Monitoring Rangeland Resource Condition by ert554898

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 26

									            Natural Resource Concerns:
       Effectiveness and Condition Monitoring




                    Inventory and Monitoring Program
                        Rocky Mountain Network
                    Dan Manier, Terrestrial Ecologist, Rocky Mountain
                                       Network
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                                        Trail map
                  • What are we monitoring and why
                    (getting started)?
                  • What to measure?
                  • How to measure?




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
        Monitoring questions and objectives
      should focus on concerns and indicators
    • Develop a conceptual model of your system
       • Simple or complex
       • Mental, digital, back-of-the-envelope
       • Identify key patterns, processes, and
         drivers/stressors
    • Resource Condition Assessment informs
      identification of concerns
    • Resource Condition Monitoring based on
      understanding of system and expected relationships
    • Management Effectiveness Monitoring is used to
      evaluate efforts on the ground (e.g. weed
      control/eradication)
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
GRKO Landscape Model
                           Butte



                                                              (Water pollution)
    (Increased human density)
                                                        Point sources entering
                                                                                                            (Air pollution)                Anaconda
              Grazing                                                                                    Air deposition
                                                         Clark Fork drainage


   Alter unique      Decrease          Introduce edge        Alter characteristics of              Alter characteristics of
      habitats      remnant size            effects          material and energy flow              material and energy flow




                                         Altered          Increased [metal] in          Increased nutrient
                                       fire regime      lotic and riparian system         delivery to soil                            (Disrupted hydrology)
                                                                                                                                 Ground and surface
                                                                                                                                water use for agriculture
  (Conversion of remnant habitat)
       Fragmenting of
grassland & fluvial landscape                                                                                         Alter characteristics of
                                                                                                                      material and energy flow

      Decrease       Introduce edge                                                     Decreased water
     remnant size         effects
                                                                                            quantity
                                      Increased
                                      p(invasion)
                                                               GRKO

                               Increased nutrient               Metal                   Decreased cultural
                            loadings in lotic system          mobilization               resource quality



                    Alter characteristics of                      Alter unique                     Decrease          Introduce edge
                    material and energy flow                         habitats                     remnant size            effects
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
ROMN Rangeland Model                                                                          January


                                                                                              Irrigated
                                                                                              hay field
                                                                                                NPP
  Management actions potentially                                                                Pasture
  influencing pasture states and                                                              composition

  cattle production:
                                                   Cattle sales
  •    Stocking rate
  •    Cattle movement
  •    Irrigation                                                                Native                                        Non-irrigated
  •    Haying                                                                    upland                                          hay field




                                                             November
  •    Fertilization




                                                                                                                                                    March
                                                                                                                                  NPP
                                                                                  NPP
  •    Fire
                                                                                                                                  Pasture
                                                                                  Pasture                                       composition
                                                                                composition




                                                                                                     Non-native
                                                                                                      upland
                             High %
                                                                                                            NPP
                          Native grasses
                          (native upland)                                                               Pasture
                                                                                                      composition
                            High NPP
         Weed
      invasion &                                                                                                        Grazing optimization model
        erosion


                                                                                                                                               Threshold
                                                                                                                                               model




                                                                                                               NPP
                                                                        Weed invasion

                                                                                                                                                 Linear
             Low %             Heavy                                                                                                             decline
         Native grasses        Grazing       Medium %
          (non-native                       Native grasses                                                             Grazing intensity
            upland)         Light Grazing   Moderate NPP                                                    Possible relationships between grazing level
           Low NPP                                                                                          and pasture forage production (NPP)


National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                                                       Climate:
                                                     Precipitation,           Other Inputs:
 Cattle sales
                                                                            Atmos. Dep (N),
                                                    Temperatures,
                                                                                Fertilizers,
                      Cattle:                     Seasonal patterns,        Irrigation water,
                   Stocking rate,                  Long-term trends           Invasive spp.
                 Rotation / Duration,
                Herbivory Behavior,
                Biomass Production,
                                                                                      Haying
                  Wildlife Habitat,                              Vegetation:
                Wildlife Interactions                          Composition,
                                                                Structure,
                                                          Management (goal & use),
 Other Processes:
                                                            Herbivory & Effects,
  Fire, Invasions,
       Mgmt.                                                Primary Production,
                                                            Landscape Patterns

                           Soils:
                       Type / quality
                       A-layer depth
                     Carbon & Nitrogen
                      Nutrient Cycling

National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
    • Resource Condition Assessment
          • Current status
          • Often qualitative, with some quantitative support
          • Expert opinion(s)
          • Synthesis of available information
          • Useful to inform monitoring objectives and
            design
          • Useful to inform conceptual model of system


    • Resource Condition Monitoring

    • Management Effectiveness Monitoring
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
    • Resource Condition Assessment

    • Resource Condition Monitoring
          • Overall Condition (generalizable across the unit)
          • Balanced (spatially) and Representative Design
          • Long-term emphasis since dynamics are at many
            scales (daily, seasonal, annual, decadal and
            longer)
          • NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program

    • Management Effectiveness Monitoring


National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
  • Resource Condition Assessment

  • Resource Condition Monitoring

  • Management Effectiveness Monitoring
        • More narrow focus than general condition
        • Progress towards target (condition, distribution,
          etc.)
        • Specified locations therefore not generalizable
          (usually)



National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                                        Trail map
                  • What are we monitoring and why
                    (getting started)?
                  • What to measure?
                  • How to measure?




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                              What to measure ?

                          •   Community Structure
                          •   Vegetation Composition
                          •   Soil Type and Physical Condition
                          •   Soil Chemistry
                          •   Primary Production (Vegetation)
                          •   Secondary Production (Animals)
                          •   Exotic / Invasive Species



National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                        Community Structure
       Physical Patterns of Vegetation and Soil
        • Relative cover of functional/structural
          groups (tree, shrub, forb, bunchgrass,
          sodgrass)
        • Bareground
        • Erosion
        • USE PHOTOS




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                     Vegetation Composition




      •   Native vs. Naturalized vs. Invasive species
      •   Warm-season vs. Cool-season Grasses
      •   Increasers vs. Decreasers
      •   Species Diversity
      •   Functional Groups, Palatability, Structure
      •   Invasive Species
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
        Soil Type and Physical Properties



    • NRCS type classification – soil and
      ecological
    • Drainage (soil texture + depth to WT / bedrock)
    • Erosion potential (bareground, pedestals,
        surface flows, gullying)
    • Compaction (traditional measure + spatial
        patterns)
    • Infiltration (traditional measure + spatial
        patterns)
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                                 Soil Chemistry
   •   Carbon (OM content, cycling, and retention)
   •   Nitrogen (NO3, NO2, NH4)
   •   Phosphorus (orthophosphates)
   •   Cycling (e.g. NO3 -> NH4)
   •   Decomposition rates (popsicle stick test)
   •   Contaminants (e.g. heavy metals)
   •   Biotic function (diversity, abundance,
       services)


National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                           Primary Production
    • Plant Growth
    • Net (NPP) vs. (Gross) GPP
    • Above vs. Below-ground
    • Herbivory (Removal)
    • Herbivory effects (e.g. stimulation of
      increasers and stunting of decreasers)
    • Interactions with environment and
      management (e.g. precipitation and
      stocking rates)

National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                       Secondary Production

    • Ultimate Goal of a Ranching Operation
    • Direct Measures (weight, nos., value)
    • Correlating Measures is difficult without
      many measures (e.g. the connection
      between range condition and animal health
      and size)




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                                        Trail map
                  • What are we monitoring and why
                    (getting started)?
                  • What to measure?
                  • How to measure?




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                          How to measure . . .
   Sample Designs                                     Response Designs
   • Systematic, Random,                              • Permanent sites
     Stratified-random                                • Lines – intercept and
   • Spatially Balanced                                 point frequency
     Design (e.g. EPA and                             • Plots – small vs.
     NPS)                                               large
   • Avoid simply putting                             • Soils – field vs. lab
     a plot somewhere                                 • Photos – integrate
     “interesting,                                      with other methods
       accessible, or
       characteristic”
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
            USDA Jornada Ag. Res. Station
                       2005
    •   Photo Points
    •   Line-point Intercept – vegetation frequency
    •   Gap Intercept – cover and bareground
    •   Soil Stability – small sample immersion
    •   Belt transect – for invasive species detection
    •   Grazing Use and Management*
    •   Supplementary Methods – compaction, infiltration
        rate, production, plant richness, plant structure,
        tree density, riparian channels, fire, invasive
        species, remote sensing, soil carbon, wildlife
        habitat
                 http://usda-ars.nmsu.edu/

National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
            USDA Jornada Ag. Res. Station
                       2005
              Grazing Use and Management Data
              • Date of Assessment
              • Number and Class of Livestock
              • In Date -> Out Date
              • Photo
              • Average Plant Height (post-grazing)
              • Average Plant Height (non-grazed)
              • Grazed % (based on height) / Use Score
              • Production Score
              • Percent Cover (visual est. or pacing transect)
              • % “boot gaps” (from pacing transect)


National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
             NPS Rocky Mountain Network
           Combination of USDA ARS Rangeland and
             USDA FS Forest Inventory and Assessment
           • Line Intercept (structure, erosion, relative
             composition)
           • 1m2 Plots (composition, fine-scale patterns
             and dynamics)
           • 1000m2 Plots (accurate species diversity,
             invasive species P/A)
           • Soils (structure, compaction, infiltration,
             small samples for C and N chemistry)

              www1.nature.nps.gov/im/units/romn/index.htm
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                                          Methods Examples


                                                        Soil stability test



               Line transect



                                                                               Impact penetrometer




                                                                              Single-ring infiltrometer
                               Clipping to estimate primary production
 Plot frame w/ ref. marks

National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
              Rocky Mountain Network
               http://www1.nature.nps.gov/im/units/romn/


                                                    Mike Britten – Program Manager
                                                                          970.267.2150
                                                    Billy Schweiger – Ecologist
                                                                          970.267.2147
                                                    Dan Manier – Ecologist
                                                                          970.225.3583
                                                    Brent Frakes – Data Manager
                                                                          970.267.2156
                                                    David Pillmore – Computer Tech.
                                                                          970.586.1398




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network
                          More Info on NPS I&M
      National Program website with much info. and many links:
             http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/index.cfm




National Park Service – Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network

								
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