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					                                                Bricks and clicks

Bricks-and-clicks is a business model by which a company integrates both offline (bricks) and online (clicks)
presences. It is also known as click-and-mortar or clicks-and-bricks, as well as bricks, clicks and flips, flips
referring to catalogs.

For example, an electronics store may allow the user to order online, but pick up their order immediately at a
local store, which the user finds using locator software. Conversely, a furniture store may have displays at a
local store from which a customer can order an item electronically for delivery.

The bricks and clicks model has typically been used by traditional retailers who have extensive logistics and
supply chains. Part of the reason for its success is that it is far easier for a traditional retailer to establish an
online presence than it is for a start-up company to employ a successful pure "dot com" strategy, or for an
online retailer to establish a traditional presence (including a strong brand).

The success of the model in many sectors has destroyed the credibility of analysts who argued that the Internet
would render traditional retailers obsolete through disintermediation.

Advantages of the model

Click and mortar firms have the advantage in areas of existing products and services. In these cases there are
major advantages in retaining ties to a physical company. This is because they are able to use their
competencies and assets, which include:

    1. Core competency. Successful firms tend to have one or two core competencies that they can do better
       than their competitors. It may be anything from new product development to customer service. When a
       bricks and mortar firm goes online it is able to use this core competency more intensively and
    2. Existing supplier networks. Existing firms have established relationships of trust with suppliers. This
       usually ensures problem free delivery and an assured supply. It can also entail price discounts and other
       preferential treatment.
    3. Existing distribution channels. As with supplier networks, existing distribution channels can ensure
       problem free delivery, price discounts, and preferential treatments.
    4. Brand equity. Often existing firms have invested large sums of money in brand advertising over the
       years. This equity can be leveraged on-line by using recognized brand names. An example is Disney.
    5. Stability. Existing firms that have been in business for many years appear more stable. People trust
       them more than pure on-line firms. This is particularly true in financial services.
    6. Existing customer base. Because existing firms already have a base of sales, they can more easily
       obtain economies of scale in promotion, purchasing and production; economies of scope in distribution
       and promotion; reduced overhead allocation per unit; and shorter break even times.
    7. A lower cost of capital. Established firms will have a lower cost of capital. Bond issues may be
       available to existing firms that are not available to dot coms. The underwriting cost of a dot com IPO is
       higher than an equivalent brick and click equity offering.
    8. Learning curve advantages. Every industry has a set of best practices that are more or less known to
       established firms. New dot coms will be at a disadvantage unless they can redefine the industry's best
       practices and leap frog existing firms.

Pure dot coms, on the other hand, have the advantage in areas of new e-business models that stress cost
efficiency. They are not burdened with brick and mortar costs and can offer products at very low marginal cost.
However, they tend to spend substantially more on customer acquisition.


between businesses, as opposed to those between businesses and other groups, such as business and individual
consumers (B2C) or business and government (B2G).

B2B is also commonly used as an adjective to describe any activity, be it marketing, sales, or e-commerce, that
occurs between businesses and other businesses rather than between businesses and consumers.

Automated Ecommerce Transactions

It is a term also used in electronic commerce and to describe automated processes between trading partners.

The volume of B2B transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. One reason for this is that
businesses have adopted electronic commerce technologies in greater numbers than consumers. Also, in a
typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions but only one B2C transaction, as the completed
product is retailed to the end customer.

An example of a B2B transaction is a chicken feed company selling its product to a chicken farm, which is
another company. An example of a B2C transaction is a grocery store selling grain-fed chickens to a consumer.
B2B can also describe marketing activities between businesses, not just the final transactions that result from
marketing, though the term can be used to identify sales transactions between businesses (also referred to as
"institutional sales"). For example, a company selling photocopiers would more likely be a B2B sales
organization than a B2C sales organization.

"Business-to-business" can also refer to all transactions made in an industry value chain before the finished
product is sold to the end consumer.

What is B2B Marketing Communications?

B2B marketing communications is how businesses promote their products and services to other businesses
using tactics other than direct sales. The purpose of B2B marketing communications is to support the marketer’s
sales effort and improve company profitability. B2B marketing is generally considered to be more complex than
B2C marketing, often complicated by a longer sales cycle and multiple decision makers on the buyers side.

B2B marketing communications tactics generally include advertising, public relations, direct mail, trade show
support, sales collateral, branding, and interactive services such as website design and search engine
optimization. The Business Marketing Association is the trade organization that serves B2B marketing
professionals. It was founded in 1922 and offers certification programs, research services, conferences, industry
awards and training programs.

B2B Marketing Methodologies

Positioning Statement

An important first step in business to business marketing is the development of your positioning statement. This
is a statement of what you do and how you do it differently and better than your competitors.

Developing your messages

The next step is to develop your messages. There is usually a primary message that conveys more strongly to
your customers what you do and the benefit it offers to them, supported by a number of secondary messages,
each of which may have a number of supporting arguments, facts and figures.

Building a campaign plan

Whatever form your B2B marketing campaign will take, build a comprehensive plan up front to target resources
where you believe they will deliver the best return on investment, and make sure you have all the infrastructure
in place to support each stage of the marketing process - and that doesn't just include developing the lead - make
sure the entire organization is geared up to handle the inquiries appropriately.

Briefing an agency

A standard briefing document is usually a good idea for briefing an agency. As well as focusing the agency on
what's important to you and your campaign, it serves as a checklist of all the important things to consider as part
of your brief. Typical elements to an agency brief are: Your objectives, target market, target audience, product,

campaign description, your product positioning, graphical considerations, corporate guidelines, and any other
supporting material and distribution.

Measuring results

The real value in results measurement is in tying the marketing campaign back to business results. After all,
you’re not in the business of developing marketing campaigns for marketing sake. So always put metrics in
place to measure your campaigns, and if at all possible, measure your impact upon your desired objectives, be it
Cost Per Acquisition, Cost per Lead or tangible changes in customer perception.

B2B standards

UN/EDIFACT is one of the most well-known and established B2B standards. ANSI ASC X12 is a popular
standard in North America. RosettaNet is an XML-based, emerging B2B standard in the high tech industry. An
approach like UN/CEFACT's Modeling Methodology (UMM) might be used to capture the collaborative space
of B2B business processes.


"E-" or "electronic" marketplace in a business-to-business context is primarily a large online platform (B2B
portal) or website that facilitates interaction and/or transactions between buyers and suppliers at organizational
or institutional rather than individual levels. Since the builders of such marketplaces primarily aim at facilitating
buyer-seller interaction (in most cases without being a buyer or seller themselves), these are also referred to as
"third-party" B2B marketplaces.

These marketplaces can do one or more of the following:

        1.       Help buyers find new suppliers and vice versa
        2.       Help reduce the time and cost of interaction for B2B transactions
        3.       Help increase trade between distant geographies
        4.       Help manage payments and track orders for B2B transactions
        5.       Help reduce the number of profits after tax
        6.       Help increase the greenhouse gas emissions in the country
        7.       Help the environment by using appropriate technology that is environmentally friendly

Vertical e-Marketplace

A vertical e-marketplace spans up and down every segment of one specific industry. Each level of the industry
has access to every other level, which greatly increases collaboration. Buyers and sellers in the industry are
connected to increase operating efficiency and decrease supply chain costs, inventories and cycle times. This is
possible because buying/selling items in a single industry standardizes needs, thereby reducing the need for
outsourcing many products. Βʐ fifth point would be that e commerce has a variety of different opinions going
out towards different people in different organization that are committed to such technology.therefore i bring to
a conclusion that e commerce is not well no where near the advanced technology that us in organizations use
nower days.

Horizontal e-Marketplace

A horizontal e-marketplace connects buyers and sellers across many industries. The most common type of
materials traded horizontally are MRO (maintenance, repair and operations) materials. Mainly business and
consumer articles, these items are in demand because they are crucial to the daily running of a business,
regardless of industry and level within that industry. Many corporations have MRO materials bought directly
on-line by the maintenance team in order to relieve the purchasing department.

No-frills e-Marketplace

Developed in response to customers wanting to purchase products without service (or with very limited
service), the no-frills e-marketplace parallels the B2C offering of no-frills budget airlines. The subject of several

Harvard and IMD articles/case-studies, no-frills B2B e-marketplaces enable the effective de-bundling of service
from product via clear "business rules." This provides the basis of differentiation from conventional B2B
sales/purchasing channels.


The term "business-to-business" was originally coined to describe the electronic communication relations
between businesses or enterprises in order to distinguish it from the communications between businesses and
consumers (B2C). It eventally came to be used in marketing as well, initally describing only industrial or capital
goods marketing. However, today it is widely used to describe all products and services used by enterprises.

B2B (Business to Business)

Cambil Software shares a myriad of rich experiences with its clients in business to business (B2B) with a rich
and technology savvy range of features in web design, web development, B2B marketing and B2B portal. It
specializes in the field of eProcurement, enabling and automating the customer's purchasing capacity with the
adoption of cost-effective means.

Cambil Software adopts a methodology that consists of the evaluation of suppliers, request for proposals and
online transactions.

B2B Web Design

The web design at Cambil Software consists of the following:

        Enabling of business processes via web services
        Providing access to enterprise information systems through web services
        Designing architecture, leveraging the right tools and standards for web services
        Providing the accessibility between applications through web services
        Developing and implementing web services

Web development

The business to business eCommerce is a success at Cambil Software due to its eProcurement strategy. It caters
to a wide range of professional services consisting of cost-effective web development, web redesign, flash
website design, link development, search engine submissions and monitoring and website programming.
Cambil Software has an assimilation of website programmers, designers, website marketers and website
analysts who work on the latest technology and have an experience of following the best practices and
processes. It implements the tasks mentioned below:

        Business and technical consulting
        Installation and beta testing
        Integration and stability testing
        Business process design and workarounds
        Final configuration and testing
        Documentation and knowledge transfer
        Advanced development requirements

B2B Marketing

The business to business marketing strategy at Cambil Software enhances the company's image by
implementing cost-effective, sophisticated solutions with end-to-end solutions. It comprises of a dedicated team
of information technology experts who adhere to the best practices and processes keeping pace with the
changing market trends. Cambil Software is a marketing research company that provides quality information as
well as data generation that optimizes business to business operations. It ensures a greater return on investment
and the solutions designed are tailor-made and customized integrated with communications services, technology
and business intelligent strategies. The business to business marketing strategy sketches a roadmap to

achievement by analyzing and studying the market, assessing the business specifications, studying the available
resources and creating timelines.

B2B Portal

Cambil Software endeavors to present effective information on the internet that enables the user to optimize his
business to business strategy, resources and costs. The Cambil Software portal is an assimilation of the business
to business website directory, business to business search and business to business marketplace. It provides an
insight into the some of the most effective software products and services and the navigation across the
directory structure is easy.


Business-to-consumer (B2C, sometimes also called Business-to-Customer) describes activities of E-
businesses serving end consumers with products and/or services. It is often associated with electronic commerce
but also encompasses financial institutions and other types of businesses. B2C relationships are often
established and cultivated through some form of Internet marketing.

Classifications of B2C e-commerce

Online intermediaries

Online intermediaries are companies that facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers and receive a
percentage of the transaction’s value. These firms make up the largest group of B2C companies today. There
are two types of online intermediaries: brokers and infomediaries.

An infomediary is a Web site that provides specialized information on behalf of producers of goods and
services and their potential customers.

Advertising-based models

In an advertising-based system, businesses’ websites have an inventory, which they sell to interested parties.
There are two guiding philosophies for this practice: high-traffic or niche. Advertisers take a high-traffic
approach when attempting to reach a larger audience. These advertisers are willing to pay a premium for a site
that can deliver high numbers, for example advertisements on Yahoo! or AOL. When advertisers are trying to
reach a smaller group of buyers, they take a niche approach. These buyers are well-defined, clearly identified,
and desirable. The niche approach focuses on quality, not quantity. For example, an advertisement on
would chiefly be viewed by business people and executives.

Community-based models

In a community-based system, companies allow users worldwide access to interact with each other on the basis
of similar areas of interest. These firms make money by accumulating loyal users and targeting them with

       Example: Yahoo! Groups

Fee-based models

In a fee-based system, a firm charges a subscription fee to view its content. There are varying degrees of content
restriction and subscription types ranging from flat-fees to pay-as-you-go.

Advantages of B2C e-commerce

B2C e-commerce has the following advantages:

       Shopping can be faster and more convenient.
       Offerings and prices can change instantaneously.
       Call centers can be integrated with the website.
       Broadband telecommunications will enhance the buying experience.

Challenges faced by B2C e-commerce

The two main challenges faced by B2C e-commerce are building traffic and sustaining customer loyalty. Due to
the winner-take-all nature of the B2C structure, many smaller firms find it difficult to enter a market and remain
competitive. In addition, online shoppers are very price-sensitive and are easily lured away, so acquiring and
keeping new customers is difficult.

A study of top B2C companies by McKinsey found that:

       Top performers had over three times as many unique visitors per month than the median. In addition,
        the top performer had 2,500 times more visitors than the worst performer.
       Top performers had an 18% conversion rate of new visitors, twice that of the median.
       Top performers had a revenue per transaction of 2.5 times the median.
       Top performers had an average gross margin three times the median.
       There was no significant difference in the number of transactions per customer and the visitor
        acquisition cost.

Essentially, these masters of B2C e-commerce (Amazon, etc.) remain at the top because of effective
communication and value to the customer.

B2C (Business to Consumer)

Cambil Software believes that e-business is about leveraging the potential of the internet as a powerful platform
to create business value by adopting the business-to-customer (B2C) strategy. Be it web-enabling existing
systems and technology or business processes, identifying improvement opportunities, extending or
transforming business processes for maximizing returns.B2C assists in creating new revenue landscapes,
optimizing value chains, deriving insights from enterprise and industry information for decision supporting, and
building integrated multi-channel e-business solutions. Cambil Software's e-business and e-commerce services
are designed to address the entire spectrum from strategy to implementation.

B2C – Websites

At Cambil Software, the professionals help the clients to set up their B2C portals and maintain them. They also
provide the customers with B2C solutions, as per their requirement. Having been a player in the industry for
some years, the professionals have a grasp on the required technology, business scenario and the standards of
the industry. At Cambil Software, the professionals use various methodologies such as application frameworks
and reusable software for high project turn around time. They also ensure commitment and rigor to quality
processes and engagement model that ensure immense attention to every customer need.

B2C – eCommerce

In today's business world, every enterprise is realizing the potential of eCommerce and is adopting it. Some of
the major advantages related with this business type are:

        Workflow automation
        Efficient business relationships
        Efficient customer service through emails
        Less time required in communication
        It is not time or venue bound
        Regular and fast updating of data
        Online information like reports and invoices available, relating to the business transactions

Cambil Software provides its customers with different services as:

Web Application Development

With a pool of efficient programmers, Cambil Software develops custom applications for the client
organization, as per their business requirement. It is not the design alone which they concentrate on but the
impact of the same on the client organization.

        Building eCommerce sites
        Web enabling legacy systems
        User experience design

Enterprise Portals

Cambil Software also specializes in portal management of the client organization. Their rich expertise in this
field and the knowledge of the industry helps them to turn the portal into a customer's delight.

        Infrastructure and architecture
        User experience
        Portal management
        Analytics and business intelligence

Enterprise Content Management

Having realized that a website is not just an information center but contact point between the customer and the
client organization, Cambil Software helps in content management. At Cambil Software, they assure that the
content management systems permits instant updates and non-redundant data in the database.

        Workflow design
        Content repository, template and taxonomy design
        Multi-site management

Web Architecture Consolidation

Cambil Software professionals that building a website, is much more than just designing and writing contents. It
is about creating online communication and business. They inspect the market conditions, analyze the situation
and funnel it down as per the client needs.

        Applications frameworks

 The B2C solutions provided by Cambil Software, minimize the operational costs, centralize customer requests,
and analyze the assists in managing the business more efficiently. The professionals at Cambil Software make a
difference in the clients' internet marketing ventures and helps increase their profit margins.


Business-to-employee (B2E) electronic commerce uses an intrabusiness network which allows companies to
provide products and/or services to their employees. Typically, companies use B2E networks to automate
employee-related corporate processes.

Examples of B2E applications include:

       Online insurance policy management
       Corporate announcement dissemination
       Online supply requests
       Special employee offers
       Employee benefits reporting

B2E is business-to-employee, an approach in which the focus of business is the employee, rather than the
consumer (as it is in business-to-consumer, or B2C) or other businesses (as it is in business-to-business, or
B2B). The B2E approach grew out of the ongoing shortage of information technology (IT) workers. In a broad
sense, B2E encompasses everything that businesses do to attract and retain well-qualified staff in a competitive
market, such as aggressive recruiting tactics, benefits, education opportunities, flexible hours, bonuses, and
employee empowerment strategies.

More specifically, the term "B2E" is frequently used to refer to the B2E portal (sometimes called a people
portal, which is a customized home page or desktop for everyone within an organization. The B2E portal is
sometimes considered to be synonymous with an intranet, but it differs in its focus on the employee's desires.
The intranet's focus is the organization; the B2E portal focus is the individual. The B2E portal is designed to
include not only everything that an employee might hope to find on an intranet (such as a corporate directory, or
customer support information), but also any personal information and links that the employee might want (such
as stocks information, or even games). The intention is to increase not only efficiency, but also employee
satisfaction and a sense of community within the organization.

A B2E portal has three distinguishing characteristics:

       A single point of entry: one URL for everyone within an organization.
       A mixture of organization-specific and employee-defined components.
       The potential to be highly customized and easily altered to suit the particular employee.

Corporations may develop their own portals or they may rely on the services of any of the large and growing
number of B2E portal developers.

B2E (Business to Employee)

B2E portals or e-HR systems are becoming the de-facto standard in order to streamline and optimize the human
resource functions of the organizations. It further helps in improving the communication between the employee
and the organization. When a company decides to take to e-HR applications, a clear understanding of the
organization, its business and its customers is very important. This is very essential to ensure the company's
growth in terms of corporate performance, productivity and functional objectives.

B2E software also enables easy communication between the employees and the managers via the emails. The
employees could also have access to the other work place services like talent management, knowledge
management and communication. Cambil Software offers a wide range of B2E solutions like recruitment
management, employee management, leave and payroll management.

Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS) / HR Software Solutions

HR management is the most crucial function of the modern-day business organizations. HR department require
assistance to keep up with the changing number of employees, departments and their job profiles. Cambil
Software offers HRMS, which will assist the business goals. These solutions will adapt to the changing needs of
the organization's business and other daily operations. HR management software helps the organizations with
the recruitment detail and procedures and the database of the entire workforce.

Customized HR Software Supplier

Cambil Software enables the client organization, with a blend of sophisticated yet easy to-use HR solutions, and
successfully passes through the sudden twists and turns of the human resource department. This will bring the
clients to the heart of the problems within the organization and help them solve it. Cambil Software will first
analyze the existing products, staffs, company policies and the size of the organization and then get into the
generation of the software solution. It will also provide a complete range of professional services like project
implementation and management, payroll systems, support for the training and other HR practices.

HR software for recruitment.

HR recruitment solutions from Cambil Software will help enhance the recruiting procedures of any
organization. The customized solutions distribute the different functions involved in the recruitment process.
This software:

        Converts all the details in the paper into the electronic format
        Populates it with data
        This web-enabled solution would integrate all the requirements
        Store information like the skills, education, expected salary and experience
        Keep a track of the interview details and updates itself with the follow-ups
        Generate automatic offer or rejection letter
        Enable the HR processes to be a two-way traffic
        Enabling the employees to manage their own profiles

The HR software systems include leave management systems, security systems and more.

Employee management

As the name suggests, this module optimizes the management of employee details. Not only does this give
employees the access to their details resting with the HR, but also the permission to update the information.
This does enables in better quality of the details. Some employee details maintained are:

        Employee particulars
        Personal particulars, address
        Education particulars
        Career history
        Performance appraisals
        Skill profile
        Immigration details

Payroll Management Software

Payroll management software is an integrated solution that helps to provide service and control, with regard to
the payroll formalities. Payroll accounting software or HR payroll software play a major role in today's
employee-friendly corporate world. The payroll management systems or solutions deal with the financial aspect
of the employee details. It deals with the salary information, allowances, deductions, net pay, insurances,
compensations and reports related to the accounts of the employees.

Customized payroll systems from Cambil Software

Cambil Software, with their experience in ERP solutions will be able to assist its clients with customized
payroll software. Payroll processing systems are no more a luxury which is in proportion to the size of a
company, but a requirement. Cambil Software offers its clients with payroll solutions that will be a value-add
for the client-organization. These programs are cost-effective and will help reduce the total ownership cost. It
helps in reducing the costs associated with the running, printing, distribution and management of all the reports
and records involved with the payroll department. Cambil Software will analyze its customer's requirements
and design a package to comply with their needs. It will also help install the package, train the personals
involved on how to operate it.

Consumer-to-business (C2B )

Consumer-to-business (C2B ) is an electronic commerce business model in which consumers (individuals)
offer products and services to companies and the companies pay them. This business model is a complete
reversal of traditional business model where companies offer goods and services to consumers (business-to-
consumer = B2C).

This kind of economic relationship is qualified as an inverted business model. The advent of the C2B scheme is
due to major changes:

       Connecting a large group of people to a bidirectional network has made this sort of commercial
        relationship possible. The large traditional media outlets are one direction relationship whereas the
        internet is bidirectional one.
       Decreased cost of technology : Individuals now have access to technologies that were once only
        available to large companies ( digital printing and acquisition technology, high performance computer,
        powerful software)


Consumer-to-consumer (or C2C) electronic commerce involves the electronically-facilitated transactions
between consumers through some third party. A common example is the online auction, in which a consumer
posts an item for sale and other consumers bid to purchase it; the third party generally charges a flat fee or
commission. The sites are only intermediaries, just there to match consumers. They do not have to check quality
of the products being offered.

Examples of C2C

       eBay
       Craigslist

This type of e-commerce is expected to increase in the future because it cuts out the costs of using another
company. An example on how it could change in the future from Management Information Systems, if you are
driving around in a car, someone having a garage sale can transmit to your GPS advertising their garage sale.
This will reach a larger population than just signs.

       No quality control
       No payment guarantee
       Hard to pay for using cheques, ATM cards, etc. but in the future this is likely to change.


C2C are becoming more popular amongst students in universities because these are large communities in the
same geographical region that are low on money. So they are looking for deals very often and these kinds of
websites offer this. Universities themselves set up places for students to sell textbooks and other stuff to other
students, you can even advertise that you are subletting your apartment. An example of this from above is Tiger
books and Dalhousie University Classifieds, both of these are put together by the school itself for the students.


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