Nepal by lanyuehua


               System   Two main
              Component determinants          Exposure to water stress

                                              Crops are exposed to flood and sand
                                              casting during the monsoon. Winter
Food          Nutritional                     crops are exposed to drought. Declining
utilization   Value         Food diversity    ground water table is another threat.

                                              Almost all water soruces are
                                              contaminated during monsoon. Farmers
              Nutritional   Disease           are exposed to the threat of water borne
              Value         incidence         diseases.

                           Special food for
              Social Value festivals

              Social Value Role of kinship

                                              Storing food during monsoon is difficult.
                                              Dampness spoils food. Storage facilities
                          Storage             are not protected from high humidity of
                          condition (and      the monsoon. Stroed food are exposed
              Food Safety seasonality?)       to insects and fungus.
                                          Vegetables and milk are exposed to
                                          contamination. Water pollution by
                                          industries or by settlements adds to
                                          contamination. Adultration of milk is
                          Contamination serious when mixed with water from
              Food Safety and adultration unsafe water sources due to floods.
                                   When crops fail in absence of irrigation
                                   water family income declines. Income
                                   from other sources is also sensitive to
                                   monsoon period. Unserviceable roads,
                                   damaged infrastructures and swollen
                                   rivers make movement difficult during
                                   the monsoon. Employment opportunity
              Household            outside agriculture declines and so does
Affordability income               the income.

                                   Price is a result of production cost,
                                   transportation, risks involved, extent of
                                   damages, and return period on the
              Pricing              investment. All these factors are directly
              mechanism            or indirectly affected by the amount of
              (including its       water available (for production) or the
              seasonal and         flood. Prices of commodoties go up
              geographical         during monsoon. Intermediaries and
Affordability variation)           quack take benefits


Allocation      Market facility    Monsoon threatens market
                Social political
Allocation      capital            No threat
                                               Rainy season food is considered less
                                               tasty but not a threat. When water
                                               becomes scarce farmers cannot grow
               Preference     Taste            vegetables of their choice.

                                               Not threatened by flood or drought
               Preference     Customs          condition


                                               Innudation due to flood is a major threat
                                               to the hundreds of farmers along the
                                               rivers of the RTB basin. Farmers loose
                                               some land every year due to flood
                                               erosion. Some loose land due to sand
                              Land holding     casting. This is a major threat but to
                              size             families living close to river banks.

                                               Drought and declining groundwater level
                              Irrigation       is a major threat to irrigation water
                              availability     avaiability.
                              storage)         very much affected by flood.

                              Liberal policy   Not a threat

           Income level      Threat to a certain extent, because
           (wage and         income of wage earners varies with
           remittence)       season.

           Market facility   In monsoon flood affects local market.
Sensitivity                    Coping

Farmers living close to the    Grow sugarcane instead of rice
rivers are aware of floods     to resist floods, diversify income
and sand casting. Farmers      sources redusing the
using tubewells are sensitve   dependency on agriculture,
of declining groundwater       switch to drought resistant crops
level.                         when irrigation is limited.

As many get sick, people are
sensitive.                   Medication and local measuers

                              To avoid storage loss farmers
                              sale food and save money to
Cereals and pulses are highly buy necessary amount of food
sentive.                      when needed.

Sensitive to the diseases      Avoid using such sources
                               Travel area to urban centres
Highly sensitive               seeking employment.

Price is very sensitive to
water because if a bridge is
washed by flood, food prices   Farmers have no control over
especially of vegetabels and   the mechanics of price and
fuel for cooking temporarily   market, which is mostly
increases.                     dominated by intermediaries.

                               By paying higher price for
                               commodity, get into high-
sensitive                      interest debt.
                          Some attempt to build
they are very sensitive   temporary walls to save land.

                          Change to drought resistant
                          crop, but only to a limited
Very sensitive            extent.

                          Some store it before the stress
Very sensitive            develops.
sensitive   Use savings

Sensitive   Ram Bharose

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