may be accidental, but it is nevertheless interesting,
that the blue colour, and hence the visibility of the ‘sky’, is owing to
refraction of blue rays of light, and that ‘it is to the vapoury and the earthy
particles in the atmosphere that the refraction is due; but for these there
would be total darkness till the instant of sunrise’. As the imagery of the
Old Testament has been seized upon to ‘prove’ the unscientific character of
these ancient writings, the inclusion of the above note may not be without
justification. Arabah ‘mixed cloud’ (Psa. 68:4) and ariphim ‘dropping clouds’
(Isa. 5:30) complete the references that refer to the clouds under the covering
figure of heaven.

      Shamayim. This Hebrew word is the one that is translated ‘heaven’ or
‘heavens’ in the Old Testament except in those portions where the Chaldee
equivalent shemayin is used (Ezra, Daniel and Jer. 10:11). The Hebrew shamayim
occurs in the Old Testament 419 times, of these, twenty -one occurrences are
translated ‘air’, as in Genesis 1:26. In the New Testament only one word,
ouranos, is translated ‘heaven’. This Greek word occurs over 280 times, of
which ‘air’ accounts for ten occurrences and ‘sky’ for five. ‘The name
"heaven" in our own language has been explained, according to its etymology,
that which is heaved or lifted up, and a similar origin has been assigned to
the Greek ouranos, and the Hebrew shamayim’ (Imp. Bib. Dic.). Under the
heading Firmament (p. 21), we have discussed the nature of the temporary
‘heaven’ stretched out like a tent over the earth during the ages of
Redemption. In this article we deal with heaven itself. Whether the
translation reads ‘heaven’ or ‘heavens’, the word is always plural in the
original. This no more indicates a plurality of ‘heavens’ than the plural
Elohim ‘God’ indicates a plurality of Gods. There is a use of the plural in
the Hebrew language known as ‘The Plural of Majesty’ as, for example, ‘the
sacrifices of God’ in Psalm 51:17, which means ‘the great sacrifice’.

      Creation is divided into two parts, ‘heaven and earth’ (Gen. 1:1), which
in Colossians 1:16 is expanded to mean ‘all things visible and invisible’, and
the term ‘heaven’ may include thrones, dominions, principalities and powers, as
well as physical sun, moon and stars. Heaven is often used as a symbol of
authority, for example, when Nebuchadnezzar learned ‘that the heavens do rule’
(Dan. 4:26). The superiority of the heavens to the earth is expressed in the
words ‘on high’ (Luke 1:78; Heb. 1:3), ‘height’ (Isa. 7:11; Psa. 148:1; Prov.
25:3). It is possible that, after Genesis 1:1, there are but nine or ten
references to ‘heaven itself’, i.e., the heaven of Genesis 1:1, in the whole of
the Old Testament. This can be put to the test by reading the book of Genesis,
and noting every allusion to ‘heaven’. We read of the waters that are under
heaven, lights in the firmament of heaven, fowl that fly in the ‘air’, the
windows of heaven opened at the deluge, Abraham directed to look toward heaven,
to the countless number of the stars, but no passage demands that the term
‘heaven’ should be interpreted of the heaven of Genesis 1:1. We cannot print
here the 419 references to heaven, but we can print the nine or ten references
that look beyond the present limited firmament.

      ‘Behold, the heaven and the heaven of heavens is the Lord’s thy God’
      (Deut. 10:14).

      Here Moses draws attention to the firmament which is ‘called’ heaven, and
the heaven of heavens, the heavens in the highest degree that were created long
before the six days of Genesis 1:3 to 2:1. No further reference is made to the
heavens themselves, until the days of David and Solomon, where in Psalm 8:1;
57:5,11; 108:5; 113:4; 115:16 and 148:4 we have six references to a glory that
is above the present limited heavens; making, with Deuteronomy 10:14, seven in
all, the perfect number; in all other places the heavens referred to are put
into correspondence with the firmament (Psa. 19:1) either by actual statement,
or by implication. Five hundred years after Moses, Solomon recognized that
neither the present heavens, nor the heaven of heavens could ‘contain’ God (1
Kings 8:27) and the last reference to the heaven of heavens, in contrast with
the firmament, is found in the Levites’ prayer (Neh. 9:6).

      Even when we bring these passages forward, they only emphasize the fact
that ‘the heaven’ of the Old Testament was the ‘firmament’ of Genesis 1:8,
stretched out like a curtain or a tent for God to dwell in (Isa. 40:22), and
any reference in Psalm or Prophecy that speaks of heaven as God’s ‘dwelling
place’ refers to this tabernacle formed by the firmament. See illustration to
the article Pleroma3. When we open the New Testament it is pardonable if we
there expect to find a great advance upon this limitation of the term ‘heaven’.
Twelve times do we read in Matthew of the ‘Father which is in heaven’, but we
also read that the heavens were opened at the baptism of the Lord, that the
heavens are to pass away, and unless it is a matter beyond dispute that
‘angels’ inhabit the heaven of heavens, we shall find no instance in the gospel
of Matthew of a reference to any other ‘heaven’ than the firmament of Genesis

      We have to wait until we reach the gospel of John for any explicit
reference to the highest heavens, and there the Saviour speaks of ascending up
to heaven to where He was before (John 3:13; 6:62), to the glory that He had
‘before the world was’ (John 17:5). In these few references is contained
practically all that is said of the ‘heavens’ of Genesis 1:1 in the four
gospels. The only calling and company, hope and sphere of blessing, that
pierces the present firmament above us and ascends to where Christ sits at the
right hand of God, is the Church of the Mystery. Christ is set forth, in
Ephesians 4:10, as having ascended ‘far above all heavens’ yet revealed as
seated at the right hand of God ‘in the heavenly places’. These heavenly
places therefore must be above the limitations of the outstretched heavens.
This is not invalidated by the fact that the selfsame sphere is called in
Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians ‘heaven’, for we must not allow ourselves
to rob ‘heaven itself’ of its true title, simply because we have used it so
often of the limited firmament. In connection with this same calling Christ
can be said to be both ‘far above all the heavens’ yet ‘in heaven’ at the right
hand of God. The reference to ‘heavenly places’ (Eph. 1:3) is discussed in the
articles entitled Ephesians1 and Three Spheres5, as well as in the succeeding
article. There are eleven references to ‘heaven’ in the epistle to the
Hebrews, one only speaks of ‘heaven itself’ (Heb. 9:24), the others refer to
the lesser and lower heavens. For the heavens created as recorded in Hebrews
1:10 are to ‘perish’, but this can never be said of ‘heaven itself’, Christ is
said to have ‘passed through the heavens’, dierchomai (Heb. 4:14), and as being
made ‘higher than the heavens’ (Heb. 7:26), without involving any contradiction
in the saying that He Who passed through the heavens and was made higher than
the heavens, was at the selfsame time depicted as entering ‘heaven itself’
(Heb. 9:24). The contradiction only exists in our minds if we fail to
distinguish the heaven of the beginning, Genesis 1:1 from the heaven of the
ages, Genesis 1:8. The only references to the heavens of Genesis 1:1 that are
found in the remainder of the New Testament are those of Peter and of the
Revelation, which speak of a new heaven and a new earth (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev.

      The new heavens and the new earth spoken of by Isaiah are related to
Jerusalem (Isa. 65:17,18). Where we read in Revelation 21 of a ‘first heaven’
and a ‘first earth’ the word translated ‘first’, protos, is rendered in verse 4
‘the former things’, and we should possibly translate Revelation 21:1 ‘the
former heaven and the former earth’, the reference to ‘no more sea’ being an
evident allusion to Genesis 1:2. In connection with the subject before us, let
us turn to the words of Paul as found in 2 Corinthians 12:1 -4. In direct
connection with the visions and revelations which he had received he refers to
an extraordinary experience. Whether he was ‘in the body or whether out of the
body’ he could not tell, but he did know that he had been caught up to the
third heaven ... caught up into paradise.

      First, we must be clear as to the meaning of the term ‘caught up’. The
word ‘up’ in this passage has no equivalent in the Greek, and to attempt to
make it have any bearing upon the subject betrays as much ignorance of the
original as would be betrayed by anyone seeking to extract the idea of
direction upward, from such idiomatic phrases of the English language as ‘shut
up’, ‘wash up’, ‘lock up’ and the like. We can omit the word ‘up’, for the
Greek word harpazo is translated ‘take by force’, ‘catch away’, ‘pluck’,
‘caught away’ and ‘pull’. The phrase ‘in the body’ translates en somati, which
is very like the phrase en pneumati ‘in spirit’ used of the occasion when John
was translated to the Day of the Lord (Rev. 1:10). The closest parallel is
that of the experience of Philip, who was ‘caught away’ by the spirit of the
Lord, and was ‘found at Azotus’, some miles away.

            It is evident that the third heaven to which Paul was caught away
was Paradise, otherwise his reiteration would need a deal of explanation.
Paradise has been located in different regions by different teachers, mainly in
accord with their peculiar beliefs concerning the intermediate state. If we
keep close to the Scriptural meaning of Paradise we shall know that it is
derived from the Hebrew pardes (Neh. 2:8; Song of Sol. 4:13) and means ‘a
garden or orchard’, and when we meet the word in the book of Revelation, it has
no connection whatever with an intermediate state but is still a garden and
orchard, it is indeed the garden of Eden restored and extended.

      In what way, we may ask, can this Paradise at the end of the age be in
any way related to the ‘third’ heaven? If we count the third heaven as being
like the third storey
of a building, it will certainly appear incongruous. But Revelation 21 has
already spoken of ‘a new earth’ and a ‘former earth’, consequently it would be
true to say, even as Peter in 2 Peter 3 has indicated, that there was a first
heaven, in the beginning (Gen. 1:1); a second heaven, at the making of the
earth ready for man (Gen. 1:8); a third heaven, at the end when redemption
shall be finished (Rev. 21:1). It was to this ‘heaven’ and this ‘paradise’
that Paul was caught away, and as he stresses more than any other writer in the
New Testament the blessings of the New Creation, it is quite understandable
that this great goal of the ages, should be associated by him with the visions
and revelation he had received in connection with his apostleship.
      The great lesson that forces itself upon our attention, however, is the
fact that, apart from Paul’s ministry, and especially his prison ministry,
there is scarcely any reference in the Scriptures, either Old or New, to the
heaven of Genesis 1:1. The hope of the Mystery alone pierces the intervening
firmament and places the believer ‘far above all’ even where Christ sits at the
right hand of God. We must now go on to the consideration of the special term
‘heavenly places’, but to this we will devote a separate study.

Heavenly Places. This subdivision of the great term ‘heaven’ is justified by
reason of its dispensational importance, and the words play a great part in
setting forth the distinctive character of the Mystery. These ‘heavenly
places’ were known at least in part in other ages, the expression ‘the heaven,
and the heaven of heavens’ already noted suggests that such a superior sphere
was known, but no prophet, evangelist or apostle, ever dreamed that a redeemed
company would find their sphere of blessing there, least of all a company made
up of alien Gentiles. First let us examine the word itself.

      Epouranios. This word is composed of epi ‘upon’ and ouranios ‘heavenly’,
the adjective form of ouranos ‘heaven’. Epouranios occurs in the New Testament
twenty times. It is translated as follows: celestial, heavenly, in heaven,
heavenly places, heavenly things, high places and they that are heavenly. It
is attached to several nouns as ‘heavenly Father’, ‘celestial bodies’,
‘heavenly kingdom’, ‘heavenly calling’, ‘heavenly gift’ and ‘heavenly
Jerusalem’. Whether each and every one thus defined is not only ‘heavenly’ but
at the same time
‘in heaven’ the context must decide. For example, the Hebrews had tasted the
heavenly gift and the power of the age to come (Heb. 6:4), but no one seriously
believes that these Hebrews were in heaven at the time they are said to have
tasted this gift. The heavenly Jerusalem will descend from God out of heaven
and come down either to the earth itself or near to it; it will be heavenly in
character, but not be in heaven itself.

      The word epouranios occurs in Matthew, John, 1 Corinthians, Ephesians,
Philippians, 2 Timothy and Hebrews, and this wide distribution has given the
unthinking reader a reason to reject the peculiar claim of the church of the
Mystery to these heavenly places as their sphere of blessing. A concordance is
a most useful and valuable tool, but even valuable tools can do great damage if
handled carelessly. Something more is needed than a quick glance at a list of
occurrences in a concordance before judgment can be pronounced upon the meaning
of any particular reference.

      Upon examining the Epistle to the Ephesians, we discover that the word
epouranios is there used in a form which occurs nowhere else,* and that this
form occurs in five passages in the epistle. These occurrences we will
indicate before passing on to their peculiar grammatical form.

                            Epouranios in Ephesians

      A     Eph. 1:3.   Spiritual blessings.
            B     Eph. 1:20. Far above principalities and powers.
                  C     Eph. 2:6.   Raised and seated together.
            B     Eph. 3:10. A witness to principalities and powers.
      A     Eph. 6:12. Spiritual wickednesses.
      The form in which these five references to heavenly places occurs is
unique. It is found in no other part of the New Testament. Where the
remaining fifteen occurrences use the word epouranios simply, the Epistle to
the Ephesians uses it in a phrase en tois epouraniois ‘in the heavenly (places,
things, sphere)’ and never merely to define something as heavenly in character.
When Paul addressed this epistle to the saints which are at Ephesus, the words
en Epheso do not mean that they were ‘Ephesian’ in character but that they were
living somewhere. They were actually residing ‘in Ephesus’. When the apostle
reminded the Ephesian masters that they also had a Master in heaven, there
could be no two thoughts about the fact that this Master was not only heavenly
in character but in position. He was there. The word ‘where’ indicative of
place is used of the present position of Christ ‘Where Christ sitteth on the
right hand of God’ (Col. 3:1). This is said to be ‘heaven itself’ (Heb. 9:24)
and in ‘heavenly places’ (Eph. 1:20).

      While en followed by a plural can mean ‘among’ (Col. 1:27), it can also
mean ‘in’, for no one supposes that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob dwelt ‘among’
tabernacles, they had enough common sense to dwell ‘in’ them. The strange
expression ‘upon the heavens’ loses its strangeness when we realize that the
firmament is stretched out under the original heaven of Genesis 1:1. (See
article Firmament, p. 21).

      The apostle has not only given these five references which indicate the
exalted and peculiar position of Christ and His church, he has assisted us
further by giving an explicit statement in Ephesians 4:10 concerning the
Ascension. There Christ is said to have ‘ascended far above all heavens’, the
word translated ‘far above’ being huperano. This position is so far above all
heavens, that by ascending to this sphere, Christ is said to have filled all

      Many words used in the English language are derived either from Latin or
Greek. Some words are derived from both tongues, and are employed severally as
the genius of the language dictates. Thus the Greek huper becomes the Latin
super, and while we retain the Greek in such terms as hyperbolic, we often
favour the Latin equivalent super, and say super -abundance, not huper -
abundance; super -annuate, not huper -annuate; super -impose, not huper -

      Consequently with Ephesians 4:10 plainly written, we are at liberty to
speak of the super -heavens, as a definition of the peculiar sphere of the
church of the Mystery, conscious that we are not adding a word to the inspired
testimony but are honestly giving in this compact form the combined intention
of the two sets of expressions en tois epouraniois and huperano panton ton

      ‘The only calling or revelation that has pierced the present temporary
      heaven and touched that which can be spoken of as eternal, is that
      dispensation of the grace of God which has blessed us with all spiritual
      blessings in the super -heavenlies far above all. This shows the unique
      character of the church of the One Body. It is connected both by time
      and place with that which begins before the present heavens were made,
      and goes on when the present heavens shall be no more. The church of the
      Mystery is the only link during this age between the time before sin
      entered and the time when sin shall be no more. All other purposes are
      "under the heavens". This one alone places those who are blessed under
      its terms "above the heavens". If these things are so, it would be very
      surprising if the doctrine and practice of this peculiar people were not
      different from all others’ (The Berean Expositor, Vol. 20,
      p. 111).

      The nature and extent of this analysis makes it impossible for us to take
note of every difference of opinion that is current, but in one or two cases,
silence may be misinterpreted and damage done to the cause of truth. We
therefore make an appendix to ‘Heavenly places’ in order to examine a point of
view expressed soberly by a believer and teacher who has stood for the
principle of right division, and for Acts 28:28 for a great number of years.
We quote:

      ‘The Earth, not Heaven, is the Future Home of God’s redeemed’.
            ‘This is what I believe. It is a belief that is not based upon
      tradition, upon emotion, or upon wishful thinking. It is not a
      conclusion that I have arrived at hurriedly’.

      There is therefore, in the following comments, no thought of impugning
the veracity, honesty and conviction of the brother who has abandoned the idea
that ‘heavenly places’ is the future sphere of blessing for the church of the
Mystery, for that is the focal point both of his teaching and our examination.

      We readily admit, in common with many commentators, that the words ‘in
heavenly places’ as found in Ephesians 1:3 are not necessarily the translation
of the Greek en tois epouraniois, the word ‘places’ being understood and
supplied, and not found in the original, but the same criticism could be
levelled at the translation ‘High places’ in Proverbs 8:2, Ezekiel 16:24 and
Numbers 23:3, for neither of the Hebrew words so translated has the word for
‘place’ attached to it. It would be possible to object to the insertion of the
word ‘place’ in Numbers 23:3, the word there translated ‘an high place’ being
the Hebrew word shephi, yet Balak had no difficulty in suggesting to Balaam
that he go to ‘another place’ (Num. 23:13) where the Hebrew word for ‘place’,
maqom, is inserted. We introduce these examples simply to show that we must
beware of sweeping statements, for by proving too much we prove nothing.
Ephesians 1:3 may mean ‘among heavenly beings’, but it can mean ‘in heavenly
places’, for if the addition of ‘beings’ be legitimate so also can the addition
of the word ‘places’. It is evident that if Ephesians 1:3 is the only passage
to which we can turn, we reach a position of stalemate. God however, has not
left the members of this high calling in the dark, the phrase en tois
epouraniois occurs again in Ephesians 1:20. There the reference is to the
Ascension which, as Ephesians 4:10 affirms, was ‘far above all heavens, that He
might fill all things’, even as Ephesians 1:20 -23 reveals that Christ our Head
is seated at the right hand of God, far above all principality and power, the
church thus associated with Him there being ‘the fulness of Him that filleth
all in all’. Place seems to be indicated here. Colossians 3:1 -4 uses the
adverb ‘where’ (Greek hou), indicating that the Saviour is in a ‘place’ and
that place ‘the right hand of God’. Now it is not denied that Christ is there,
but it is taught that where we read in Ephesians 1:20, ‘and set Him at His own
right hand in the heavenly places’, we should interpret the later phrase ‘among
heavenly beings’, bringing the passage into line with the translation already
offered of Ephesians 1:3. Let us examine the context.

      Wherever Christ is conceived of as sitting now is not among heavenly
beings, but far above them. ‘Far above all’, huperano, a word which is
repeated in Ephesians 4:10 ‘far above all heavens’. Hebrews 4:14 teaches us
that the ascended Christ ‘passed through the heavens’, dierchomai (cf. 1 Cor.
10:1; 16:5), but not only so, in Hebrews 7:26 Christ is said to be ‘higher than
the heavens’. Again, the apostle goes out of his way to enumerate the orders
of ‘heavenly beings’ which are beneath the exalted position of the Saviour.
‘All (not some) principalities and powers and might, and dominion’ and then, as
in Romans 8:39 where he adds ‘nor any other creature’, so, here, to ensure that
the entire universe is conceived of, he continues ‘and every name that is
named’ -- and yet further, every name that is named ‘not only in this age, but
also in that which is to come’.

      How is it possible, in view of these explicit statements, to teach that
‘where Christ sits’ is ‘among’ heavenly beings? But this is not all. Paul
quotes from Psalm 8, ‘And hath put all things under His feet.’ Now did this
quotation stand alone, we should admit that it does not add anything more to
that already seen, but the fact is, Paul had quoted this passage on two other
occasions, and has given them such a peculiar exposition as to render further
discussion unnecessary. Here are his own words, and his own peculiar

      ‘Thou hast put all things in subjection under His feet. For in that He
      put all in subjection under Him, He left nothing that is not put under
      Him’ (Heb. 2:8).
      ‘But when He saith all things are put under Him, it is manifest that he
      is excepted, which did put all things under Him’ (1 Cor. 15:27).

      When, therefore, Paul added the quotation from Psalm 8, he clinched the
interpretation ‘in heavenly places’, for it is impossible after seeing this
isolated and exalted position to believe that it is after all ‘among heavenly

      We are indebted to Mr. Alexander Thomson, in an article published in The
Differentiator, for a clarifying word on Philippians 3:20.

      ‘Let me quote from the Revised Standard Version: ‘But our commonwealth is
in heaven and from it we await a Saviour’. From it, from what? It is out of
our commonwealth or homeland that we are ardently awaiting Him. The Greek
makes it very clear when it reads ex hou, and not ex hon, that is to say ‘out
of which’ (singular), not ‘out of which’ (plural). The word heaven is plural,
while politeuma is in the singular.

      ‘Now it is absurd to say that our Lord is to appear out of our ‘Manner of
life’. He is ardently awaited out of our politeuma. Therefore our politeuma
is a country. Yes; it is our real homeland .... If the church of God is to
spend its future existence on earth, we must see much stronger evidence than
... has yet produced’.

      ‘The word of God is powerful when it comes to casting down imaginations’.


            (A)   Its author.

      Paul wrote at least one epistle to the ‘Dispersion’, for Peter says so (2
Pet. 3:15), but that of course does not prove that the epistle to the Hebrews
is referred to by Peter, nor does it prove that Paul wrote it. It only assures
us that even though he was the apostle to the Gentiles, he did write at least
one epistle to believers of the Jewish race. His own vehement love manifested
in Romans 9:1 -5 would also make it very likely that he would write to them as
well as pray for them as he did. It has been objected that the style and the
vocabulary of Hebrews is unlike that of Paul’s other epistles, but that can be
accounted for both from the nature of the subject, and the great amount of the
Old Testament that is quoted and referred to. There are one or two features
that link Hebrews with Paul’s other epistles which we will set out before going
on to the study of the epistle itself.

      If Hebrews be written by Paul then he is the only writer in the New
Testament to quote from Habakkuk 2: ‘The just shall live by his faith’. In
Romans the stress is laid upon the word ‘just’ (Rom. 1:17). In Galatians the
stress is laid upon ‘faith’ (Gal. 3:11). In Hebrews the stress is laid upon
‘live’ (Heb. 10:38). No other writer in the New Testament uses Psalm 8 in the
way that Paul and the author of the Hebrews does. Notice the peculiar way in
which Paul seizes upon the universality of the subjection when the end comes,
‘It is manifest that He is excepted, which did put all things under Him’ (1
Cor. 15:27), and with this compare the peculiar argument of Hebrews 2, ‘For in
that He put all in subjection under Him, He left nothing that is not put under
Him’ (Heb. 2:8). Surely the same mind is revealed at work in both of these
references to Psalm 8. The only other reference is that of Ephesians 1:22,
where the theme is the ascended and seated Christ, Head over all things to the
church. Here there are two Old Testament passages, handled in a way that
suggests a common author.

      The way in which a writer quotes Scripture will often prove a guide, and
there is one passage, Deuteronomy 32:35, that will link the epistle to the
Hebrews with the epistles of Paul, by its very peculiar mode of quoting the
words ‘to Me belongeth vengeance and recompense’ (Deut. 32:35). Had Romans
12:19 and Hebrews 10:30 contained a literal quotation of the LXX, it would have
proved nothing as to common authorship, but if both passages depart from the
LXX, and in the same particulars, a very strong case is made out. Here is the
LXX of Deuteronomy 32:35:

      En          hemera       ekdikeseos             antapodoso
      ‘In           day        of vengeance           I will recompense’.

Here are the two quotations:

      ‘For it is written, Vengeance is Mine; I will repay, saith the Lord’
      (Rom. 12:19).

      ‘For we know Him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto Me, I will
      recompense, saith the Lord’ (Heb. 10:30).

The reader may demur, and object that the two passages are not exactly the
same. In this way they are cheated by the English translators. Here is the
Greek of Romans 12:19:

      Emoi ekdikesis, ego antapodsoo, legei kurios.

It would be waste of print to repeat this line again as of Hebrews 10:30, for
the wording in both places is the same to the letter (in the Received Text).
If this is not proof of common authorship, what is? We now draw attention to
the way in which certain words are used by Paul and which are used in the same
connections in Hebrews.

      Agon, a word borrowed from the Greek games, and translated ‘conflict’,
‘contention’, ‘fight’ (Phil. 1:30; Col. 2:1; 1 Thess. 2:2; 1 Tim. 6:12 and 2
Tim. 4:7). The only other occurrence is Hebrews 12:1, ‘the race that is set
before us’.

      Athlesis, athleo, sunathleo, are similarly borrowed from the games (Heb.
10:32; 2 Tim. 2:5; Phil. 1:27). In addition it should be noted that in 1
Corinthians 4:9 Paul uses the word theatron, ‘spectacle’, and in Hebrews 10:33
theatrizomenoi, ‘gazing stock’, which reveal the same shrinking and sensitive

      Apekdechomai. This word does not occur anywhere else except in Paul’s
undoubted epistles, and Hebrews. It means always expectation in connection
with the second coming of the Lord (Heb. 9:28; 1 Cor. 1:7; Phil. 3:20).

      Douleia, ‘bondage’, occurs only in Romans, Galatians and Hebrews.
Bondage of corruption, bondage of the fear of death, are associated ideas.

      Intercession (entugchano) (Rom. 8:27; Heb. 7:25).   The reader will find
other examples, but we pass on to other ‘proofs’.

      The writer of Hebrews speaks of our brother Timothy (Heb. 13:23). In the
opening of 2 Corinthians andof Colossians, Timothy is called ‘our brother’,
while the idea that Timothy would ‘come’ and that ‘shortly’
is found in 1 Corinthians 16:10, 1 Thessalonians 3:6 and Philippians 2:19,23.
Timothy, by reason of his parentage, had been circumcised and would be accepted
by the Hebrew Christians. These are but a few, selected from a mass of
parallels accumulated, tabulated, analysed, and commented on in a book of 670
pages, by Forster, on Hebrews, a book literally crammed full of evidence for
the Pauline authorship of Hebrews. Our space however is exceedingly limited
and so we pass on to another proof of the Pauline authorship of Hebrews. It is
often said that Paul’s name does not occur in the epistle. That is so, but his
sign manual is there for all to see.

      Owing to a deception that had been practised upon the church by someone
sending an epistle purporting to have come from Paul, he drew attention to the
fact that he wrote ‘like this’ where not only the handwriting itself is
referred to, a proof in itself, and one accepted today in banks, wills, leases,
contracts, judgments, marriages, births and deaths, but also that he adopted a
certain phrase, which added to the proof of his identity. The salutation of
Paul with mine own hand. In the article entitled Galatians (p. 37), we have
discussed this particular matter, and this article should be referred to.

      ‘Which is the token in every epistle: so I write’. Something therefore
Paul assured the reader he would write, and that he would write it in every
epistle. This of necessity would also demand Divine supervision to prevent
anyone else using the same terms at the close of an epistle -- otherwise the
object would be defeated. ‘So I write’ (2 Thess. 3:17). Then follows, in the
handwriting of Paul himself, the words ‘The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be
with you all. Amen’ (2 Thess. 3:18). Now if each of the thirteen epistles
that bear the name of Paul be examined, it will be found that each has a
benediction which uses the phrase ‘Grace ... with you’ in a variety of ways. 2
Corinthians concludes with the longest and fullest of these benedictions, and
Titus ends with one of the shortest, ‘Grace be with you all. Amen’ (Tit.
3:15). It is with these identical words that the epistle to the Hebrews
closes. Shall we not therefore be compelled to accept this ‘sign -manual’ of
the apostle, and maintain that Paul was the writer of the epistle to the
Hebrews? This is the one anonymous epistle of the twenty -one that are found
in the New Testament. Why should the writer of any epistle suppress his
identity? When we remember the deep prejudice of the Jew, and of the Jewish
Christians, and Paul’s sensitiveness concerning them, and that he should give
none offence, neither to Jew, Gentile nor church of God, and that he was not
sent as an apostle to them, can we supply any adequate reason to account for
the withholding of the writer’s name. Sufficient, we trust, has been said on
this head. Those who are not convinced will probably remain unconvinced though
we wrote a volume.

      We turn now to another feature, the result of a comparison made between
the distinctive teaching of Hebrews with that of Ephesians.

            (B)   Hebrews and Ephesians compared.

      In The Berean Expositor, Volume 34, will be found a series entitled
‘Comparing spiritual things with spiritual’. A series of comparisons between
the epistles to the Hebrews and to the Ephesians in relation to their
respective spheres and callings. We cannot afford the space to reprint this
series, but following the lead given by the apostle in Hebrews 8:1, we do give
the ‘sum’ of the things we discovered and set out in those articles.

      Comparison No. 1. Ephesians, like the bulk of Paul’s epistles, contains
in its salutation the name ‘Paul’, and his apostolic office. This indicates
that he writes with full apostolic authority. It is not called a ‘word of
exhortation’ which the readers are called upon ‘to suffer’ as in Hebrews, but
is the revelation of a secret portion of the Divine plan presented to their
faith by an accredited apostle. The absence of the name and office of Paul
from Hebrews indicates that he was writing in a private capacity to those whose
calling and sphere did not fall within the dispensation granted to him. This
in no sense alters its inspiration, but it does call upon all who read it to
exercise discrimination, lest they confound things that differ.

      Comparison No. 2. Ephesians is most definitely and exclusively addressed
to ‘Gentiles’. This word never appears in Hebrews, which uses instead, the
words ‘the fathers’ and ‘the people’, neither of which finds a place in the
epistle to the Ephesians, nor do these terms pertain to the dispensation of the
grace of God entrusted to Paul the prisoner ‘for you Gentiles’.

      Comparison No. 3. Hebrews is full of references to ‘angels’: Ephesians
does not once mention them but stresses the exaltation of the Lord above
‘principalities’, a term not found in Hebrews. Yet both epistles quote Psalm
8, in reference to the Lord’s exaltation, speaking, in Hebrews, of the Lord’s
relation to angels, and, in Ephesians of His relation to principalities and
powers, two different spheres in glory being thus indicated.

      Comparison No. 4. While both Ephesians and Hebrews quote Psalm 8, the
epistle to the Hebrews leaves us in no doubt that it speaks of the ‘habitable
world to come’ (oikoumene), whereas the context of the quotation of Psalm 8 in
Ephesians goes beyond the habitable world, beyond the present heavens to that
place which is described as far above all principality and power, and speaks of
Christ as ‘Head’ and His church as ‘the body, the fulness of Him that filleth
all in all’.

      Comparison No. 5. Redemption by    blood is found both in Ephesians and
Hebrews; so also is the forgiveness of   sins, but in Hebrews this redemption and
forgiveness is associated with the old   and new covenants. So also ‘access’ in
Hebrews is related to the new covenant   and a different Greek word from that
used in Ephesians is employed. The Ephesian saints had been ‘made nigh’
whereas the Hebrews are exhorted to ‘draw near’.

      Comparison No. 6. Both in Hebrews and in Ephesians the outstanding
position of Christ is ‘seated at the right hand of God’, but in Hebrews, He is
seen seated there as ‘the High Priest’ whereas in Ephesians He is seated there
as ‘The Head’. In Ephesians, the believer is looked upon as being seated with
Him, in Hebrews He is there alone. In the whole of Paul’s thirteen epistles
there is not a single reference either to a priest or to a high priest, yet,
without these offices, the teaching of Hebrews could not proceed.

      An examination of the Scriptures written prior to the law of Sinai,
reveals that sacrifices were offered, not by a priest, but by the head of a
family or tribe. Priesthood is thus linked with Israel, but the Gentile
calling of Ephesians is linked with Christ as Head.

      Comparison No. 7. The word diatheke, ‘covenant’, lies at the heart of
Hebrews. No covenant, old or new, enters into the teaching of Ephesians. The
‘seated Priest’ of Hebrews is the Mediator of the new covenant, but this is
entirely foreign to the calling or dispensation of Ephesians. In the place
occupied by the new covenant in Hebrews, Ephesians places ‘The Mystery’.

      Comparison No. 8. The hope of both epistles, when examined and compared,
reveals the same associations that have marked all the preceding studies.
‘Prove all things, hold fast that which is good’.

            (C)   Hebrews and Philippians compared.

      The preceding comparison is negative in character, but the present
reveals that the purpose with which Hebrews was written is similar to the
purpose of Philippians. The dispensation in which the two epistles work are
different, but their teaching is parallel. Both urge the believer to ‘go on
unto perfection’ whatever that perfection may mean in either case, and both
warn about drawing back ‘unto perdition’ whatever that perdition may prove to
be. In both a race and a prize is in view, even though the prize be different
and the sphere of enjoyment different.
            HEBREWS                                      PHILIPPIANS

Things accompanying salvation      6:9       Work out salvation            2:12
Heavenly city          11:10;    12:22       Citizenship in heaven         3:20
Reproach               11:26;    13:13       Fellowship of sufferings      3:10
Reward                 10:35;    11:26       Prize                         3:14
The race set before us           12:1        I press toward the mark       3:14
Leaving ... let us go on         6:1,2       Forgetting things behind      3:13
Obtain a better resurrection                 Attain unto an out-resurrection
  (condition attached)           11:35       (condition attached)          3:11
Power of His resurrection        13:20       Power of His resurrection     3:10
Work in ... His will             13:21       Work in ... His will          2:13
Christ the Image                 1:3         Christ the Form               2:6
Angels worship Him               1:6         Every knee bow                2:10
Thou, Lord, in beginning         1:10        Jesus Christ is Lord          2:11
A little lower than angels       2:9         No reputation ... He
                                             humbled Himself               2:7,8
Cross endured for the joy                    Cross suffered ... wherefore ...
  and used as an example         12:1,2        exalted ... Let this mind
                                             be in you                     2:5 -9
Crucify to themselves afresh     6:6         Enemies of the cross of Christ 3:18

      Perfection Heb. 6:1                          Perfection   Phil. 3:12
                or                                        or
      Perdition    Heb. 10:39                      Perdition    Phil. 3:19

Fight of afflictions (athlesis)10:32         Strive together (sunathleo)1:27; 4:3
Discernment                     5:14         Discernment ... differ       1:9,10
Look diligently                12:15         Mark them that walk            3:17
Esau ... for one morsel of                   Whose God is their belly       3:19
  meat sold his birthright     12:16
That generation -- tempted                   Perverse generation ...
  God in the wilderness        3:7-10          without murmurings            2:14,15
Be content with such as ye have 13:5         Whatsoever state ... content    4:11
Communicate                    13:16         Communicate                     4:14,15
With such sacrifices                         Sacrifice ... sweet smell ...
  well-pleased                 13:16         well pleasing      4:18
Fruit of righteousness         12:11         Fruit of righteousness          1:11
Compassion in bonds            10:34         Partaker in bonds               1:7
Whose faith follow                           Be followers together of
  (mimeomai)                   13:7          me (summimetes)                 3:17
Ye took joyfully the spoiling                Let your moderation be known
  of your goods                10:34         unto all men                    4:5
You have in heaven an enduring               Our citizenship is in heaven
  substance (huparchonta)      10:34         (huparcho)                      3:20
Salutation from Italy          13:24         Salutation from Caesar’s
                                             household                       4:22
Paul’s sign manual               13:25       Paul’s sign manual              4:23

            (D)      The epistle to the Hebrews as a whole.

A 1 to 2.                  the word          Thou remainest.
                           spoken            Thou art the same.
                                             How escape if neglect?
                                             Bring in again the first begotten.
    B 3 to 6.                on to             Let us come boldly.
                             perfection        Example of unbelief.
                                               Perfect v. babes.
                                               No renewal unto repentance.
                                               Senses exercised.
                                               Crucify afresh the Son.

        C 7 to 10:18.        perfection        But this Man.
                             where             No perfection   in   priesthood.
                             found             No perfection   in   law.
                                               No perfection   in   ordinances
                                               No perfection   in   sacrifices.
                                               But this Man.

    B   10:19 to 12:25.      back to           Let us draw near.
                             perdition         Examples of faith.
                                               Sons v. firstborn.
                                               Found no place for repentance.
                                               Discipline exercised.
                                               Trod under foot the Son.

A       12:25 to 13.        him that           Things that remain.
                            speaketh           Jesus Christ the same.
                                               Not escape if refuse.
                                               Brought again from the dead.

                (E)    A special feature of Hebrews 11 exhibited.

      The witnesses cited by the apostle in this chapter fall into two groups
of seven, the whole fourteen making a series of seven pairs, related to each
other by a common theme. Shorn of all detail, it can be set out thus:

Abel (11:4) ‘Being dead yet speaketh’.
Enoch (11:5)       ‘Translated ... not see death’.     Death
Noah (11:7) ‘Became heir of righteousness’.
Abraham (11:8)     ‘A place ... for an inheritance’.   Inheritance
Isaac (11:9)       ‘Sojourned in a strange country’.
Jacob (11:9)       ‘Dwelling in tents’.                Pilgrimage
Sarah (11:11)      ‘As good as dead’.
Abraham (11:19)    ‘Able to raise him up’.             Resurrection
             (A woman, Sarah, completes the first series of seven,
             a break coming at verse 13).
Isaac (11:20)      ‘By faith Isaac blessed Jacob
                   and Esau’.
Jacob (11:21)      ‘By faith Jacob blessed both        Contrary
                   sons’.                              to Nature
Joseph (11:22)     ‘Gave commandment
                   concerning his bones’.
Moses (11:27)      ‘By faith forsook Egypt’.           Egypt
Israel (11:28)     ‘He that destroyed
                   the firstborn’.
Rahab (11:31)      ‘Rahab perished not’.               Destruction
                (A woman, Rahab, completes the second series of seven,
                verses 32 -40, generalizes the rest).
Even the names brought together, when Paul says ‘the time would fail me to
tell’, are seven, and their exploits are given as follows:

            A     Heb. 11:33 -35.   Eleven positive acts of faith.
                  B     Heb. 11:35.       The better Resurrection.
            A     Heb. 11:36 -39.   Eleven negative acts of faith.
                  B     Heb. 11:40.       The better thing.

The historical background of this epistle is the period of temptation in the
wilderness (Heb. 3 and 4), and it must be remembered that ‘Jesus’ of Hebrews
4:8 is not the Lord, but the Greek spelling of Joshua.

      ‘Leaving ... let us go on’ (Heb. 6:1,2).
      As Hebrews 6:1,2 is of importance dispensationally, we give the following
somewhat extended analysis. Whatever view we may entertain as to what
constitutes ‘the principles of the doctrine of Christ’, one thing is certain
and beyond controversy -- that Hebrews 6:1 bids us leave them:

      ‘Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on
      unto perfection’ (Heb. 6:1).
Whatever view we may entertain as to these ‘principles’, this verse not only
says ‘leave them’, but sets over against them ‘perfection’.

      ‘Therefore leaving ... let us go on’.

      Yet again, whatever place in the doctrine of Christ we may give:

      ‘Repentance from dead works, faith toward God, the doctrine of baptisms,
      the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and aionian

the same verse says ‘not laying again the foundation’. Leaving for the moment
the question of the exactness of this translation, we feel that no system of
sound exegesis can ignore the obvious relation established in this verse
between the commands ‘Leave ... go on ... not lay again’. ‘Leave’ is echoed by
‘not lay again’, and by parity of reasoning and structural correspondence ‘the
principles of the doctrine of Christ’ are echoed by the six items of doctrine
mentioned in verses 1 and 2. It must strike the ordinary reader as somewhat
strange to be urged by Scripture itself to leave the principles of the doctrine
of Christ, and therefore it becomes us patiently to search the Scriptures to
find the mind of God on the subject.

      Casting our eye back to chapter 5 we find that these Hebrews, who for the
time ought to have been teachers, were so dull of hearing that they needed to
be taught again certain rudiments of the beginning of the oracles of God. The
word ‘principles’ in Hebrews 6:1 is this same word ‘beginning’. The word
‘doctrine’ is the ordinary logos, very like logion (‘oracles’) in 5:12. So
that the theme of Hebrews 5:12 is resumed in 6:1: ‘Therefore leaving the word
of the beginning of the Christ, let us go on unto perfection’. Let us return
to Hebrews 5. These believers who needed re -instruction in the rudiments were
‘babes’, and are set in direct contrast with ‘full grown’ or ‘perfect’
(teleios); this is parallel with the thought of Hebrews 6:1, which says ‘let us
go on unto teleiotes’. We are told not to forsake principles, but leave
rudiments, babyhood, beginnings.
      Not laying again a foundation.-- Most readers know that we translate the
words ‘before the foundation of the world’ by ‘before the overthrow of the
world’. Evidence has been given of the usage of kataballo and katabole in the
LXX and the New Testament and the new rendering appears abundantly justified.
The word ‘laying’ in Hebrews 6:1 is kataballomenoi, and has been translated by
Erhard, among others, ‘not demolishing’. Bloomfield’s note here is:

      ‘"Not demolishing" is forbidden by the usus loquendi, for I cannot find a
      single example of the Middle form in the sense "to demolish" but only in
      the sense of jacere, "to lay down", whether in literal or figurative

      While therefore leaving the new translation of Ephesians 1:4 unimpaired,
we allow this Middle form of the verb its meaning as in the A.V., ‘not laying
again’. Following the word ‘baptisms’ in the Greek of verse 2 is the word ‘of
instruction’ (doctrine) which is somewhat peculiar. We might have felt that
didache could as well be prefixed to repentance or faith. There must therefore
be some reason not quite visible on the surface, and it appears to be this.
Before a believer could be accepted for baptism and the laying on of hands, he
must have already accepted these four words of the beginning of Christ:

                  (1).    Repentance from dead works.
                  (2).    Faith toward God.
                  (3).    Resurrection of the dead.
                  (4).    Aionian judgment.

      Although this explanation is not devoid of difficulties, no explanation
offered is entirely free from them, and an open mind is necessary that we may
be ready to follow the light as the Lord shall give it.

      Repentance from dead works.-- Repentance is a foundation truth. In 1
Thessalonians 1:9 it is suggested in the words, ‘how ye turned to God from
idols’. It is manifest that it is not to be contemplated that this act of
turning or repentance was to be repeated. Turning from idols and repentance
from dead works, alike were marks of a great and vital change. To need a
repetition would indicate a most serious lapse. Similarly with the balancing
doctrine of –

      Faith toward God.-- In Acts 20:21 the apostle sums up his testimony in
the words:

      ‘Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance toward
      God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ’.

      Repentance from, and faith toward, are two views of one movement, much in
the same way as ‘turned to God from idols’ contains the negative and positive
aspects of the same action.

      The Doctrine of Baptisms and of Laying on of Hands.-- This pair has
reference to ordinances and recognition in the church. It will be observed
that the word is ‘baptisms’, not ‘baptism’. Reference is made again to these
‘baptisms’ in Hebrews 9. The context of the occurrence is a valuable
commentary upon Hebrews 6:2 and we must therefore give it. The chapter opens
with a description of the tabernacle and its furniture, going on to distinguish
between the daily service of the priests and the annual ministry of the High
Priest alone:
      ‘The Holy Spirit shewing this, that the way into the holiest of all was
      not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was standing (which
      was a figurative representation for that season which was present)
      according to which both gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not
      make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience,
      being imposed (as to meats and drinks and divers baptisms, fleshly
      ordinances) until the time of reformation. But Christ being come an high
      priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle
      ...’ (Heb. 9:8 -11).

      Here we see the place of these ‘baptisms’; they were fleshly or typical
ordinances, and while they may have some place in the education of babes, and
had a place in the church of the Acts period, they had no place with those who
sought to go on unto perfection. See Baptism1.

      The Laying on of Hands was the means used to bestow spiritual gifts. One
has only to be familiar with the teaching of 1 Corinthians to understand that
the possession of these miraculous gifts was not one of the marks of the
‘perfect’ (see 1 Corinthians chapters 12 to 14). To rest in them would be to
fail. The third pair is eschatological.

      The Resurrection of the Dead.-- Some things like ‘baptisms’ have to be
left behind in the sense of being undispensational, others, like repentance and
faith, because they are elemental and do not bear the idea of continual
repetition. Others, like resurrection, are fundamental, and to be under the
necessity for continual proof and instruction on such a point argued no good
for the doubter. The further teaching of Hebrews 11:35 and 40, where a ‘better
resurrection’ is linked with being ‘made perfect’, naturally assumes as
fundamental the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead.

      Aionian Judgment (Din Olamim) is the eleventh fundamental of the Jewish
creed. The student of Ecclesiastes will the more clearly see the fundamental
nature of this truth. It involves both reward and punishment. It is the basis
upon which alone the apostle could urge believers to take joyfully the spoiling
of their goods, and to follow in the steps of those who obtained a good report,
who in this life were losers, but who believed unto the ‘gaining of the soul’

      Such is the foundation. There was something more needed for the
‘perfect’, however, than a bare foundation. 1 Corinthians 3 is a commentary
upon that fact. To have the foundation beneath one’s feet means salvation, but
to have nothing more means salvation ‘so as by fire’. The reader has only to
glance along to Hebrews 6:8 to see the parallel. None such have gone on unto
perfection. Perfection is the goal of the epistle and every item introduced is
a factor in the process:

            ‘Leaving ... let us go on ... not laying again ... and this will we
      do, if God permit’ (Heb. 6:1 -3).

      It is manifest that no apostle could urge the believer to leave ‘the
principles of the doctrine of Christ’ for alas this would be simple apostasy.
The A.V. margin gives the true meaning ‘The word of the beginning of Christ’,
referred to in Hebrews 5:12 and likened to the food of babes, and contrasted
with the solid food of those who were ‘full grown’ and ‘perfect’. See Babes1.
Those who would appreciate an exposition of the whole epistle to the Hebrews
will find it in past issues of The Berean Expositor 1955 -6, or in the book
Perfection or Perdition.

      For the structure of Hebrews 12, see the article entitled Jerusalem8.

Heirs and Fellow-Heirs. It is written, categorically, ‘If children, then
heirs; heirs of God’ (Rom. 8:17), as though an inheritance attaches to
Redemption as a matter of course, but the statement that follows, ‘and joint
heirs with Christ’, may be conditional; it may be associated, not with initial
redemption, but with ‘if so be that we suffer with Him, that we may be also
glorified together’. Let us first of all acquaint ourselves with the words
used. Heir is the translation of the Hebrew yarash, ‘to possess and succeed’,
and the Greek kleronomos, ‘one who receives a lot or portion’. When Israel
entered into the Promised Land, it was divided among the tribes by lot, and it
is this element that is retained in the Greek word. Kleros is a small object,
such as a pebble, a turf, a ring, cast into an urn or a bag, and although
having all the appearances of settling
a matter by chance, was nevertheless under the superintendence of the Lord:

      ‘The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the
      Lord’ (Prov. 16:33).

This custom causes the Psalmist to use the grateful language of Psalm 16:5,6:

      ‘The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup: Thou
      maintainest my lot. The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places;
      yea, I have a goodly heritage’.

      This passage becomes richer in meaning, when we know the circumstances
that made such language possible. The imagery is borrowed from the communal
life of a Palestine village. The arable land surrounding the village was cut
up into sizeable portions, but would naturally vary in quality. One portion
would be like the land of the parable that was thorny, another would have no
deepness of earth, another would yield a good crop. Every year this land was
drawn by lot. A little child usually was the instrument, dipping his hand into
a bag and drawing out the allotted portion for each individual. The word
‘maintain’ even in English retains the word ‘hand’ (main), and in the Hebrew
the word tamak means to lay hold on by the hand (Isa. 41:10; Gen. 48:17; Exod.
17:12). The ‘line’ refers to the measuring line, which indicated the boundary
of each allotment. What David said in Psalm 16 may be paraphrased thus:

      ‘Thy hand goes down into the bag, and selects the lot that shall fall to
      my share, and when I see what has been allotted to me, I exclaim, The
      lines are fallen unto me in a pleasant place, yea, I have a goodly

      We still retain the words ‘allotment’, ‘allotted portion’ and ‘lot’, even
though the decision by the casting of lots is out of date. In the New
Testament the ‘lot’ (kleros) is used

      (1). Of the lots cast on the Saviour’s vesture (Matt. 27:35; Mark 15:24;
      Luke 23:34; John 19:24).
      (2). Of the appointment of Matthias (Acts 1:17,25,26).
      (3). Of the denunciation of Simon the sorcerer ‘neither part nor lot’
      (Acts 8:21).
      (4). Of the heritage of the redeemed (Acts 26:18; Col. 1:12).
       (5). Of the Lord’s people as His allotted portion or heritage (1 Pet.

The English word ‘clergy’ is derived from this word kleros. In its earliest
use it indicated the distinction conferred by learning, ‘Aristotle, for all his
clergy’; ‘they put their sons to learn some clergy’; and so klerikos became
‘clerk’, which was (1) a scholar, and (2) an ecclesiastic. But this is by the
way. From kleros we get the compounds kleronomeo ‘to inherit’, kleronomia
‘inheritance’, kleronomos ‘heir’, and kleroomai, a word that occurs but once
(Eph. 1:11) and translated ‘to obtain an inheritance’ in the A.V., ‘to be made
a heritage’ according to the R.V. In addition to these we have several
compounds made up with other words, such as

       kataklerodoteo, the intensive form ‘to divide ... by lot’ (Acts 13:19);

       sugkleronomos, this word occurs four times, as follows:

       Rom. 8:17    Joint heirs with Christ.
       Eph. 3:6     That the Gentiles should be fellow heirs.
       Heb. 11:9    The heirs with him of the same promise.
       1 Pet. 3:7   Heirs together of the grace of life.

Two of these references, namely Hebrews 11:9 and 1 Peter 3:7, are
straightforward and need no comment here, the other two are of dispensational
importance and call for a fuller investigation.

      Romans 8:17, ‘Joint heirs with Christ.’ We must not run the two
statements together thus, ‘If children then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs
with Christ’. This, though taken from one verse in Romans 8, belongs to two
separate sections, which can be exhibited thus:

                                  Romans 8:15 –17

                               The Spirit’s Witness

A      Sons   a           Ye have received.
                    b     The sonship spirit.
              a           We cry.
                    b     Abba, Father.
       B      Spirit itself bears witness.
A   Heirs     a     We are the children of God.
                    b     And if children.
                    b     Then heirs.
              a           Heirs of God.

      Here we have the witness of the Spirit to every child of God.   If
children then heirs, heirs of God.

       The remainder of verse 17 belongs to a new section, thus:

                                  Romans 8:17 –21

                                Suffering and Glory

       A      8:17. Suffering and Glory     a Joint heirs (sun).
                                               b Suffer together (sun).
                                          a Glorified together (sun).
            B     8:18. Revelation of Glory.
            B     8:19. Revelation of sons.
      A     8:20,21. Liberty and Glory.

      We have not given details of the whole section as our immediate concern
is with the term ‘joint -heirs’.

      The epistle to the Ephesians reveals the ‘hope of our calling’, while the
epistle to the Philippians reveals the ‘prize of the high calling’. Hope is
associated with grace; the Prize with reward. Hope is ours because we are in
Christ; the Prize will be ours, ‘if so be that we suffer with Him’. From this
it follows that an heir of God is not, necessarily, also a joint -heir with
Christ. It was ‘to him that overcometh’ that the promise was made that he
should sit with Christ upon His throne (Rev. 3:21). ‘If we suffer’, said the
apostle Paul, ‘we shall also reign with Him’ (2 Tim. 2:12). The doctrine has
changed from ‘in Christ Jesus’ to ‘with Christ’. We do not meet the
preposition sun, ‘with’, in Romans 8 until verse 16, where it occurs in the
word summartureo, ‘bear witness together’. After that we have sugkleronomos,
‘joint -heirs’; sumpascho, ‘jointly suffer’; sundoxazomai, ‘jointly glorified’.
The next occurrences are in verse 22, sustenazo, ‘groan together’, and
sunodino, ‘travail together’, and in the latter half of the chapter, there are
two or three more compounds of sun.

      This use of the word ‘heir’ and ‘joint -heir’, the one standing in pure
grace, the other associated with faithfulness and possible suffering, is found
in the epistle to the Colossians:

      (1). ‘Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be
      partakers of the inheritance (kleros, the allotment) of the saints in
      light’ (Col. 1:12).
      (2). ‘Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the
      inheritance (kleronomia, the allotted portion): for ye serve the Lord
      Christ’ (Col. 3:24).

      In the first instance the child of God has been ‘made meet’, in the
second there is introduced ‘reward’, ‘service’ and even ‘receiving wrong’,
showing that the two subjects are on different grounds, the one being followed
by reference to the forgiveness of sins, the other by a reference to what the
servant has done. So in Romans 8, ‘If children, then heirs, heirs of God’ is
parallel with Colossians 1:12. ‘Joint -heirs with Christ, if so be we suffer
with Him’ is parallel with Colossians 3:24, or as the apostle wrote to Timothy:

      ‘If we be dead (died) with Him, we shall also live with Him: if we
      endure, we shall also reign with Him’ (2 Tim. 2:11,12).

      The structure emphasizes the glory, and associates with it present
suffering and future liberty. Moreover, it shows that the revelation of the
sons of God and the revelation of the glory synchronize. Much of the present
suffering will be found to be sharing in the patience of Christ, Who Himself
awaits the day of His revelation and coronation. We share His rejection as
those of old shared the rejection of David at Adullam, and we shall share His
glory when He reigns. Just as there were some who attained to the ‘first
three’ or the ‘thirty’ (2 Sam. 23), and just as one star differs from another
star, though both are ‘in glory’, so it is with the ‘heirs’ and the ‘joint -
heirs’, that is, with those made meet for the inheritance, and those who not
only were made meet, but who will, additionally, receive the reward of the
      The hope of the church as expressed in the epistle to the Romans was
millennial (Rom. 15:12,13); consequently the joint -heirs with Christ who are
in any sense overcomers will find much that illuminates their position in
Revelation 2 and 3. There, addressing Himself to the seven churches of Asia,
the Lord makes certain promises ‘to him that overcometh’: ‘the tree of life’
(Rev. 2:7); ‘the crown of life’ and immunity from ‘the second death’ (Rev.
2:10,11); ‘the hidden manna’, ‘white stone’ and ‘new name’ (Rev. 2:17); ‘power
over the nations ... even as I received of My Father’ (Rev. 2:26 -28); ‘white
raiment’, ‘book of life’ and ‘name confessed’ (Rev. 3:5); ‘a pillar’, ‘a new
name’, the name of the ‘new Jerusalem’ (Rev. 3:12); and finally, a grant to sit
with Christ in His throne, even as He overcame, and sat with His Father in His
throne (Rev. 3:21). To sit down with Christ in His throne as overcomer, to
reign with Him, because one has endured, to be a joint -heir of Christ, if so
be we suffer with Him, are all expositions of the same truth, though it
operates in different spheres, whether the dispensation of the Mystery, during
the Acts period, or as far back as Abraham (Heb. 11:9,10).

      Having stated the relation that exists between present suffering and
future glory, the apostle proceeds to encourage the believer by comparing the
present with the future, and by showing how inexpressibly grand is the prospect
of glory, both to the individual and to all creation:

      ‘For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to
      be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us’ (Rom. 8:18).

      While Hebrews 11:9 and 1 Peter 3:7 contribute nothing specifically to our
knowledge of Dispensational Truth, there is a most precious truth latent in
these passages, which it would be a sin to miss. God does not call Himself
merely the God of Abraham, He is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob -- and
while there may be a notable difference between the spiritual standard of
Abraham as compared with Jacob, they were joint -heirs, the one no more, and no
less, than the other. Again, in 1 Peter 3:6,7 Sarah is said to have obeyed
Abraham, calling him ‘Lord’, and is likened to a ‘weaker vessel’, nevertheless
in spite of these and other differences Sarah was ‘joint -heir’ with Abraham.
Now take this a stage further. If a believer can become a joint -heir with
Christ, will not the same truth hold good? In comparison with his Lord he is
infinitely further than Jacob was from Abraham, he is infinitely weaker than
Sarah and has more need to acknowledge Christ as ‘Lord’ than any wife of any
husband, yet in spite of every acknowledged infirmity, will not the same truth
hold good, joint -heir with Christ, and so treated by the Father, as He treats
His Beloved? It seems too good to be true, and there are necessary limits to
the comparison, but what abounding grace is here made manifest!

      Let us now consider a passage that belongs to the dispensation of the
Mystery: Ephesians 3:6, ‘that the Gentiles should be fellow -heirs’.

      The words with which verse 5 end, ‘by the Spirit’, indicate as they
stand, that the author and inspirer of the apostles and prophets is ‘the
Spirit’. This is a truth which is fundamental -- but the question before us is
not the nature of inspiration, but the constitution of the church of the
Mystery. In Ephesians 2:22 the words translated ‘through the Spirit’ are in
the original en pneumati, ‘in spirit’, a sphere in direct contrast with that
indicated in Ephesians 2:11 en sarki, ‘in flesh’. Before proceeding with the
statement made in Ephesians 3:6, it may be necessary to bring before the reader
further examples of the way in which this phrase ‘in spirit’ is used by the

                            En pneumati, ‘In spirit’
                        as found in the epistles of Paul

      Rom. 2:29   The Jew inwardly, circumcision of the heart ‘in spirit not
      Rom. 8:9    Not ‘in flesh’ but ‘in spirit’ a new sphere by grace.
      Gal. 6:1    Restoration of an erring brother ‘in spirit’ of meekness.
      Eph. 2:22   Habitation of God ‘in spirit’.
      Eph. 3:5    (The verse under consideration).
      Col. 1:8    Your love ‘in spirit’.
      1 Tim. 3:16 Justified ‘in spirit’.

      A few passages where the wording or meaning is slightly different:

      Eph. 5:18    Not drunk with wine, filled ‘in spirit’.
      Eph. 6:18    Supplication ‘in spirit’.
      Rom. 7:6     Having died ... serve ‘in newness of spirit’, contrasted with
                   oldness of letter.
      2 Cor. 3:6   New Covenant, ‘not of letter, but of spirit’. Contrasts
      Phil. 3:3    Who worship God ‘in spirit’, contrasted with confidence in

In addition, the four passages in Revelation, where John is said to be ‘in
spirit’ should be consulted (Rev. 1:10; 4:2; 17:3 and 21:10). In each case a
sphere is indicated, and usually the sphere ‘in spirit’ is contrasted with the
sphere ‘in letter’ or ‘in flesh’.

      Coming now to Ephesians 3:6, we find that the structure of the passage is
as follows:

                                  Ephesians 3:4-8

      Two          d       4.   Mystery of Christ.
      Mysteries            e    5 -. Apostles and Prophets (Plural).
      and Two                   f     -5,6. The Mystery, g    in Spirit (sphere).
      Ministries                                           h1 Joint -heirs.
                                                           h2 Joint -body.
                                                           h3 Joint -partakers.
                                                         g    in Christ (sphere).
                           e    7,8 -.Paul alone (Singular).
                           d      -8. Unsearchable riches of Christ.

‘In spirit’ corresponds with ‘In Christ’ and indicates the sphere in which this
new relationship ‘fellow -heirs’ operates. This new relationship is threefold,

            Sunkleronoma                    Sussoma                 Summetocha

      Owing to the peculiar nature of this threefold fellowship, and the
extreme difficulty of finding one English word for the thrice repeated ‘sun’,
we have been obliged to resort to the expedient of employing the word ‘joint’,
joint -heirs, a joint -body and joint -partakers, only to realize that we have
invented a term that defies explanation, for what is a joint -body? We must be
careful not to introduce, even mentally, into this verse the idea that all Paul
means by the term ‘fellow -heirs’ is that now the Gentiles have been admitted
into an existing sphere of blessing, namely one in which the Jew was admittedly
first, and that all that the Mystery with its fellow -heirs means is that
Gentiles are now admitted on equal terms with Israel.

      If for the moment we concede that the Jew is in view, the teaching then
must be accepted as a veritable revelation of an hitherto hidden mystery, for
where, since the call of Abraham to the writing of the epistle to the Romans
(where the apostle says ‘the Jew first’, etc.), has the Gentile ever received
the threefold equality revealed here?

      Millennial blessings, which fulfil the promises to Israel, necessarily
give the Gentile a secondary place; they who were once aliens to the
commonwealth of Israel, but who are finally blessed under the covenant of
promise, are nevertheless ‘tail’ and not ‘head’, and their national
distinctions remain. Here, in the dispensation of the Mystery, the sphere is
‘in spirit’ and the equality is concerning relationship among the Gentile
believers themselves. The only place that a Jew can have here is to lose his
nationality and enter this unity as a sinner saved by grace, even as the
Gentile did.

      God does not call Himself merely the God of Abraham, or the God of
Abraham and Isaac. His full title in this connection is ‘The God of Abraham,
Isaac and Jacob’. They were co -heirs. The equality among all believers in
the dispensation of the Mystery is expressed in similar terms, co -heirs. This
inheritance is the subject of Ephesians 1:11 and 18, and of Colossians 1:12.
It is a predestined allotment, it is ‘in the light’.

      Although our subject is limited to the reference to fellow -heirs, a note
on the term ‘the same body’ and ‘fellow -partakers’ may not be out of place, as
these are on the same plane as the reference to fellow -heirs, and are very
near to the heart of this new revelation of grace.

      The joint -body (sussoma) is as unique as is the word used to express it.
The word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament or in the LXX. Words arise
in response to needs, and never before in all the varied ways of God with man
had there been the necessity for such a term. Kingdom, Firstborn, Church,
Bride, Wife, Flock, these and other terms had been necessitated by the
unfolding of the purpose of the ages, but not until the revelation of the
Mystery was there any necessity to use such an expression as ‘joint -body’.
The equality in the body is opened up in Ephesians 4:16. There is but One Head
and the rest of the body are members one of another.

      The third item is ‘joint -partakers’, but such an expression does not
convey the truth until the statement is completed:

      ‘Joint -partakers of the promise in Christ, through the gospel of which I
      became minister’.

      The better readings give the full title, ‘Christ Jesus’.

      ‘The promise in Christ Jesus’.-- Paul, when writing to Timothy his last
      ‘prison epistle’, calls himself:
      ‘An apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise
      of life which is in Christ Jesus’ (2 Tim. 1:1).

      Writing to Titus between the two imprisonments he speaks of the

      ‘ ... hope   of aionian life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before
      age times,   but hath in due times (or, its own peculiar seasons)
      manifested   His word through a proclamation with which I (ego) was
      entrusted’   (Titus 1:2,3).

      The Gentiles, here called and blessed, may indeed have been ‘strangers
from the covenants of promise’ while ‘in flesh’, but ‘in spirit’ they are
‘joint -partakers’ of a promise which goes back before the age times, and
before the overthrow of the world.

      Such is the sphere and character of the unity created by the Lord during
this time of Israel’s blindness.

      We rejoice at the testimony of ‘All Scripture’ to the joys and blessings
which are stored up for Israel, the nations, the groaning creation, as well as
for the church of God. Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for
higher things than Abraham hoped for or the Prophets dreamed.

      ‘There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and
      another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in
      glory’ (1 Cor. 15:41).

      The rendering ‘the same body’ (Eph. 3:6) is an inadequate translation of
the word sussomos. The R.V. has endeavoured to meet the difficulty by the
rendering ‘fellow -members’, but such cannot strictly be called a ‘translation’
but approaches a private ‘interpretation’. It is possible that in this strange
new term sussoma we have something so new, so unique, so hitherto unknown, that
nothing short of a new term could envisage this new fellowship. Into this new
word has been enshrined the newly created oneness of ‘the both’ into ‘one new
man’. The last thing that these three terms of equality can mean is that the
Gentiles were admitted into something already existing, but which had hitherto
been closed to them. This is something entirely new, and the Jew as a Jew,
even as the Gentile as a Gentile, finds no place, no priority, no advantage.
‘In spirit’, as opposed to ‘in flesh’, all such distinctions vanish. A newly
created new man (not a process of evolution) is the outstanding characteristic
of the dispensation of the Mystery.

Hid, Hide and Hidden. In the New Testament these words are the translation of
either the Greek krupto and its derivatives and compounds, lanthano, or kalupto
and its compound with peri. Lanthano occurs six times, but two references only
have any dispensational bearing, they occur in 2 Peter 3:5,8:

      ‘For this they willingly are ignorant of’ (lit. this escapes them

      ‘Be not ignorant of this one thing’ (lit. let not this one thing escape

Moffatt renders these passages: ‘They wilfully ignore the fact’. ‘Beloved, you
must not ignore this fact’. Ignorance may be excusable, but to ‘ignore
wilfully’ is sinful, and thus reveals the obstinate character of those who with
pseudo scientific arguments protest that the second coming of the Lord,
accompanied as it is described by prodigious physical consequences, is
impossible. Such ‘ignore wilfully’ both the teaching of Genesis 1:2 and of
6:7, and the evidence of disruption that is everywhere legible in the crust of
the earth. God has interfered with the so -called laws of nature in the past,
and He is pledged to interfere on a grander scale in the future: ‘and who may
abide the day of His coming?’ unless they are found ‘in Christ’, the antitype
of the ark in the days of Noah.

      Kalupto occurs eight times, and we accordingly give a concordance to the

      Matt. 8:24    The ship was covered with the waves.
      Matt. 10:26   There is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed.
      Luke 8:16     No man ... covereth it with a vessel.
      Luke 23:30    Say ... to the hills, cover us.
      2 Cor. 4:3    But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost.
      Jas. 5:20     Shall hide a multitude of sins.
      1 Pet. 4:8    Shall cover the multitude of sins.

      This word is derived from kalumma, ‘a veil’, and this word occurs four
times, namely in 2 Corinthians 3:13,14,15 and 16. In addition we must note
that anakalupto occurs in 2 Corinthians 3:14 and 18 ‘untaken away’ or ‘open
face’. One important fact emerges from this concordance, namely that 2
Corinthians 3 employs the figure of a veil, and that the translation ‘open’
face, and ‘hid’ in the expansion of this figurative passage, themselves ‘veil’
the eyes of the reader and prevent him from perceiving the truth. The
accompanying diagram may help to remove ‘the veil’ that the A.V. has
perpetuated, and to make clear Satan’s use of undispensational truth in his
endeavour to blot out ‘the gospel of the glory’.
         The theme of 2 Corinthians 3 and 4 is the exceeding glory of the new
covenant. In comparison with this covenant, the glory of the old is nullified.
The Chart suggests -- by the two shaded forms -- the tables of stone associated
  with the old covenant, and the fleshy tables of the heart that belong to the
   new covenant. Both covenants had their respective ‘glory’, but ‘even that
  which was made glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory
  that excelleth. For if that which is done away was glorious, much more that
                 which remaineth is glorious’ (2 Cor. 3:10,11).

      After considering the balancing members, it becomes very   clear that ‘from
glory to glory’ (2 Cor. 3:18) can mean nothing else than ‘from   the typical
glory of the old covenant, to the antitypical glory of the new   covenant’. This
we have suggested by the arrow at the base of the two covenant   forms.

      Much of the teaching of this passage is connected with the use of the
word ‘veil’. Moses veiled his face so that Israel should not see the end of
the glory that was transient. Israel wear a veil, not only over their heads
when reading the law (as shown in the illustration) but over their hearts. The
teaching of the passage is ‘veiled’ to the ordinary reader by the translation
‘open face’ in 2 Corinthians 3:18, where it should read ‘unveiled face’, as a
direct contrast with the veiled face of Israel. Further, the word ‘hid’ in 2
Corinthians 4:3 is the word ‘veiled’, and carries the teaching on to its

      The new translation of 2 Corinthians 4:3 -6 given at the bottom of the
Chart reveals the awful truth that Satan fabricates a veil for the spiritual
eye out of undispensational truth. Four times in 2 Corinthians 3 it is
stressed that the old covenant was ‘done away’ (or ‘abolished’), and out of
this, as the epistle to the Galatians reveals, the Evil One made a veil to hide
the fulness of grace that is found in the person and work of Christ. Two faces
are seen in contrast, the face of Moses, and the face of Jesus Christ.

      We append the structure of 2 Corinthians 2:17 to 4:6 as a supplement to
the Chart.

                            2 Corinthians 2:17 to 4:6

A     2:17. a      Not corrupt   the Word of God.
                   b     Speak   in the sight of God.
      B      3:1 -16.            The face of Moses. -- The passing glory.
             C     3:17,18.      The unveiled face of the believer. -- From glory
                                             to glory.
A   4:1,2.   a      Not handle deceitfully the Word of God.
                    b      Commend in the sight of God.
             C      4:3,4.       The veiled face of the unbeliever. -- Glory
      B      4:5,6.              The face of Jesus Christ. -- The glory of God.

      The third Greek word translated ‘hid’ and ‘hide’ is krupto and its
derivatives. These derivatives are kruphe (Eph. 5:12); kruptos (Matt. 6:18);
krupte (Luke 11:33); perikrupto (Luke 1:24); apokruphon, apokrupto and
egkrupto. Not every one of these words or every one of their occurrences is of
dispensational importance. The fact that the Mystery (which also was hidden)
occupies such an important place in Ephesians, makes the sinister reference in
Ephesians 5:12 the more marked:
      ‘For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them
      in secret’.

      There seems to be a passing reference here to the fact that initiates
into these pagan mysteries were under a bond of secrecy, and the apostle seems
to suggest that there was good cause for this secrecy, so awful were the rites
practised on these occasions. If there is in the Scripture ‘the Mystery of
Godliness’ we can depend upon it that there will also be the Satanic
counterpart, ‘the Mystery of Iniquity’:

      ‘The very naming of those abominations often produces improper
      associations in the mind; the description creates polluting images before
      the imagination ... Paul did not describe these vices, he denounced them;
      he did not dwell upon them long enough for the imagination to find
      employment, and to corrupt the soul. He mentioned the vice, and then he
      mentioned the wrath of God; he alluded to the sin, and then he spoke of
      the exclusion from heaven’ (Barnes on Ephesians).

      There are ‘depths of Satan’ which it is commendable in the believer not
to know (Rev. 2:24). In 2 Corinthians 4:2 Paul is represented as saying that
he had ‘renounced the hidden things of dishonesty’, but this is misleading.
To be able to say one has ‘renounced’ anything implies previous complicity.
The word translated ‘renounce’ is composed of apo ‘away’ and eipein ‘to
commend’. Here Paul rejects with emphasis any complicity with the evil methods
adopted by teachers of falsehood. Two references to kruptos occur in Romans 2
which are important dispensationally. We will not, here, set out the structure
of the whole chapter, but will lift out the two corresponding members that
contain these words.

      A     Rom. 2:15,16.     a        kardia             Work of law in hearts.
                                       b      kruptos     The secrets of men.
            B     Rom. 2:17 -25.       opheleo      The profit of circumcision.

                                   *      *     *

      A     Rom. 2:29.                 b      kruptos     Secret man within.
                              a        kardia       circumcision of the heart.
            B     Rom. 3:1.            opheleia     What profit of circumcision?

      Romans 2:15,16 reveals that when the Gentiles who never received either
the law or gospel are judged, they will not be judged superficially by what
they have actually done, they will be judged by One Who knows the secret or
hidden promptings of the heart. Just one word of warning. We have met those
who maintained that the Gentile believer is intended by the ‘Jew which is one
inwardly’, but this is not the teaching of Romans 2. There the apostle is
saying to the Jew, ‘your physical descent from Abraham, your entrustment with
the oracles of God, are not sufficient, these are outward; but to be a true
Jew, these need to have a corresponding inward reality’ which, alas, was so
absent from the Jew at that time that he had even rejected and crucified the
very Messiah Himself.

      There remain for our consideration the references to ‘hide’ or ‘hidden’
in Ephesians and Colossians, which are:
      Eph. 3:9    ‘And to make all men see what is the fellowship (R.V.
      "dispensation") of the Mystery, which from the beginning of the world
      hath been hid in God, Who created all things by Jesus Christ’.
      Col. 1:26   ‘Even the Mystery which hath been hid from ages and from
      generations, but now is made manifest to His saints’.
            Col. 2:2,3 ‘To the acknowledgment of the Mystery of God, and of
      the Father, and of Christ; in Whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom
      and knowledge’.
      Col. 3:3    ‘For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God’.

      Under the heading Dispensation1, Ephesians 3:9 has been partly examined.
All that we are concerned with here is that the Mystery is of such a nature
that no amount of human ingenuity, piety or study could ever bring it to light;
it had been purposely and effectively hidden ‘in God’, had been hidden from or
since the ages in and by that same God Who created all things. Not only so,
but Colossians 1:26 says that this ‘Mystery was hidden from the ages and from
the generations’ and has only now been revealed through the stewardship of Paul
the prisoner.

      Two other equally precious references to the hidden things of the Mystery
are: (1) that in Christ are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and
(2) the believer’s life is hid with Christ in God. The same care, the same
covering, the same hiding -place for the Mystery itself is provided for the
life of the believer. Both safe, both manifested in their own appointed
season, both very closely related to the heavenly glory of the Saviour.
Colossians 2:2 needs a little revision. The Revised text reads: ‘The Mystery
of God even Christ’. There is a series of steps to the goal here which we
should not miss. Paul’s longing for these Colossians, and the labour he put
forth on their behalf was in order that
      (1)   Their hearts may be comforted.
      (2)   They may be knit together in love.
      (3)   Unto all the riches of the full assurance of understanding.
      (4)   To the acknowledgment of the Mystery of God -- Christ.
      (4)   In Whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

      For the very real relationship of this blessed assurance with the act and
grace of ‘acknowledgment’ the reader is directed to the article bearing the
title Acknowledge1. For the fuller explication of the Mysteries here referred
to, the article entitled Mystery3 should be read. If God hides, as He has, who
can hope to discover the Mystery until He chooses to reveal it? If God hides,
as He has, what can endanger that life which is hid with Christ in God? Riches
of full assurance are here indeed!

High Calling (Phil. 3:14). For the various callings see Calling1, and for an
examination of the suggestion that Philippians 3:14 should be translated ‘the
calling on high’, i.e. a future summons to glory, see Hope (p. 132), and
High Priest. Limiting our survey to the epistles of Paul, as we must if we are
to keep within the bounds of our dispensation, we discover that the High Priest
is spoken of very fully in the epistle to the Hebrews, but is never mentioned
in any other of Paul’s epistles. It follows therefore that there is something
peculiar about Hebrews that separates it from the remaining thirteen Pauline
epistles, and the peculiarity of its message is indicated in the article
entitled Hebrews (p. 101), to which the reader is directed.

      While there are a number of Hebrew words translated ‘hope’ in the Old
Testament, there is but one basic Greek word so translated in the New Testament
It will not be possible to examine the references in the Old Testament in
detail, but it will give us some idea of what ‘hope’ meant in the days of old
if we (1) examine the different Hebrew words used, and (2) note what Hebrew
words are translated elpizo or elpis in the LXX.

      Betach. ‘Therefore ... my flesh also shall rest in hope’ (Psa. 16:9).
This word means: to cling as a child to its mother’s breast (Psa. 22:9), and to
trust, to rely upon, and then to be confident.

      Batach, the verb, is translated mostly ‘trust’.

      Kesel. ‘That they might set their hope in God’ (Psa. 78:7). The radical
idea of this word is stiffness or rigidity, and this can be used in more senses
than one. Kesel indicates the loins (Psa. 38:7), and by an easy transition it
can mean confidence (Prov. 3:26), but as stiffness and rigidity can be used of
evil as well as good, kesel is often translated ‘fool’ or ‘folly’.

      Machseh. The letter ‘M’ often indicates that a verb has been turned into
a noun, as for example the Hebrew shaphat ‘judge’ becomes mishpat ‘judgment’.
The verb from which machseh is formed is chasah, to take refuge, to trust (Ruth
2:12). Machseh is translated ‘hope’ in Jeremiah 17:17 and Joel 3:16.

      Miqveh. This too is a noun derived from the verb qavah ‘to wait for,
expect’. Jeremiah uses the word when he speaks of ‘the hope of Israel’ or ‘the
hope of their fathers’ (Jer. 14:8; 50:7). The idea of confidence or hope seems
to lie in the fact that the basic meaning of qavah, which means to twist or
stretch, came to mean a gathering together (Gen. 1:9) and linen yarn (1 Kings
10:28), the idea of confidence or trust being developed from the sense of unity

      Seber. ‘Whose hope is in the Lord’ (Psa. 146:5). Little can be said of
this word. In Nehemiah 2:13,15 it is translated ‘view’, and so the link
between the two meanings ‘view’ and ‘hope’ seems to be the idea of looking with
expectancy, or, as Hebrews 9:28 puts it, ‘them that look for Him’.
      Tocheleth. ‘My hope is in Thee’ (Psa. 39:7).

      Yachal.   ‘In Thee, O Lord, do I hope’ (Psa. 38:15).

      The root idea of these two related words is that of ‘waiting’.

      ‘All the days of my appointed time will I wait’ (Job 14:14).
      ‘I will wait for the God of my salvation’ (Mic. 7:7).
      Tiqvah. ‘Thou art my hope, O Lord God’ (Psa. 71:5). This word belongs
to the same group as miqveh already considered. Its usual translation is
‘expectation’. It is of interest to note that the first two occurrences of the
word use it as a figure of speech. It is translated ‘line’ in Joshua 2:18 and
      ‘Thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in the window’.
      ‘She bound the scarlet line in the window’.

That line was the concrete evidence and pledge of Rahab’s hope, even as in its
great antitypical sense it is the pledge of hope for all the redeemed.

      Chul, ‘to stay’. ‘It is good that a man should both hope and quietly
wait’ (Lam. 3:26). This word is related to yachal, already examined.
      Yaash. To be desperate, despairing. ‘There is no hope’ (Jer. 2:25).
The margin reads ‘is the case desperate?’ This word is not, strictly speaking,
one that should be included under the heading ‘hope’ as it is its very denial.

      Although we have listed ten Hebrew words, there are really but seven, as
some are derivatives from a common root. To complete this survey of the terms
used in the Old Testament we give a list of the words, in addition to those
already cited, which the LXX translates by elpizo and elpis.
      Psa. 22:8   ‘He trusted’, Hebrew galal, ‘to roll, to devolve upon’.
      Isa. 11:10 ‘The Gentiles seek’, Hebrew darash, ‘to seek, enquire,
      (This passage is quoted in Romans 15:12 where the LXX rendering elpizo is

Gen. 4:26    ‘Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord’.
             The LXX reads, ‘He hoped to call on the name of the Lord God’.
                   This, as the A.V. margin shows, is a highly problematical
      passage, into which we cannot here enter.
      Psa. 91:14 ‘Because he hath set his love upon Me’.
             The LXX reads, ‘For he has hoped in Me’.
      Jer. 44:14 ‘They have a desire to return’, Hebrew nasa, ‘to lift up’.
             This, in the LXX in chapter 51:14, ‘to which they hope in their
      souls to return’.
      2 Chron. 13:18      ‘They relied upon the Lord’, Hebrew shaan.
             LXX reads, ‘They trusted on the Lord’.
      Isa. 18:7    ‘A nation meted out’, Hebrew qav.
             LXX reads, ‘A nation hoping’ because of the use of tiqvah, see
      Isa. 28:10 ‘Line upon line’, Hebrew qav.
              LXX reads, ‘hope upon hope’, where again they have this figure in
      Ezek. 36:8 ‘They are at hand to come’, Hebrew qarab, ‘to be near’.
             LXX reads, ‘They are hoping to come’.
      Isa. 28:18 ‘Your agreement with hell shall not stand’, Hebrew chazuth,
             LXX reads, ‘Your trust toward hades shall by no means stand’.
      2 Chron. 35:26      ‘The acts of Josiah and his goodness’, Hebrew chesed,
             LXX reads, ‘The acts of Josiah and his hope’.
      Job 30:15    ‘My soul as the wind, Hebrew nedibah, ‘noble one’.
             LXX reads, ‘My hope is gone like the wind’.
      Isa. 31:2    ‘Help’, Hebrew azar.
             LXX, ‘hope’.
             (Too complicated to set out fully here.)
      Isa. 24:16 ‘Glory to the righteous’, Hebrew tsebi, ‘beauty, desire’.
             LXX reads, ‘Hope to the godly’.
      Psa. 60:8    ‘Moab is my washpot’, Hebrew sir rachats.
             LXX reads, ‘Moab is the caldron of my hope’.

      This has been an exhausting search, and it would be still more so to
attempt to unravel all the problems that these translations from the LXX
involve. The result of this review, however, enables us to see that ‘hope’ was
not only confidence and trust, expectation and desire, but that in the mind of
those who wrote Greek, the words elpis and elpizo include such terms as ‘to set
one’s love’, hence Paul’s glorious statement in his last epistle concerning
those ‘that love His appearing’. To be lifted up as it were on tip -toe of
expectancy finds its echo in the eager stretching forth that we read of in
Philippians. So also ‘agreement’, ‘goodness’, ‘soul’, ‘help’ and ‘glory’ all
enable us to see the fulness of this term. The one passage that baffles us is
the last quoted. What was in the mind of the translators when they used the
words ‘Moab is the caldron of my hope’ is beyond our own present hope of
elucidation. We are sure, however, that this peculiar passage will not spoil
the usefulness of the list of terms provided.

      Turning now to the New Testament, our task is much simpler. Only one
Greek word and its compounds are translated ‘hope’, these words are elpizo, to
hope, to hope for; proelpizo, to hope before; apelpizo, to hope for again;
elpizomenoi, things hoped for; elpis, hope. No other word in the English
language can be suggested as a better rendering of elpis than ‘hope’, and yet
all have to acknowledge that in common use hope has degenerated
in its meaning. We can speak of a forlorn hope, or sometimes a person who has
no grounds for hope at all, will say ‘I hope so’. ‘Expectation is a conviction
that excludes doubt’ and this is the temper of the word elpis. When we use the
word ‘hope’ we must remember to keep it on the ground of confident expectancy,
not merely hoping for the ‘possible’ but confidently expecting the fulfilment
of a promise. There is no trace of anxiety or fear in the LXX use of elpis or
elpizo, although in later classical Greek this element creeps into the word.
Cremer’s summary is that ‘Hope is a prospect, gladly and firmly held as a well
-grounded expectation of a future good’.
Where we read of ‘hope’ in the New Testament we often find in the context a
reference either to a ‘promise’ or to a ‘calling’. For example, Paul before
Agrippa says:

      ‘And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God
      unto our fathers: unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving
      God day and night, hope to come’ (Acts 26:6,7).

      Here there is no possibility of making a mistake. Not only is the hope
that is in view the fulfilment of a promise, but it is the fulfilment of a
specific promise ‘made of God unto our fathers’. Further, there is no
ambiguity as to those who entertain this hope; the words ‘our twelve tribes’
are too explicit to permit of spiritualizing. Other examples will occur to the
reader, and will come before us in the prosecution of our present study. For
the moment it is sufficient that the principle should be clear, that hope looks
to the fulfilment of a promise. It is therefore necessary to discover what
promise has been made to any particular company before we can speak with
understanding of their hope. Another prerequisite is a knowledge of the
‘calling’ concerned:
      ‘That ye may know what is the hope of His calling’ (Eph. 1:18).
      ‘Even as ye are called in one hope of your calling’ (Eph. 4:4).

      The realization of our hope in the future will be in agreement with our
calling now by faith:

      ‘Now faith is the substance of things hoped for’ (Heb. 11:1).

      Recent discoveries among the papyri of Egypt have brought to light the
fact that the word ‘substance’ was used in New Testament times to signify the
‘Title Deeds’ of a property. Every believer holds the title -deeds now, by
faith, the earnest and first -fruits of the inheritance that will be entered
when his hope is realized. As every believer does not necessarily belong to
the same calling, and most believers grant a distinction between Kingdom and
Church, while some realize the further distinction between Bride and Body, it
follows that the character of the calling must be settled before the hope can
be defined.

                            Three spheres of blessing

      There are at least three distinct spheres of blessing indicated in the
New Testament:
      (1). The Earth.-- ‘Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the
            earth’ (Matt. 5:5).
      (2). The Heavenly City.-- ‘The city of the living God, the heavenly
            Jerusalem ... and church of the firstborn, which are written in
            heaven’ (Heb. 12:22,23).
      (3). Far above all.-- ‘He ... ascended up far above all heavens’ (Eph.
            ‘And made us sit together in heavenly places’ (Eph. 2:6).

      These three spheres of blessing correspond to three distinct callings:

      (1).   The Kingdom. -- ‘Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth’
             (Matt. 6:10).
      (2).   The Bride. -- ‘The Bride, the Lamb’s wife ... the holy Jerusalem,
             descending out of heaven from God’ (Rev. 21:9,10).
      (3).   The Body. -- ‘His body ... the church: whereof I (Paul) am made a
             minister, according to the dispensation of God which is given to me
             for you ... the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from
             generations’ (Col. 1:24 -26).

      These three spheres of blessing, each with its special calling, have
associated with them three groups of people in the New Testament The first
sphere of blessing is exclusive to Israel according to the flesh; the second to
believers from among both ‘Jew and Greek’, while in the third sphere the
calling is addressed to ‘you Gentiles’.

      (1).   Israel according to the flesh. -- ‘My kinsmen according to the
             flesh: who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the
             glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the
             service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers, and of
             whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, Who is over all, God
             blessed for ever. Amen’ (Rom. 9:3 -5).
      (2). Abraham’s seed (includes believing Gentiles). -- ‘Having begun in
      the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh? ... they which are of
      faith, the same are the children of Abraham ... For as many of you as
      have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew
      nor Greek ... for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ’s,
      then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise’ (Gal.
      3:3,7,27 -29).

      If, at the end of verse 28, we ‘shut the book’, we may ‘prove’ that the
blessed unity indicated by the words ‘neither Jew nor Greek’ refers to the
‘Church which is His Body’. If, however, we keep the book open, we see that
such is not the sequel, but that this new company are ‘Abraham’s seed’, and the
hope before them ‘the promise’ made to Abraham. The reader may readily assent
to this, but we would urge him to remember that 1 Thessalonians and Galatians
were both written before Acts 28, and therefore before the revelation of the
Mystery. The hope then of 1 Thessalonians 4 belongs to the same calling as
that of Galatians and cannot constitute the hope of the Mystery.

      (3). The One New Man.-- ‘Where there is neither Greek nor Jew ... but
      Christ is all, and in all’ (Col. 3:11).
            ‘That He might create in Himself of the twain one new man, so
            making peace’ (Eph. 2:15 R.V.).
            ‘That the Gentiles should be fellowheirs’ (Eph. 3:6).

      The limits of this article will not permit of extensive proofs of the
suggestions made in the foregoing paragraphs, or of a detailed exposition of
the passages concerned; but we believe that the matter is sufficiently clear
for us to go forward with our inquiry. Seeing then that there are three
spheres of blessing, with their three associated callings, we should expect to
find three phases of the Coming of the Lord. These three phases are presented
in the following Scriptures:

      (1).   Kingdom on earth.-- hope. Matt. 24 -25.
      (2).   Abraham’s seed (heavenly calling).-- hope.   1 Thess. 4.
      (3).   Far above all.-- hope. Col. 3:4.

      Let us look at each phase of the second advent as presented by these
three passages.

                                   The hope of the first sphere

                    The Sign of the coming of the Son of Man

      The earthly ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ was limited to the people
of Israel, and had special regard to the promise made to David concerning
Israel’s King. It also had in view the promise made to Abraham concerning the
blessing of all the families of the earth, but did not, at that time, extend to
them, being concentrated rather upon Israel from whom, as the appointed
channel, the blessing should flow to all nations. We shall now bring
Scriptural proof of these statements, and then proceed to show that Matthew 24
and 25 speak of the hope of Israel, and that this phase of the second advent
has nothing to do with the hope of the ‘church’.

      (1).   Proof that the earthly ministry was limited in the first instance
             to Israel.
                   ‘Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the
                   circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises
                   made unto the fathers’ (Rom. 15:8).
                   ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of
                   the Samaritans enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep
                   of the house of Israel’ (Matt. 10:5 -6).
                   ‘I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of
                   Israel’ (Matt. 15:24).
      (2).   Proof that the promise made to David concerning a King was in view.
                   ‘Where is He that is born King of the Jews? ... in Bethlehem’
                   (Matt. 2:2 -5).
                   ‘Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto
                   thee’ (Matt. 21:5).
                   ‘What think ye of Christ? whose Son is He? They say unto
                   Him, The Son of David’ (Matt. 22:42).

                   ‘David ... being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn
                   with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins,
                   according to the flesh, He would raise up Christ to sit on
                   His Throne; he seeing this before, spake of the resurrection
                   of Christ’ (Acts 2:30,31).
      (3).   Proof that the promise to Abraham concerning Israel as the chosen
             channel of blessing to the Gentiles was in view.
             ‘Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God
             made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall
             all the kindreds of the earth be blessed. Unto you first God,
             having raised up His Son Jesus, sent Him to bless you, in turning
             away every one of you from his iniquities’ (Acts 3:25,26).

      The consideration of these Scriptures in their setting provides
sufficient proof for the statements made concerning the character of the
Saviour’s earthly ministry.

      We are now in a position to consider Matthew 24 and 25, which is a
prophecy of the second coming of Christ, and concerns the hope of Israel as
distinct from the hope of the church.

 The threefold prophecy of the coming of the Lord as revealed in Matthew 24 was
given in answer to the threefold question of the disciples --
      ‘When shall these things be?’
      ‘What shall be the sign of Thy coming?’
      ‘And the end of the world (age)?’ (Matt. 24:3).

      The evidence which follows, sufficiently shows that in this passage the
hope of Israel and not the hope of ‘the church which is His Body’ is the

             Three proofs that Matthew 24 speaks of the Hope of Israel

      First the word translated ‘end’ is sunteleia, a word at that time well
known to every Jew, for it was the name of the third great feast, namely ‘the
feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year’ (Exod. 23:16). This is
evidence that Israel’s hope is in view.

      Secondly, we find that this coming of the Lord is to be preceded by ‘wars
and rumours of wars’. Because of the fact that there have been, and yet will
be, many wars and rumours of wars since the setting aside of Israel, these
words, as they stand, cannot be construed as evidence that Israel’s hope is in
view. If however we turn to the Old Testament origin of the reference: ‘For
nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom’ (Matt. 24:7), we
shall see that it comes from Isaiah’s prophetic ‘Burden of Egypt’ (Isa.
19:1,2), the passage ending with the words ‘Blessed be Egypt My people, and
Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance’ (Isa. 19:25). This
reference, therefore, when seen in the light of its Old Testament setting,
gives further evidence for the fact that Israel is in view in Matthew 24.

      Thirdly, this coming of the Lord takes place after the prophetic
statements of Daniel 9:27 and 12:11 have been fulfilled:

      ‘When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by
Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place ... then shall be great tribulation
... immediately after the tribulation of those days ... shall appear the sign
of the Son of man in heaven ... and they shall see the Son of man coming in the
clouds of heaven’ (Matt. 24:15 -30).

      As the detailed exposition of this chapter is not our purpose, and as
these three items provide proof beyond dispute that the second coming of Christ
as here made known cannot be the hope of the church, we feel that no unbiased
reader will desire further delay in prosecuting our inquiry.

                         The hope of the second sphere

                      The Acts and Epistles of the Period

      We must now turn our attention to the evidence of Scripture as to the
character of the Hope during the period covered by the Acts of the Apostles.
Some commentators on this book appear to forget that it is the record of the
‘Acts’ of the Apostles, and had no existence until those ‘Acts’ were
accomplished. If the founding of the church at Corinth chronicled in Acts 18
be an act of the apostle Paul, both Crispus (verse 8) and Sosthenes (verse 17)
being mentioned by name, then the epistle written by the same apostle to the
same church, again mentioning Crispus and Sosthenes by name, must be included
as the Divine complement of the record of Acts 18. The aspect of the Hope in
view in the Acts and in the epistles written during that period to the churches
founded by the apostles must of necessity be the same. Any attempt to make the
ministry of Paul during the Acts differ from the epistles of the same period is
false, and must be rejected. There can be no doubt that the hope entertained
by the churches during the period covered by the Acts of the Apostles was a
phase of the Hope of Israel. This will, we trust, be made clear to the reader
by the quotations and comments given hereafter.

      (1). ‘When they therefore were come together, they asked of Him, saying,
      Lord, wilt Thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?’ (Acts

      This question arose after the forty days’ instruction given by the risen
 Christ to His disciples, during which time He not only opened the Scriptures,
but ‘their understanding’ also (Luke 24:45).

      (2). ‘Repent ... and He shall send Jesus Christ, Which before was
      preached unto you: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of
      restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all His
      holy prophets since the world began ... Ye are the children of the
      prophets ... Unto you first ...’ (Acts 3:19 -26).
      These words of Peter, spoken after Pentecost, cannot be separated from
the hope of Israel without violence to the inspired words. It may be, that
some readers will interpose the thought: ‘These are from the testimony of
Peter; what we want is the testimony of Paul’. We therefore give two more
extracts from the Acts, quoting this time from the ministry of Paul.

      (3). ‘And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of
      God unto our fathers: unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly
      serving God day and night, hope to come’ (Acts 26:6,7).
      (4). ‘Paul called the chief of the Jews together ... because that for
      the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain’ (Acts 28:17,20).

      Not until the Jewish people were set aside in Acts 28:25 -29 does Paul
become ‘the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles’. Until it was a settled
fact that Israel would not repent and that the promise of Acts 3:19 -26 would
be postponed, the hope of Israel persisted, and all the churches that had been
brought into being up to that time were of necessity associated with that hope.
See the testimony of Romans, which is set out in much fuller detail after the
reference to the heavenly calling is completed.

                             The Heavenly Calling

      We have already drawn attention to the intimate association that exists
between ‘hope’, ‘promise’ and ‘calling’. We must pause for a moment here to
remind the reader that Abraham stands at the head of two companies: an earthly
people, the great nation of Israel; and a heavenly people, associated with the
heavenly phase of God’s promise to Abraham, and made up of the believing
remnant of Israel and believing Gentiles. This heavenly side of the Abrahamic
promise is referred to by the apostle in Hebrews and Galatians:

      ‘He looked for a city .... They seek a country .... They desire a
      better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be
      called their God: for He hath prepared for them a city’ (Heb.
      ‘If ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to
      the promise ... Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of
      us all’ (Gal. 3:29; 4:26).

       This heavenly calling of the Abrahamic promise constitutes the Bride of
the Lamb, as distinct from the restored Wife, which refers to Israel as a
nation. We leave the reader to verify these statements for himself by
referring to Isaiah, Jeremiah and Hosea, where Israel’s restoration is spoken
of under the figure of the restored Wife; and to the Book of the Revelation
where the heavenly city is described as the Bride. During the time of the Acts
of the Apostles, the churches founded by Paul were ‘Abraham’s seed, and heirs
according to the promise’ (Gal. 3:29). The apostle speaks of ‘espousing them
to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ’ (2 Cor.

      This heavenly phase of the hope of Israel was the hope of all the
churches established during the Acts, until Israel was set aside as recorded in
Acts 28.

                            The Testimony of Romans
      The epistles written by Paul before his imprisonment were Galatians,
Hebrews, Romans, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, and 1 and 2 Corinthians. We are sure
that any well-instructed reader who was asked to choose from this set of
epistles the one giving the most recent as well as the most fundamental
teaching of the apostle for this period, would unhesitatingly choose the
epistle to the Romans. In this epistle we have the solid rock foundation of
justification by faith, where ‘no difference’ can be tolerated between Jew and
Gentile. When, however, we leave the sphere of doctrine (Rom. 1 -8), and enter
the sphere of dispensational privileges, we discover that differences between
Jewish and Gentile believers remain. The Gentile, who was justified by faith,
was nevertheless reminded that he was at that time in the position of a wild
olive, graft into the true olive tree, from which some of the branches had been
broken off through unbelief. The grafting of the Gentile into Israel’s olive
tree was intended (speaking after the manner of men) to provoke Israel to
jealousy. When, in the days to come, these broken branches shall be restored,
‘All Israel shall be saved’.

      These statements from Romans 11 are sufficient to prevent us from
assuming that, because there is evidently doctrinal equality in the Acts
period, there is also dispensational equality. This is not so, for Romans
declares that the Jew is still ‘first’, and the middle wall still stands,
making membership of the One Body as revealed in Ephesians impossible.

      In Romans 15 we have a definite statement concerning the hope entertained
by the church at Rome. Before quoting the passage, Romans 15:12 and 13, we
would advise the reader that the word ‘trust’ in verse 12 is elpizo, and the
word ‘hope’ in verse 13 elpis. There is also the emphatic article ‘the’ before
the word ‘hope’ in verse 13. Bearing these points in mind we can now examine
the hope entertained by the church at Rome, as ministered to by Paul before his

      ‘There shall be a Root of Jesse, and He that shall rise to reign over the
      Gentiles; in Him shall the Gentiles hope. Now the God of that hope fill
      you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope,
      through the power of the Holy Ghost’ (Rom. 15:12,13).

      Here we are on firm ground. Paul himself teaches the church to look for
the millennial kingdom and for the Saviour as the ‘Root of Jesse’ Who shall
‘reign over the Gentiles’. How can this hope be severed from ‘the hope of
Israel’? How can it be associated with the ‘Mystery’ which knows nothing of
Abraham, or of Israel, but goes back before the ‘foundation of the world’, and
reaches up to heavenly places? In case the reader should be uncertain of Paul’s
references to the millennial Kingdom, we quote from Isaiah 11:

      ‘And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse ... He shall
      smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His
      lips shall He slay the wicked ... The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb
      ... And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, which shall stand for
      an ensign of the people; to It shall the Gentiles seek: and His rest
      shall be glorious’ (Isa. 11:1,4,6,10).

      The reader should consult the note on Isaiah 11:4 given in The Companion
Bible, where the reading, ‘He shall smite the oppressor’ (ariz) is preferred to
the A.V. ‘He shall smite the earth’ (erez). This reading establishes a link
with 2 Thessalonians 2:8:
      ‘And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with
      the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His

      Before referring to 1 Thessalonians 4, which presents the hope of the
church at that time very clearly, we must say something about the strange
avoidance of the second epistle that so many manifest when dealing with this

                      The Importance of a Second Epistle

      If a business man were to treat his correspondence in the way that some
believers treat the epistles of Paul, the results would be disastrous. A
second letter, purporting to rectify a misunderstanding arising out of a
previous letter, would, if anything, be more important and more decisive than
the first; yet there are those whose system of interpretation demands that they
claim 1 Thessalonians 4 as the revelation of their hope, who nevertheless
either neglect the testimony of 2 Thessalonians or explain it away as of some
future mystical company unknown to the apostle. Let us first verify that these
two epistles form a definite pair, written by the same writer, at the same
period, to the same people, about the same subject.

                              Identity of Address

      First Epistle --’Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of
      the Thessalonians which is in God the Father and in the Lord Jesus
      Christ’ (1 Thess. 1:1).
      Second Epistle --’Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of
      the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ’ (2 Thess.

                               Identity of Theme

      First Epistle --’Remembering without ceasing your work of faith, and
      labour of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the
      sight of God and our Father’ (1 Thess. 1:3).
      Second Epistle --’We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as
      it is meet, because that your faith groweth exceedingly, and the love of
      every one of you all towards each other aboundeth; so that we ... glory
      in ... your patience’ (2 Thess. 1:3,4).

      First Epistle --’The coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints’
      (1 Thess. 3:13). (A reference to Deut. 33:2; Psa. 68:17 and Zech. 14:5
      will show that the ‘saints’ here are the ‘holy angels’ and not the
      Second Epistle --’The Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His
      mighty angels, in flaming fire’ (2 Thess. 1:7,8).

                  The Special Purpose of Second Thessalonians

The Thessalonian Church had been disturbed by the circulation of a letter
purporting to have come from the apostle, and by certain messages given by
those who claimed to have ‘the spirit’. These messages distorted the apostle’s
teaching concerning the coming of the Lord, as taught in the church while he
was with them and mentioned in the fourth chapter of his letter.
      ‘We beseech you, brethren ... that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be
      troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as
      that the day of Christ (or the Lord) is at hand. Let no man deceive you
      by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling
      away first’ (2 Thess. 2:1 -3).

      Before the hope of the church at Thessalonica could be realized, certain
important prophecies awaited fulfilment. As we have seen, the hope during the
period of the Acts (and therefore that of 1 Thess. 4) was essentially the hope
of Israel. When 1 Thessalonians 4 was written, Israel were still God’s people.
The Temple still stood, and the possibility (speaking humanly) of Israel’s
repentance had still to be reckoned with. If the hope of Israel was about to
be fulfilled, then Daniel 9 -12 must be fulfilled also, together with many
other prophecies of the time of the end. This we have seen to have been the
testimony of the Lord Himself in Matthew 24, and so far Israel had not been set
aside (i.e. when the epistles to the Thessalonians were written).

      The following predicted events must precede the coming of the Lord as
revealed in 1 and 2 Thessalonians:

      (1). The apostasy must come first (‘falling away’, Greek apostasia).
      (2). The Man of Sin must be revealed in the Temple (the word ‘Temple’ is
      the same as in Matthew 23:16).
      (3). The coming of this Wicked One will be preceded by a Satanic
      travesty of Pentecostal gifts. (The same words are used as of Pentecost,
      with the addition of the word ‘lying’).
      (4). This Wicked One (see Isaiah 11:4, revised reading) shall be
      ‘consumed’ and ‘destroyed’ with the brightness of the Lord’s coming.

      All this the apostle had told the Thessalonian church when he was with
them, before he wrote 1 Thessalonians 4 (see 2 Thess. 2:5).

      The Thessalonians had already been taught by the apostle himself
concerning the events of prophecy, and would doubtless have read 1
Thessalonians 4 in harmony with his teaching had they not been deceived by
false interpretations. The reference to the Archangel (1 Thess. 4:16) would
have taken them back to Daniel 10 to 12. The epistle of Jude uses exactly the
same word as is used here, and tells us that the Archangel’s name is Michael
(Jude 9). Immediately following the great prophecy of the seventy weeks, with
its climax in the ‘Abomination of desolation’, we have the revelation of Daniel
10. There the veil is partially withdrawn, and a glimpse is given of the
Satanic forces behind the ‘powers that be’. Michael is said to be ‘your
Prince’ and in Daniel 12 we read:

      ‘And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth
      for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble,
      such as never was since there was a nation ... and many of them that
      sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake’ (Dan. 12:1,2).

      Here we have Michael identified with the people of Israel, and when he
stands up the great tribulation and the resurrection take place. This follows
the events of Daniel 11, which are briefly summarized in 2 Thessalonians 2.
Compare, for example, the following passages:

      ‘He shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall
      speak marvellous things against the God of gods’ (Dan. 11:36).
      ‘Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that
is worshipped’ (2 Thess. 2:4).

                    1 and 2 Thessalonians and Revelation 13

      If the reader would read consecutively Daniel 9, 10, 11 and 12, 1
Thessalonians 4 and 5, 2 Thessalonians 1 and 2, and Revelation 13, the
testimony of the truth itself would be so strong as to need no human advocate.
Our space is limited, and we therefore earnestly ask all who value the teaching
of the Scriptures regarding ‘that blessed hope’ to read and compare these
portions most carefully and prayerfully. When this is done, let the question
be answered: ‘what have all these Scriptures to do with the church of the
dispensation of the Mystery, a church called into being consequent upon
Israel’s removal and the suspension of Israel’s hope?’ The answer can only be
that, while the close association of the hope of the Thessalonians with the
hope of Israel was consistent with the character of the dispensation then in
force, the attempt to link the ‘one hope of our calling’ with prophetic times
is a dispensational anachronism and a failure to distinguish things that

                                ‘Till He Come’

       The coming of the Lord referred to in 1 Corinthians 11:26 must be the
same hope as was entertained by the Thessalonians, and by the church at Rome
(Rom. 15:12,13, see p. 147). The apostle himself summarizes this hope in Acts
28:20 as the ‘hope of Israel’. The Corinthian epistle deals with a variety of
subjects, and is addressed to different sections of the church. Some called
themselves by the name of Paul, others by the name of Cephas. Some were
troubled with regard to the question of marriage, and others with regard to
moral questions. The section in which the words ‘till He come’ occur is
addressed to those whose ‘fathers’ were ‘baptized unto Moses’ (1 Cor. 10:1,2);
whereas the section that immediately follows is addressed to Gentiles (1 Cor.

      Concerning the question of marriage, the apostle writes:

      ‘I suppose therefore that this is good for the present distress .... The
      time is short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though
      they had none; and they that weep, as though they wept not ... and they
      that buy, as though they possessed not’ (1 Cor. 7:26 -30).

      Shall we fall into the error of teaching, as some have taught, that
marriage is wrong because of what Paul says in this chapter? If we do, what
shall we say of his wonderful words concerning husband and wife in Ephesians 5?
Or of his advice that the younger women should not only marry, but marry again
if left as widows? (1 Tim. 5:9 -14). The right interpretation is clearly that
Paul’s advice in 1 Corinthians 7 was true at the time, because the Second
Coming of Christ was expected to take place during the lifetime of some of his
hearers. He speaks as he does, ‘because of the present necessity’, and because
‘the time is short’. When writing to the Thessalonians, he rightly identifies
himself with the imminent hope of the Lord’s coming by saying: ‘We which are
alive’ (1 Thess. 4:15).

      The ‘present necessity’ of 1 Corinthians 7 is no longer applicable on
account of the failure of Israel and the suspension of their hope. So in 1
Corinthians 7, the teaching of the chapter was only true while the hope of that
calling was still imminent. When the people of Israel passed into their
present condition of blindness, as they did in Acts 28, their hope passed with
them, not to be revived until the end of the days, when the Apocalypse is
fulfilled. Meanwhile a new dispensation has come in, a dispensation associated
with a ‘mystery’ and unconnected with Israel. In the very nature of things a
change of dispensation means a change of calling. It introduces a new sphere
and a fresh set of promises, and demands a re -statement of its own peculiar

      The reader is referred to the chart on p. 137, where the interrelation of
the epistles, the Acts and the hope is set forth in diagrammatic form. The
references should be verified and nothing taken for granted, so that we may
approach the third section of our theme with preparedness of mind.

                            Hope of the third sphere
                           The Manifestation in Glory

      Before considering the special characteristics of the hope of the church
of the One Body, it may be of service to set out some of the distinctive
features of the dispensation of the Mystery, so that, perceiving the unique
character of its calling, we shall be compelled to believe the unique character
of its hope.

                  Special features of the present dispensation

      First of all let us observe two features that marked the previous
dispensation, but are now absent.

(1).   The presence and prominence of Israel.

      The testimony of the Gospels (Matt. 10:6; 15:24), the witness of Peter
(Acts 3:25,26), and the testimony of Paul (Rom. 1:16; 3:29; 9:1 -5; 11:24 -25
and 15:8), all combine to show that the nation of Israel was an important
factor in the outworking of the purpose of the ages, and that during the period
covered by the Gospels and the Acts, no blessing could be enjoyed by a Gentile
in independence of Israel. It is evident that with the setting aside of
this favoured people, a change in dispensation was necessitated.

(2).   The presence and prominence of miraculous gifts.

      Throughout the public ministry of the Lord Jesus, and from Pentecost in
Acts 2 until the shipwreck on the island of Melita in Acts 28, supernatural
signs, wonders and miracles accompanied and confirmed the preached word. Not
only did the Lord Himself and also His apostles work miracles, but during the
time of the Acts ordinary members of the church were in possession of spiritual
gifts in such abundance that they had to seek the apostle’s advice as to their
regulation in the assembly (1 Cor. 14:26 -40). The miracles of Mark 16, Acts 2
and 1 Corinthians 12 to 14 are not the normal experience of the church of
today. Their absence, together with the setting aside of the people of Israel,
constitute two pieces of negative evidence in favour of a new dispensation.

      We are not, however, limited to negative evidence. Scripture also
provides definite evidence of a positive kind, which we must now consider.

(3).   The prison ministry of the apostle Paul.
      When Paul spoke to the elders of the church at Ephesus, he made it quite
plain that one ministry was coming to an end and another, closely associated
with prison, was about to begin. He reviewed his past services among them, and
told them among other things that they should see his face no more (Acts 20:17
-38). Later, before King Agrippa, he reveals the important fact that when he
was converted and commissioned by the Lord, in Acts 9, he had been told that at
some subsequent time the Lord would appear to him again and give him a second
commission (Acts 26:15 -18).

(4).   The dispensational boundary of Acts 28.

      Right up to the last chapter of the Acts, Israel and miraculous gifts
continued to occupy their pre -eminent place (Acts 28:1 -10,17,20). Upon
arrival at Rome, Paul, although desirous of visiting the church (Rom. 1:11 -
13), sent first for the ‘chief of the Jews’, telling them that
‘for the hope of Israel’ he was bound with a chain. After spending a whole day
with these men of Israel, seeking unsuccessfully to persuade them ‘concerning
Jesus’ out of the law and the prophets, he pronounces finally their present
doom of blindness, adding:

       ‘Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto
       the Gentiles, and that they will hear it’ (Acts 28:28).

      During the two years of imprisonment that followed, the apostle
ministered to all that came to him, teaching those things which ‘concern the
Lord Jesus Christ’ with no reference this time either to the law or to the
prophets (Acts 28:30,31).

(5).   The present dispensation a new revelation.

      The omission of ‘the law and the prophets’ from Acts 28:31, as compared
with verse 23, is an important point. Throughout the early ministry of the
apostle he makes continual and repeated appeal to the Old Testament Scriptures.
But when one examines the ‘Prison Epistles’ one is struck by the absence of
quotation. The reason for this change is that Paul, as the prisoner of Jesus
Christ for the Gentiles, received the Mystery ‘by revelation’ (Eph. 3:1 -3).
This mystery had been hidden from ages and generations, until the time came for
Paul to be made its minister (Col. 1:24 -27). It could not, therefore, be
found in the Old Testament Scriptures.

(6).   Some Special features of this new calling.

       (a)   This church was chosen ‘before the foundation of the world’ (Eph.
             1:4) and ‘before age -times’ (2 Tim. 1:9).

       (b)   This church finds its sphere of blessing ‘in heavenly places, far
             above all principality and power ... seated together in heavenly
             places in Christ Jesus’ (Eph. 1:3,20,21; 2:6).

       (c)   This church is not an ‘evolution’, but a new ‘creation’, the
             peculiar advantage of being a Jew, even though a member of the
             church, having disappeared with the middle wall of partition (Eph.
             2:14 -19).
       (d)   This church is the One Body of which Christ is the Head, and in
             which all members are equal (Eph. 1:22,23; 3:6), a relationship
             never before known.

(7).   The Prison Epistles.

      While the very nature of things demands a new dispensation consequent
upon Israel’s removal, we are not left to mere inference. There is a definite
section of the New Testament with special teaching relating to the church of
the present dispensation. This is found in the epistles written by Paul as the
prisoner of the Lord for us Gentiles. These epistles are five in number, but
we generally refer to the ‘four Prison Epistles’, as that to Philemon is
practical and personal and makes no contribution to the new teaching.

       The four Prison Epistles are:

       A     Ephesians.-- The Dispensation of the Mystery. Basic Truth.
             B     Philippians.-- The Prize. Outworking.
       A     Colossians.-- The Dispensation of the Mystery. Basic Truth.
             B     2 Timothy.-- The Crown. Outworking.

       The reader will find in each of these epistles, evidence that they were
written from prison and that they form part of the ministry referred to in Acts

      The above notes on features (1) to (7) are necessarily brief and are not
intended to do anything more than provide the merest outline of the subject.
Any reader who is not convinced as to the peculiar and unique character of
these prison epistles and the dispensation they reveal, should give them a
personal study, noting all their claims, and their distinctive features. This
article has not been written to prove to the satisfaction of all that a new
dispensation commenced at Acts 28, but has been prepared rather as a help to
those who, having realized that a change most certainly did take place in the
dispensational dealings of God with men at that time, desire to understand what
effect this change had upon the hope of the church.

                    The new phase of Hope necessitates Prayer

      While prayer should accompany the Word at all times, there is no need to
pray for ‘revelation’ concerning one’s hope if it be already revealed. Words
can scarcely be clearer than those employed in 1 Thessalonians 4, and if this
chapter still represented the hope of the church of the One Body, there would
be no need for the apostle to speak as he does in Ephesians 1. In verse 17, he
prays that the saints might receive ‘the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the
knowledge of Him ... that ye may know what is the hope of His calling’ (Eph.

      It might be well if the reader pondered the marginal reading of Ephesians
1:17 where, instead of ‘in the knowledge of Him’, we read, ‘for the
acknowledging of Him’. This raises a most important point. Many fail to go
forward with the truth, not because of inability to understand the meaning of
plain terms, but because of failure to ‘acknowledge Him’. The apostle pauses
in his teaching to tell his hearers that before another step can be taken,
acknowledgment of what has already been revealed must be made. To acknowledge
the truth of the Mystery is to put oneself out of favour with
and many a child of God who says, ‘I do not see it’, is really making a
confession of failure to acknowledge the revelation of truth connected with the
ascended Lord.

              This new phase of Hope is associated with a Promise

      We have already seen that hope and promise are necessarily linked
together. We discovered that the promises that were the basis of expectation
during the Acts were the promises ‘made unto the fathers’. Now the fathers had
no promises made to them concerning heavenly places ‘where Christ sitteth at
the right hand of God’. They knew nothing of a church where Gentile believers
would be on perfect equality with Jewish believers. The promises made to the
fathers never extended beyond ‘the Bride’ or ‘the Heavenly Jerusalem’, but in
Ephesians we have ‘the Body’ and a sphere ‘far above all’.

      In Ephesians 1:12, where the A.V. reads ‘first trusted’, the margin reads
‘hoped’; and as we cannot speak of ‘the blessed trust’ or ‘the trust of the
second coming’ it is best to keep to the translation ‘hope’. The actual word
used is proelpizo, to ‘fore -hope’. Of this prior hope the Holy Spirit is the
seal, and as such is ‘the Holy Spirit of promise’.

      What promise is in view? There is but one promise in the Prison
Epistles. The Gentiles who formed the church of the One Body were by nature:

      ‘aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants
      of promise’ (Eph. 2:12),
but through grace they became

      ‘fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of His promise in
      Christ by the gospel: whereof I (Paul) was made a minister’ (Eph. 3:6 -

      This promise takes us back to the period of Ephesians 1:4, ‘before the
foundation of the world’:

      ‘According to the promise of life, which is in Christ Jesus ... according
      to His own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before
      the world began’ (before age -times) (2 Tim. 1:1,9).

      It is this one unique promise that will be realized when the blessed hope
before the church of the One Body is fulfilled. Its realization is described
by the apostle in Colossians 3:

      ‘When Christ, Who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear
      with Him in glory’ (Col. 3:4).

      It is impossible to defer this ‘appearing’ until after the Millennium,
for the church is waiting for ‘Christ their life’ and so awaiting ‘the promise
of life’, which is their hope.

      The word ‘appearing’ might be translated ‘manifestation’, and will be
familiar to most readers in the term ‘epiphany’.

                             Parousia and Epiphany

      Believing as we do that all Scripture is given by inspiration of God, we
must be careful to distinguish between the different words used by God when
speaking of the hope of His people. We observe that the word parousia usually
translated ‘coming’, is found in such passages as the following:

      ‘What shall be the sign of Thy coming and of the end of the age?’ (Matt.
      ‘The coming of the Lord’ (1 Thess. 4:15).
      ‘The coming of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (2 Thess. 2:1).
      ‘They that are Christ’s at His coming’ (1 Cor. 15:23).
      ‘The coming of the Lord draweth nigh’ (Jas. 5:8).
      ‘The promise of His coming’ (2 Pet. 3:4).
      ‘Not be ashamed before Him at His coming’ (1 John 2:28).

      This word is used to describe the hope of the church during the period
when ‘the hope of Israel’ was still in view. Consequently we find it used in
the Gospel of Matthew, by Peter, James and John, ministers of the circumcision,
and by Paul in those epistles written before the dispensational change of Acts

      A different word is used in the Prison Epistles. There, the word
parousia is never used of the Lord’s coming or of the hope of the church, but
the word epiphany. In 1 Thessalonians 4 the Lord descends from heaven; in 2
Thessalonians 1 He is to be revealed from heaven. This is very different from
being manifested ‘in glory’, i.e. where Christ now sits ‘on the right hand of
God’. While, therefore, the hope before all other companies of the redeemed is
‘the Lord’s coming’, the ‘prior -hope’ of the church of the Mystery is rather
‘their going’ to be ‘manifested with Him in glory’.

      While the epistle to Titus is not a ‘Prison Epistle’, it belongs to the
same group as 1 and 2 Timothy. There, too, we read that we should live:

      ‘looking for that blessed hope, and the manifestation of the glory of our
      great God and Saviour Jesus Christ’ (Titus 2:13).

                        The Marriage of the King’s Son

                             (see chart opposite)

      We may perhaps illustrate these different aspects of the Second Advent by
using the occasion of the marriage of the King’s son at Westminster Abbey. The
marriage is one, whether witnessed in the Abbey itself, from a grandstand, or
from the public footway. So, whatever our calling, the hope is one in this
respect, that it is Christ Himself. Nevertheless, we cannot conceive of anyone
denying that to be permitted to be present in the Abbey itself is something
different from sitting in a grandstand until the King’s son, accompanied by
‘shout’ and ‘trumpet’, descends from the Abbey to be met by the waiting people.
These waiting people outside the Abbey form one great company, although
differentiated as to point of view. So the early church, together with the
Kingdom saints, form one great company, although some, like Abraham, belong to
‘the heavenly calling’ connected with Jerusalem that is above, while others
belong to the Kingdom which is to be ‘on earth’. We can hardly believe that
any subject of the King would ‘prefer’ the grandstand or the kerb to the closer
association of the Abbey itself; and we can hardly believe that any redeemed
child of God would ‘prefer’ to wait on earth for the descent of the Lord from
heaven if the ‘manifestation with Him in glory’ were a possible hope before
him. We cannot, however, force these things upon the heart and conscience. We
can only respond to the exhortation to be ‘ready always to give an answer to
every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and
reverence’ (1 Pet. 3:15).

      Further information and fuller argument on special aspects will be found
in the articles entitled The Lord’s Supper (p. 284), Israel (p. 213), Three
Spheres5, and Acts1.
Hour. The word occurs five times in the Old Testament, namely in the book of
Daniel, where it translates the Chaldee shaah, a look, or glance (Dan. 3:6,15;
4:19,33; 5:5). In the New Testament it is the translation of hora from which
the English word is derived, in every instance except two, namely in Revelation
8:1 where it is the compound hemiorion ‘half an hour’, and in 1 Corinthians 8:7
where it is arti ‘unto this hour’ or ‘till now’. Hora occurs in the Greek New
Testament 107 times, and is translated as follows: ‘day’ once, ‘high time’
once, ‘hour’ eighty -nine times, ‘instant’ once, ‘season’ three times, ‘time’
eleven times, and once ‘short’. Hora differs from kairos, a suitable time,
hence a season; from chronos which indicates duration, and from hemera which
means originally a day.

      It should be remembered that while according to the New Testament there
are twelve hours in a day, these hours are reckoned to be a twelfth of the
period between daylight and the dark, and so vary in length according to the
season of the year. One of the factors in the problem of ‘time’ as recorded in
the four gospels, arises out of the failure to realize that the method of
recording Jewish time and of Gentile time differed, and that John, who wrote
for the outside Gentile world, would of necessity use Gentile reckoning unless
he intended to bemuse his readers. Let us consider the testimony of John’s
Gospel, especially as to the time period of the crucifixion.

             The problem of the time element in the Passover Week

      The apostle Paul, when he would give the historic basis of the gospel he
preached, included the burial of the Saviour as one of the three indispensable
items of fact.

      ‘For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how
      that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures; and that He
      was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the
      Scriptures’ (1 Cor. 15:3,4).

It will be seen that Paul makes ‘the third day’ an integral part of his
message, and we must therefore turn to the gospels, and to the gospel of John
in particular, to learn from their perusal the way in which ‘time’ is employed.

      The Preparation. The question as to what is intended by the different
evangelists by the terms ‘Sabbath’, ‘Preparation’, ‘High day’; and the
different times indicated such as ‘third hour’, ‘sixth hour’, ‘ninth hour’,
which appear straight forward upon a superficial reading, make great demands
upon time and thought the moment an attempt is made to harmonize all the
statements that are made in the gospels.

      In Mark’s record of the crucifixion we read:

      ‘And it was the third hour, and they crucified Him’ (Mark 15:25).

      Matthew supplements this by adding further particulars:

      ‘Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the
      ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice ...
      When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimath‘a ... as it
      began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary’ (Matt.
      27:45,46,57; 28:1).

      According to Hebrew reckoning ‘the third hour’ would be 9.0 a.m., ‘the
sixth hour’ would be twelve o’clock noon, and ‘the ninth hour’ would be 3.0

      So far all is straightforward and makes no demands upon the reader. If
we, however, turn to the account given in John’s gospel, we meet with a note of
time that has given considerable trouble to commentators:

      ‘And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour ...
      Then delivered he Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took
      Jesus, and led Him away ... where they crucified Him’ (John 19:14 -18).

      The record of the Evangelists make it plain that the Jews were in a
violent hurry to get the execution over before the Sabbath began at sunset. We
have already seen that the ‘sixth’ hour is either ‘noon’ or ‘midnight’ by
Hebrew reckoning, but it is impossible for Christ to have been crucified at 9.0
a.m. and be delivered to be crucified three hours later, namely at noon. The
only alternative, if we follow the Hebrew reckoning, is to make John 19:14 take
place at midnight, and this is what some commentators actually assert. This
means therefore that an interval of nine hours must have elapsed, but the
record of this illegal trial is marked by evidences of extreme and apprehensive
haste. Ever before the minds of the Jewish rulers was the approaching Sabbath
with its possible pollution.

      One version has cut the Gordian knot by adopting the note (the third
hour) made by the editor of Sinaiticus MSS. Scrivener, in his book Introduction
to the Criticism of the New Testament, places this reading under the heading
that reads ‘the copyist may be tempted to forsake his proper function for that
of a reviser, or critical corrector’, and such a principle if once accepted
would play such havoc with the originals as to render ‘inspiration’ a dead

      Calvin was conscious of the difficulty in this passage and attempts to
reconcile the apparent discrepancy by suggesting that the Jews exaggerated the
flight of time, saying in effect ‘it is about noon’, whereas it was much
earlier, and Mark, when he says ‘the third hour’, does not mean exactly 9.0
a.m. but any part of the quarter before noon. ‘Thus, when the Jews saw that
Pilate was wearing out the time, and that the hour of noon was approaching,
John says that they cried out the more vehemently, that the whole day might not
pass without something being done’.

      This makes sad reading, and cannot be accepted by any who believe that
‘All Scripture is given by inspiration of God’. Christian scholarship has
spent itself upon this problem, which; after all, appears to be one of its own

      We are so used, today, to having the Bible complete within its covers,
that we are liable to forget that many to whom John wrote may never have seen
the gospel according to Matthew, that they could have made no comparisons
between the records, but would take the statements of John, as he intended, at
their face value.

      Now, so far removed were the readers of John’s Gospel from the Jewish
people and their methods and language, that he found it necessary to
interpolate an explanation of the Hebrew words ‘Messiah’ and ‘Rabbi’ (John
1:38,41); he was under the necessity to explain that ‘The Passover’ was a
‘feast of the Jews’ (John 6:4), and even had to tell, what no Jew ever needed
to be told, that ‘the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans’ (John 4:9).

      If the Gentiles are so manifestly addressed by John, and if they were so
evidently ignorant of Hebrew words and customs, then John would either be
obliged if he used Hebrew time reckoning to interpret that reckoning for the
Gentile reader (even as we have already done for the reader of this book), or
to take the simpler course, and use Gentile reckoning without the need for any

      Before 1914 many English readers would have been mystified to read that a
train left Victoria at 21.15, or 17.30, for that is Continental time, and needs

      If we accept the Gentile timing in John’s gospel, then we learn that at
6.0 a.m. Pilate handed the Saviour over to be crucified. At 9.0 a.m. the
crucifixion took place, as recorded in Mark, and that from 12.0 noon until 3.0
p.m. darkness covered the land, and at the end of that period the Saviour died.
      In John 4, where the original reader is so ignorant that he needed to be
told of the feud between the Jews and the Samaritans, we read that the Saviour,
weary with His journey, sat upon the well ‘about the sixth hour’, that is, by
Gentile reckoning, 6.0 p.m., the hour when the women of the East would draw
their water. Women in the conservative East do not draw water at midnight or
at midday. It is a purely gratuitous gloss to say that the woman who spoke to
the Lord was of such notorious immorality that she was driven by public
ostracism to break the laws of antiquity and draw water at noon. There is not
a shred of ev