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AFAA Webinar May2012_FINAL.pptx

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 74

									Smoke Detection Solutions for
Challenging Environments



Agenda
   Trade-offs for Optimum Protection
   Challenging Environments
   Available Technologies
   Open-area Smoke Imaging Detection and Applications
  ─  Technology overview
  ─  Field-proven applications

  Q&A
   Very Early Warning Smoke Detection
  ─  ASD Overview
  ─  ASD Design Principles
  ─  Deploying ASD in industrial environments
  ─  Field-proven applications
  ─  ASD requirements matrix

   Q & A                            2
Optimum Protection Requires a Balance

        Fire Triangle                  Detection Triangle




Challenging environments complicate achieving optimum protection

                                3
The Detection Triangle

  Provides the highest level of detection to ensure protection of…
 ─    Life
 ─    Property
 ─    Business continuity
 ─    Environment


  Without false alarms that
 ─    Create disruptive false or nuisance alarms
 ─    De-sensitize personnel and occupants to alarms
 ─    Ultimately leading to disregarding alarms or disabling safety systems
 ─    Place an extra burden on local first responders


  At an affordable cost
 ─  Initial installation cost
 ─  Long term operating, servicing, and testing costs




                                                        4
Challenging Environments
A ‘Challenging Environment’ is a space where:
  Detection is difficult due to:
  ─    Environmental conditions that cause false and nuisance alarms
  ─    Environmental conditions that shorten detector life
  ─    High and variable airflows
  ─    High ceilings

  Detector sensitivity and longevity are compromised in
   ‘harsh’ environments due to:
  ─    Dirt and dust
  ─    Temperature extremes
  ─    High EMI
  ─    Moisture, fog, steam, water condensation
  ─    Birds and insects
  ─    Building movement
  ─    Sunlight
  ─    Detector location
  ─    Toxic and corrosive gases




                                                      5
Challenging Environments
A ‘Challenging Environment’ is a space where:
  Maintenance is difficult
  ─  Extreme environmental conditions
  ─  Inaccessible areas
     ●    High ceilings
     ●    Roof or floor spaces
     ●    Within elevator shafts
     ●    Equipment racks
  ─  Restricted access
     ●  High security areas
     ●  Production areas
     ●  24/7/365 operation

  Unobtrusive detection is required
  ─  To prevent vandalism or tampering
  ─  Not disruptive to architectural designs
  ─  Preservation of historic buildings and artifacts

  Evacuation may be challenging
  ─  High concentration of large number of people
  ─  Exit paths are restricted
  ─  Occupants require assistance

                                                        6
Prevention of Fire
                                                                                                   Total loss




                                         Detect                                          Verify        Watch it burn




                                                                                          Local to General damage




                                                                                                                       Increasing threat
                           Detect                                  Verify      Respond




                  Detect                          Verify             Respond   Activity disruption to Local damage



                                                                                         Minimal to no damage


  Detect     Verify                 Respond
                                                                                         No damage


  Very early warning                              Standard sensitivity                  After flame…




   Mission critical structures                             Large spaces                     Lost spaces
Detection Technologies Overview in Challenging Environments
Large Open Spaces (Critical Infrastructure/ High Value Content)

                     Driver                   ASD   OSID Beam VSD         Spot Flame L. Heat

     Sensitivity to smoke                     10        6    4     4       4     0     NA

     Prevent damage to structure              10        6    5     5       5     2     NA

     Prevent damage to contents (equip,
                                              10        6    5     5       5     2     NA
     product, etc.)
     Foreign particle/false alarm rejection
                                              10        8    5     5       5     8     NA
     (dust, fog, water, etc)
     Foreign object rejection                 10        10   5     8      10    10     NA

     Resistance to building movement          10        9    6     9      10    10     NA

     Operation in all lighting conditions     10        8    6     5      10     6     NA

     Equipment Cost                            6        8    10    5       8     5     NA

     Installation costs                        6        10   6     7       6     6     NA

     Maintenance costs                         7        8    8     8       6     9     NA

                      Total                   89        79   60   61      69    58     NA


                                  Relative ranking: 10 = most desirable
                                                    8
Detection Technologies Overview in Challenging Environments – Large
Open Spaces

                        Driver 	
               ASD   OSID Beam VSD           Spot Flame L. Heat

     Sensitivity to smoke	
                     10        9    7      7        6     0      0
     Prevent damage to structure	
              10        9    7      7        7     3      2
     Prevent damage to contents (equip,
     product, etc.)	
                           10        9    7      7        7     5      1

     Foreign particle/false alarm
                                                10        8    5      5        5     8      10
     rejection (dust, fog, water, etc)	
  
     Foreign object rejection	
                 10        10   5      8       10    10      10
     Resistance to building movement	
          10        9    6      9       10    10      10
     Operation in all lighting conditions	
     10        8    6      5       10     6      10
     Equipment Cost	
                            6        8    10     5        8     5      6
     Installation costs	
                        6        10   6      7        6     6      4
     Maintenance costs	
                         7        8    8      8        6     9      10
                        Total	
                 89     88      67    68       75    62     63

                                      Relative ranking: 10 = most desirable
                                                      9
New Advancements in Open-area Detection

  Open-area Smoke Imaging Detection
    Technical obstacles overcome
    Applications


  Very Early Warning Smoke Detection
    ASD Overview
    ASD Design Principles
    Deploying ASD in industrial environments
    Field-proven applications
    ASD requirements matrix
                                 10
The Challenges of Protecting Large Open
Spaces from Fire

  Can be heavily populated and highly
   trafficked areas

  Many have high ceilings, pocket beams, atria
   or other difficult to reach areas

  Often have odd-shaped, cavernous spaces

  Difficult access above manufacturing areas

  Spot detection devices are expensive and
   often impossible to install
The Challenges of Protecting Large Open
Spaces from Fire




  ASD provide the fastest and          Traditional beam detectors         Heat and flame detectors do
   most reliable detection               provide an “acceptable              not react to smoke
  Very high to low sensitivity          compromise” as these are           Cable is false-alarm free but
  Insensitive to environmental          slightly faster than spot           only detects in the late stage
   conditions, dust- damp-               detectors                           of a flaming fire
   insects, with external filtering     But these beam detectors are
  Unaffected by building                prone to false alarms
   movement, vibration, sunlight,           –  Building movement/flex
   darkness,…                                  (except motorized ones)
  Can be deployed on multiple              –  Foreign object intrusion
   levels                                   –  Dust
  Installation cost is a                   –  Dirt
   consideration                            –  Steam
Challenges with Beam Detectors
   False alarms due to…


          Dirt                   Ladders
          Dust                   Banners
          Steam                  Building movement
          Insects                Building vibration
          Banners                Sunlight
          Fork lift trucks       Reflected sunlight




                              13
What Makes Dual-wavelength Technology
Different?
The improvements over traditional beam detectors stem from four
core design ideas:
  Dual-wavelength light frequencies
  Digital imaging vs. photodiodes
  A unique method for aligning
  Smarter algorithms




                                       14
Prevention of Fire
                                                                                                   Total loss




                                         Detect                                          Verify        Watch it burn




                                                                                          Local to General damage




                                                                                                                       Increasing threat
                           Detect                                  Verify      Respond




                  Detect                          Verify             Respond   Activity disruption to Local damage



                                                                                         Minimal to no damage


  Detect     Verify                 Respond
                                                                                         No damage


  Very early warning                              Standard sensitivity                  After flame…




   Mission critical structures                             Large spaces                     Lost spaces
More Sensitive Faster Detection

   UV is prime detection wavelength
   20% obscuration over 490 ft/150 m




       UV is 50% more sensitive
     than IR to detect flaming fire
Overcoming Conventional Challenges
  Large particle obscuration rejection
     Use of UV & IR in specific wavelengths assist in evaluating whether
     obscuration is caused by small particles in the physical size resembling
     smoke or from larger particle (i.e. dust, steam, insects, fork-lift, ladders,
     etc.)

  Tolerance to building shift and vibration
     The multiple pixels of a CMOS imaging chip as opposed to a photodiode
     along with the uniquely coded light beam from an emitter provides the
     ability to track the position and tolerate movement

    Foreign light intrusion
     The Imager is fitted with a dyed glass filter, designed to be almost opaque
     except to all but two wavelengths of interest




                                              17
Dual-wavelength vs. Single IR Beam
  Active emitter LEDs transmit wide beam IR
   and UV to the Imager
    –  IR and UV have differing wavelengths
                                                Emitter                            Imager
    –  Respond differently to smoke                       IR beam   Smoke


  Relative strengths of the UV & IR are
   compared
                                                          UV beam
    –  Detect smoke                                                 Dust

    –  Discriminate against particulates that
       cause nuisance alarms on traditional
       beams
  Software locates illuminated pixels on the                        Obstruction

   CMOS imager
    –  Each emitter is uniquely coded
  Imager software tracks building movement
    –  No controlled motor drives


                                           18
Powerful Benefits

                                       Actual view from a 45 degree imager with 4
  Imager versus photodiode
                                              emitters in a 13,500 sq ft area
  One imager equals 100,000’s
   of photodiodes
  An Imager locates and tracks
   the position of an emitter
   anywhere in its field of view at
   pixel level
  Can operate reliably in all
   lighting conditions; bright day /
   sunlight to total darkness



                                                       Emitters


                                       19
Installation & Commissioning
  Simple and easy installation using a unique Laser Alignment Tool
  ─  Requires only rough alignment due to the wide angle of view of the
     imager(s)
  ─  Up to 70% time saving compared to traditional beams
  Beam length up to 492 ft
  ─  Outperforming traditional beams by up to 50%




                                         20
Installation & Commissioning




                             OR




                        21
Reliability Benefits

   Excellent false alarm immunity to dust, steam, insects,
    objects and structural movement
   Eliminates false alarms by automatically compensating
    for building movement
   No moving motor parts eliminates hardware failures
   Operates in all ambient lighting conditions
   Not affected by nearby reflecting surfaces
   No false alignment due to reflecting on fog
   Ability to compensate for high air movement
Financial Benefits
    Low implementation costs because of simple and fast installation
     and alignment
      -  Only the Imager unit has to be wired (battery powered
         Emitters)
      -  Power can be supplied from panel
      -  Fast and simple coarse manual alignment


    Lower maintenance cost for larger areas
      -  Test filter at the Imager or Emitter
      -  No intervention costs for misalignment
What Does Dual-wavelength Bring to the Table?
  Faster detection than single wavelength beams

  Simple installation, commissioning and maintenance

  Long range detection

  High tolerance to vibration and structural movement

  High resistance to dust, fogging, steam, reflections
   and object intrusion

  High resistance to reflected sunlight

  Aesthetically discreet and 3D coverage
Challenges Overcome by
Open-area Smoke Imaging
Detection
Sunlight and Other Foreign Light Source

  Reflected sunlight
   –  Traditional beams affected by reflected sunlight and
      other (industrial) light sources
Direct Sunlight

                                        Disregarding the ‘avoid East – West
                                        direction’ recommendations, dual-
                                        wavelength only generates a
                                        saturation fault when exposed directly
                                        to the sun.




  When fully exposed to the
  sun.... will only give a fault

 5,85 “/15 cm




                                   27
High Resistance to Dust, Fog, and Steam
       Comfort zone single
         wavelength IR

                     Potential                Comfort zone dual wavelength OSID
                     Nuisance




                   Smoke                      Dust/fog/sprays
              1 µm


         0.01 µm                 6 µm                                             100 µm
                                        Particle size




     OSID’s 2 wavelengths provide a comfort zone of +90% for nuisance rejection
     Single wavelength IR beams have a < 1% comfort zone for nuisance rejection
              -10
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                                                                                       minutes to maintain a humid




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                                                                                      Water mist is sprayed every few




     16/02/2012 00:16
                                             causing false alarms on installed
                                                                                                                         Carton Printing Facility




     16/02/2012 00:18
     16/02/2012 00:18
                                            This happens 24/7, the water mist is




     16/02/2012 00:20
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                                 UV Att


                     IR Att
                    Series2
                              Series1
Semi-open Warehouse

                         Example of the effect of condensation
                          on the emitter
                         No differentiation between IR and UV
                          and hence no alarm nor faults




                      30
Recycling Plant


                       Estimated time between
                       cleaning of lenses 1 month




 5,85 “/15 cm




                  31
High	
  Tolerance	
  to	
  Structural	
  Movement	
  and	
  Vibra7on	
  

                                           Dual beam imaging
                                            detection affords a minimum
                                            of 2°in all directions of
                                            building flex


                                           Dual beam imaging
                                            detection affords no risk of
                                            missing a slow burning fire
                                            because of the rate of
                                            compensation
Industrial Site




                                  End-user was considering
                                  linear heat cable for
                  6”/15 cm        ‘controlled’ burn down…



                             33
Long Distances



                    Reliably detecting at 492 ft

                    Allows for 20% setting at 430 ft

                    Aligned through metal support
                     structure of the roof




                 34
Q&A




 35
New Advances in Open-area Detection

Open-area Smoke Imaging Detection and
Applications
     Technology overview
     Field-proven applications

Very Early Warning Smoke Detection
     ASD Overview
     ASD Design Principles
     Deploying ASD in industrial environments
     Field-proven applications
     ASD requirements matrix


                                     36
Very Early Warning
Smoke Detection
What is Very Early Warning Smoke Detection?
     A detection system that actively draws multiple air samples
      from a fire zone, via a pipe network, to a centralized detector
Equivalency

    NPFA 72
    BS5839-1
    AS1670




                           =

       Each sampling port of an Aspirating Smoke type
          smoke detector shall be treated as a spot
Cumulative Smoke Detection


    ASD exploits the cumulative effect
   –  All smoke entering a sampling hole contributes to the detector’s smoke
      reading

    Smoke diffuses throughout a space... the more diffusion, the
     more holes it enters...

    An alarm can be triggered by:
   –  A localized high concentration of smoke
   –  A widespread low concentration of smoke
Simplified Test & Maintenance

    ASD enables remote sampling and
     test
    Verify air flow and smoke transport
     time enables testing at last hole



     Only smoke
                                           Easy access test point
     in last hole
Why Very Early Warning?

1.    When business continuity is paramount

2.    When smoke is difficult to detect

3.    When maintenance access is difficult

4.    When unobtrusive detection is required

5.    When evacuation is a challenge

6.    When environmental conditions are difficult

7.    When suppression systems are present

8.    When smoke and gas detection is required
Multi-hole Aspirating Smoke & Gas Detection



                                            Air is actively drawn
                                            through a series of pipes
                                            through multiple sampling
                                            holes to the VESDA ECO
                                            gas detector (1) in route
                                            to the VESDA ASD (2).




           Leverage ASD Pipe Network to Provide
            Enhanced Detection - Smoke + Gas
Enhanced Detection and Protection




         Better Detection in Variable Air Flow Conditions
Enhanced Detection Coverage




         Eliminate the Guess Work in Detector Placement
Technology Approaches to Very Early Warning
Smoke Detection


   Detection Approaches/Technologies
    −  Absolute
    −  Adaptive

   Impact on Detector Performance
    −  Fixed thresholds
    −  Drift compensation/ dynamic thresholds
    −  Dust rejection
   System Integrity




                                     46
Absolute Detection
     Clean air barrier protects optical surfaces
     Eliminates detector drift
     Consistent & predictable alarm thresholds
     Field adjustable, fixed detection thresholds




  Xtralis detectors use clever patented methods to ensure all optical
  surfaces are free from contamination throughout their life


                                                                        Continued…
         Dirty Environments
Establishing Fixed Alarm Thresholds

                      Fire 2

                                    1.    Establish background levels
                                    2.    Select alarm thresholds
                      Fire 1

                      Action


                      Alert

         Smoke test


                      Background



                               48
Adaptive Detection - Drift Compensation

 Mathematic algorithms used to compensate for detector drift caused by
 non smoke particles entering the smoke chamber or electrical
 interference induced into the detection system
   Short term events
   Long term drift
   Drift compensated alarm thresholds




                                    49
Drift Compensation Risks




 Drift compensation can result in
    significant detection delay
                                                  145 min
                                                               3


                                                   95 min



                                                   2
                                    Alert Level

                                         1

                                                            Detector output



                                    50
Dust – an Environmental Challenge
Approaches used to compensation for dirty backgrounds
   System pipe network design
   Background compensation
   Filtration
   Maintenance
   Particle size rejection
    Particle Number




                      Smoke                                      Dust



                                 Particle size
                                                 Smoke detector patents for particle size discrimination
                                                 US 7564365: Marman & Eggers - GE Security
                                                 US 7483139: Powell - Kidde IP Holdings
                                      51
       Dust Rejection – an Environmental Challenge

                                                   Typically

                                                   Smoke             0.1 – 6 µm
                                                   Dust              1 – 100+ µm

                                                   Mulholland, G.W. , SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection
                                                   Engineering 2nd Ed, Ch 15, Section 2.
Particle Number




                                                   Lide, D.R. (1994) , Characteristics of Particles and
                                                   Particle Dispersoids, Handbook of Chemistry and
                                                   Physics, 75th Ed.




                  Smoke                                 Dust



                              Particle size




                             The Question is...
                  Are you rejecting smoke, dust, or both?
                                              52
Dust Rejection – the Consequences

               Adaptive vs Absolute Detection




                                                Adaptive Detection
                                                Absolute Detection




                                                           1 ”A comparison of Aspirated Smoke Detectors. Other ASD


         Dust rejection may result in reduction in           Detectors and Xtralis VESDA VLF LaserFocus”
                                                             Conducted by Packer Engineering, Inc and The Fire
                                                             Testing Evaluation Center at The University of Maryland,
                   detector sensitivity                      College Park, Nov 2010


                                  53
Adaptive vs. Absolute Detection
                                                                                                Response Time (sec)

       Return-air Grill
                                                                         Test ID
                                                                                           Absolute                   Adaptive
                                                                                           Detection                  Detection

                                                                            1          188 sec – Alert                     NA1

                                                                            2          220 sec – Alert                      NA

                                                                            3          132 sec – Alert                      NA
                              Sample Holes
                                                                            4          178 sec – Alert                      NA
                                                                     1   NA: No Alarm within 300sec

                                               Time to Alarm (sec)
                                Absolute Detection          Adaptive Detection
Test    Test Fire
 ID
                              Alert   Action      Fire    Alert   Action 1 Action 2


 5      Timber -smoldering     590     787        NA1     799        NA          NA
 6      PU foam -smoldering    628     876        NA       NA        NA          NA
 7      PU foam -flaming       140     167        198     190        NA          NA
 8      Heptane - flaming      78      143        266     175        NA          NA
                                                                                           Tests witnessed by Centre for Environmental Safety
 9      Paper – smoldering     660     NA         NA       NA
                                                            54       NA          NA        and Risk Engineering (CESARE), Victoria University,
                                                                                           Melbourne, AU
System Integrity – Critical Functions Must be
Monitored
  Electrical integrity

  Detection chamber

  Pipe network flow monitoring
       -  Ensure that it cannot be by-
          passed

  Filter life monitoring (currently on
   the market)
       -  No monitoring
                                                The FACP says these detectors are
       -  Time based                                    fully functional
       -  Particle counting
       -  Through filter flow monitoring



                                           55
System Integrity – time based filter monitoring

                  Sensitivity vs. Filter Loading Cycle




              Unsupervised Detection Failure
                                56
Intelligent Filtration

                                                                      Air	
  coming	
  directly	
  
  Reduce contaminates                                                from	
  sampling	
  pipe   	
  
   entering detection chamber                                            (total	
  airflow)  	
  

                                                                                    Pipe	
  Flow	
  
                                                                                    Splits	
  into	
  
  Innovative flow partitioning                                                     x%	
  and	
  y%	
  
   and HEPA filtration
                                                                               Smaller	
  y%	
  of	
  flow	
  
                                             Flow	
                                 passes	
  
  Continuous monitoring of                 Sensors   	
                          unfiltered	
  
   filter and airflow             	
  Larger	
  x%	
  of	
  flow	
  
                                       passes	
  through	
  
                                         HEPA	
  filter	
  

  Optimum detector sensitivity                                                      Flows	
  
                                                                                  recombined        	
  
   over detector life.                                                       to	
  enter	
  detector     	
  
                                                                                    at	
  lower	
  
                                                                             obscuraAon	
  than	
  
                                                                                     original  	
  
Very Early Warning Smoke
Detection in Industrial
Environments
Perceptions of ASD
  Designed for the cleaner environments
  Industrial applications beyond ASD capabilities
  Market skepticism still exist




           ASD Comfort Zone                                      Uncomfortable Zone
    (Roots in Data Center and Telecommunications)                     (Industrial)




                                             Clean       Dirty
                  Historically ASD system designs in all industrial
               environments required system application engineering
                                                    59
Industrial Applications Require More from ASD
   Improved general protection
     −  Hardened product enclosure – IP/NEMA rated

     −  Eliminate need for secondary enclosures

   Longer pipe run to accommodate larger facilities
   Greater visibility of status LED
   Improved filtration
     −  External filtration can stress system maintenance

     −  Eliminate need for external filters

   Field serviceable modules
     −  Less down time

     −  Lower spare part inventory

   Lower long term operating costs
   Establish standard to quantify contamination resistance

                                                  60
Fit for purpose Industrial ASD
   IP54 Enclosure
   Intelligent filtration
   1,200 ft pipe runs
   High intensity status LED
   Field serviceable – modular
    construction




                                  61
New Approach to ASD in Industrial Environments


       In-line Filters                                No In-line Filters




 Detectors inside protective enclosures        No protective enclosures required




                  Enhanced filtration & IP-rated enclosure
              can reduce Total Cost of Ownership by 40 to 60%

                                          62
Modularity Delivers Lower Total Cost of Ownership
             Detection chamber


                                                   Aspirator




                                              Filters
   Electronics




                 Fewer spare parts – less down time
                                 63
Industrial Installations

        Power Plant – USA     Illovo Sugar Mill – South Africa

        Steel Mill – USA      Cook Colliery – Australia




                             64
Power Plant
Boiler Feed Pump
      ASD Protected from extreme
       heat via pipe network
Battery rooms
      ASD + hydrogen gas detection




                                      65
Steel Mill – Tunnel Protection
     300 foot tunnel under electric reheat
      furnace
     Furnace utilizes nitrogen protective
      atmosphere – risk of oxygen
      depletion (asphyxiation)
     Cable trays – risk of fire

 Solution: Industrial ASD + Oxygen




                                     66
Illovo Sugar Mill – Pipe Network Design &
Installation
  ASD Detector in
Protective Enclosure




                       Industrial ASD
                       Detector




                          67
Cook Colliery – Underground Mine




                       68
Cook Colliery – Pipe Network Design




                        69
Cook Colliery Installation




                             70
  Evolution of ASD Applications
                              In-line filters (Optional)
                                                                                                                Additional considerations
                                                                                                                    may be required



Computer / Control / Clean   Switch Rooms / Switch / Substation / Warehousing / Factory / Recycling / Processing / Conveyor /
Rooms / Data / Telco         Warehousing         Manufacturing / Power Gen / Conveyor / Mining , High Dust, Etc.      Mining / Other




  Semi Conductor / Communication /          - Various Manufacturing and          Fertilizer / Paper / Steel /            Bagasse / Coal/
             Control / Data                    Warehousing Applications -             Tunnels / Etc.                        Underground

                                             In-line filter                                                                May require
                                                                                                                              some
                                                                                                                           applications
                                                                                                                           engineering


            Clean

                                     Contamination



                                                                         Dirty                                                High
                                                                                                                      Contamination
Proposed ASD Criteria Selection Matrix




                                                                                    Detector 1	
  



                                                                                                     Detector 2	
  



                                                                                                                      Detector 3	
  
                     ASD requirement matrix	
  

 1. Consistent Alarm Thresholds over detector life	
                                Yes	
              No	
           No	
  

 2. Determinate alarm thresholds (% obs/ft or % obs/m)	
                            Yes	
            Yes	
              No	
  

 3. Ability to compensate for background levels                                     Yes                No               No

 4. Flow system monitoring that cannot be by-passed	
                               Yes	
            Yes	
              No	
  

 5. Active filter life monitoring	
                                                 Yes	
              No	
             No	
  

 6. Quantified contamination resistance (for industrial)	
                          Yes	
              No	
           No	
  




                                                                             Proposed contamination test 	
  
                                                               Dust type: per ASHRAE 52.2	
  
                                                               Dust loading density: 16mg per cubic meter	
  
                                                               Test cycle: (dust - clean air - smoke)	
  
                                                                 Dust duration: 3.5 hours	
  
                                                                 Clean air: 30 minutes	
  
                                                                 Smoke test: smouldering cotton - two exposures	
  
                                                               Number of test cycles: 10	
  
                                                               Allowable sensitivity drift: <15%	
  
                                                                72
Q&A




 73
Contact Details


  Claudio Groppetti
   Vice President
   cgroppetti@xtralis.com


  Steve McGee
   Business Development Manager
   smcgee@xtralis.com




 Inexperience and design compromises impact ASD smoke detection performance

								
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