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					                   Crew Habitability:
                      What You
                    Need to Know



         Dr. Kevin McSweeney
  Manager - Human Factors Department
ABS, Corporate Technology, Houston Texas
                What is Habitability?

• The acceptability of a vessel (or facility) as
  determined by its physical arrangements, as
  well as the ambient environmental qualities of
  vibration, noise, indoor climate, and lighting




                                               2
                      Why Habitability?

• Proper facility design and ambient environmental
  conditions are influential factors for enhancing
  human performance and reducing human error
• Ambient environment conditions where the crew
  work, sleep, eat, rest and relax can influence overall
  sense of comfort (habitability), well-being and
  perhaps crew recruiting and retention




                                                       3
Guide for Crew Habitability on Ships


         • Crew Habitability
            – Basic notation (HAB)
              aimed at supporting
              task performance
            – Higher notation (HAB+)
              aimed at enhancing
              crew habitability

                                       4
              Guide Contents

            Crew Habitability



                              Ambient
Accommodations
                            Environmental
    Design
                              Qualities



 Checklists for           Compliance Criteria
 Various Spaces         & Measurement Methods

                                                5
             Accommodations Design

• Access/egress
• Berthing
• Sanitary spaces
• Offices
• Food services
• Recreational
  facilities
• Laundry
• Medical spaces

                                     6
              Ambient Environment


• Human Whole-
  Body Vibration
• Noise
• Indoor Climate
• Lighting


                                    7
           Human Whole-Body Vibration


• Criteria included for:
  – Crew task performance
  – Enhanced habitability


• Basis of measurement
  methodology:
  – BS 6841


                                        8
           Vibration Frequencies of Interest
                                      z-axis
• 0.5 Hz to 25 Hz
  – Motion induce instability (MII)
    modest discomfort and fatigue
  – Internal body parts resonate
• 25 Hz to 80 Hz
  – Performance degradation due
    to decay in sensations and
                                           y-axis
    perceptions

                                      x-axis
                                                    9
          Interference with Crew Activities


• Vibration Frequency range (Hz)
  – Reading (instruments) 0.5 - 12
  – Reading (text) 0.5 - 50
  – Control manipulation 0.5 - 30
  – Speech 1 - 20
  – Depth perception 25 - 40

                                              10
                         Noise

• Criteria based on:
  – Normal activities in a
    space
  – Frequency of
    occupation of a space
  – Communications needs
  – Crew’s expectations
• Basis of measurement
  methodology:
  – ISO 2923
                                 11
                         Noise Levels

• Adverse / improper levels can:
  – Cause speech interference
  – Interfere with concentration
    and thought processes
  – Disrupt sleep
  – Cause fatigue and aggression
• Appropriate noise levels can:
  – Provide an environment for improved human
    performance
  – Have a positive psychological effect on people
                                                     12
             Big Contributor – HVAC Noise

• Potential Solutions:
  – Configurations including largest feasible duct
    diameter, gradual turns
  – Use of HVAC
    silencers / resonators
  – Tuning of resonators
    to the blade frequency
  – Reduction of pressure
    changes
  – Proper Supports for
    Exhaust and Piping Systems
  – Secure ventilation ductwork piping systems will
    reduce vibration against shipboard structures
                                                      13
                  Indoor Climate


• Criteria based on
  human performance
  data
• Basis of
  measurement
  methodology :
  – ANSI / ASHRAE 55a

                                   14
              What Determines Comfort?

• Environmental factors
  – Air temperature
  – Air speed
  – Humidity


• Individual factors
  – Activity
  – Clothing insulation

                                         15
                         Lighting

• Criteria based on
  supporting tasks via
  general and activity
  lighting
• Basis of measurement
  methodology:
  – IESNA RP-12
  – ISO 8995

                                    16
                                                              Lighting Requirements

                                                                                 ~7x greater
• Relationship
  between age                 Light Requirement (x 100 Lux)

  and light
  required
  for reading
  good print                                                                     ~ 3x greater



  Source: Phillips Lighting


                                                                                      Age (years)
                                                                                             17
                                                Lighting
Visual performance vs. Light level (in Lux) for an assembly task




                        Young




                                                       Older
                                                   ~7x greater


                    Source: Phillips Lighting                    18
HAB and HAB+ Notation




                        19
            Habitability Data Gathering

• Data collection efforts
  started in 2001 and
  continues today
• Data has been obtained
  from multiple sources:
  – Offshore installations
  – Commercial ships
  – Workboats
    (OSV’s and crew boats)
  – Passenger vessels

                                          20
                  Data Gathering

• Data from Pacific, Europe, and Americas
• Review of accommodations design and
  layout
• Focus on ambient environment
  characteristics (noise and vibration)
• Informal (but informative) interviews with
  crew members


                                               21
       Questions?


Dr. Kevin McSweeney
 kmcsweeney@eagle.org
    281-877-5965




                        22

				
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posted:8/27/2012
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