Chapter 16- Politics and Reform

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					 Chapter 7-Issues of The Gilded Age

 Section 1: Segregation and Social Tension
Section 2: Political and Economic Challenges
    Section 3:Farmer’s and Populism

       Standards: 2.1, 2.3, 2.9. 2.12, 9.4
• African Americans Lose Freedoms
• States’ Governments Limit Voting Rights
      • Poll tax: people had to pay to register to vote (Georgia $1-2)
      • Literacy tests: “Understanding” Tests
      • Had to own property
      • Grandfather clause: In Louisiana this clause allowed any man to vote if
        he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867, which made former
        slaves, and their decendants ineligible to vote
      • 1894: 130,000 Black Registered Voters in Louisiana
      • 1904: 1,300 Black Registered Voters
• Legalizing Segregation
      • Segregation: separation of the races
      • Jim Crow laws: statutes that enforced segregation
      • Supreme Court overturns the Civil Rights Act of 1875
          – No longer a violation to keep people out based solely on color
          – Plessy v. Ferguson: Court case that upheld “Separate but Equal”
   – Racial Violence
      • Lynching: executions without proper court hearings
          – 80% in the South
          – 70% of the victims were African Americans
Jim Crow and Limited Opportunity
African Americans Oppose Injustices
 Ida B. Wells:
         – Memphis Free Speech
         – Anti-lynching
              » Said it was greed not just racial prejudice that led to the brutal
                acts and violence
         – Mob destroyed printing press of Memphis Free Speech and drove Ida
           from town
  – A Call for Compromise
     • Booker T. Washington: proposed that African Americans
       concentrate on education and economic gains rather than deal with
     • Atlanta Compromise: Booker T. Washington wanted the African
       American population to postpone the fight for Civil Rights until they
       were prepared to full equality.
  – A Voice of the Future
     • W.E.B. Du Bois
         – The Souls of Black Folk
         – Promoting and protecting the voting rights of African Americans was
           the only way to reach equality.
Booker T. Washington, W.E.B.
    Dubois, Ida B. Wells
           The Rise of Segregation
• Resistance and Repression
     • Sharecroppers: landless farmers who paid in the form of crops to a
       landlord for supplies, rent, seed, tools and other supplies; were always
       in debt
  – Exodus to Kansas
     • Exodusters: migrants of African Americans from the rural South to
  – Forming a Separate Alliance
     • Colored Farmers’ National Alliance: helped African Americans
       economically by setting up cooperatives
         – Cooperatives: a store where farmers bought products from each other; an
           organization that is owned and run by the people who use the services
  – Crushing the Populist Revolt
     • An appeal to racism
     • “Black Republicanism” a step back to Reconstruction
       Chinese Immigrants Face
• 1882: Chinese
  Exclusion Act:
  Chinese Immigrants
  Banned for 10 Years
• Wong Kim Ark v.
  United States:
  Supreme Court
  Upheld 14th
Mexicans Americans Struggle in the
• Abuse and Discrimination
  Undermine Rights
• Courts backed white
  Americans land claims
  most of the time
• Las Gorras Blancas:
  Extremist group who
  targeted large ranch
  owners with terror tactics
• Alianza Hispano-
  Americana: Organization
  formed to protect
    Women Make Gains and Suffer
• Susan B. Anthony: Felt
  betrayed when 14th/15th
  Amendments did not
  include women- 1872:
  Broke law by voting
  illegally in New York
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton:
  National Women’s
  Suffrage Association
• Women’s Christian
  Temperance Movement:
  Fought for women’s rights
  but also wanted to prohibit
  sale of alcohol (18th
        U.S. History I

         Chapter 7 Section 2
“Political and Economic Challenges”
           2.5, 9.1, 9.3, 9.4
 Section 2: Balance of Power Creates
• 1877-1897: Presidents win by narrow margins and
  presidents are weak or corrupt.
   – Benjamin Harrison: Second President to lose Popular vote but win
     Electoral College
   – Chester Arthur: Took over after James Garfield was assassinated:
     Disliked by OWN Republican Party
   – *Grover Cleveland: Known for his Integrity: 1884 Won: 1888 Lost
     to Harrison (Electoral College) 1892: Won again (Only one
     counted TWICE)
• Corruption Plagues National Politics
• Joseph Keppler: Political Cartoonist: “The Bosses of the
  Senate” Next Slide
       • Patronage: government jobs go to the supporters of the winning party
         in an election. “Spoils System”
   – The Pendleton Act: Allowed the president to decide which federal
     jobs would be filled according to the rules of the Civil Service
     Commission: All had to take exam to qualify for job.
       • Under Pres. Arthur, 14,000 jobs were placed under this program
• Economic Issues
  Challenge Nation
   – Tariff: Tax on Imports
   – Republicans: Wanted
     High Tariffs
   – Democrats: Wanted
     Low Tariffs
• Silver or Gold
• Greenbacks retired
  after Civil War
• Goldbugs: Wanted all
  coins made of gold
• Silverites: Wanted all
  coins made of silver
   Section 3: Farmers and Populism
• Unrest in Rural America
       • Populism: a political
         movement founded in the
         1890s that mainly
         represented farmers,
         favored free coinage of
         silver, and favored
         government control of
         railroads and other big
   – Falling Prices and Rising
       • Greenbacks: U.S. paper
       • Inflation: money loses
         value, higher prices
       • Deflation: lower prices,
         higher buying power
   – Deflation Hurts Farmers
       • The Crime of ’73: The
         decision of the government
         to stop the minting of
   – The Grange Takes Action: Oliver H. Kelley: 1867
       • Cooperatives: marketing organizations that worked to benefit their members
   – The Grange Fails
       • Didn’t change economic problems of farmers
       • Railroads fought back by cutting services and refusing to lay more track
       • Wabash v. Illinois: limited a state’s ability to regulate the railroads, states could
         not regulate interstate commerce
• The Farmers’ Alliance
       • Lampasas County, Texas 1877
       • Charles Macune
   – The Alliance Grows
       •   Kansas
       •   Nebraska
       •   North Dakota
       •   South Dakota
       •   South and Great Plains
   – The People’s Party: Populists
   – The Subtreasury Plan: called for the government to set up warehouses where
     farmers could store crops for low-interest loans until prices increased.
• The Populist Party Demands Reforms
     • Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890: authorized the U.S.
       Treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver a month, put
       more money into circulation in an attempt to help farmers
  – The South Turns to Populism
     • Many Southern Democrats move to Populist Party
  – A Populist for President
     • James B. Weaver
        – Graduated income tax: taxation of higher earnings more heavily
        – Government ownership of railroads
  – The Panic of 1893: Economic Crisis
     • Stock Market on Wall Street Crash
     • Banks closed
     • Economic Depression
• The Election of 1896
      • William Jennings Bryan
          – Supported the minting of silver
          – *Also known as prosecutor in the “Scopes Monkey Trial”
   – Bryan’s Campaign
      • 600 speeches in 14 weeks
      • Republicans nominate William McKinley as the man who could beat
   – The Front Porch Campaign
      • William McKinley spoke only at his Canton, Ohio home. Delegates
        came to see him at his home.
      • Full Dinner Pan
      • Unemployment would rise, wages would be cut
   – Populism Declines
      • Depression ends
      • Gold in Canada, Alaska, and South Africa increase money supply

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