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8th Grade Science Final Exam Review Packet Directions: Use the following questions to guide you in preparing for your final exam on Tuesday, June 5. The test will be entirely multiple-choice questions. The answer sheet will be a scantron so please come prepared with No. 2 pencils. 1. What are the tests used to identify a mineral? 2. What is a crystalline structure and how does it relate to minerals? 3. What are the properties of minerals? Give two examples of minerals. 4. Describe the three types of rock, how they form, and an example of each. 5. Coarse-grained and fine-grained rocks form differently. Explain the difference. 6. Draw the rock cycle. Why do there need to be multiple sets of arrows? 7. What is the difference between an earthquake and an aftershock? 8. What is the difference between the epicenter and focus of an earthquake? 9. Describe the Richter scale in terms of values and how it’s measured. 10. What are the three types of boundaries? How do they interact? 11. What geological features are found where the following types of crust collide? a. Continental – Continental b. Continental – Oceanic c. Oceanic – Oceanic 12. What is the difference between P and S waves? 13. List some ways that mountains can form? 14. What type of rock makes up most of the ocean floor? Is this rock small grained or large grained? 15. How is volcanic ash formed? 16. Why do volcanoes form where plates collide? 17. Name the three types of volcanoes and how each forms? 18. How does a caldera form? 19. How will the viscosity of lava affect the shape of the active volcano? 20. What evidence do we have to suggest that the continents were once connected? What is the name of the theory that states that the plates are in constant movement? 21. Describe how you determine whether an object is in motion. 22. Explain why reference points that are stationary are usually chosen to determine whether an object is in motion. 23. How do you calculate an object’s speed? 24. Describe what velocity is. 25. Demonstrate how to graph motion. Write a basic problem, solve the problem and then graph it. 26. Describe the motion of an object as it accelerates. 27. Demonstrate how to graph acceleration. Write a problem, solve the problem and then graph it. 28. Describe what a force is. 29. Describe how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to an object’s motion. 30. Describe friction and identify factors that determine the friction between two objects. 31. Identify the factors that affect the gravitational force between two objects. 32. State Newton’s Three Laws of Motion and give an example of each. 33. Explain how momentum is determined and conserved. 34. Describe the motion of an object during free fall. 35. What factors keep objects in orbit around the Earth? 36. What is work and how can it be determined? 37. Define power. 38. How do machines make work easier? 39. How can we calculate the mechanical advantage and efficiency of a machine? 40. Describe how we can calculate the mechanical advantages of inclined planes, wedges and screws. List the formula used to calculate each. 41. Classify and describe the mechanical advantage of each class of lever. List the formula used to calculate each. 42. Describe the mechanical advantages of pulleys and wheel and axles. What formula would you use to calculate each? 43. Describe the mechanical advantages of compound machines and how do we calculate the advantage for them? 44. Explain how energy, work, and power are related. Use a Venn diagram. 45. Name and describe the two basic types of energy. 46. What are the six forms of energy? Give an example of each. 47. What does the law of conservation of energy state? 48. Explain how static electricity builds up and transfers. 49. What are the differences between from conductors and insulators? List two of each. 50. Using a diagram describe the basic features of an electric series and parallel circuit. 51. What causes charges to move through a circuit? 52. Explain Ohm’s Law. What is the formula to calculate resistance? 53. How do you calculate electric power and energy use? 54. Identify each property of a magnet. 55. Explain how magnetic poles interact. 56. What is a magnetic field? 57. Describe the characteristics of solenoids and electromagnets. 58. Explain how mechanical energy can be converted to electrical energy in a generator. 59. Explain the difference between an alternating and direct current. 60. Explain how the Doppler Effect relates to pitch. 61. What property of sound waves affects the pitch of a sound? What property of sound waves affects the loudness of a sound? 62. Describe how sound intensity changes with the distance. Give an example. 63. How is music different from noise? 64. List and describe two different ways that animals and people use sound waves. 65. List and describe two ways in which a surface can reflect light. 66. What is the difference between primary and secondary colors? 67. Compare plane, concave and convex mirrors in terms of the type of surface they have and the type of image that they produce. 68. Explain how refraction of light occurs. Give an example of refraction. 69. Use the terms retina, rods, cones and optic nerve to explain how an image is formed and interpreted by the human eye. 70. When comparing your body to a simple machine, most of the bodies bones and muscles work to act together as what type of machine?
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