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Silicon based Millimeter Wave Transceiver Circuits for GBPS

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					                                                                                                                                                                   Silicon-based Millimeter Wave Transceiver Circuits
                                                                                                                                                                       for 60 GHz GBPS Wireless Communications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rahul Kodkani, & Prof. L. E. Larson
                                                                                                     Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California San Diego, CA 92093



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 GHz LNA in IBM 8HP BiCMOS
                                                                Motivation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       30 GHz Two Stage Ring Oscillator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Two Stage Differential Cascode                                                                                                                      0                  90
                                                                                Frequency Quadrupler                                          Power Amplifier                                                                                                                                                                                                           LNA                                                                                                                                             180                    270
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Microtstrip lines with M1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ground plane used for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        matching                                                                                                                                                       Two Stage Ring Oscillator

                                                                                      Low Noise Amplifier                                              Mixer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Small valued ( ~ 15 fF) fringe                                                                           Quadrature Generation for Subharmonic Mixers
                                       Transceiver Building Blocks in PHEMT process*
                                                            Power Amplifier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        capacitors to resonate bond-
     • GBPS wireless data rates are achievable in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wire inductance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Microstrip line based inductors                                                                          RC polyphase filters
       59 – 64 GHz Frequency Band                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • amplitude and phase inaccuracies
     • Existing Solutions use expensive hybrid GaAs technology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (slab inductors) used to tune
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Layout of the 60 GHz LNA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        out bond-pad capacitance                                                                                 • sensitive to parasitics
     • Can we build these in Silicon?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            90 degree hybrids
     • Can we move from expensive technologies to low                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • take up lot of area at 30 GHz
       cost silicon similar to what cellular phones witnessed?                          Low Noise Amplifier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ring oscillator
* Source: K. Fujii, M. Adamski, P. Bianco, D. Gunyan, J. Hall, R. Kishimura, C. Lesko, M. Schefer, S. Hessel, H. Morkner, A. Niedzwiecki,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • can provide accurate multiple phases
“ A 60 GHz MMIC chipset for 1-Gbit/s wireless links”, IEEE MTT-S Digest, pp. 1725-1728, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Simulation Results: Low Noise Amplifier                                                                                                                                                                                                        VCC




                                                                 Project Goals                                                                                                                                                                                                                         S21 v/s Frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NF vs. Frequency

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OUTP                       INN       OUTN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13                                                                                              INP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     12.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18
                                                                                                           I_Out                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12
                                     Subharmonic Mixer                                                                                                                                                                                                                       16
                                                                                                     LPF           To demodulator      Technology                           ft              f max     Breakdown                        Min. Noise                                                                                                                                                    11.5                                                                             From V/I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             14
                                                                      IF Amp                                                                                              (GHz)            (GHz)      voltage (V)                        Figure                                                                                                                                                       11                                                                             Converter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             12




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           NF (dB)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  S21 (dB)




                                                                                                     LPF
                                                                                                           Q_Out   To demodulator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (dB)                                                                                                                                                       10.5
               BPF                                        BPF                                                                                                                                                                                                                10
                         LNA
                                                                                                                                            InP HEMT                          300-          600           Low                              0.5                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8
                                                                                sin            cos                                                                            400                        (4-5)                         @ 20 GHz                                                                                                                                                       9.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6
                               30 GHz Ring Oscillator
                                                                                                                                             InP HBT                          341           238       Low- Medium                          3.3                                                                                                                                                         9
                                                                                        PLL                                                                                                                                                                                   4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       @ 18 GHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2                                                                                                                       8.5                                                                                        Delay Cell schematic                           Layout of the Ring Oscillator
                                                                                       5 GHz                                                  GaAs                            156           350            Medium                       1.5 @ 60                              0                                                                                                                        8
                                   Typical simplified Superheterodyne Receiver                                                               pHEMT                                                                                        GHz                                     55G    56G   57G   58G     59G     60G     61G   62G     63G      64G      65G                                            55G   56G   57G   58G   59G   60G      61G   62G   63G   64G   65G
                                                                                                                                            GaAs HBT                          156           275            Medium                       1.6 @ 18                                                              Frequency (GHz)                                                                                                        Frequency (Hz)                                                         Supply Voltage (V)                        3.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GHz
                                                                                                       From modulator                                                                                                                                                                           S21(dB)                                            17.5
                                                                                                                                              CMOS                            170          150         Very Low                        0.25 @ 5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Phase Noise @ 1 MHz                           -83
                                                 PA       DR
                                                                                                                                             (90 nm)                                                                                     GHz
                                                                                                       From modulator                       SiGe HBT                          208          250         Very Low                          1.33                                                S11(dB)                                                -13                               • Gain is > 16 dB                                                                                                    offset (dBc/Hz)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Tuning Range (GHz)                          27-36
                                                                                                                                            (0.12 um)                                                     1.7                          @ 20 GHz                                              S22(dB)                                                 -6
                                                                               sin             cos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Noise Figure (dB)                                          8.8                               • Noise Figure of 8.8 dB                                                                                          Current Consumption                           18
                                                                                                                                             Comparison of various technologies available
                                                                                       PLL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Current                                                20                                                                                                                                                   (per stage in mA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      f offset
                                                                                      30 GHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Consumption (mA)                                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure of Merit                          152            FOM  PhaseNoise(dBc)  10 log((
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       f osc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ) 2 Pdiss mW )

                                        Typical simplified Homodyne Transmitter                                                                                                                                                                                                         Supply Voltage (V)                                      3                                                                                                                                                        Chip Area (sq. mm.)                     1.3 x 1.3

     • Design and implementation of integrated low-cost SiGe                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chip Area (sq. mm.)                                 1.2 x 1.2                                                                                                                                                Performance Summary (post layout simulations)

       MMWIC transceiver building blocks for Gbit/s wireless data                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Performance Summary (post layout simulations)

       rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Performance Summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Summary and Future Work
                               60 GHz Low Noise Amplifier                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 GHz Subharmonic Mixer                                                                                                                                                                        Summary
                                              VCC
                                                                                                                                                                                     VCC                    VCC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • 16 dB S21, 8.8 dB NF, 60 GHz LNA
                                                         Transmission Line Inductor
                                                                                                                                                                     Chip
                                                                                                                                                                   Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                            Input
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Output
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Matching
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Need For Subharmonic Mixers                                                                                                                                                                       designed and is back from fabrication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Can avoid DC offsets due to LO Self Mixing in Direct
                                                                                                                                                                                           Matching               Network
                                                                                                                                                                                           Network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cfringe      Bondpad   Bondwire

                      RFOUT+                                                                                                                                                                                                                              RF +
                                                                RFOUT-                                                                                                                                VB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OUT
                                                                                                                                                                              VB
                        VB                                       VB
                                                                                                                         RFIN+
                                                                                                                                 Bondwire    Bondpad     Cfringe                                                                                                                                     Conversion Receivers                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 GHz Two Stage Ring Oscillator with
              RFIN+                                                      RFIN-                                                                         Resonance    Input
                                                                                                                                                                   Matching
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • LO generation is easier since it is a subharmonic fraction of                                                                                                                                   83 dBc/Hz phase noise @ 1 MHz offset
                                                                                                                                                                   Network


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the RF frequency                                                                                                                                                                                  has been taped out for fabrication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               IF-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     IF+                          Simulation Results (schematic)
                     Differential Cascode LNA                                                                                                    Simplified schematic of the LNA (half)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Future Work
                                                                                                                                 • Differential Topology for easing                                                                                                                                                         LO-                                       LO- Frequency LO+
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             •Conversion Gain: 13 dB                                                                 • Integrated Downconverter with Ring
 • Two stages to give enough gain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LO+     Frequency             Frequency           Frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Doubler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2LO+
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Doubler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2LO-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Doubler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2LO-   LO90+
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Doubler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2LO+                                                                                                                       Oscillator
                                                                                                                                 grounding requirements                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      •Noise Figure (SSB): 10.5 dB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LO90+               LO90-

 • First stage optimized for noise
                                                                                                                                 •Bondwire inductance resonated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Integrated Receiver to receive GBPS
 • Second stage optimized for gain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           •Supply Voltage: 3.3V
                                                                                                                                 out with fringe capacitors                                                                                                                                                           RF+                                                   RF-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       data
                                                                                                                                 • Bondpad capacitance resonated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             •DC Current Consumption: 7 mA
                                                                                                                                 out with line inductors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Schematic of the Subharmonic Mixer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Power Amplifier with Power Combiner

				
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