English Book for Beginner by oshinmc

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									                                      Unit I :
                        Simple Present Tense
USAGE: We use the simple present tense when we would like to express;
a. Daily Activities,
b. Habitual Action or Events,
c. General Truth

KEY: Use Be-Present (Is, Am, Are) behind the Subjects!, like;

                   SUBJECT                  BE-PRESENT
            I             Saya                  Am
          You         Kamu/kalian               Are
           We           Kami/kita               Are
          They           Mereka                 Are
           He           Dia (LK)                 Is
          She           Dia (PR)                 Is
            It     Dia (Selain Orang)            Is

For Examples:

        I am happy. ( Saya senang )
        You are sleepy. ( Kamu mengantuk )
        We are hungry. ( Kami lapar )
        They are students. ( Mereka pelajar )
        She is in the hospital. ( Dia di rumah sakit )
        He is an English teacher. ( Dia seorang guru bahasa Inggris )
        It is a picture. (Ini/Itu sebuah gambar ).

        Take notice that we do not use Verb as the Predicate but, Adjectives
(Kata Sifat), Noun (Kata Benda), Adverb (Kata Keterangan), Noun Phrase
(Prase Kata Benda) and Pronoun (Kata Ganti). Therefore we can conclude the
formation, as;

                                            NOUN PHRASE
          SUBJECT      BE-PRESENT            ADJECTIVE

          We also can put adverb (quality) before Noun, Noun Phrase, Adjective,
adverb, or Pronoun, like ; very (sangat), so (begitu/sangat), too
(terlalu/terlampau), etc.

For Examples;

           I am so sorry. ( Saya begitu menyesal........... saya mohon maaf)
           She is very angry at me. ( dia sangat marah padaku)
           They are too ugly to be a cover boy. (mereka terlalu jelek (muka) untuk
                                                    menjadi seorang Cover Boy)

When we would like to make a Negative Sentence, put “NOT” behind the “BE-
Present”!, like;

                   Be + Not      Abbreviated        Meaning
                    Am not            -            Bukan/tidak
                    Are not        Aren’t          Bukan/tidak
                     Is not         Isn’t          Bukan/tidak

For Examples;

             He                Is not
             He                Isn’t        My uncle, Tom.
             He’s              not

             I                 Am not
             I’m               not

             They              Are not
             They              Aren’t       In hospital.
             They’re           Not

        To make an interrogative sentence, put the Be-present at the
beginning of the sentence, like;

           Am I confused ? of course not ! ( Apakah saya bingung? Tentu saja
tidak! )
           Is she bored of my speaking? ( Apakah dia bosan dengan bicaraku? )
           Are they afraid of dog? ( Apakah mereka takut dengan anjing? )
           Is it good to eat? ( Apakah ini/itu baik dimakan? )
           Is it difficult to do? ( Apakah ini/itu sulit dilakukan? )

Negative-Interrogative Sentence
KEY: Put /aren’t/, /isn’t/, or /am I not/ at the beginning of the sentence!

For Examples;

        Aren’t you a soldier?
        ( Bukankah kamu seorang prajurit? )

        Isn’t he interested to live in the city?
        (Bukankah dia tertarik menetap di kota? )

        Am I not responsible for this club?
        ( Bukankah saya bertanggung jawab dengan Klub ini? )
        Are you not a soldier?
        Is he not interested to live in the city?
        Am I not responsible for this club?

Note: If you answer “Yes”, It means that you are not a soldier; he is not
interested to live in the city; you are not resposible for that club.

KEY: Only use Bare-Infinitive! So, do not use be-present in it!

               SUBJECT             BARE-INFINITIVE

For Examples;

             SUBJECT         BARE-INFINITIVE
           I                         go             to Magelang by bike.
           She                     learns           English every night.
           He                      works            for Delt@ Computer.
           They                    blame            me.
           We                        get            tired of the job.
           It                       flies           without wings.
           His mother               goes            shopping every monday.
           The student             comes            to my party on time.

        Take notice that the bare-infinitive adds the suffix ‘/-s/ or /-es/’ when the
subject /she/, /he/, or /it/ is used. Meanwhile, there is No suffixes used when
the subject is /I/, /you/, /we/, or /they/.

Look at this following changes!

        Learn             Learns
        Work              Works
        Fly               Flies
        Go                Goes
        Come              Comes

Remember that the changes above does not change the meaning.
However, the suffixes will be omitted when the sentence is changed into
Negative or Interrogative. (look at the Negative and Interrogative section!)

Suffix /-es/
Add the suffix /-es/ when the bare infinitive has this following formation of letter
in the end, they are;

        /-ch/, /-sh/, /-o/, /-x/, /-s/, or /-ss/ and few of /-y/.

        Examples; watch, wash, fix, kiss, miss, go, do, teach, fetch, push, etc.

          Not all the bare infinitives which belongs /-y/ can be added by the suffix
/-es/. It depends on this formation;

          Consonant                   Y


        Cry      ------------------       consonant /-r-/ + /-y/
        Fry      ------------------       consonant /-r-/ + /-y/
        Try      ------------------       consonant /-r-/ + /-y/
        Study    ------------------       consonant /-d-/ + /-y/
                                                           /-r-/ or /-d-/ is a
But, when the formation is “ Vowel + /-y/ “, just put the suffix /-s/ at it, like; Pay,
Play, say, etc. Warning ! This rule only happens in the Verbal Sentence......

Suffix /-s/
Only add the suffix /-s/ when the bare infinitive does not have the rule like

Negative Sentence
KEY-1: Use the auxilliary Do + not ( or, Don’t ) when the subject is /I/, /You/,
/We/, or /They/!

For Examples;

        (+)     Solihin and I need to attend the meeting.
        (--)    Solihin and I do not need to attend the meeting.

        (+)     They have the CD player.
        (--)    They don’t have the CD player.

        (+)     I like staying at home.
        (--)    I do not like staying at home.

KEY-1: Use the auxilliary Does + not ( or, Doesn’t )when the subject is /I/,
/You/, /We/, or /They/!

For Examples;

        (+)     She sleeps soundly every night.
        (--)    She doesn’t sleep soundly every night.

        (+)     Miss Eva passes the exam.
        (--)    Miss Eva does not pass the exam.

        (+)     It jumps over the stream.
        (--)    It doesn’t jump over the stream.

Interrogative Sentence ( Yes/No Question )
KEY: Put the auxilliary Do or Does at the beginning of the sentence!

For Examples;

        X:      Does she remember me ?
                ( Apakah dia ingat padaku? )
        Y:      Yes!
                Or,    Yes, She does.
                       No, she doesn’t.
                       She doesn’t.

        X:      Do you need something to drink?
                ( Apakah kamu perlu sesuatu untuk diminum? )
                                ---------or, ( Apakah kamu mau minum? )
        Y:      Yes!
                Or,    Yes, I do.
                       No, I don’t.
                       I don’t.

        X:      Do you have some money?
                ( Apakah kau punya uang? )
        Y:      Yes!
                Or,    Yes, I do.
                       No, I don’t..
                       I don’t.

        X:      Do your sisters do the assignments?
                ( Apakah saudara2 perempuanmu mengerjakan tugas-tugas
                                                                  itu? )
        Y:      Yes!
                Or,    Yes, they do.
                       No, they don’t..
                       They don’t.

        X:      Does it work well?
                ( Apakah ia bekerja dengan baik? )
        Y:      Yes!
                Or,     Yes, It does.
                        No, It doesn’t.
                        It doesn’t.

Negative-Interrogative Sentence
KEY: Put the auxilliary Don’t or Doesn’t at the beginning of the sentence!

For Examples;

        Don’t you pick him up?
        ( Tidakkah kau menjemputnya? )

        or, you can say:

        Do you not pick him up?
        ( Apakah kau tidak menjemputnya? )

                                                                Unit II :
Look and study at this following table!

                               POSSESSIVE                         REFLEXIVE
    SUBJECT       OBJECT                        POSSESSION
                                ADJECTIVE                         PRONOUN
       I             Me            My                Mine            Myself
                                                                    Yourself /
      You            You           Your              Yours
      We             Us            Our               Ours          Ourselves
     They           Them           Their             Theirs       Themselves
      He             Him            His               His            Himself
     She             Her            Her               Hers           Herself
      It )*           It            Its                It             itself

The pronoun like; /I/, /you/, /we/, /they/, /he/, or /she/ is used for Personal
Pronoun, and the pronoun /It/ is used for Impersonal pronoun.

KEY: Subject is the Doer. It determines the Predicate ( Verb, adjective, adverb,
noun, noun phrase or pronoun ). No subject means no sentence!. Subject is
commonly placed at the beginning, or before the verb of a sentence, like;

           I see the moon.
           They hold a meeting three times a year.

I and they are called “ Subjective Pronoun “. They are two of pronoun as a
subject. However, noun or noun phrase can be a subject, like;

           The house is very large.
`          Mrs. Anthony lives in a beautiful cottage.
           My English teacher likes reading “Mamamia” magazine.

We also can say that;

           It is very large.
`          She lives in a beautiful cottage.
           She likes reading “Mamamia” magazine.

KEY: Object is the Result of what subject does. Object is commonly placed
after the bare infinitive, especially after Transitive Verb.

        Transitive Verb is a kind of verb which requires an object ( in this case,
Objective Pronoun, like; /me/, /you/, /us/, /them/, /him/, /her/, or /it/ ), like;

        Help, cook, watch, buy, leave, eat, read, listen, take, make, call, join,etc

For Examples;

        Tono helps me lift the table.
        ( Tono membantu saya mengangkat meja itu )

        The girl leaves him alone.
        ( Anak perempuan itu meninggalkan dia sendirian ).

        An old man watches them every midnight..
        ( Seorang laki-laki tua mengawasi mereka setiap tengah malam ).

        He doesn’t join us any longer.
        ( Dia tidak bergabung dengan kita lagi ).

        I want to buy it for you.
        ( Saya ingin membelikan itu/ini untuk kamu ).

Besides, we can also use noun or noun phrase as an object, like;

        We take this basket to the garage.
        ( Kami membawa keranjang ini ke garasi )

         Intransitive Verb doesn’t need an object. The verb /Go/, /dance/,
/sleep/, /stay/, or /live/, etc is some of the Intransitive Verbs.

For Examples;

        Liza dances beautifully.
        Mukhlisin goes to Tanjung Karang.

Take notice that the word /beautifully/ or /to Tajung Karang/ is not an object, but
they are adverb of manner and adverb of place.

The words after the Intransitive verb below are not the objects. But they are
complements ( Pelengkap ). We can make it by using this formation, that is, “
Preposition + Objective pronoun.

For Examples;

        Liza dances with him.
        ( Liza menari bersamanya.)

        Mukhlisin goes to Tanjung Karang with me.
        ( Mukhlisin pergi ke Tanjung Karang bersamaku.)

Possessive Adjective
KEY: Possessive adjective is a kind of pronoun which modifies possession
(Kepemilikan) of a noun or thing.

Formation :     Possessive Adjective + Noun
                                                 Note that this formation above
                                         can be placed in both subject and
                                         object position in a sentence.

For Examples;

        My younger brother Daus loves to play guitar.
        ( Adik laki-laki saya Daus suka sekali bermain gitar )

        The man wants to see your father.
        ( Orang itu ingin bertemu ayahmu )

        She cares about her pet very much.
        ( Dia sangat menyayangi hewan piaraannya.)

        Their car is new and expensive.
        ( Mobil mereka baru dan mahal.)

        Silvia Anggraeni is my pretty younger sister.
        ( Silvia Anggraeni adalah adik-perempuanku yang cantik.)

        Mr.Solihin finds our bags.
        ( Pak Solihin menemukan tas-tas kita.)

KEY: Possession is a kind of possessive pronoun which does not require a
noun or thing to form it, but possession includes it.

For Examples;

         This book is mine.
         ( Buku ini adalah kepunyaanku.)

         I want to be yours.
         ( Aku ingin menjadi milikmu.)

         it’s not his!
         (Ini bukanlah kepunyaannya.)

Reflexive Pronoun
KEY: Reflexive pronoun is a kind of pronoun which places itself as a reflexive or
an adjective and modifies a subject.

For Examples;

         I myself invite him to our sister’s wedding-party.
         ( Saya sendiri yang mengundangnya ke pesta pernikahan saudara pr

         He sees himself in the mirror.
         ( Dia melihat dirinya (sendiri) di cermin.)

      Relexive pronoun can be followed by preposition “/by/”, which has the
same meaning as “ alone “ (Sendirian), like;

         The old woman lives in the country by herself.
         The old woman lives in the country alone.
         ( Perempuan tua itu hidup di dusun sendirian.)

          /-self/ is different of /-selves/. /-self/ is in singular form and /-selves/ is in
plural. In this case, you or your positions itself both in singular and plural.

For Examples;

         You yourself decide it..             ( You : kamu, anda ----- singular )
         You yourselves decide it.            ( You : kalian ------------- plural )

                                                Unit III :
                                        Question Words
USAGE: Question Word is a group of questions which is used to ask about
many things concerning the time, the place, choice, reason, condition, etc.
The question word is different of Yes/No Question. The question word does not
need a Yes or No answer but, a certain word or description, like;

X: How do you go to school? ( Bagaimana caranya kamu pergi ke sekolah? )
Y: I go to school by bike. ( Saya pergi ke sekolah naik sepeda )
         Or, you can say:        By Bike! (Naik sepeda!)

        “ By bike “ is the answer of the question word “ How “. It asks the way to
do or get something. On the other hand, the question word ‘how’ asks about the

                              Usages                         Meaning
    What          Asks nouns, object sor things     Apa, apa yang...
    Where                 Asks places               Dimana, kemana
    When                   Asks time                Kapan
    Which                Asks choices               Yang mana(kah)
    Why                  Asks reasons               Mengapa
    Who              Asks person (Subject)          Siapa, siapa yang..
    Whom             Asks person (Object)           Siapa, siapa yang..
                   Asks possession of a noun
    Whose                                           Milik siapa(kah)
                           or a thing
                  Asks condition, way/manner,       Bagaimana, bagaimana
                            process                 cara(nya) agar/untuk .......

KEY: Put the question word at the beginning of a sentence!

For Examples;

        What do you want from me?        ( Apa yang kau inginkan dariku? )

        what is that?    ( Apa itu? )

        What makes you come here?
        ( Apa yang membuat kau datang kemari? )
        What do you do? *)   ( Apa pekerjaanmu? )

Note that the sentence ‘ what do you do? ‘ is the same as;

         What are you?
         What is your job?
         What is your occupation?
         What is your profession?

Make differences of the two of these sentences below!

         (a) what do you do?
         (b) What are you doing? ( Look at Unit 5: Present Continuous Tense!)

         Where are you from? Or, where do you come from?
         ( Darimana mana kamu berasal / darimana asalmu? )

         where do you go? Or, where do you want to go? Or, where are you
         ( Mau kemana? / mau pergi kemana?)

         where is she? ( Dimana dia? )

         when does he arrive?   ( Kapan dia tiba? )

         when is the film on?   ( Kapan filmnya dimulai / ditayangkan? )

         which one is yours?    ( Yang manakah kepunyaanmu? )

         which do you like, tea or coffee?
         ( Yang mana yang kau suka, teh atau kopi? )

         Why does she go home?      ( Mengapa dia pulang? )

         Who tells you the news? ( Siapa yang memberitahumu berita itu? )

         Who sends the letter? ( Siapa yang mengirimkan surat itu? )

         Who are you? ( Siapa kamu? )

         whom do you love?    ( Siapa yang kau cintai? )
         Whom do you contact? ( Siapa yang kau hubungi? )

         Whose book is this?    ( Kepunyaan siapakah buku ini? )

        How do you go to Semarang?
        ( Bagaimana (caranya) kau pergi ke semarang? )

        How are you? )*          ( Bagaimana khabarmu? / apa khabar? )

                                                  Note: the question ‘how are
                                                  you?‘ has the same meaning

                                                  How’s your life?
                                                  How are you doing?
                                                  How’s everything?
                                                  How are you getting on?

       When the question word is used, the auxilliary (e.g. do or does) or the
be-present (i.e. is, am or are) is often placed before the subject, like;

        Step-1 : He is a student.         ( Dia seorang pelajar )
        Step-2 : Is he a student?         ( Apakah dia seorang pelajar? )
        Step-3 : What is he?              ( Apa pekerjaannya? )

        From the steps above, we can see the position of Be-present ‘is’ in the
sentence. In positive, /is/ is placed before the predicate /a student/ or after the
subject /he/. In step-2, /is/ precedes the subject /he/. And, in step-3 ( when the
question word /what/ is used, be /is/ is positioned after the question word /what/.
It means that the formation of /is/ + /he/ as a characteristic of a yes/no question
is not omitted or changed!.

        What it is?                           .......... NOT A SENTENCE !

Look and study this below!

      Step-1 : He informs you the news.
             ( Dia menginformasikan padamu berita itu.)
      Step-2 : Does he inform you the news ?
             ( Apakah dia menginformasikan padamu berita itu? )
      Step-3 : What does he inform to you ?
             ( Apa yang dia informasikan padamu? )

Study this below carefully!

                     What time                    Jam berapa(kah)
                     At what time             Pada jam berapa(kah)
                     In what way                    Dalam hal apa
                     What else                    Apa lagi (yang...)
          WHAT       What kind of         ...........jenis apa (yang ......)
                     What sort of         ...........jenis apa (yang ......)
                     What type of          ...........tipe apa (yang ......)
                     What if                      Bagaimana kalau
                     What about                  Bagaimana dengan
                     How old                          Berapa usia
                     How good                  Seberapa baik/jauh *)
                     How well                  Seberapa baik/jauh *)
                     How high                     (Se)berapa tinggi
                     How deep                     (se)berapa dalam
                     How quickly                (se)berapa cepatkah
                     How tall                     (Se)berapa tinggi
                     How far                       (se)berapa jauh
                     How long                         Berapa lama
                     How slowly                 (se)berapa pelankah
                     How beautiful        (se)berapa cantik/indahkah
                     How wide                   (Se)berapa lebarkah
                     How heavy                  (se)berapa beratkah
           HOW       How fast                   (se)berapa cepatkah
                     How hard           (se)berapa sukar/keras/sulitkah
                     How light                 (se)berapa ringankah
                     How strong                  (se)berapa kuatkah
                                           (se)berapa banyak/berapa
                     How much            harga/berapa ongkos/berapa
                     How many                    (se)Berapa banyak
                     How often                         Berapa kali
                     How many times     Berapa kali/seberapa seringkah
                     How expensive             (se)berapa mahalkah
                     How large                   (se)berapa luaskah
                     How about                    Bagaimana kalau
                     How soon           (se)berapa segerakah/cepatkah
The phrase of the question word can be formed from this rule below;

        What + noun/noun phrase (e.g. what + time ..., etc)

        How + adjective/adverb of manner (e.g. how + far ...., etc)

It is possible to use any noun, like;

        What + book               what book ( Buku apa )
        What + car                what car ( Mobil apa )

Formation :     What book + do you need ?
                What car + do you want to buy ?
             what book do you need ? ( Buku apa yang kau butuhkah?)
             what car do you want to buy ? ( Mobil apa yang ingin kau beli? )

look and study this below!

        How far is it?
        How far is the city from here?
        How much does it cost?
        How much is it?
        How much will it cost?
        How much do you need it?
        How many students are there?
        How many students are in the classroom?

                                          Note: How many is used to ask
                                          Countable noun; how much is used to
                                          ask UNCountable noun.

        How about going to a movie tonight? ( form: What about + Verb-ing )
        what about me? ( Bagaimana dengan saya? )
        what time do you usually get up in the morning?
        How slowly does she drive the limousine?
        How many times does she drop in your house?
        How often do they win in each competition?
        How soon does he come?
        How long will you stay in Lampung?
        How high is the building?
        How tall is budi?
        How old are you?        ( Synonym : ‘What is your age?’ ).----

                                              Unit IV :
                                      Adverb of Place
USAGE: Adverb of Place is one of the adverbs in English which modifies a
place. It cab be formed between preposition and a name of a place.

        Preposition + name of a place = adverb of place

The prepositions which are frequently used are; *)

                                    Structural-Meaning for
                                         adverb of place
                       In          Di, (di)dalam,
                       On          Di, diatas *)
                       At          Di
                       By          (di)dekat
                    Beside         Disamping, disebelah
                     Under         Dibawah *)
                    Behind         Dibelakang
                    Next to        Disamping
                      Near         (di)dekat
                  In front of      Didepan/dimuka
                    Above          Diatas *)
                     below         Dibawah *)
                   Between         (di)antara
                  In back of       Dibelakang
                     From          dari
                       Of          dari
                       To          Ke
                      Into         Ke (dalam)
                  Toward to        (Menuju) ke
                   Inside of       (di/ke)dalam
                  Outside of       (di/ke)dalam
                     Along         (di)sepanjang
                     Over          Diatas, disebelah
                   Through         Melalui, lewat
                    Among          (di)antara, .............., etc./

Note: *) preposition, basically, does not have a certain meaning. It is called “a
structural-meaning word “. To make it understandable, in this adverb of place

section, the ‘meaning’ of the adverb, is interpreted like in the table above!
For Examples;

        Siti aminah sits beside the door. ( Siti aminah duduk disamping
         beside = preposition; the door = a noun as a certain place.

        Eva needs to take a nap in the bedroom.
        The man sees a thing through the window.
        Yaya stands between ali and tommy.
        Miss ada goes to mecca today.
        The thief jumps into the river.
        He runs fast along the beach.
        The cat is under the chair.
        The mouse hides on the cupboard.
        The old man goes outside of the hut under the rain.
        The pretty girl sits beside me.
                                                 ( ‘me’ modifies the one’s body.
                                                 And body is either as a noun
                                                 or as a certain place. )
        Herman sleeps only in a diamond hotel.
        Delta English Course is in Karang Sanggrahan.
        Daus lives in depok.
        The bank is in front of the post office building.

        Beside the formation above, there are two kinds of adverb of place
which, basically, do not need the formation, they are;

        Here (Disini)
        There (Disana)
        Overhere (disebelah sini)
        Overthere (disebalah sana)
        Right here (disini) *)
        Right there (disana) *)

Note: *) the word ‘right’ is to emphasize or to stress the adverb ‘here’ or ‘there’.

For Examples;
       Mr. Saipul stays here all day long.
       The strange man creeps right here!


USAGE: To say that something exists somewhere (it usually concerns with a
certain place – adverb of place), the expression of ‘there is’ or ‘there are’ can be

        ‘There is’ is used to indicate a singular noun and ‘there are’ is for plural

For Examples;

        There is a cat under the table.
        There is a beautiful painting in the room.

        The word ‘a’ like in the example above is called ‘article’. This article is
used for singular noun. Please see the articles section for further explanation!.

        There are some flower in the garden.
        There are many people in the hall.
        There are several baskets inside the box.
        There are two girls in the car.


USAGE: There are three kinds of articles in English, They are, /a/, /an/ and
/the/. They are recommended for noun only.
KEY-1: The articles /a/ and /an/ are used to indicate a thing/noun only in
singular form but /the/ is both for plural and singular form.

For Examples;

        There is a man in the bus.
        I need a broom to sweep the floor.
        The old woman lives near a river.
        The child likes to eat an apple.
        He pays three hundred thousands pounds for an orange.
        The ladies enter the special room.
        My uncle takes out the ticket from his wallet.
        The robber shoots the guards twice.
        A man is a couple of a woman.

KEY-2: The article /a/ and /an/ is used to indicate unknown things or person
(noun). It is also called ‘ indefinite article ‘. the article /the/ is used to indicate

known things or person (noun) and it is often named ‘ definite article ‘.
         The indefinite articles means that the thing or the person is not known
before by the speaker or he/she just wants to say it in general description. But
the definite is known.

For Examples;

        I see a strange place in my dream.
        The student wants to study at a university in Jakarta someday.

        ‘a strange place’ means that the ‘place’ is not known before. It includes
the questions about where it is, and what kind of place that is. It is the same as
‘a university’. In this case, the speaker does not know before about the name of
the university even the exact place in Jakarta, or he/she just wants to say it in
general description that the listener does not know it specifically.
        That will be different when the speaker uses the article /the/.

For Examples;

        I see the strange place in my dream.
        The students wants to study at the university in Jakarta.

         When the article /the/ is used in the sentences, the meaning will be
different. ‘the strange place’ means that the speaker has known it before and, at
least, he/she ever says or tells about it before to the listener.

KEY-3: Use the article /a/ when the noun has a front letter sounds consonant.
And do use article /an/ when the noun has a front letter sounds vowel.

For Examples;

        The bus takes an hour to get to Semarang.
        The boy steals a mango from the basket.
        He is a student of a university of Indonesia.
        The farmer dreams an ox to help him in the farm.
        My sister rides a horse excellently.
        His mother finds a book in the drawer.

        When the article /the/ is used and meets a letter of a noun sounds
vowel, the article /the/ will be pronounced “ / di / “, and will be pronounced “ /de/
“ when the article /the/ meets a letter of a noun sounds consonant.
For Examples; The university / de-‘yuniver(r)siti /;         the orange / di -oreinj/

                             Unit V :
            Present Continuous Tense
USAGE: Present Continuous Tense is used to express something being done
or still going on at this moment or right now.
KEY: Use the combination of “Be-Present and the –ing form verb” (present
participle form)!

     Study this following formation!

                                                          OBJECT/ ADVERB/

For Examples;

        I am reading a novel
        She is watching TV now
        They are helping their parents in the farm
        Many people are gathering in the hall
        Listriani and Ririn are playing hide-and-seek with their friends
        My uncle, Hairoman, is typing a letter for his friends
        Imran is building a house.

         The Present Continuous Tense also talks about something being done
in a process of time or action, likes;

       Mr.Ancah is studying in Indonesia University. He takes English
Department. He is in his bedroom right now. He is learning phonology.

The first sentence tells us the process of action/activity, and the second one
tells us about something being done right now. It means that he doesn’t go to
Campus right now because he is learning phonology in his room.

Study this follows!

                 The sixth-year students of SDN Druju 2 are going to
                 Borrobudur Temple next month.

         The sentence above talks about the plan to go to Borobudur temple in
the future time – next month. It means that they are not going there right now.

        There are some verbs which can be used to express the future action in
the context of present continuous tense. They are; see, visit, go, come, leave,

For Examples;

        I am going to her house tonight.
        My father is leaving for Australia next week.
        They are seeing their mother-in-law tomorrow.

        To make a negative sentence, put “not” behind the Be-present, likes;

        The girl isnot cooking in the kitchen.
        We aren’t having a party tomorrow, right? *)

Notice that the word “Having” is not the same as the “have” like in this below;

        I have a pen.    (saya punya sebuah pena)

That will be wrong when we say; I am having a pen. (Wrong!)

Compare the two of sentences below!

(i) I think the food is very nice and delicious.          (right)
(ii) I am thinking the food is very nice and delicious    (Wrong)

There are many verbs which can be formed into this tense, they are; like,
have/has, blame, doubt, apologize, realize, seem, appear, look like, touch, etc.

        Put the Be-present at the beginning when we would like to make an
Interrogative sentence!

For Examples;

        Are you having a meeting with the Manager?
        Is he talking about his problem?
        Are they singing “I have a dream” on the stage?
        What are you doing?
        How are you doing? (this question is similar to How are you?)

KEY: Nominal form of Present Continuous Tense is the same as the Nominal
sentence in the Simple Present Tense.

                                            Unit VI :
                                  Simple Past Tense
USAGE: The Past simple is used to express something happens in the past
KEY: Use Be-Past (was, were) behind the Subjects!, like;

                   SUBJECT                     BE-PAST
            I             Saya                   Was
          You         Kamu/kalian               Were
           We           Kami/kita               Were
          They           Mereka                 Were
           He           Dia (LK)                 Was
          She           Dia (PR)                 Was
            It     Dia (Selain Orang)            Was

For Examples:

        I was ill yesterday. ( Saya sakit kemarin )
        You were a soldier two years ago. ( Kamu seorang prajurit 2 thn yang
                                                                        lalu )
        We were hungry at that time. ( Kami lapar waktu itu)
        They were late last week. ( Mereka terlambat minggu kemarin )
        She was here ten years ago. ( Dia disini 10 thn yang lalu )
        He was at home yesterday. ( Dia dirumah saja kemarin )
        It was my experience. (itulah pengalaman saya. ).

         Be-present or be-past have some similarities. They just have a
difference about when they are used in a sentence. It concerns with the spesific
         (+)    he was late to attend the meeting yesterday.
         (--)   he was not late to attend the meeting yesterday.
         (?)    was he late to attend the meeting yesterday?

KEY: Use the second Verb or the past form verb (Verb-II) to make a verbal
simple past tense form! The past form verb can be looked at the table of
Irregular and Regular verbs.
For Examples;

     One of the members of English Conversation Club in Delta English Course
                             won      the quiz        yesterday.
                             V.II     Object          Adverb of Time.

                       (Salah satu anggota Klub Percakapan Bahasa Inggris
                       Kursus Bahasa Inggris Delta memenangkan kuis
                       tersebut kemarin).
Positive Sentence
KEY: Use the past form verb!

For Examples;

       He missed the train. (miss, missed)
       They caught in traffic jam yesterday. (catch, caught)
       Delta’s students had a journey two months ago. (have/has, had)
       Alvian did the homework perfectly. (do/does, did)
       My aunt bought a lot of fruits in her basket.

Negative Sentence
KEY: Use the Auxilliary “Did + not” ( or, “didn’t” ) to make a negative form.
When ‘did not’ is used, the past form verb turns into the first or the present
form verb.

For Examples;

       He did not miss the train. (missed, miss)
       They did not catch in traffic jam yesterday. (caught, catch)
       Delta’s students did not have a journey two months ago. (had, have)
       Alvian did not do the homework perfectly. (did, do)
       My aunt did not buy a lot of fruits in her basket. (bought, buy).

Negative Sentence
KEY: Put the Auxilliary “Did” (without ”not”) to make an interrogative form.
When ‘did is used, the past form verb turns into the first or the present form

For Examples;
       Did he miss the train? (missed, miss)
       Did they catch in traffic jam yesterday? (caught, catch)
       Did Delta’s students have a journey two months ago? (had, have)

For Examples;

       What did you say? ( apa yang kau bilang tadi? )
       Where did she go yesterday afternoon? ( kemana dia pergi kemarin
                                                                sore? )
       When did you come? ( kapan dia datang? )
       How did you make it? ( bagaimana cara kau membuatnya? )
       Who was absent yesterday? ( siapa yang tidak hadir kemarin? )
       Where were you at that time? ( dimana kamu saat itu? )
       What time did you close the shop? ( jam berapa kamu menutup toko
                                                                        itu? )
       What did you do in the party last month? ( apa yang kau lakukan di
                                                        Pesta bulan lalu?)
       When was the girl in? ( kapan gadis itu masuk? )
       Why did they blame us? ( mengapa mereka menyalahkan kita? )
       What made you angry? ( apa yang membuat kau marah? )
       Who spoke to you at the midnight? ( siapa yang berbicara padamu
                                                 Pada tengah malam itu? )
USAGE: adverb of time is one of the adverbs to indicate an exact time when
something done. It usually concerns with the tenses being used.
KEY: There are two kinds of adverb of time in English, they are; stand-alone
adverb and the formation of adverb of time.

Stand-alone adverb of time
For Examples;

        Yesterday, now, today, tomorrow, later, someday, etc.

Formation of adverb of time
        Adverb of time can be formed from the combination of “then name of
time” and a certain word.
        A certain word + name of time = adverb of time
For Examples;
        At noon, at night, at the midnight, in the middle of the night, At 04.30
        a.m., in the morning, in the afternoon, in the night, in the evening, at this
        moment, at present, nowadays, this day, that day, at that time, next
        time, next year, last week, four days ago, on the previous day, in the
        following day, in the future, in the past time, once, one day, once upon
        a time, a long time ago, on the coming Sunday, Monday afternoon,
        Saturday night, by the end of 2009, in 2007, day and night, day by day,
        month to month year after year, …….., etc.

USAGE: adverb of manner is one of the adverbs to indicate the way to (or how
to) do something. It modifies the verb.
KEY: combine between an adjective and the suffix /-ly/ to make an adverb of
manner. Look at this following illustration!

                       ADJECTIVE                   -LY

For Examples;

        Slow + ly              slowly (dengan (cara) perlahan-lahan)
        Careful + ly           carefully (dengan hati-hati/seksama)

        He drives the car slowly ( dia mengemudikan mobil itu dengan pelan)
        My grandma walks carefully (nenekku berjalan dengan hati-hati)

        However, there are some words which have two functions; first, as an
adjective and second, as an adverb of manner. If it is as an adverb of manner, it
doesn’t need to add the suffix /-ly/, they are;

        Well                   (baik/dengan baik)
        Fast                   (cepat/dengan cepat)
        Hard                   (giat/dengan giat, keras/dengan keras)

For Examples;

         My uncle does everthing well. (pamanku mengerjakan segala sesuatu
                                                                   dengan baik)
         I am very well ( saya baik-baik saja)
         He runs fast (dia berlari dengan cepat)
         The boy works hard to survive (anak itu bekerja dengan giat
                                                         untuk bertahan hidup)
         When the word “hard” is combined with the suffix /-ly/, the meaning will
be different, namely; “Hampir Tidak”.

For Example:    Rudi can hardly move. (rudi hampir tidak bisa bergerak)

                                              Unit VII :
                                      Modal Auxilliary
        Auxilliary is similar to helper. It helps word or sentence to make a new
pattern or meaning. Modal auxilliary is a group of auxilliary which modifies verb
about ability/disability, possibility/impossibility, obligation/necessity, planning to
do something, etc.

             Can                  Dapat, bisa, mampu
             May                    Mungkin, boleh
            Must                     Harus, pasti
           Will/shall             Akan, hendak, mau

KEY: Put “BE” behind the modal auxilliary!
For Examples;

        I can be angry (saya bisa marah)
        She must be Irvan suhadi (dia pasti si irvan suhadi)
        They will be here soon (mereka akan kesini segera)
        You may be out (anda boleh keluar)

Put “not”behind the auxilliary to make a negative pattern!,
For Examples;

        I can not be at home soon (saya tidak bisa pulang segera)
        She must not be irwandi (dia pasti bukan irwandi)
        They will not be on time (mereka tidak akan tepat waktu)
        You may not be away from me (kau tidak boleh jauh dariku)

        Can not           = can’t /kant/
        Will not          = won’t /wount/
        Must not          = mustn’t /mazen/
        May not           = mayn’t /mei-yen/        (note: mayn’t is rarely used)

        To make an interrogative pattern, place the auxilliary at the beginning of
the sentence!
              Will you be mine someday?
              (maukah kau menjadi milikku suatu hari nanti?)

KEY: Put The Bare Infinitive behind the modal auxilliary! ( leave the “be”!)

                    MODAL AUXILLIARY                 VERB

For Examples;

        Positive pattern :        you can read the text.
        Negative pattern :        you can’t read the text.
        Interrogative pattern :   can you read the text?

The Synonym of modal auxilliary

        Can     =        be + able to *)
        Must    =        have to/ has to *)
        Will    =        be + going to *)
        May     =        be + possible/probable *)

                         *) Note: “be” in this case is either in present form or in
                         past form. Use ‘have to’ when the subject is /I/, /You/,
                         /We/, or /They/, and use ‘has to’ when the subject is
                         /he/, /she/, or /it/).

For Examples;

        It is possible for us to do that
        (ini mungkin saja bagi kita mengerjakannya)

        they are going to have a try again.
        (mereka akan mencoba lagi)

        I am able to finish the job perfectly.
        (saya bisa menyelesaikan pekerjaan itu dengan sempurna)

        I have to tell you something.
        (saya harus memberitahumu sesuatu)

Study this following examples!

        He may be late.                   Can you help me?
        What can I do for you?            Where must I go?
        How can I get there?              How can I get to the post office near

       When will you arrive?             She won’t believe whatever I said.
       May I call you back later?        Can I leave a message?
       Do I have to trust you?           You mustn’t touch the wall!

Modal Auxilliary in Past Form

           PRESENT FORM                    PAST FORM
        Can                         Could
        May                         Might
        Must                        Had to
        Will                        Would
        Shall                       Should
        Is/am/are able to           Was/were able to
        Is/am/are going to          Was/were going to
        Is/am/are possible to       Was/were possible to
        Have to                     Had to
        Has to                      Had to

KEY: Not all the past form above indicate the past time form, such as, could,
would, should, had to and might.

For Examples;

       Could you do me a favor?
       (dapatkah kamu membantuku?)(“could” is to make polite request.)

       would you pick me up?
       (maukah kau menjemputku?)         (“would” is to make polite request.)

       she might be right.
       (dia mungkin memang benar!) (“might” is to show big possibility)

       I had to see him.
       (saya terpaksa menemuinya)        (“had to” is to show a necessity)


                       I will have to see him.
                       (saya terpaksa menemuinya)

                                 Unit VIII :
                     Command & Prohibition
USAGE: Command is an expression to ask or to get something done by other
people. Command has two patterns, they are Verbal Command and Nominal

KEY: place a bare infinitive at the beginning of the sentence!

                            BARE INFINITIVE
For Examples;

        Stand up!                       (berdiri!/ berdirilah!)
        Sit down!                       (duduk!/ duduklah!)
        Come in!                        (masuk!/ masuklah!)
        Come on in!                     (ayo masuk!/ ayo masuklah!)
        Talk to me!                     (bicaralah padaku!)
        Tell me!                        (beritahu saya!)
        Go with me!                     (pergilah bersama/denganku!)
        Love me!                        (cintai!/ cintailah aku!)
        Help me!                        (tolong/bantu-lah aku!)
        Stay with me!                   (tinggallah bersamaku!)
        Get out!                        (keluar!)
        Go to school!                   (pergilah ke sekolah!)
        Go to sleep!                    (tidurlah!)
        Buy me ‘sate’!                  (belikan saya ‘sate’!)
        Come in time!                   (datanglah tepat waktu!)
        Keep out!                       (menjauh dari sini!)

        To make the command more polite, use “please” at the beginning or at
the end of the sentence!

For Examples;

        Please speak slowly!            (tolong bicaralah yang pelan!)
        Speak slowly, please!           (tolong bicaralah yang pelan!)
        Please sit down!                (silahkan duduk!)
        Sit down, please!               (silahkan duduk!)
        Please save me!                 (aku mohon… selamatkanlah aku!)

KEY: place “Be” at the beginning of the sentence! And use a non-verb behind

                          BE             NON-VERB

For Examples;

        Be careful!                       (ber-hati-hatilah!/ hati-hati!)
        Be deligent!                      (rajin-rajinlah!)
        Be silent!                        (tenanglah!/ diamlah!)
        Be quiet!                         (tenanglah!/ diamlah!)
        Be a good student!                (jadilah siswa yang baik!)
        Be at home soon!                  (beradalah        dirumah/        pulanglah
        Be on time!                       (tepat waktulah!)
        Be aware of dog!                  (awas anjing!)

Study this follows!

        Please be honest to me!           (tolong-jujurlah padaku!)
        Be honest to me, please!          (tolong-jujurlah padaku!)

USAGE: Prohibition is an expression to warn other people not to do something.
Or to forbide. Like in Command expression, Prohibition also has two patterns,
they are Verbal Prohibition and Nominal Prohibition.

KEY: place “Don’t” or “Do not” before a Bare Infinitive!

                      DON’T         BARE INFINITIVE

For Examples;

        Don’t do it!                      (jangan lakukan itu!)
        Don’t lie to me!                  (jangan bohong padaku!)
        Don’t enter the room!             (jangan masuk ke ruangan itu!)
        Do not follow me!                 (jangan ikuti saya!)
        Don’t steal!                      (janganlah mencuri!)
        Don’t go away from me!            (jangan pergi dariku!)
        Don’t leave me alone!             (jangan tinggalkan aku sendiri!)
        Don’t forget!                     (jangan lupa!)

        Don’t move!                      (jangan bergerak!)
        Don’t disturb him!               (jangan ganggu dia!)
        Don’t play truant!               (jangan membolos!)
        Don’t let me down!               (jangan kecewakan aku!)
        Don’t let him go!                (jangan lepaskan dia!)
        Don’t let her break your love!   (jangan biarkan dia putuskan cintamu!
        Don’t make me angry!             (jangan membuatku marah!)
        Don’t make me do it!             (jangan paksa aku melakukannya!)
        Don’t shout!                     (jangan teriak!)
        Don’t read loudly                (jangan baca dengan keras!)
        Don’t trust him!                 (jangan mempercayainya!)
        Don’t blame her!                 (jangan salahkan dia!)

         To make a polite prohibition, use “please” at the beginning or at the end
of the sentence!

        Please don’t cry!                (janganlah menangis!)
        Don’t cry, please!               (janganlah menangis!)
        Please don’t shoot the bird!     (tolong jangan tembak burung itu!)
        Don’t shoot the bird, Please!    (tolong jangan tembak burung itu!)

KEY: Place “Don’t Be or “Do Not Be” before a non-verb!

              DON’T             BE             NON-VERB

For Examples;
       Don’t be lazy!                    (jangan malas!)
       Don’t be crazy!                   (jangan konyol!)
       Don’t be stupid!                  (jangan bodoh!)
       Don’t be careless!                (jangan ceroboh!)
       Don’t be stingy!                  (janganlah pelit!)
       Don’t be late!                    (jangan terlambat!)
       Don’t be confused!                (jangan bingung!)
       Don’t be angry at me!             (jangan marah padaku!)

       When we would like to emphasize something forbidden to do, we can
change the main element of prohibition structure by using “Never”.

For Examples;
       Don’t touch her!          or,     Don’t ever touch her!    or,
       Never touch her!

Beside the pattern above, we can also use this follows pattern!

                NO                  ING FORM VERB

For Examples;

        No smoking!               (dilarang merokok!)
        No parking!               (dilarang parkir!)

       This follows is included both prohibition and command although there is
no an exact pattern in it we can find because it warns everybody about
something important to or not to do something when they read it, like;

        Danger!                            (Bahaya!)

Study this following sentences and translate it into Indonesian language!

        Speak to me!
        Look at me!
        Think it first!
        Put it down!
        Don’t waste your time and money!
        Never see my daughter!
        Try to speak English!
        Keep your promise!
        Don’t forget to come here immediately!
        Be mine, shinta!
        Don’t be naughty!
        Never be right here anymore!
        Close your eyes!
        Keep writing!
        Stop smoking!
        Start to write down!
        Keep your words!
        Keep the baby!
        Send this letter to the post office, please!
        Turn off the light!
        Pray dawn on time!

                                                  Unit IX :
                                         (Polite) Request
USAGE: Polite Request is used to express invitation or request to do something
politely. This uses some certain expressions, like;

        Will you + Bare Infinitive …….?             (maukah kamu ……………?)
        Would you + Bare Infinitive …?              (maukah kamu ……………?)
        Would you like + To Infinitive …….?         (maukah kamu ……………?)
        Could you + Bare Infinitive …?              (dapatkah/maukah kamu…?)
        Would you mind + -Ing Form Verb….?          (Sudikah kamu ……………?)
                                                    (Berkeberatankah kamu …?)

For Examples;

        Will you come to my house tomorrow morning?
        (maukah kau datang ke rumahku besok pagi?)

        Would you mind sending this letter for her?
        (berkeberatankah kamu mengirimkan surat ini untuknya?)

        Would you like to boil water for me?
        (maukah kamu merebus air untukku?)

        Would you come along with us?
        (maukah kamu ikut serta/bergabung dengan kami?)

        Could you help me?
        (maukah/dapatkah kamu membantuku?)

It will be better when we put “please” like this follows!

        Will you please celeberate your birthday in my house?
        (maukah kamu merayakan hari Ultahmu di rumahku?)

        Would you like to close the window, please?
        (maukah kamu menutup jendela itu?)

        would you mind carrying this suitcase for me, please?
        (sudikah kamu membawakan koper ini untukku?)

                               Unit X :
            Expressing “There is/are”
USAGE: To express something exists somewhere, we can use “There is” or
“There are”. However, they have different rules.

KEY: Use “there is” when the noun is in Singular form.

For Examples;

        There is a book on the shelf
        (ada sebuah buku diatas rak buku)

        There is one man inside
        (ada satu orang pria didalam)

        There is an egg in the egg-basket.
        (ada sebutir telur di keranjang telur)

KEY: Use “there are” when the noun is in Plural form.

For Examples;

        There are three books on the shelf
        (ada tigabuah buku diatas rak buku)

        There are a hundred men inside
        (ada seratus orang pria didalam)

        There are 345 eggs in the egg-basket.
        (ada 345 telur di keranjang telur)

         Besides, we can use the Adverb of Quantity to indicate that the noun is
in plural form, like;

         some/any, a lot of, much, a plenty of, several, many, a few, a little, lots
of, two cups of, ten glasses of, three pairs of, etc.

For Examples:

        There are some flowers in the garden
        (ada banyak bunga di kebun)

        There are many people in the theatre.
        (ada banyak orang di bioskop)

        There are a few of dentists in the hospital
        (ada banyak dokter gigi di rumah sakit)

        There is a little of sugar in the cup
        (ada banyak gula di cangkir itu)

        There is a plenty of money in the purse
        (ada banyak uang di dompet itu)

        There are several gifts in the bag
        (ada beberapa hadiah/kado di tas itu)

        There are three pairs of shoes in the living room
        (ada 3 pasang sepatu di ruang tamu)

        There is a lot of coins inside his jacket
        (ada banyak koin didalam jaketnya)

        There are lots of members registered in the lobby
        (ada banyak anggotayang terdaftar di ruang lobby itu)

        There is little hair on his head
        (ada sedikit rambut di kepalanya)

        There is much orange-juice in my glass
        (ada banyak jus orange di gelasku)

To make a negative pattern, insert “NOT” before the Be “is” or “are”!, like;

        There is not anyone here
        (tidak ada siapapun disini)

        There aren’t some cookies in the box
        (tidak ada kue di kotak itu)

                                    Unit XI :
                      Past Continuous Tense
USAGE: The Past Continuous Tense is used to express something being done
in a process of action or still going on in the past time.

                                  ING FORM          OBJECT/ADVERB/
                                    VERB             COMPLEMENT

For Examples;

         (+) I was writing a letter yesterday
         (--) I wasn’t writing a letter yesterday
         (?) were you writing a letter yesterday?

        The Past Continuous Tense usually concerns with the past simple. It
uses the conjunction “WHEN” or “WHILE”. Study this follows!

         When I came in, the man was sweeping the floor.
or,      While the man was sleeping the floor, I came in.
or,      I came in while the man was sweeping the floor.
or,      The man was sweeping the floor when I came in.

Notice that “When” is used before the simple past tense and “While” is used
before the Past Continuous tense.
“I came in” is in the Simple Past Tense
“The man was sleeping the floor” is in the Past Continuous Tense.

Example in Dialog;

         A:      Ali said to me that he went to your house yesterday.
                          (Ali bilang padaku bahwa dia pergi ke rumahmu
                 What were you doing at that time?
                                          (Apa yang sedang kau kerjakan saat
                 and, Where were you?
                                          (dan, dimana kamu?)
         B:      I was watching TV in my neighbour’s house when he came.
                 (saya sedang nonton TV di rumah tetanggaku pada saat dia

                                               Unit XII :
                                          Noun Phrases
KEY: Noun phrase is a phrase which the noun becomes a head word. There
are, basically, two kinds of noun phrase formation, they are;

              ADJECTIVE          NOUN

For Examples;
       A pretty girl           ( seorang gadis yang cantik)
       A beautiful painting    ( sebuah lukisan yang indah)
       A naughty boy           (seorang anak yang nakal)
       A smart solution        (sebuah solusi yang jitu/pintar)
       A crazy man             (seorang láki-laki gila)
       A large house           (sebuah rµmah yang besar mewah)
       A bad result            (sebuah hasil yang buruk)
       A good Presentation     (sebuah presentasi yang baik)

               NOUN            NOUN

       An En§lish Teacher      (seorang guru bahasa inggris)
       A biology book          (sebuah buku biologi)
       An Indonesian lawyer    (seoranç pengacara indonesia)
       Á walking stick         (sebuah tongkat (yang digunakan untuk
       My uncle’s bag          (tas Pamanku)

       However, Noun phrase does not stand alone. It is one of the element of
a sentence building. It positions as a Subject or an Object or a Complement.
Therefore, it requires a verb to bµild a good sentence. Remember that a phrase
is NOT a sentence!

For Examples;
       Phrase           : a developing country
       Sentence         : Indonesia is a developing country.

”ake notice that the phrase “a developinç country” is positionned as a
       Study this follows!
       Phrase           : a better job
       Sentence         : I need a better job to finance my family’s need.

Note that he phrase “a better job” is positionned as an Object.

        Phrase            : a good-looking woman
        Sentence          : A good-looking woman beautifies herself in the

Note that the phrase “a good-looking woman” is positionned as a Subject.

        Phrase            : a mathematic test
        Sentence          : This is a mathematic test.

Note that the phrase “a mathematic test” is positionned as a Complement.

Note: This following table is a group of conjunction that is commonly used.

       CONJUNCTION                 MEANING             COMBINATION
   And                         Dan                 Phrase/ sentence
   But                         Tetapi/ kecuali     Phrase/ sentence
   Or                          Atau                Phrase/ sentence
   So                          Jadi/ maka          Sentence
   (and) Then                  Lalu/ terus ….      sentence
   Besides/ beside that        Disamping itu       sentence
   After                       Setelah             Phrase/ sentence
   After that                  Setelah itu         sentence
   Before                      Sebelum             Phrase/ sentence
   When/ while                 Ketika/ saat ….     sentence
   If                          Jika/ kalau/ bila   sentence
   Because                     Karena              sentence
   Because of                  Karena              Phrase
   In order that                Agar               sentence
   In order to                 Agar                Phrase
   Therefore                   Oleh karena itu     sentence
   Otherwise                   Jika tidak          sentence
   Further(more)               Lebih jauh (lagi)   sentence
   On the other hand           Dengan kata lain    sentence
   However                     tetapi              sentence

                                            Unit XIII :

       1    One            50      Fifty
       2    Two            60      Sixty
       3    Three          70      Seventy
       4    Four           80      Eighty
       5    Five           90      Ninety
       6    Six            95      Ninety-five
       7    Seven          99      Ninety-nine
       8    Eight          100     A/one Hundred
       9    Nine           101     A hundred-one
       10   Ten            102     A hundred-two
       11   Eleven         103     A hundred-three
       12   Twelve         107     A hundred-seven
       13   Thirteen       110     A hundred-ten
       14   Fourteen       111     A hundred-eleven
       15   Fifteen        112     A hundred-twelve
       16   Sixteen        115     A hundred-fifteen
       17   Seventeen      120     A hundred-twenty
       18   Eighteen       121     A hundred-twenty-one
       19   Nineteen       123     A hundred-twenty-three
       20   Twenty         128     A hundred-twenty-eight
       21   Twenty-one     130     A hundred-thirty
       22   Twenty-two     140     A hundred-forty
       23   Twenty-three   150     A hundred-fifty
       28   Twenty-eight   175     A hundred-seventy-five
       30   Thirty         200     Two hundred
       31   Thirty-one     250     Two hundred-fifty
       35   Thirty-five    300     Three hundred
       40   forty          500     Five hundred

                             750   Seven hundred-fifty
                             990   Nine hundred-ninety
                           1.000   A/one thousand
                           1.100   A thousand-one hundred
                           1.750   A thousand seven-hundred

                                       (and) fifty
                                       Two thousand (and) five-
                             4.000     Four thousand
                                       Nine thousand five hundred
                                       (and) sixty
                                       Eight thousand five hundred
                                       (and) sixteen
                            10.000     Ten thousand
                            15.000     Fifteen thousand
                                       Seventeen thousand (and) five
                                       Fifty-six thousand four hundred
                                       (and) fifteen
                                       Sixty-nine thousand seven
                                       hundred (and) five
                             100rb     A/one hundred thousand
                             500rb     Five hundred thousand
                             900rb     Nine hundred thousand
                             1 juta    A/one million
                                       A million and five hundred
                           1,5 juta
                            10 juta    Ten million
                          100 juta     A/one hundred million
                          1 milyar     A/one billion
                          1 triliyun   A/one trillion
                       1 kuadriliun    A/one quadrillion


     1       First           Pertama/kesatu
     2       Second          Kedua
     3       Third           Ketiga
     4       Forth           Keempat
     5       Fifth           Kelima
     6       Sixth           Keenam
     7       Seventh         Ketujuh
     8       Eighth          Kedelapan
     9th     ninth           kesembilan
     10      Tenth           kesepuluh

       11           eleventh         Kesebelas
       12           Twelveth         Keduabelas
       13           Thirteenth       Ketigabelas
       14           Fourteenth       Keempatbelas
       15           Fifteenth        Kelimabelas
       16           Sixteenth        Keenambelas
       17           Seventeenth      Ketujuhbelas
       18           Eighteenth       Kedelapanbelas
       19           Nineteenth       Kesembilanbelas
       20           Twentieth        Keduapuluh
       21           Twenty-first     Keduapuluhsatu
       22           Twenty-second    Keduapuluhdua
       23           Twenty-third     Keduapuluhtiga
       24th         Twenty-forth     Keduapuluhempat
       25           Twenty-fifth     Keduapuluhlima
       26           Twenty-sixth     Keduapuluhenam
       30           Thirtieth        Ketigapuluh
       40           Fourtieth        Keempatpuluh
       80           Eightieth        Kedelapanpuluh
       100          A/one hundredth  Keseratus
       1000         A/one thousandth keseribu

Do this following exercises!

                         468    = ………………………………………………….
                       2.809    = ………………………………………………….
                      45.726    = ………………………………………………….
                     579.968    = ………………………………………………….
                    7.465.801   = ………………………………………………….
         754.049.888.354        = ………………………………………………….

Simple Math Operation

+ : plus, and            x : times      / : devided   -- : minus
= : is, becomes, equals, makes

For Examples;              3 x 6 = 18   (Three Times Six Equals Eighteen)

                                  Unit XIV :
                     Present Perfect Tense
USAGE: Present Perfect Tense is used to express something done in the past
time and finished or completely done in the present.
KEY: This tense uses the Auxilliary “Have” or “Has” and the third verb. Look at
the Regular and Irregular verb to learn about the Third Verb in this book!

     Study this following formation!


        Notice that we use the auxilliary “Have” when the subject is /I/, You/,
/We/, or /They/. And the auxilliary “Has” when the subject is /He/, /She/, or /It/.
The auxilliary (Have or has) has meaning “ telah/sudah” in Indonesian

        I have told him the announcement.
        (saya sudah memberitahunya pengumuman itu)

        You have done something important for all of us.
        (kau telah melakukan sesuatu yang penting bagi kita semua)

        We have bought (her) the souvenir.
        (kami sudah membeli (-kannya) cinderamata itu)

        They have sung the songs together.
        (mereka telah menyanyikan lagu-lagu itu bersama-sama)

        She has fallen in love with that handsome man.
        (dia telah jatuh cinta pada pria tampan itu)

        He has had breakfast with me.
        (dia sudah sarapan pagi bersamaku)

        It has flown in the high sky. *)
        (dia telah terbang di langit yang tinggi)

                         Note: *) “It” means, such as, a bird, imagination, etc.

        In the Negative Sentence of Present Perfect Tense, place “Not” behind
the auxilliary, like;

       Have + Not      or,     Haven’t         (Belum)
       Has + Not       or,     Hasn’t          (Belum)

       I haven’t met him before
       She hasn’t admitted his guilty
       You haven’t told us the truth (tell the truth = say/tell honestly)
       He hasn’t given me the change (Change = uang kembalian)
       They haven’t realized the facts
       We haven’t invited them here
       It hasn’t come yet.             (‘yet’ is commonly used to emphasize
                               the negative & interrogative sentences)

       To ask someone or other people whether he/she has already done
something, place the auxilliary at the beginning of a sentence.

       Have you picked her up ?
       (apakah kau sudah menjemputnya?)

       Has she completed the enrollment form?
       (sudahkah dia melengkapi formulir pendaftarannya?)

       Has he got up yet?
       (apakah dia sudah bangun?)

       Has he prepared everything for our journey?
       (sudahkkah dia mempersiapkan sgl sesuatunya untuk perjalanan kita)

       Have you finished the assignments?
       (sudahkah klau menyelesaikan tugas-tugas itu?)

       Have you spent the night in the five-star hotel?
       (Pernahkah *) kamu menginap di hotel berbintang lima?)

                               Note: *) In some cases, the ‘have’ or ‘has’ in
                               “yes/no” question like above, can be translated

         To answer the interrogative sentence, we can use the short or the long
one, like;

        Yes, he has                     (ya sudah)
        yes, I have                     (ya sudah)
        No, he hasn’t                   (belum)
        No, I haven’t                   (belum)
        Yes, I have gone to Bali        (ya, saya pernah ke bali)
        No, never!                      (tidak, tidak pernah!)
        Well, I have                    (mmm… udah)
        yes!, but only once!            (ya! Tapi baru sekali)
        Of course I have                (tentu saja sudah)
        Absolutely yes!                 (pasti!)
        Not yet!                        (belum!)
        Yes, I have. Why?               (ya sudah!. Kenapa?)
        I’m not sure I have done it!    (saya tidak yakin kalau saya sudah
        I’m afraid I’ve forgot!         (wah rasanya, saya sudah lupa!)
        Sure! He’s read it twice!       (tentu! Dia sudah membacanya dua

KEY: Like in the previous tenses we have already discussed, all of the tenses
have a nominal form which use “be” as the structural-meaning verb. The “be” of
Present Perfect tense, in this case, is “Been”.

        My uncle, Billy, has been to Australia
        (paman saya Billy pernah ke Australi)

        They have just been in
        (mereka baru saja masuk)

        I have been a soldier for three years
        (saya sudah menjadi seorang prajurit selama 3 tahun)

        We have been absent for a week recently
        (kita pernah alpa selama seminggu akhir-akhir ini)

        She has never been late before
        (dia belum pernah terlambat sebelumnya)

        To make a Negative, place “not” behind the auxilliary, and to make an
interrogative, place the auxilliary at the beginning of the sentence!

For Examples;

        I haven’t been there lately
        (saya belum kesana belakangan ini)

        Have you ever been to America?
        (pernahkah kamu ke Amerika?)

study this follows!

        How have you been. dasy?
        (bagaimana khabarmu, dasy?)

        It’s been a long time!, Where have you been?
        (wah, sudah lama sekali!, darimana saja?)

        I’ve been in love with her
        (saya sudah jatuh cinta padanya)

        There are some adverbs of frequency that are commonly used in the
present perfect tense, like;

        Already           : sudah/telah (this is used to emphasize)
        Not yet           : belum
        Yet               : sudah/belum (to emphasize)
        Just              : baru saja
        Ever              : pernah (to emphasize)
        Never             : Tidak pernah
        Almost            : hampir
        Usually           : biasanya
        Always            : selalu, senantiasa
        Occasionally      : sekali-sekali
        Sometimes         : kadang-kadang
        Before            : sebelumnya

        Lately            : akhir-akhir ini, belakangan ini
        Recently          : akhir-akhir ini, belakangan ini
        So far            : sejauh ini, hingga kini
        In the last few   : selama beberapa ……… terakhir ini
        Often             : sering, seringkali

        The present perfect also has modifiers of time, like; For : selama

                                    Unit XV :
                      Degrees of Comparison
USAGE: When we would like to compare between two things or more whether it
is about condition or state or manner.
KEY: Because the degrees of comparison always concerns to the state or
condition or manner, it always uses Adjectives or Adverb of manner in its
         Thereare three kinds of degrees of comparison in English, they are;
         1. Positive Degrees;
         2. Comparative Degrees;
         3. and, Superlative Degrees.

        Ad.1. Positive Degree is used when there are two similar things in state
        condition or manner. This will use the formation;

          As      Adjective/Adverb of manner        As

For Examples;

        As good as                        (…..Sebaik…..)
        As long as *)                     (…..Selama…..)
                                                           *) Note: It can also be translated :
                                                        “ Asalkan ” in Indonesian language.
                                                                                For Examples;
                                             I’ll do everything for you, as long as you stay
                                                                              with me forever.
        As quickly as                     (…..Secepat…..)
        As small as                       (…..Sekecil……)

Study this follows!

        He drives the car as quickly as a bee.
        Lilik is as handsome as Harry potter.
        The car is as old as my bike.
        Please Call me as soon as you get to your hometown!
        You must submit the Proposal as soon as possible.
        Anita is as polite as her younger sister.
        Ariska writes the story as slowly as a snail.

         Note: The adverb of manner is used when the sentence includes the way to dp

       Ad.2. Comparative Degree is used when you would like to compare
       between two or more Different things in state condition or manner.
       KEY-1: Use this following formation when the Adjective contains one
       syllable and some are two.

                Adjective              -er      than

For Examples;

       Small + /-er/        Smaller          (…..lebih kecil daripada…)
       Big + /-er/          Bigger           (…..lebih besar daripada…)
       Large + /-er/        Larger           (…..lebih luas/besar/mewah daripada..

       Fast + /-er/         Faster           (…..lebih cepat daripada….)
       Soft + /-er/         Softer           (…..lebih halus/lembut daripada….)
       Clever + /-er/       Cleverer         (…..lebih pintar/licik daripada…)

       KEY-2: Use this following formation when the Adjective contains Three
       syllables and some are two.

          More              Adjective/Adverb of Manner               than

For Examples;

       More beautiful than                   (…..lebih cantik/indah daripada…..)
       More expensive than                   (…..lebih mahal daripada…..)
       More calmly than                      (…..lebih tenang/diam daripada….)
       More handsome than                    (…..lebih tampan daripada…..)
       More interesting than                 (…..lebih menarik daripada….)
       More attractive than                  (…..lebih menarik daripada….)

       Ad.3. Superlative Degree is used when you would like to express that
       only one thing or person Superior among other things or persons in
       state condition or manner.
       KEY-1: Use this following formation when the Adjective contains one
       syllable and some are two.

          The           Adjective            -est        ( In/of )

For Examples;

       The Young + /-est/             The youngest   (…paling muda…)

         The happy + /-est/      The happiest       (…paling bahagia/senang…)
         The heavy + /-est/      The heaviest       (…paling berat/deras/lebat…)
         The cheap + /-est/      The cheapest       (…paling murah…..)
         The strange + /-est/    The strangest      (…paling aneh/asing…..)
         The light + /-est/      The lightest       (…paling ringan ……)
         The strong + /-est/     The strongest      (…paling kuat……)

         KEY-2: Use this following formation when the Adjective contains Three
         syllables and some are two.

          The     most     Adjective         ( In/of )

For examples;
       The most stupid           (….paling bodoh…..)
       The most beautiful        (….plaing cantik/indah….)
       The most clever           (….paling pintar/licik….)
       The most handsome         (….paling tampan…..)
       The most patient          (….paling sabar …..)
       The most silent           (….paling tenang/diam….)
       The most wonderful        (….paling mengagumkan….)


         This following table contains some adjectives which is included as
Irregular Adjectives when they are used in the pattern of Degrees of

      Adjective         Positive         Comparative           Superlative
         alone           Degree              Degree               Degree
   Good              As good as        Better than           The best
   Well              As well as *)     Better than           The best
   Bad               As bad as         Worse than            The worst
   Mad               As mad as         Worse than            The worst
   Far               As far as         Farther than          The farthest
   Far               As far as         Futher than           The furthest
   Little            As little as      Less than             The least
   Many              As many as        More than             The most
   Much              As much as        More than             The most
   Late              As late as        Latter than           The latest
   Near              As near as        Nearer than           The next
                                                             The oldest /
   Old               As old as         Older than
                                                             The eldest

Note that the expression “ as well as (Juga) “ can be used as a conjunction,
        All of the students follow the trial test as well as I do.
Study these following examples;

       He talks more seriously than before.
       The old man walks the most carefully in the world.
       I need the best fruit in taste and quality in this restaurant!.
       The young man is the worst person around here.
       She sings the most beautifully.
       Nofi reads the story the least rapidly.
       They can’t hear the voice the most clearly.
       I hate the steak as well as the fish.
       He knows that better than I do.
       The students studies English less than my son.

To stress something in state or condition to motivate someone to do or to act,
we can use this following formation;

                   The     Adjective + er      The     Adjective + er

For examples;

       The sooner, the better                 (Lebih cepat lebih baik!)
       The more, the more expensive           (lebih banyak lebih mahal!)
       The more money he spends, the happier he becomes
       (lebih banyak uang yang dia gunakan, lebih senang dia jadinya!)


       Beside the patterns above, we also can use the similarities, like;
1 -Patterns:

       a. The same + Noun + as                     (…..Sama dengan…..)
       b. ……(and)……Be + The same.                  (…..(dan)…. sama)

For examples;

       Your name is the same as I am.
       What you plan and what I dream are the same.
       They are the same in math score.

2 -Patterns:

       a. Be + like                       ( …… mirip/seperti …)
       b. …..(and)……Be + alike            (….. (dan)….. mirip/sama)

For examples;

       Your face is like my father’s.
       We are alike.
       The way you walk and the way I work are alike.
3 -Patterns;

       a. Be + similar to                 (…..Sama/mirip dengan…..)
       b. ….(and)……Be + Similar           (…..(dan)….mirip/sama)

For examples;

       Father and son are similar in the way to think something.
       Their new expensive car is similar to mine.
       they are similar in action.
4 -Patterns;

       a. Be + Different from             (….berbeda dari ….)
       b. …..(and)….Be + Different        (….(dan)….berbeda)

For examples;

       The sentence is different from this one!
       Man and woman are different in everything.
       Everybody knows that we are different in many cases.



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