pauline-description by lanyuehua

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									    “Biased” natural language
           generation
                 Hovy’s PAULINE
                      1988


Hovy, E.H. (1988) Generating Natural Language Under Pragmatic
Constraints. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
         Goals of the system
• PAULINE: “Planning and uttering language
  in natural environments”
• To produce: stylistically appropriate texts
  from a single story representation
• With a set of parameters representing the
  pragmatic circumstances
                  Parameters
• Conversational atmosphere (setting)
  – time: much, some, little
  – tone: formal, informal, festive
  – conditions: good, noisy
• Speaker
  –   knowledge of the topic: expert, student, novice
  –   interest in the topic: high, low
  –   opinions of the topic: good, neutral, bad
  –   emotional state: happy, angry, calm
                   Parameters
• Hearer
  –   knowledge of the topic: expert, student, novice
  –   interest in the topic: high, low
  –   opinions of the topic: good, neutral, bad
  –   emotional state: happy, angry, calm
• Speaker-Hearer Relationship
  – depth of acquaintance: friends, acquaintances,
    strangers
  – relative social status: dominant, equal, subordinate
  – emotion: like, neutral, dislike
           Interpersonal goals
• Hearer
  – affect hearer’s knowledge: teach, neutral, confuse
  – affect hearer’s opinion of topic: switch, neutral,
    none
  – involve hearer in the conversation: involve,
    neutral, repel
  – affect hearer’s emotional state: anger, neutral,
    calm
  – affect hearer’s goals: activate, neutral, deactivate
          Interpersonal goals

• Speaker-Hearer Relationship
  – affect hearer’s emotion towards speaker: respect,
    like, dislike
  – affect relative status: dominant, equal, subordinate
  – affect interpersonal distance: intimate, close,
    distant
         Generator Decisions

• Topic collection
• topic organisation
• sentence organisation
• content and organisation of sentence
  constituents
• word choice
        Stylistic rhetorical goals
• Formality: highfalutin,     • force: forceful, normal,
  normal, colloquial            quiet
• simplicity: simple,         • floridity: dry, neutral,
  normal, complex               flowery
• timidity: timid, reckless   • color: facts only, with
• partiality: impartial,        color
  implicit, explicit          • personal reference:
• detail: details only,         amount of direct reference
  interpretations, both         to speaker/hearer
• haste: pressured,           • openmindedness: narrow,
  unplanned, somewhat           open
  planned, planned            • respect: arrogant,
                                respectful, neutral,
                                cajoling
Hovy’s PAULINE
                                              Formality: highfalutin
                             Ex.1
     In early April, a shantytown - named Winnie Mandela city -
     was erected by several students on Beinecke Plaza so that Yale
     University would divest from companies doing business in
     South Africa. Later, at 5:30 AM on April 14, the shantytown
     was destroyed by officials; also, at that time, the police
     arrested 76 students. Several local politicians and faculty
     members expressed criticism of Yale’s action. Finally, Yale
     gave the students permission to reassemble the shantytown
     there and, concurrently, the university announced that a
     commission would go to South Africa in July to investigate the
     system of Apartheid.
Hovy’s PAULINE
                                              Formality: colloquial
                             Ex.2
     Students put a shantytown, Winnie Mandela city, up on
     Beinecke Plaza in early April. The students wanted Yale
     University to pull their money out of companies doing
     business in South Africa. Officials tore it down at 5:30 AM on
     April 14, and the police arrested 76 students. Several local
     politicians and faculty members criticised the action. Later,
     Yale allowed the students to put it up there again. The
     University said that a commission would be go to South Africa
     in July to study the system of Apartheid
Hovy’s PAULINE                                Slanting the text: partiality

                              Ex.3
     In early April, a small number of students were involved in a
     confrontation with Yale University over Yale’s investment in
     companies doing business in South Africa. The students took
     over Beinecke Plaza and constructed a shantytown named
     Winnie Mandela city in order to force the university to divest
     from those companies. Yale requested that the students erect it
     elsewhere, but they refused to leave. Later, at 5:30 AM on
     April 14, officials had to disassemble the shantytown. Finally,
     Yale, being conciliatory towards the students, not only
     permitted them to reconstruct it, but also announced that a
     commission would go to South Africa in July to examine the
     system of Apartheid
Hovy’s PAULINE                                Slanting the text: partiality

                              Ex.4
     As a reminder to Yale University to divest from companies
     doing business in South Africa, a large number of concerned
     students erected a shantytown named Winnie Mandela city on
     Beinecke Plaza in April. At 5:30 AM on April 14, Yale had
     officials destroy it; also, at that time, the university had the
     police arrest 76 students. After the local community’s huge
     outcry, Yale permitted the students to reconstruct the
     shantytown.
Hovy’s PAULINE

                             Ex.5
     Carter and Kennedy were the candidates in a primary in
     Michigan on 20 February. Carter lost to Kennedy by 1335
     votes. At present, Kennedy has a better chance of getting the
     nomination than before. Carter is also closer to getting the
     nomination than before. Both Carter and Kennedy want to get
     the nomination.


     Acquaintance:
           colloquial, impartial, details, somewhat planned
Hovy’s PAULINE

                                 Ex.6
     Kennedy diminished Carter’s lead by getting all of 21850
     votes in the primary in Michigan. In a similar case, Carter
     decreased Udall’s lead in a primary in 1976, and he easily
     trounced Udall to be nominated by 2600 delegates. I am really
     glad that Kennedy is now closer to getting the nomination than
     before.


     Friend:
               colloquial, implicit, details+interpretions, planned
Hovy’s PAULINE

                              Ex.7




     To the boss:
            colloquial, implicit, interpretions, pressured

								
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