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Ancient India vs. Ancient China

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									Ancient India vs. Ancient China
            India             Geography        North China
    South Asian Plain of Indus           Huang He (Yellow River)
 Periodic flooding=renewal of       Floods carry loess=renewal of
  fertile soil                        soil fertility

 Humid subtropical                  Much mountainous and
  climate=difficulty storing food     semidesert land=settlement only
                                      along rivers
 Himalaya Mts.=shielded from
  winter cold and invasions          Violent flooding=dike building
                                      for control
 Monsoons and
  snowmelt=abundant water            Mountain, desert, and jungle
  supply and maritime trade           barriers=cultural
  (later)                             isolation=unique/homogeneous
                                      culture
 Passes in northwest=contact
  with Middle East                   Climate split between arid, cool
                                      north and wet, warm south
            India        Political Patterns    China

 Centralized gov’t evident in        Small feudal kingdoms later
  prominence of logically planned      unified by Zhou Dynasty
  cities with public buildings and
  services                            Expansion from
                                       ShangZhouQin

                                      Highly centralized autocracy
                                       and unification later under the
                                       Qin Dynasty

                                      Dynastic Cycle and idea of
                                       Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
     India                 Social/Economic                  China
 Trade with Mesopotamia, South India,       King, aristocratic ruling class, and
  and Afghanistan                             bureaucracy made up of warrior
                                              families
 Uncertainty about how society was
  organized; small republics, rule by        Peasant farmers and slaves
  priests, or early form of caste
  system(Minimal evidence=little             Artisan/craft workers
  definite knowledge)
                                             Merchants
 Undecipherable writing
                                             Patriarchal
 Elaborately planned cities,
  standardized weights and measures,         Impressive cultural continuity into
  architectural design                        modern times

 Unlike other civilizations, it produced
  no palaces, temples, elaborate
  graves, kings, or warrior class
              India            Religious           China
 Importance of fertility=worship of    King worshipped as mediator
  mother goddess                         between people and gods=ruler
                                         was “son of heaven”
 Clay tablet images of
  gods=prototypes of Hindu deities?     Early written language with
                                         oracle bones as early documents
 Clay animal figures=great respect
  for livestock such as cows?           Early worship of dead royalty set
                                         pattern for ancestor veneration

                                        Confucianism=secular belief in
                                         ethical conduct and social
                                         harmony

                                        Taoism=philosophy focusing on
                                         living in harmony with laws of
                                         nature
    Interactions/technology
 Decline of Indus valley due to change in geographic patterns shifted
  people east

 Aryans migrate from Central Asia into northwest India (modern day
  Pakistan) bringing language and cultural traditions including the Vedas,
  caste system, and beliefs that would become Hinduism

 China is isolated due to geography=lack of outside contact=self-
  sufficiency, unique culture, ethnocentrism (middle kingdom)

 Gradually populations move to warmer, wetter climates that can
  sustain bigger populations on rice

 Crossbow, horses and the chariot from Central Asia will become
  essential to military victories

 Bronze used in weapons and religious vessels

								
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