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					                                     1



                                   mwptpay;
                      bghJ mwpt[ - mwptpay;

mwptpay; Jiwfs;

1. Acoustics (mbfs!;of;!); – xyp 2.          Acrobatic       (mf;nuhghl;of;!);   –
,ay;                                     clw;gapw;rpf; fiy
3. Aerodynamics (Vnuhildkpf;!); – 4. Aeronautics (Vnuhdhl;of;!); fhw;W
fhw;W ,a';fpay;. fhw;W btspapy; btspg; gaztpay;
thD}h;jpfspd; ,af;fk; Fwpj;Jj
5. Aerostatics (Vnuh!;nl!;of;!); – 6.         Aesthetics       (V!;bjl;of;!);    –
fhw;W    epiyapay;.      tspk';fSk; mHFzh;tpay;
mtw;Wld; rkdg;gl;l       bghUs;fSk;
Fwpj;jJ.
7.     Aetiology    (Vl;onahy$p)   – 8. Agrobiology (mf;nuhgahy$p) –
fhuztpay;                                                             [
                                         ntshz;ik caphpay;. Jhtu thH;tk/;
                                         jhtu Cl;lr;rj;Jk; Fwpj;jJ.
9. Agronomics (mf;nuhdhkpf;!); – 10.           Agronomy          (mf;nuhdkp)     –
cHthjhuk; rhFgof;nfw;w epyk; kw;Wk; ntshz;ikapay;                   rhFgof;fhd
gaph; njh;t[                        epyj;njh;t[ kw;Wk;          jhdpa cw;gj;jp
                                    Fwpj;jJ
11. Agrostology (mf;nuh!;nlhy$p) – 12. Alchemy (my;bfkp) - ,urthjk;
g[y; ,ay;
                                                      ;
13. Anatomy (mdhl;lkp) – clw;TW 14. Anthropology (Me;junghy$p) –
,ay;. tpy';F/ jhtuk; kw;Wk; kdpj Mjp kdpjtpay;
clw;Twpay;
                               ;
15. Arboriculture (Mh;nghhpfy;rrh;) – 16.    Archaeology             ;
                                                                (Mh;ffpahy$p)    -
          ; [
kuk; tsh;ggf; fiy                        bjhy; bghUsha;tpay;
17.    Astrology         ;
                    (m!;luhy$p)                            ;
                                   – 18. Astronautics (m!;luhdhl;of;!); –
                                         2



nrhjpltpay;                                  tpz;btspg; gaztpay;
19.   Astronomy             ;
                       (m!;luhdkp)      – 20. Astrophysics (m!;lnuhgprpf;!); –
thdtpay;                                     thd;,aw;gpay;  thd;           bghUl;fspd;
                                             ,aw;ifaikg;g[ Fwpj;jJ.
21.   Bacteriology     (ghf;Ohpahy$p)                                  ;
                                        – 22. Biochemistry (gnahbfkp!;lhp) –
Ez; fpUkp                                    caph; ntjpapay;. caphpd';fspy; epfGk;
                                             ntjptpidfs; Fwpj;jJ.
23.    Biometry        (gnahbkl;hp)     – 24.        Bionics       (gnahdpf;!);        –
capustpay;. capuha;tpay; fzpjj;jpd; caph;jpl;gtpay; caphpd';fspd; jd;ik
gad;ghL                             kw;Wk; etPd cyfpy; ,jd; gad;ghL
25.    Bionomy          (gnahdkp)       - 26.      Biophysics      (gnahgprpf;!);      –
capbuhG';fpay;.               caph;thH;tpd; capuhjhuk;. caphpd';fSf;Fk;            Rw;Wr;
tpjpKiwfs; Fwpj;jJ                          NHYf;FKhpa bjhlh;g[
27. Botony (ghl;ldp) – jhtutpay;             28.   Calisthenics    (fhyp!;jdpf;!);     –
                                             njhw;wg; bghyptpay;
29. Ceramics (bruhkpf;!); – mLkz; 30.               Chemistry                ;
                                                                     (bfkp!;lhp)       –
fiyEl;gk;. fspkz;           ghz;lf;   fiy ntjpapay;
bjhHpy;El;gk;
31. Chemotherapy (brkhbjugp) – 32.                                 Chronobiology
ntjpk rpfpr;ir                               (Fnuhndhgahy$p)           –            caph;
                                             fhyf;fzpg;gpay;
33. Chronology (Fnuhdhy$p) – fhyf; 34. Conchology (nfh';fhy$p) - r';F
fzpg;g[             ;
              epfH;rrpfis       fhyKiwg; ,ay;. ej;ij nghd;wtw;wpd; XL Fwpj;j
gLj;Jjy;                                 tpy';fpay; gphpt[
35. Cosmography (fh!;nkhfpuhgp) - 36.                 Cosmology             (fh!;khy$p)
gpug";r mikg;gpay;                           gpug";rtpay;. gpug";rj;jpd;       njhw;wk;/
                                             tuyhW Fwpj;jJ.
                                         3



37.    Cryptography      (fphpg;nlhfpuhgp) 38.      Criminology           (fphpkpdhy$p)
cl;bghUspay;. ,ufrpa vGj;Jf;fspd; Fw;wtpay;
cl;bghUsha;t[
39.                 Crystallography 40.            Cryogenics      (fpiunahb$dpf;!);
(fphp!;ly;nyhfpuh`gp) gof mikg;gpay;         Fsph;jUtpay;
41.    Cyto   Chemistry          (irl;nlh 42.         Cytogenetics           (irl;nlh
       ;
bfkp!;lhp) bry; ntjpapay;                    b$dplof;!);      bry;        kugqtpay;.
                                             bry;fspd;    ghuk;ghpag;          [
                                                                           gz;gfisf;
                                             Fwpj;j caphpay; gphpt[
43. Cytology (irl;nlhy$p) – bry; 44. Dactylography (lhf;onyhfpuhgp)
,ay;                                         – tpuy; jlag; g[ydha;t.[ ifnuif
                                             \yk; Jg;gwpjy;
45. Ecology (vf;fhy$p) – NHypay;             46.   Econometrics     (vfhdhbkl;hpf;!);
                                             bghUshjhu msg;gpay;. bghUshjhu
                                             nfhl;ghLfis mse;jplf; ifahSk;
                                             fzpjKiw.
47.       Economics         (vdfhkpf;!); 48.       Embryology      (vk;gphpahy$p))   –
bghUshjhuk;                                  cl;fUtpay;
49.    Entomology      (Vd;lkhy$p)     – 50.       Epidemiology         (vgpblkpahy$p)
g{r;rpapay;                                  rUktpay;
51.    Epigraphy      (vgpfpuh`gp)     – 52. Ethnography (vj;ndhfpuh`gp) -
fy;btl;oay;                                  ,df;Twpay;
53. Ethics (vj;jpf;!); mwtpay;               54.    Ethnology       (vjpdhy$p)        -
                                             ,dntWghl;oay;
55. Ethology (vjhy$p) - ,dtpay;. 56. Etymology (vjpkhy$p) brhy;ypay;
tpy';fspd; elj;ij gw;wpa Ma;t[               brhw;fspd; njhw;wKk; tuyhWk;
57. Eugenics     (a{$pdpf;!);    ed;kf;fl; 58. Genealogy ($Pdpahy$p) kugpdh;
                                      4



ngwpay;. ed;kf;fisg;                [
                          bgwr;bra;ak; ,ay;.   xU    FLk;gj;jpd;         Ke;ija
kugpay; Ma;t[                          guk;giu tuyhW Fwpj;jJ.
59. Genecology (b$dpfhy$p) kug[f; 60            Genesiology       (b$dprpahy$p)
                                  [
FHypay;. caphpd';fSld; bjhlh;gila jiyKiwapay;
jhtug;bgUf;fj;jpd; kug[f; TW gw;wpaJ
61. Genetics (b$dof;!); kugpay;           62. Geobiology ($pnahgahy$p) – g[tp
                                          caphpay;
                                                                    ;
63. Geobotony ($pnahghl;ldp) g[tpj; 64. Geo Chemistry ($pnah bfkp!;lhp)
jhtutpay;                                 g[tp ntjpapay;
65.   Geography      ($pnahfpuhgp)   – 66.           Geology           ($pnahy$p)
g[tpapay;.      g[tpg;gug;g/[   jd;ik g[tptuyhw;wpay;
jl;gbtl;gk;/ kf;fs; Fwpj;j mwptpay;
67. Geomedicine ($pnahbkorpd;) – 68.                         Geomorphology
g[tpkUe;jpay;. Rw;Wr;NHy; jhf;fj;jhy; ($pnahkhh;`ghy$p) g[tp totpay;
kdpj eyj;jpy; Vw;gLk; tpist[fs;
Fwpj;J Muha[k; kUj;Jtj;Jiw
69. Geophysics ($pnahgp!pf;!); – g[tp 70.       Gerontology      (n$nuhd;lhy$p)
,aw;gpay;                                 KJikapay;. KJikf;fhy          gpur;rid/
                                          jj;Jtk;/ neha;Fwpj;j Ma;t[
71.                  Heliotheraphy 72. Histology (Qp!;lhy$p) – jpRtpay;
(bQypnahbjuh`gp) Nhpar; rpfpr;ir
                       ;      ;
73. Horticulture (Qhh;lof;fy;rrh;) 74. Hydrodynamics           (iQl;nuh
njhl;lf;fiy
                                                   ;
                                   ildkpf;!); – ePhk ,a';fpay;
75. Hydrography (iQl;nuhfpuh`gp() 76. Hydrology (iQl;uhy$p) ePhpay;.
                                                              ; ;
– ePh; msitapay;. ePhtHp khh;ffk;/ ePhg; tsp kz;lyj;jpYk;/ ePhfnfhsj;jpYk;
                     ;        ;       ;
bgUf;fk; mst[j; jfty;fs; nrfhpf;Fk; cs;s ePhpd; ,ay;g[ Fwpj;jJ
mwptpay;
                                         5



77.   Hydrometallurgy          (iQl;nuh 78. Hydropathy (iQl;nuhgjp) – ePh;
bkl;ly;yhh;$p)   –   ePh;k   cnyhftpay;. itj;jpak;
   ;
ePhk';fspy; Cwitj;j    jhJf;fspy;
,Ue;J cnyhf';fisg; gphpj;bjLf;Fk;
Jiw.
79. Hydroponics (iQl;nuhnghdpf;!); 80. Hydrostatics (iQl;nuh!;lhof;!);
     ;                                    ;               ;
– ePhkg;gaphpay;. Cl;lr;rj;J fiurYs; – ePhk epiyapay;. ePhk';fspd; tpir
               ;
jhtu';fis tsh;fFk; Kiw                       mGj;jk; Fwpj;j fzpjKiw Ma;t[
81. Iconography (,f;ndhfpuhgp) – 82.                Hygiene        (iQ$pd;)        –
gokg;gapw;wpay;. Tiuglk;          nghd;w cly;eytpay;
gokk; tHp nghjdhKiw
83.    Iconology       (,f;ndhy$p)                                  :
                                        – 84. Jurisprudence ($Php!;g+ld;!); –
                ;
goktpay;. FwpaPlLg; gok';fs; Fwpj;j rl;ltpay;. ePjpbewp/ rl;lxG';F gw;wpa
Ma;t[                               Ma;t[
85. Lexicography (byf;!pnfhfpuhgp) – 86. Mamography (kk;nkhfpuhgp) –
mfuKjypj;bjhif. Mfuhjp bjhFj;jy;             ghy; Rug;gp mikg;gpay;. gy;Rug;gpfisg;
                                                                      ;
                                             glk;gpof;Fk; vf;!; fjph;gglk;
87. Metallography (bkl;ly;yhfpuhgp) 88.           Metallurgy      (bkl;lyhh;$p)    –
cnyhff; fl;likg;gpay;                        cnyhftpay;.    jhJf;fspy;        ,Ue;J
                                             cnyhf';fisg; gphpj;bjLg;gJ
89. Meteorology (bkl;Ohpahy$p) – 90.                  Metrology           (bkl;uhy$p)
thdpiy ,ay;                                  msitapay;
91. Microbiology (ikf;nuhgahy$p) – 92. Molecular Biology (khypf;a{yh;
Ez;qaphpay;                                  gahy$p) - \yf;TW caphpay;. caphpay;
                                                           ;
                                             Kf;fpak; tha;ej \yf;TWfs; gw;wpaJ
93.   Morphology         (khh;`ghy$p)   – 94.      Mycology       (ikf;fhy$p)      –
caphpd totpay;                               g{";rztpay;. g{";ir/ fhshd; neha;fs;
                                     6



                                         Fwpj;j Ma;t[
95. Neurology (epa{uhy$p) – euk;gpay; 96. Neuropathology (epa{nuhgj;jhy$p)
                                         – euk;g[ njhapay;
97. Numerology (epa{kuhy$p) – vz; 98.           Numismatics        (epa{kp!;khof;!);
nrhjplk;                                 ehzatpay;
99. Odontography (xld;nlhfpuh`gp) 100. Odontology (xld;nlhyh$p) –
gy;mikg;gpay;                            gy; Ma;tpay;
101. Optics (Mg;of;!); – xspapay;        102.   Ornithology        (xhpe;jhy$p)     –
                                         gwit ,ay;
103.    Orthoepy          ;
                     (Mh;jnjhgp)                             ;
                                    – 104. Orthopaedics (Mh;jnjhgPof;!); –
cr;rhpg;gpay;                            vYk;g[ kUj;Jtk;
105.   Osteology    (M!;oahy$p)     – 106.                     Osteopathology
vYk;gpay;                                (M!;onahgjhy$p)       –    vYk;g[       neha;
                                         ,ay;
107. Osteopathy (M!;onahgjp) – 108. Palaeobotony (ghynahd;lhy$p)
vYk;g[ jpUj;Jtk;                         bjhy;Yapuha;tpay;
109. Palynology (ghypdhy$p) – bjhy; 110. Pathology (bgjhy$p) – neha;
kfue;jtpay;                              ,ay;
111. Pedagogy (bglfhfp) ghltpay;. 112. Pharyngology (ghhp'; fhy$p) –
ghlk; gapw;Wtpf;Fk; Kiw                  Fuy; tisapay;
113. Phenolgoy (gPdhy$p) – caph;fs; 114.         Philately         (gpyhl;lyp)       -
Ma;tpay;                                 m";ry;jiy nrfhpg;g[
115. Philology (gpyhy$p) – Rtoay;        116. Phonetics (nghbdl;of;!); – xyp
                                         tot,ay;
117. Photobiology (nghl;nlhgahy$p) 118. Phrenology (`g;budhy$p) – kdj;
– xsp caphpapy. caphpfspd; kPJ xyp jpwdpay;. fghyj;jpd; \yk; kdj; jpwid
                                   tiuaWf;Fk; Ma;t[
                                          7



Vw;gLj;Jk; ghjpg;g[ Fwpj;Jj
119. Phthisiology (jp!pnahy$p) fhr 120. Phycology (igf;fhy$p) ghrp ,ay;
nehapay;.
121.   Physical      Science       (gp!pfy; 122. Physics (gp!pf;!); ,aw;gpay; -
rapd;!);       -   ,aw;gpay;.                           [
                                   caph;g; bghUspd; gz;gfs; Fwpj;jJ.
bghUl;fSf;F mg;ghw;gl;l            tpjpfs;
             ;
kw;Wk; epfH;rrpfs; Fwpj;jJ
123. Physiography (gp!pnahfpuh`gp) 124.              Physiology      (gp!pnahy$p)     –
– g[tp ,aw;if ,ay;                            cly; ,a';fpay;

125. Phytogeny (igl;nlhb$dp) – 126. Pomology (nghkhy$p) – fdp
jhtuj; njhw;wtpay;                            ,ay;. fdp/ gHkuk; Fwpj;j mwptpay;
127.    Psycology       (irf;fhy$p)     – 128. Radio Astronomy (nuonah
cstpay;                                           ;
                                              m!;luhzkp) – fjpuiy/ thdtpay;
129.    Radio      Biology        (neonah 130.       Radiology       (neonahy$p)      –
                                            ;
gahy$p) fjpuiy caphpay;. caphpfspy; fjph;tPrR ,ay;
         ;
fjph; tPrR Vw;gLj;Jk; ghjpg;g[ Fwpj;jJ.
131.    Rheology        (nunahy$p)      – 132.      Seismology             ;
                                                                     (bra;!khy$p)     –
gha;tpay;. bghUspd;     totk;/      gha;t[ g{fk;gtpay;
Fwpj;j Ma;t[
133.   Selenology       (brydhy$p)      – 134.       Sericulture               ;
                                                                      (brhpfy;rrh;)   –
re;jputpay;                                                     ;
                                              gl;Lg;g{r;rp tsh;gg[
135.        Sociology         (nrh#pahy$p) 136.                       Spectroscopy
r\ftpay;                                              ;
                                              (!;bgf;lnuh!;nfhgp)     –      epuy;khiy
                                              fhl;oay;
137. Teleology (blyhy$p) – bjhiy 138.                    Telepathy     (blypgjp)      –
nehf;fpay;.    ,aw;ifapd;    njhw;wKk; bjhiykdj; bjhlh;gpay;
nehf;fKk;      gw;wpa     bjhiynehf;F
                                           8



Mjhu';fs;
139. Therapeutics         (bjuhgPof;!);   – 140. Topography (nlhnghfpuh`gp) –
rpfpr;ir ,ay;                                  jytotikg;g[
141. Toxicology (nlhf;!pfhy$p) 142.      Virology                     (itnuhyh$p)
er;rtpay;/ tp#';fs; gw;wpa Ma;t[ Ez;qaphpay;


braw; fUtpfs;



1.    Altimeter      (My;o         ;
                                kPllh;)                       ;
                                          – 2. Ammeter (mk;kPllh;) – kpd;dstp
Fj;Jaustp.     Fj;Jau';fis           msf;f – kpd;ndhl;lj;jpd; typikia msf;f
cjt[k; jputkpy;yhf; fUtp                       cjt[fpwJ
3.    Anemometer        (mdpnkh         ;                            ;
                                     kPllh;) 4. Audiometer (Monah kPllh;) –
         ;
fhw;W tPrrstp. fhw;wpd; ntfk;/ jpiria nfbshyp mstp.             Nfs;tpj;     jpwid
mwpa cjt[tJ                           msf;f cjt[fpwJ
                       ;
5. Barometer (ghnuh kPllh;) fhw;wGj;j 6. Binoculars (igdhFyh;!); ,ul;il
mstp. tspkz;ly mGj;jj;ij msf;f bjhiyfhl;o. bjhiyJ}ug; bghUl;fisf;
cjt[fpwJ                       fhz cjt[tJ
7.    Calorimeter        (fnyhhp        ;                              ;
                                     kPllh;) 8. Chronometer (FnuhndhkPllh;) –
btk;ikastp                                     fhy mstp. fhyj;ij msf;Fk; kpf
                                               El;gkhd fUtp
9.       Clinical         Thermometer 10. Colorimeter (fyhp kPllh;) epw
                                                               ;
(fpspdpf;fy;                  ;
                    bjh;nkhkPllh;)     – mstp.      tz;z';fspd;            jPtpuj;ij
btg;gmstp. Kdpj                              [
                           cly;btg;gj;ij xg;gnehf;f cjt[tJ
msf;f cjt[k; fUtp
11.     Commutator                                             ;
                              (fk;a{nll;lh;) 12. Computer (fk;ga{l;lh;) fzpg;bghwp
kpd;jpir khw;wp. kpd;ndhl;l jpiria
khw;w cjt[tJ
                                    9



13. Dynamometer (ildnkh kPllh;) 14. Electroscope (vyf;lnuh!;nfhg;) –
                           ;                           ;
– kpd;jpwdstp. kpd; jpwid msf;f kpd;fhl;o             btg;gepiyia        msf;f
cjt[tJ                          cjt[tJ

                                                               ;
15. Galvanameter (fhy;tndh kPl;lh;) 16. Hydrometer (iQl;nuh kPllh;)
                                               ;                   ;
Ez; kpd; mstp. kpd;ndhl;lj;ij kpf jputkhdp. ePhk';fspd; xg;g[ mlh;jjpia
Ez;ikahf msf;f cjt[k; fUtp        msf;f cjt[tJ
                                                           ;
17. Hydrophone (iQl;nuhnghd;) – 18. Hydrometer (iQl;nuh kPllh;) -
ePbuhyp th';fp. ePUf;foapy;    ngRk; <ug;gj mstp
Fuiyf; nfl;f cjt[tJ
                                                             ;
19. Hygroscope (iQf;nuh!;nfhg;) - 20. Lactometer (yhf;nlh kPllh;) –
<ug;gj';fhl;o.    <ug;gj     mst[ ghystp. ghypd;           xg;g[        ;
                                                                   mlh;jjpiaf;
khw;w';fisf; fhz cjt[k; fUtp      fhz cjt[tJ
21.   Magnetometer                                           ;
                          (khf;dl;nlh 22. Manometer (khndhkPllh;) – jput
kPllh;) – fhe;j mstp. fhe;jj; jpUg;gj; mGj;j
   ;                                [         mstp.     tspk';fspd;
jpwida[k/; g[y';fisa[k; xg;gnehf;f mGj;jj;ij msf;f cjt[tJ
                                [
cjt[k; fUtp
23.        Mariner’s     Compass 24.        Micrometer                  ;
                                                             (ikf;nuhkPllh;)   –
        ;
(kiudh;!fhk;g!;) khYkp jpirfhl;o        Ez;zstp.          rpW       bjiyt[fs;/
                                        nfhz';fisj;       Jy;ypakhf    msf;f
                                        cjt[tJ
25. Microscope (ikf;nuh!;nfhg;) – 26.         Periscope      (bghp!;nfhg;)     –
Ez;fhl;o                                fhz;gth; fz;kl;lj;jpw;F nky; ,Uf;Fk;
                                        bghUl;fisf; fhz cjt[tJ
                           ;
27. Photometer (nghl;nlhkPllh;) – 28.       Plantimeter                 ;
                                                             (gpshd;okPllh;)   –
xyp mstp. xsph;bghUl;fspd; bghypt[j; gug;gstp. Rkjsg;gug;igj; bjhFj;jspf;f
              [
jPtpuj;ij xg;gnehf;f cjt[k; mstp     cjt[k; fUtp
                          ;
29. Pyknometer (igf;nd kPllh;) – 30.         Pyrheliometer         (igh;Qpypnah
                                      10



             ;             ;
mlh;tstp. ePhkj;jpd; mlh;jjpiaa[k;/ kPllh;) – fdw;fjpustp. Nhpaf; fjph;
                                       ;
tphpita[k; msf;f cjt[k; fUtp           ;
                                    tPrRf;fis msf;f cjt[tJ
                        ;
31. Pyrometer (ignuh kPllh;) fdy; 32.            Quadrant         (Fthl;ud;l);
mstp. cah;btg;g epiyia msf;f br';Fj;jstp.  gaz      mikg;gpYk;/
cjt[k; fUtp                  thdtpaypYk;        Fj;Jau';fisa[k;
                             nfhz';fisa[k; msg;gJ
                        ;
33. Quartz Clock (Fthh;l!; fpshf;) – 34.      Radio Micrometer        (nuonah
                                [                  ;
goff;fy; fofhuk;. Thdpay; Ma;tfspy; ikf;nuh kPllh;) fjpuiy Ez;zstp.
                                                      ;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk; kpfj; Jy;ypa fofhuk; btg;gf; fjph; tPrRf;fis msg;gJ
35.   Rain   Gauge    (buapd;     nf$;) 36.    Refractometer      (hp`g;uhf;nlh
kiHastp                                    ;
                                        kPllh;) – tpyfy; mstp. xsptpyfy;
                                        vz;iz msf;f cjt[tJ
37. Salinometer (rhypndh kPllh;) – 38. Seismography (bra;!nkhfpuhg;) –
                            ;                             ;
    [
cg;gf; fiury; mstp                      g{fk;g mstp
                  ;                                         ;
39. Sextant (brf;!lhd;l); – nfhzj; 40. Spectroscope (!;bgf;lnuh!;nfhg;)
bjhiytstp.                         ,U – epuy;khiyf;fhl;o. kpd;fhe;j     miy
bghUl;fSf;fpilnaahd             nfhzj; thpiriag; gphpj;Jf; fhl;LtJ
bjhiyt[fis msg;gJ
                         ;      ;                                ;
41. Spectrometer (!;bgf;lnuh kPllh;) 42. Spherometer (!;bgnuh kPllh;) –
epuy;khiy mstp. xsptpyfy; vz;fis nfhsmstp.       nfhsf    totg;
kpf El;gkhf mstpl cjt[tJ         bghUs;fspd; tistpidj; Jy;ypakhf
                                 msf;f cjt[k; fUtp
43. Spygmomanometer (!;igf;nkh 44. Spring Balance (!;gphp'; ghyd;!);
         ;
khndh kPllh;) ,uj;j mGj;j mstp          RUs; juhR
45. Stereoscope (!;Ohpnah!;nfhg;) – 46.       Stethoscope   (!;blj!;nfhg;)   -
xspf;fUtp.    bghUs;     Mhj;ija[k; ,jaj; Jog;gstp
jplj;jd;ikiaa[k; btspg;gLj;jp ,U
ghpkhzg; glkhff; fhl;LtJ
                                         11




47. Stroboscope (!;ouhngh!;nfhg;) – 48.             Tangent           Galvanometer
                                                            ;
RHy; mstp. Fwpg;gpl;lf;fhy mstpy; (nl";rd;l; fhy;tndh kPllh;) bjhL
tpiue;J    ,a';Fk;      bghUl;fspd; Ez;zstp. neh;kpd;ndhl;l typikia
mjpntfr; rydj;ij nehf;Fk; fUtp      msf;f cjt[tJ
                      ;
49. telemeter (blypkPllh;) – bjhiy 50.            Teleprinter        (blypgphpz;lh;)   –
mstp. btF bjhiytpy; elf;Fk; bjhiy vGjp. bjhiyapl';fSf;Fj;
      ;                [
epfH;rrpfisg; gjt[bra;ak; fUtp jfty;fis mr;brGj cjt[k; fUtp
51. Telescope (bly!;nfhg;) bjhiy 52.                 Television            (blyptp#d;)
fhl;o                                        bjhiyf;fhl;rpg; bgl;o
53. Thermoscope (bjh;nkh!;nfhg;) – 54. Thermostat (bjh;nkh!;lhl;) btg;g
btg;g';fhl;o.     btg;gj;jhy;     xU epiyg;gLj;jp
bghUspd;        gUkdpy;       Vw;gLk;
khw;w';fspd;    mog;gilapy;    btg;g
ntWghl;il        njhuhakhf    msf;f
cjt[fpwJ
                                                           ;
55. Vernier (bth;dpah;) Ez;zstp. 56. Viscometer (tp!;nfhkPllh;) – ghF
mst[nfhypd; kpff; Fiwe;j myfpd; epiyastp
        [
cl;gFg;gfisr;   Rj;jkhf  mstpl
cjt[k; fUtp
57.     Voltmeter   (nthy;l;      ;
                               kPllh;)   –
kpd;dGj;j mstp
                                      12



                                 ,aw;gpay;

ve;jputpay;

  1. ntiy – bghUbshd;wpd; kPJ tpir bray;gLk;nghJ tpirapd; jpirapy;
                    ;
      bghUshdJ efh;ejhy; tpirahy; ntiy bra;ag;gltpy;iy vd;W Twyhk;.
  2. mt;tpir     bray;gl;L       bghUs;    efuhkypUe;jhy;   tpirahy;   ntiy
      bra;ag;gltpy;iy vdyhk;. tpirapdhy; bra;ag;gLk; ntiy W = F x S
  3. ntiyapd; myF $Py; MFk;. $Py; xU bghUspd; kPJ xU epa{l;ld;
             ;                               ;
     mst[ss tpir bray;gl;L/ mg;bghUshdJ 1 kPllh; bjhiyt[ efUtjhff;
     bfhz;lhy; bra;ag;gl;l ntiyapd; mst[ 1 $Py; MFk;. 1 $Py; = 1
                    ;
     epa{l;ld; 1 kPllh;
  4. ntiy bra;ag;gLk; tPjk; jpwd; vdg;gLk;.
  5. kpd;dhw;wyhdJ    fpnythl;     kzp     (Kilo watt hour)    vd;w    myfhy;
      msf;fg;gLfpwj. ,jid kpd;rhu            myfhhf    1 a{dpl; vd;fpnwhk;.
      ve;jpu';fspd; jpwd; bghJthff;          Fjpiuj;   jpwd; vd;w myfhy;
      msf;fg;gLfpwJ. 1 H.P. (Horse power) = 746 watt
  6. Mw;wy; - ntiyapd; myF $Py/; Mw;wypd; myFk; $Py; MFk;. Mw;wy;
     gy tot';fspy; cs;sd.
  7. ,af;f Mw;wy; - xU bghUs; mjd; ,af;fj;jpdhy; bgw;Ws;s Mw;wiy
      ,af;f Mw;wy; vd;fpnwhk;. ,af;f Mw;wYf;fhd tha;g;ghL ½ mv2 $Py;
     MFk;.
                                             ;
  8. vspa ve;jpu';fs; - xU Fwpg;gpl;l g[sspapy;/ xU Fwpg;gpl;l jpirapy;
     bray;gLk; xU tpiria/ mjd; kjpg;ignah my;yJ ntbwhU
     jpirianah/ my;yJ ,uz;ila[nkh khw;wp ntbwhU (jFe;j) g[sspapy;  ;
                         [
     fpilf;FkhW bra;ak; mikg;gpid vspa ve;jpuk; vd;fpnwhk;. v.fh.
          [
     bek;gnfhy;/ fg;gp/ rf;fuKk; ,URk;/ rha;jsk;/ jpUF/ Mg;g[ ,it nghd;w
     rhjd';fs;.
                                       13



  9. bghUbshd;wpd;       kPJ    tpir    bray;gLk;nghJ      tpirapd;    jpirapy;
                      ;
        bghUshdJ efh;ejhy; ntiy bra;ag;gl;lJ vdyhk;. (W = FXS) ntiy
        bra;ag;gLk; tPjk; jpwd; vdg;gLk;. mjd; myF thl; 1 H.P. = 746 thl;.
        xU bghUspd; Mw;wy; vd;gJ mJ bra;a ,aYk; ntiyapd; msitf;
        Fwpg;gjhFk;. epiyahw;wy; = mgh $Py/; ,af;f Mw;wy; = ½ mv2 MFk;.


   ;
ePhkepiyapay;

                           ;
  10. gh!;fy; tpjp – xU ePhkj;jpnyh my;yJ tha[tpnyh bfhLf;fg;gLk; mGj;jk;
        vy;yhj; jpirfspYk; rkkhf gut[fpwJ.
  11.                                                          ;
        gh!;fy; tpjpapd; mog;gilapy; ePhpay; mGj;jpa[k/; ePhktpay; jila[k;
        bray;gLfpd;wd.
  12.                               ;
        ce;J tpirf;Fk; bghUs; ePhkj;jpy; \H;Fk; nghJ mjdhy; btspnaw;wg;gl;l
           ;
        ePhkj;jpd; vilf;Fk; cs;s bjhlh;gpid Kjd; Kjypy; fpnuf;f mwp"h;
              ;
        Mh;ffpkpo!; fz;lwpe;jhh;
  13.   tspkz;ly mGj;jk; vd;gJ fhw;wpd; mGj;jkhFk;. fp..gp.1643,y; ,j;jhyp
        ehl;L mwptpay; mwp"h; lhhpbry;yp Kjd; Kjypy; ghuhkhdpiag;
        gad;gLj;jp fhw;wpd mGj;jj;ij mse;jhh;.
  14.             ;
        `ghh;lod; ghukhdp fhw;wpd; mGj;jj;ij Jy;ypakhf mstpLk; fUtpahFk;.
  15.   fhw;wGj;jj;jhy; ,a';Fk; fUtpfs; kpjptz;o gk;g/[ mof;FHha;/ tpirg;gk;g.[
  16.   mGj;jk; - fydpd; XuyF gug;gpd; kPJ bray;gLk; tpir mGj;jk;
        vdg;gLk;.
  17.                                         ;
        mGj;jj;jpd; myF epa{l;ld; _ kPllh;2 Mdhy; eilKiwapy; jput
        mGj;jk; gh!;fy; vd;w myfhy; msf;fg;gLfpwJ.
  18.   xU gh!;fy; vd;gJ XuyFg; gug;gpd; kPJ xU epa{l;uhd; tpir bray;gLk;
        nghJ Vw;gLk; mGj;jk; MFk;.
  19.           ;                                  ;
        mlh;jjp vz; - xU bghUspd; mlh;jjp vz; vd;gJ bghUspd;
                ;                 ;                         ;
        mlh;jjpf;Fk;/ ePhpd; mlh;jjpf;Fk; cs;s tpfpjk; mlh;jjp vz;qf;F myF
        ,y;iy.
                                      14



           ;                     ;
  20. mlh;jjp – xU bghUspd; mlh;jjp vd;gJ mjd; epiwf;Fk;/ gUkDf;Fk;
        ,ilna cs;s tpfpjk; MFk;.
  21.   kpjj;jy;   tpjpfs;   -     kpjf;Fk; bghUspd;     vil     mg;bghUshy;
        btspnaw;wg;gl;l jputj;jpd; vilf;Fr; rkkhf ,Uf;Fk;.
  22.                          ; [
        kpjf;Fk; bghUspd; <h;ggikak; mg;bghUshy; btspnaw;wg;gl;l jputj;jpd;
            ;
        <h;gg[ ikak; ,t;tpuz;Lk; xnu br';Fj;Jf; nfhl;oy; mika[k;
  23.   jputkhdp gad;fs; - ,J ghypd; J}a jd;ikiaf; fz;lwpag;
        ghy;khdpahft[k/; kpd;fy';fspy; cs;s mkpy';fspd; xg;glh;jjpiaf; ;
        fhzt[k/; My;fQhy;fspd; rjtPjj;ijj; bjhpe;J bfhs;st[k; gad;gLfpwJ.
  24.   gpspk;rhy; nfhLfs; - btt;ntW fhyepiyfspy;/ Vw;gLk; khWgl;l fly;
                    ;
        ePhpd; mlh;jjpf;F Vw;wthW fg;gypy; rkepiyia cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Ffhff;
        fg;gypd; gf;fthl;oy; gy nfhLfs; tiuag;gl;Ls;sd. ,f;nfhLfs;
        gpspk;rhy; nfhLfs; vdg;gLfpd;wd. tuyhw;Wg; g[fH;kpf;f khYkp gpspk;rhy;
        epidthf ,g;bgah; ,lg;gl;oUf;fpwJ.


btg;gtpay;

                                     ;
  25. 4° bry;rpa!; rpwpa ePhpd; mlh;jjp mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. 0° bry;rpa!; apy;
                                              ;
      gdpf;fl;oapd; gUkd; mjpfk;/ Mdhy; mlh;jjp Fiwt[ vdnt mlh;jjpf;  ;
      Fiwe;j gdpf;fl;o ePhpd; nky; kpjf;fpwJ.
                                                   ;
  26. xU fpuhk; btg;gepiyia 1 ofphp bry;rpa!; cah;jJtjw;Ff; bfhLf;fg;gLk;
      btg;gj;jpd; mst[ 1 fnyhhp vdg;gLk;.
           • btg;gj;ij msf;f fnyhhp vd;w myF gad;gLfpwJ
                                   ;
           • 1 fnyhhp vd;gJ 4.2 $PyfSf;Fr; rkk;
                     ;                                ;
           • 1000 $Pyfs; = 1 fpnyh $Py; (10/00/000 $Pyfs; = 1 bkfh $Py);
  27. epiy khw;wj;jpw;F vLj;Jf;bfhs;sg;gLk; btg;gk; cs;kiw btg;gk;
      vdg;gLk;
  28. ePhpd; btg;gepiy 4 ofphp bry;rpa!; I tpl Fiwa[k; bghGJ mjd; gUkd;
      mjpfhpf;fpwJ.
  29. jdpbtg;gepiy gw;wpa fUj;ijf; Twpath; bfy;tpd; vd;w mwptpayhsh;.
                                   15



30. Tha[ \yf;TWfs; Xa;t[ epiyia mila[k; btg;gepiyna jdpr;RHp
    my;yJ jdpbtg;gepiy vdg;gLk;.
31. 0 ofphp jdpbtg;gepiy = -273 ofphp bry;rpa!; mjhtJ 0.K ,';F nf
   vd;gJ bfy;tpd; vd;w myF MFk;. ,jd;go t°c= (273+t)K
32. bfy;tpd; mst[ = bry;rpa!; mst[ +273
            0°c = 273K; 100°c = 373K; 273°c = 0.K
33. ghjur btg;gepiykhdpfs;
         • ghjurj;jpy; xsp g[fhJ
                                     [ ;
         • ghjurj;jpd; jd; btg;g Vw;gjjpwd; Fiwt[
         • ghjurj;jpd; kpff;    Fiwe;j       btg;g             ;
                                                        cah;t[fFk;     xnu   rPuhfg;
           bgUf;fkila[k;
         • ciw epiy 39°c bfhjpepiy 357°c
        • cah; btg;g epiyfis msf;fg; ghjur btg;g epiykhdpfs;
           gad;gLfpwJ
34. My;fQhy; btg;gepiykhdpfs;
         • My;fQhy; epwkw;w        jputk;/    rptg;g[    ePy   epwk;    fyf;fg;gl;L
           gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
                           [
         • btg;g epiy cah;tf;F ghjurj;ij tpl mjpfst[ bgUf;fk;
           milfpwJ. Mfnt
         • My;fQhy; btg;gepiykhdpfs; cah;t[ El;gk; mjpfk;
         • My;fQhhy; ciuepiy – 115°c bfhjpepiy 78°c
                                                        ;
35. ghapy; tpjp – khwhj btg;gepiyapy; Fwpg;gpl;l epiwa[ss xU tha[tpa;d
   gUkd; mjd; mGj;jj;jpw;F vjph;tpfpjj;jpy; khWgLfpwJ.
                                                        ;
36. rhh;y!; tpjp – gUkd; khwhjnghJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l epiwa[ss tha[tpd;
   mGj;jk;/ mGj;jk; khwhj nghJ mjd; gUkDk; mjd; rhh;gpyh btg;g
   epiyf;F neh;tpfpjj;jpy; mika[k;
                                    16



Xypapay;

  37. vjpbuhyp - ek;ik mila 1_10 tpdhof;F mjpfkhf vLj;Jf;bfhz;lhy;
      vjpbuhypf;fg;gl;l xypia ehk; jdpahff; nfl;fpnwhk;. ,jidna vjpbuhyp
      vd;fpnwhk;.
                                                ;
  38. fhw;wpy; xypapd; ntfk; tpdhof;F 340 kPllh; 1_10 tpdhoapy; xyp bry;Yk;
                   ;                              ;         ;
      J}uk; 34 kPllh; vjpbuhypf;Fk; jsk; 17 kPllh; bjhiyt[fF nky; ,Ue;jhy;
      neuo xypa[k/; vjpbuhypf;fg;gl;l xypa[k; jdpj;jdpahf nfl;Fk;.
  39. ,irf;fUtpfs; - tPiz/ fpl;lhh;/ taypd;/ rpj;jhh; nghd;w fUtpfspy;
                                                          ;
      fk;gpfs; mjph;tiltjhy; xyp cz;lhfpwJ. g[yyh';FHy;/ ehj!;tuk;/
      b#dha; Mfpa fUtpfs; thahy; CJtjd; \yk; FHypy; cs;s fhw;W
      mjph;tilar; bra;ag;gLfpwJ. kpUj';fk;/ jgyh/ jtpy; nghd;wit
      njhw;fUtpfs;/ rt;tpd; btt;ntW gFjpfspy; bkJthfnth/ mGj;jpnah
      jl;LtjhYk; mjd; ,Gtpiria khw;WtjhYk; xypapd; RUjp/ brwpt[
      Mfpad khw;wg;gLfpd;wd.
                                       [
  40. kPbahyp miyf;s – xU bghUs; mjph;tWk; nghJ mjd; mjph;btz; 20-
                          ;
      ypUe;J/ 20/000 bQh;l!; tiu ,Uf;Fk; nghJ ehk; nfl;f Koa[k.;
                   ;
  41. 20/000 bQ;li!tpl mjpfkhd mjph;btz; cs;s xypaiyfs; kPbahyp
      miyfs; vdg;gLfpd;wd. mtw;iw ek; brtpfshy; czu KoahJ.
  42. kPbahyp miyfspd; gad;fs; -[
           1. SONAR: - ,J Sound Navigation and Ranging vd;gjd;
                         ;
             RUf;fk;. ePh\H;fpf; fg;gy;/ flypDs; tpGe;j tpkhdk;/ bghpa
             gdpf;fl;ofs; Mfpatw;iwf; fz;Lgpof;f nrhdhh; gad;gLfpwJ. cah;
             mjph;btz; miyfisj; njhw;Wtpj;J ePhpd; tHpna brYj;jpdhy;/
             ,t;tiyfs; ePhpDs; cs;s bghUs;fspy; gl;L vjpbuhspf;fpd;wd.
             ,t;thW vjpbuhspj;j miyfis Xh; Vw;gp \yk; bgw;Wg; bghUspd;
             jd;ikia mwpayhk;.

  43. xypg;gjpt[ - fhe;jj; jd;ik bfhz;l ehlhf;fspd; kPnjh/ rpdpkh glr;RUspy;
      xypg;ghijapy; gjpt[ bra;tJ nghd;nwh jw;fhy';fspy; xypahdJ gjpt[
                                    17



      bra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW gjpt[ bra;ag;gLk; xypia njitg;gLk; nghJ
      mnj nghd;W jpUk;gt[k; bgwyhk;.
  44. jw;nghJ v`F ehlhtpw;Fg; gjpyhf xypg;gjpt[ bra;tjw;Fg; gpsh!;of; ehlh
      (fhe;j ehlh) gad;gLfpwJ.


xspapay;

  45. vjpbuhspj;jy; - rkjs Moay; gLk; xspf;fjph;fs; ve;j Clfj;jpypUe;J
                                         [         ;
      te;jnjh mnj Clfj;jpw;Fj; jpUk;gk; epfH;rrpf;F vjpbuhspj;jy; vd;W bgah;.
  46. vjpbuhspj;jy; tpjpfs;
            1. gLfjph;/        ;
                            kPsfjph;/          [ ;
                                      gLk;gsspapd;       tHpna    tiuag;gLk;
                br';Fj;Jf;nfhL Mfpait xnu jsj;jpy; mika[k;
            2. gLnfhzKk; kPs; nfhzKk; rkk;
  47. rkjs Moapy; njhd;Wk; gpk;gk; khagpk;gk; MFk;.
  48. rkjs Moapy; njhd;Wk; gpk;gk; neuhdJ
  49. rkjs Moapy; njhd;Wk; gpk;gj;jpd; mst[k; bghUspd; mst[k; rkkhf
                                       ;
      ,Uf;Fk; mr;rf';fspy; mr;rf;nfhh;fFk;nghJ Vw;gLk; gpiHfisf; fhz;gjw;F
      rkjs Mofs; gad;gLfpd;wd.
  50. fiylh!;nfhg;gpy; njhd;Wk; tot';fis itj;J Milfspy; oird;
      mikf;fpwhh;fs;
  51. nfhsf Moapd; gad;fs;
            1. FHp Mofs; Kfr; rtuk; bra;tjw;Fg; gad;gLfpd;wd.
            2. gy;      kUj;Jth;fs;        FHp       Moia    cUg;bgUf;fpahfg;
                gad;gLj;Jfpd;whh;
                                                                       ; ;
            3. ngUe;Jfspd; Kfg;g[ tpsf;Ff;s lhh;r; tpsf;Ffs; gltPHjjpfs;
                Ez;nzhf;fp Mfpatw;wpy; vjpbuhspg;ghd;fshf FHp Mofs;
                gad;gLfpd;wd.
            4. ngUe;J fhh; nghd;w thfd';fspy; Xl;LeUf;F mUnf gpd;nd
                cs;sgue;j fhl;rpfis fhz;gjw;Ff; Ftp Mofs; gad;gLfpd;wd.
  52. xsp Xh; Clfj;jpy; ,Ue;J kw;nwhh; Clfj;jpw;F bry;Yk; nghJ jdJ
      ghijapypUe;J rw;w tpyfpr; bry;fpwJ. ,jw;F xsptpyfy; vd;W bgah;.
                                    18



                 ;
53. Xsptpyfyila[knghJ rpy tpjpfSf;Fl;gLfpwJ. mit – gLfjph;/ tpyF
      fjph;/ Fj;Jf;nfhL. ,it \d;Wk; xnu jsj;jpy; mika[k;
54.   gLnfhzj;jpd; ird; kjpg;gpw;Fk;/ tpyF nfhzj;jpd; ird; kjpg;gpw;Fk;
                   ;
      ,ilnaa[sd tpfpjk; xU khwhj vz;zhFk;. ,jw;F (2Mk; tpjpf;F) !;bey;
      tpjp vd;Wk; bgah;.
55.   Xsp tpyfy; vz; - gLnfhzj;jpd; irDf;Fk;/ tpyF nfhzj;jpd; irDf;Fk;
                   ;
      ,ilnaa[ss tpfpjk; xU khwh vz;. ,e;j vz;zpw;F xsp tpyfy; vz;
      vd;W bgah;. jz;zPhpd; xsp tpyfy; vz; 1.33 fz;zho 1.5/ bgl;nuhypak;
      1.38 ituk; 2.4/ fhw;w 1
56.   rkjs Mofs; fiylh!;nfhg;/ bghp!;nfhg; nghd;w xspapay; fUtpfspy;
      gad;gLfpd;wd.
57.   epwg;gphpifapd; - tpisthfj; njhd;Wk; tz;zj; njhw;wk; epwkhiy
      vdg;gLk;. (epwkhiy = VIBGYOR)
58.   kpf mjpfkhf tpyfy; mila[k; epwk; Cjh
59.   kpff; Fiwthf tpyfy; mila[k; epwk; rptg;g[
60.   Kjd;ik epw';fs; - rptg;g/[ ePyk;/ gr;ir ,itfis 30:11:59 vd;w
      tpfpjj;jpy; fyg;gjhy; btz;ik epwk; cz;lhFk;.
61.                           ;
      vy;yh epw';fisa[k; <h;jJf;bfhs;Sk; bghUs; fUikahft[k; njhd;Wk;.
62.   rptg;g[ epw jl;od; tHpahf gr;ir epwg; bghUisa[nah (m) gr;ir epw
                                                    ;
      jl;od; tHpahf rptg;g[ epwg; bghUisa[nah ghh;jjhy; fWg;ghfj; bjhpa[k.;
      Mdhy; gr;ir rptg;gpd; Jiz epwkhf k";rs; epwk; k";rs; epwkhfnt
      fhl;rpaspf;Fk;

63. KG mf vjpbuhspg;g[ - xspf;fjph; mlh;t[ kpF Clfj;jpypUe;J mlh;t[
    Fiw Clfj;jpw;Fs; bry;Yk; nghJ gLnfhzk;/ khWepiyf; nfhzj;ij tpl
    mjpfkhdhy; tpyF fjph; mlh;t[ kpF Clfj;jpw;Fs;nsna vjpbuhspf;fpwJ.
    ,e;epfH;t[ KG mf vjpbuhspg;g[ vdg;gLk;.
64. ,irt[gLjpwd; - bghUs;fspd; J}u';fSf;nfw;g jd; Ftpa J}uj;ij khw;wpf;
    bfhs;Sk; tpHpbyd;rpd; jpwd; fz;zpd; ,irt[gLjpwd; vdg;gLfpwJ.
                                   19



                          ;
65. bjspt[W fhl;rpapd; kPrrpW bjhiyt[ - Fiwghlw;w fz; ghh;it bfhz;l
    xUtDf;F xU bghUis bjspthff; fhzf;Toa kpff;Fiwe;j bjhiyt[
                                                                ;
    Vwf;Fiwa 25 br.kP (0.25 kP) MFk;. ,J bjspt[W fhl;rpapd; kPrrpW
                                   ;
    bjhiyt[ vdg;gLk;. ,j;bjhiyt[fFs; mika[k; bghUs;fs; bjspthfj;
    bjhpahJ.
66. fpl;lg;ghh;it – mz;ikapy; cs;s bghUs;fis kl;Lnk bjspthf fhz
   Koe;J/ nra;ikapYs;s bghUs;fisj; bjspthf fhz ,ayhj jd;ik
   ek;kpy; rpyUf;F Vw;gLfpwJ. ,f;FiwghL cilnahhpd; tpHpf;nfhsk;
                  ;
   btspna ePzoUf;Fk;. Byd;rpd; kpf mjpff; Ftpe;j jd;ika[k;
   ,f;Fiwg;ghl;ow;F xU fhuzkhf mikayhk;. bjhiyJ}uj;jpy; cs;s xU
   bghUspypUe;J      tUk;  ,izahd xspf;fjph;fshdJ     tpHpj;jpiuf;F
   Kd;djhfnt Ftpf;fg;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ gpk;gkhdJ tpHpj;jpiuapd; kPJ
   tpHhJ. jFe;j Ftpa J}uKila FHpbyd;irg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; \yk;
   fpl;lg;ghh;it vd;w Fiwghl;ilr; rhp bra;a Koa[k.;
67. J}ug;ghh;it – nra;ikapy; cs;s bghUs;fis kl;Lnk bjspthf fhz
    Koe;J/ mz;ikapYs;s bghUs;fisj; bjspthf fhz ,ayhj jd;ik
    ek;kpy; rpyUf;F Vw;gLfpwJ. ,f;FiwghL J}ug;ghh;it vdg;gLk;.
    ,f;FiwghL cilnahhpd; tpHpf;nfhskhdJ Fiwghlw;w fz;iz
    tplf;FWfp rw;nw cs;sl';fpf; fhzg;gLk;. tpHpbyd;rpd; Fiwe;j Ftpe;j
    jd;ika[k; ,f;Fiwghl;ow;F xU fhuzkhf mika[k.; mg;nghJ mUfpYs;s
    bghUs;fspy; tUk xspf;fjph;fs; tpHpbyd;rpy; gl;L tpyf;fkile;J
    tpHpj;jpiuf;Fg; gpd;dhy; Ftpa[k; mjhtJ gpk;gkhdJ tpHpj;jpiuapd; kPJ
    tpHhJ. jFe;j Ftpa J}uKila Ftpbyd;irg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; \yk;
    fz;zpd; J}ug;ghh;it vd;w Fiwghl;il rhp bra;a Koa[k.;
68. mfr;rptg;g[ fjph;fs; - kpd;fhe;j epwkhiyapy; fz;qf;Fg; g[ydhFk; fjph;fs;
                      [
    gFjpapy; rptg;gg; gFjpf;F mg;ghy; rptg;g[ epwj;jpd; miyePsj;ijtpl
                                 ;
    kpFe;J mike;Js;s fjph;tPrRfs; mfr;rptg;g[ fjph;fs; MFk;. Mfr;rptg;gf; [
    fjph;fs; ,aw;if \yk; Nhpad; MFk;. Bte;jzypYs;s ve;j xU
                          [                                       ;
    bghUSk; mfr;rptg;gf; fjph;fis btspapLk;. Nnlw;wg;gl;l l';!ld; xU
                                  20



   ey;y mfr; rptg;g[ fjph; \ykhFk;. beh;d!;l; f;nshth; kw;Wk; f;nshgh;
                      [
   nghd;wit mfr;rptg;gf; fjph;fspd; kpfr; rpwe;j braw;if \y';fshFk;.

69. mfr;rptg;g[ fjph;fspd; gad;fs;
                              ;
          1. fhw;whYk;/ mlh;jjpahd gdp\l;l';fshYk; mfr; rptg;g[ fjph;fs;
                 ;                                                ;
             <h;ffg;glhJ. Mifahy; fz;qf;Fg; g[ydhFk;. fjph; tPrRfshy;
             CLUt ,ayhj ,l';fisg; glk;gpof;f mfr; rptg;g[ fjph;fs;
             gad;gLfpd;wd.
                                                      ;
          2. ePh; mfr;rptg;g[ fjph;fis mjpfkhf <h;fFk; jd;ika[ilaJ.
             Mifahy; glr;RUspy;/ VhpfSk;/ MWfSk; ,Uf;ff;Toa
             ,l';fs; fUikahfj; njhd;Wk;. ,tw;iw mfr;rptg;g[ fjph;
             xspg;glg;bgl;o \yk; mwpayhk;.
          3. mfr;rptg;g[ fjph;fs; kdpj clypy; CLUt[k; jpwd; cilait.
             ,it ,uj;jf; FHha;fis tphptilar; bra;J/ mjpf ,uj;j
             Xl;lj;jpw;F tHp tFf;fpwJ.
          4. \yf;TWfspd; mikg;igg; bjhpe;J bfhs;tjw;Fk;/ fhpk
             \yf;TWfisf;          fz;Lgpof;ft[k/;  milahsk;      fhzt[k;
                          [
             mfr;rptg;gf; fjph;fs; gad;gLfpd;wd.
70. g[w Cjhf; fjph;fs; - kpd;fhe;j epwkhiyapy; fz;qf;Fg; g[ydhFk; fjph;fs;
    gFjpapy; Cjhg; gFjpf;F nkny Cjh epwj;jpd; miy ePsj;ijtpl Fiwe;j
                        ;
    mike;Js;s fjph;tPrRfs; g[wCjhf; fjph;fs; MFk;.
71. g[w Cjhf; fjph;fspd; gad;fs;
          1. kUj;Jtj; Jiwapy; fl;ofisf; Fzg;gLj;JtjpYk; njhy;
             neha;fs; kw;Wk; vYk;g[ neha;fisf; Fzg;gLj;JtjpYk; g[w
             Cjhf; fjph;fs; gad;gLfpd;wd.
          2. Fiwe;j miy ePsKila g[w Cjhf; fjph;fs;/ kUe;Jfs; kw;Wk;
             jLg;g[ kUe;Jfs; jahhpf;fg;gLk; miwfisf; fpUkpfspypUe;J
             ghJfhf;fg; gad;gLfpd;wd.
          3. xspUk; ghjur tpsf;Ffspy; g[w Cjhf; fjph;fs; fz;qf;Fg;
             g[ydhFk; fjph;fshf khWtjhy; mjpf btspr;rj;ijj; jUfpd;wd.
                                    21



           4. Fiwe;j miy ePsKila g[w Cjhf;fjph;fs; fha';fis
              Fzg;gLj;jg; gad;gLfpd;wd.
           5. bghUl;fis xspa{l;lg; g[w Cjhf;fjph;fis gad;gLj;jpdhy;/
              Ez;nzhf;fpapd; gphpj;jwpa[k; jpwd; mjpfkhfpwJ.
           6. g[w Cjhf; fjph;fs; kpd;rhu vr;rhpf;if kzpia ,af;fg;
              gad;gLfpwJ
  72. mjpf brwpa[il g[w Cjhf; fjph;fs; bfLjy; tpistpf;Fk;. NhpadpypUe;J
                                                                   ;
      tuf;Toa g[w Cjhf; fjph;fspy; bgUk;gFjp tspkz;lyj;jhy; <h;ffg;gLfpwJ.
      mjdhy;     kpff;Fiwe;j   brwpa[ila       g[wCjhf;   fjph;fns   g[tpia
      te;jilfpd;wd. ,jdhy; g[tpia te;jila[k; g[w Cjhf; fjph;fs;
      Mgj;Jfis tpistpg;gjpy;iy.


kpd;rhutpay;

  73. fz;zhoj;Jz;L/       gl;Lj;Jzpahy;     nja;f;fg;gLk;  nghJ       xUtif
      kpd;D}l;lj;ijg; bgWfpwJ. ,j;jifa kpd;D}l;lj;ij ehk; neh; kpd;D}l;lk;
      vd;fpnwhk;.
                                               ;
  74. vbghidl; jz;L fk;gspahy; nja;ffg;gLk;nghJ kw;bwhU tif
      kpd;D}l;lj;ijg; bgWfpwJ. ,ij vjph; kpd;D}l;lk; vd;fpnwhk;.
                                  ;
  75. mqf;fspy; g[nuhl;lhd;/ vyf;lluhd;/ epa{l;uhd; Mfpa Jfs;fs; cs;sJ.
  76. mqtpd; ikaj;jpy; kpfr; rpwpa gFjpapy; g[nuhl;lhd;fSk;/ epa{l;uhd;fSk;
      cs;sd. ,g;gFjpf;F mqf;fU vd;W bgah;.
                                     ;
  77. mqf;fUtpw;F btspna ePstl;lg; ghijfspy; vyf;luhd;fs; Rw;wp  ;
      tUfpd;wd.
  78. iQl;u$d; mqtpw;F kl;Lk; epa{l;uhd;fs; ,y;iy.
  79. Xh; mqtpy; cs;s g[nuhl;lhd;fspd; vz;zpf;ifa[k/; vyf;luhd;fspd;;
      vz;zpf;ifa[k;      rkkhf      cs;sJ.       mjhtJ     neh;kpd;ndhl;lKk;
      vjph;kpd;ndhl;lKk; rk mstpy; cs;sd. vdnt Xh; mqkpd; eLepiyik
      tfpf;fpwJ.
  80. kpd;fyk; jhkpuf; fk;gpj; Jz;Lfs;/ kpd;gy;g[ ,ize;j ,e;j mikg;gpw;F
      kpd;Rw;W vd;W bgah;.
                                      22



  81. kpd;fyj;ij Kjd;Kjypy; fz;lwpe;jth; ,j;jhyp ehl;L mwp"h; nthy;llh         ;
      Mthh;.
  82. kpd;rhu nkhl;lhh; - kpd;dhw;wiy ,ae;jpu Mw;wyhf khw;Wk; fUtpna
      kpd;rhu nkhl;lhuhFk;. kpf;!p khtiuf;Fk; ,ae;jpuk; mr;R ,ae;jpuk;/ ijay;
      ,ae;jpuk;.
                                                                             [
  83. kpd;fhe;jj; J}z;ly; - kpd;ndhl;lk; bry;Yk; flj;jpiar; Rw;wpYk; fhe;jg;gyk;
      Vw;gLk;.
  84. A.C. ildnkh (A.C. kpd;dpaw;wp) – ve;jpu Mw;wiy/ kpd;dhw;wyhf
     khw;wf;Toa xU rhjdk; ildnkh my;yJ kpd;dpaw;wp MFk;.
  85. D.C.   ildnkh       my;yJ   D.C.     kpd;dpaw;wp       –   A.C. ilankhtpy;
     kpd;ndhl;lkhdJ Fwpg;gpl;l fhy ,ilbtspfspy; jdJ jpiria khw;wpf;
     bfhz;nl ,Uf;Fk;.


mq ,aw;gpay;

  86. 1895   –    Mk;      Mz;L       uhz;l$d;     vd;gtuhy;        vf;!;    fjph;fs;
     fz;Lgpof;fg;gl;ld.
  87. vf;!; fjph;fs; 1 A° Kjy; 100 A° tiu miyePsk; bfhz;l kpd;fhe;j
     miyfshFk;. (A vd;gJ Mk;!luh';; - 1A° = 10-10 kP)
                             ; ;
  88. mit xspapd; jpir ntfj;jpy; (3 X108 MS-1) ,a';Ffpd;wd.


  89. vf;!; fjph;fs; bfhz;L vLf;fg;gl;l epHw;gl';fs; vYk;g[ Kwptpidf;
      fz;lwpat[k/; EiuaPuy; kw;Wk; clypd; kw;w ghf';fspy; Vw;gl;Ls;s
      neha;fisf; fz;lwpat[k; gad;gLfpd;wd.
              ;
  90. fjph;tPrR – a[nudpak; nghd;w fdkhd jdpk';fs; jhdhfnt mjpf
            ;
      CLUt[jjpwd; bfhz;l fjph;fis btspapLfpd;wd.
  91. nkhp fpa{hp kw;Wk; mtUila fzth; gpa{hp                       fpa{hp   ,UtUk;
     a[nudpaj;jhJtpypUe;J     g[jpa   jdpk';fshd         –   bghnyhdpak;/    nuoak;
     Mfpatw;iwf; fz;Lgpoj;jhh;.
                                  23



92. mq vz; 82f;F nky; (fhhPaj;ijtplf; fdkhd) cs;s gy ,aw;ifj;
    jdpk';fs; fjphpaf;fj; jd;ik bfhz;litahf cs;sd. mqrf;jp fkp#d;
    1948y; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd;Kjy; nrh;kdhf ,Ue;jth; vr;.n$. ghgh
93. mqrf;jp Jiw 1954y; mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
                         ;
94. ghgh mq Muha;rrp ikak; 1957k; Mz;L l;uhk;ngapy; (kfhuh#;ouh)
    mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
95. ,e;jpahtpy; Kjy; mq ciy mg;ruh 1956y; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,Jnt
    Mrpahtpd; Kjy; mq ciyahFk;.
96. jw;nghJ      Vwf;Fiwa      50    ,aw;iff;    fjphpaf;fj;   jdpk';fs;
    fz;Lgpof;fg;gl;Ls;sd.
97. fjph;fsp;d ghij vjph;kpd; jfl;oid nehf;fp tpyf;fkilfpwJ. mf;fjph;fs;
   neh;kpd;ndhl;lk; bfhz;l α- Jfs;fshf ,Uf;fntz;Lk; vdt[k; gpd;g[
   ,f;fjph;fs; QPypak; cl;fUf;fs; vdt[k; fz;lwpag;gl;ld.
98. neh;kpd; jfl;il nehf;fp tpyf;fkila[k; β- fjph;fs; vjph; kpd;D}l;lk;
                ;
    bfhz;l vyf;luhd;fshy; Mdit/ vdf; fz;lwpag;gl;lJ.
99. J}z;Ltjd; \yk; braw;if Kiwapy; xU jdpkj;ij kw;bwhU jdpkkhf
    khw;w ,aYk; epfH;t[ braw;iff; fjphpaf;fk; my;yJ J}z;lg;gl;l fjphpaf;fk;
    vdg;gLk;.
                           ;
100. nuonah – nfhghy;l; g[wWneha; rpfpr;irapy; gad;gLfpwJ.
101. tptrhaj; Jiwapy; nuonah Inrhnlhg;gpd; gad;
102. tsUk; jhtu';fs; cl;ftUk; gh!;gu!; msit mwpa nuonah gh!;gu!;
     cu';fSld; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
103. bky;ypa v`F jfL/ jhs; nghd;wtw;wpd; joked mstpl fhkhf; fjph;fs;
     gad;gLfpwJ.
                          ;
104. bjhy;bghUs; Muha;rrpapy; nuonah Inrhnlhg;gpd; gad; - nuonah
                        [
     fhh;gd; Inrhnlhg;gfisg; gad;gLj;jp gH';fhy got';fs; ghiwfs;
     nghd;wtw;wpd; taJ fzpf;f.
105. mqf;fU gpst[ - fdkhd jdpk';fspd; mqf;fspd; cl;fUf;fhd
     epa{l;uhd;fisf; bfhz;L jhf;fp Fiwe;j mq vil bfhz;l cl;fUf;fshf
     khw;Wk; epfH;t[ mqf;fU gpst[ vdg;gLk;.
                                           24



   106. mqf;fU gpst[ Kiw ciyfspy; gad;gLfpwJ. v.fh. fy;ghf;fk;.
   107. mqf;fU gpst[ fl;LgLj;jg;glhj nghJ mq Mw;wy; mqFz;lhf
        bray;gLk;.
   108. mqf;fU ,izt[ epfH;tpy; btspg;gLk; Mw;wy; xU J}a;ikahd Mw;wy;
        MFk;. mqf;fUg;gpstpy; cs;sJ nghd;w nuonahf; fjph;tPrR mghak; ;
        ,y;iy.
   109. iQou$d; Fz;L mqf;fU ,izt[ jj;Jtj;jpy; ,a';FfpwJ.
   110. mqFz;L (mqf;fU gpst[ Kiwapy;) <LgLk; xt;bthU mqf;fUt[fFk;            ;
                                                               [
        3 epa{l;uhd;fs; btsptUk; cl;fth;tjhYk; kw;Wk; ,Hg;gfshYk; ruhrhpahf
        ,uz;L epa{l;uhd;fs; kPjkhfp mLj;j tpidf;F jahuhfpd;wd. ,t;tpU
        epa{l;uhd;fSk; a[nudpj;jpy; kPjKs;s cl;fUf;fSld;; nkhjp gy vz;zw;w
        epa{l;uhd;fis cUthf;Ffpd;wd. ,J bjhlh; tpid vdg;gLfpwJ.
   111. Mw;wy; ciyfs; - jhuhg;g{h; (kfhuh#;ouk;)/ uhzhgpujhg;rhfh; (uh$!;jhd;)
        fy;ghf;fk;/ Tl';Fsk; (jkpH;ehL)/ iffh (fh;ehlfh)/ enuhuh (cj;jpugpunjrk;)
        Mfpa ,l';fspy; g[jpjhf mikf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ.


           ;
α- fjph;tPrR                           ;
                            β- fjph;tPrR                            ;
                                                         γ- fjph;tPrR
,it       neh;kpd;D}l;lk;   ,it       vjph;kpd;D}l;lk;   ,it fz;qW xspiag;
bfhz;l Jfs;fs;/ ,it         bfhz;l Jfs;fs; MFk;.                                  ;
                                                         nghd;w kpd;fhe;j fjph;tPrR
mqvz; 2k;/ epiw vz;         cz;ikapy;          mit       MFk;.     kpf     cah;ej   ;
4k;   bfhz;l     QPypak;         ;
                            vyf;luhd;fns MFk;            CLUt[            jpwidg;
mqtpd;        cl;fUf;fs;                                 bgw;Ws;sd. 30 br.kP.
MFk;.                                                    mstpyhd             jog;g[
                                                         bfhz;l v`F ,Uk;gpd;
                                                         tHpna Tl ,f;fjph;fs;
                                                         CLUt[fpd;wd.
                                   25



                               ntjpapay;

cnyhf';fs;

   1. Mh;rdpf;/   Mz;okzp/      blY}hpak;  nghd;w  jdpk';fs;  cnyhfg;
           [                      [
      gz;gfisa[k/; mnyhfg; gz;gfisa[k; bgw;wpUf;fpd;wd. vdnt ,it
      cnyhfg; nghypfs; vdg;bgah;.
   2. ,aw;ifapy; fpilf;Fk; cnyhfk; my;yJ cnyhfr; nrh;k';fs; fye;Js;s
      kz;zpw;F cnyhf kz; vd;W bgah;.
                                                                  ;
   3. mYkpdpaj;jpd; Kf;fpa jhJf;fs; - ghf;irl;/ fpiunahiyl;/ bgy;!ghh;/
      mYkpdpak; bgUkstpy; ghf;irl; jhJthff; fpilf;fpwJ. ,e;jpahtpy;
      ghf;irl; jhJ nryj;jpy; bgUkstpy; fpilf;fpwJ.


cnyhf';fSf;Fk; mnyhf';fSf;Fk; cs;s ntWghL


cnyhf';fs;                           mnyhf';fs;
1. kpd;dhw;gFj;jypd; nghJ vjph;kpd; 1. kpd;dhh; gFj;jypd; nghJ neh;kpd;
thapy; tpLgLfpd;wd.                 thapy;    tpLgLfpd;wd.      (iQl;u$d;
                                    kl;Lk; vjph;kpd; thapy; tpLgLfpwJ)
2.   cnyhf';fspd;     Mf;i!Lfs; 2.       mnyhf';fspd;  Mf;irLfs;
bghJthf fhuj;jd;ik bfhz;lit. v.fh. bghJthf mkpyj;jd;ik bfhz;lit.
Na2o, mgo.                         v.fh. SO3 No2 Kjypad Mdhy;
                                     H2O NO nghd;wit eLepiyj; jd;ik
                                     bfhz;lit.
                                                                 ;
3. rhjhuz btg;gepiyapy; cnyhf';fs; Rhjhuz btg;g epiyapy; mnyhf';fs
                                               ;
jpz;k epiyapy; cs;sd. Mdhy; jpz;kk;/ ePhkk;/ tha[ vd;w \d;W
ghjurk; jput epiyapYs;s Xh; cnyhfk; epiyfspYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
4. cnyhf';fs; gsgsg;g[ cilait        mnyhf';fs; gsgsg;gw;wit (fpuhigl;/
                                     mnahod; jtpu)
5. gp!;kj; jtpu kw;iwa cnyhf';fs; 5.        mnyhf';fs;       kpd;rhuj;ijf;
                                      26



kpd;rhuj;ij   ed;F    flj;Jk;   jd;ik flj;Jtjpy;iy    (Mdhy;  fpuhigl;
bfhz;lit.                             kpd;rhuj;ij ed;F flj;Jk; jd;ik
                                      bfhz;lJ)
6. cnyhf';fisj; jflhf mof;fyhk;/ 6. mnyhf';fis jflhft[k; fk;gpahft[k;
            ;
fk;gpahf ePllyhk;                khw;w ,ayhJ.
7.     bts;sPaj;ijj;      jtpu     kw;w 7. g[wntw;Wik totg; gz;gfisg; [
cnyhf';fs;        g[wntw;wik      toa bgw;wpUf;fpd;wd. v.fh. P.S. Mfpait.
g[wntw;Wik      totg;           [
                            gz;gfisg;
bgw;wpUf;ftpy;iy.
8.  cnyhf';fs;       neh;kpd;   jd;ik 8. bghJthf mnyhf';fs; vjph;kpd;
bfhz;lit                              jd;ik bfhz;lit (iQl;u$d; jtpu)


cuj;bjhHpy;

                                                            ;
   1. iel;u$d; cu';fs; - ,it broapd; jz;Lfs;/ ,iyfspd; tsh;rrpf;Fj
      njitahd iel;u$d; rj;jpid mspf;fpd;wd. v.fh. 1. mk;nkhdpak; ry;ngl;
      (NH4 SO4) 2. mk;nkhdpak; iel;nul; (NH4 NO3) 3. a{hpah (CO
      (NH2)2)
   2. gh!;ngl; cu';fs; - ,it tpijfs; Kisg;gjw;Fk;/ nth;fspd; cWjpf;Fk;
      njitahd gh!;gu!; rj;jpid mspf;fpd;wd. 1. gh!;ngl; Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; 2.
      Kk;ig Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;
                                                             ;
   3. bghl;lhrpa cu';fs; - ,it jhtu';fSf;F nehapid vjph;fFk; jpwidf;
      bfhLf;Fk; bghl;lhrpa rj;jpid mspf;fpd;wd. (v.fh. 1. bghl;lhrpak;
      FnshiuL (KCL) 2. bghl;lhrpak; ry;ngl; (K2 SO4)
   4. N.P.K. fyg;g[ cu';fs; - fyg;g[ cu';fs; vd;gJ N.P.K. Mfpatw;wpy;
      ,uz;L my;yJ \d;W Cl;lr; rj;Jf;fisg; bgw;wpUf;Fk;. Vdnt jdp
      cu';fis tpl mjpfg; gaDs;sjhFk;.
   5. ek; ehl;od; Kf;fpa cuj; bjhHpw;rhiyfs; k';f~h;/ e';fy;/ rpj;jphp/ nfhl;lh
      Mfpa ,l';fspy; mike;Js;sd.
                                      27



   ;
jPgbgl;oj; bjhHpy;

  1. vy;.gp.$p. apd; ,iag[/ g;a{l;nld;/ g[nuhg;ngd;/ Inrhg;ga{l;nld;/ g;a{l;oypd;
  2. ,z;nldpd; ,iag[ - g;a{l;nld;/ g[nuhg;ngd;
          ;
  3. jPfFr;rp Kidapy; cs;s bghUl;fs; Mz;okdp ry;igL/ bghl;lhrpak;
     Fnshnul;/ fe;jfk; Mfpait.
            ;
  4. jPgbgl;oapd; gf;f';fs; rpfg;g[ gh!;gu!; fz;zhoj;J}s; tr;rPuk; ,tw;why;
     Mfpait.
  5. cu';fs; kz;zpd; Kf;fpa Cl;lr; rj;Jf;fshd iel;u$d;/ gh!;gu!;/
     bghl;lhrpak; Mfpatw;iw mspf;fpd;wd.
  6. njhw;wj;jpw;F xU jpd;kk; nghy fhl;rpaspf;Fk; fz;zho ntjpapay;
              [
     gz;gfspd; mog;gilapy; mjpf Fsph;a{l;lg;gl;l ghF epiy kpFe;j/ xU
        ;
     ePhkk; MFk;.
                          ;
  7. fz;zhoapd; bghJ tha;gghL – R2O, MO, SiO2
  8. rhjhuzf; fz;zho jahhpg;gjw;Fj; njitahd \d;W bghUl;fs; kzy;/
                              [ ;
      ryit nrhlh/ Rz;zhk;gffy; Mfpait.
  9. cUfpa epiyapYs;s fz;szhoa[ld; cnyhf Mf;irLfs; cnyhf cg;gfs;      [
                                        ;
      my;yJ cnyhfj;Jfs;fs; nrh;ffg;gLk;nghJ Fwpg;gpl;l epwKila
      fz;zhofs; fpilf;fpd;wd.
  10. ,e;jpahtpy; fz;zhoj; bjhHpw;rhiyfs; cs;s khepy';fs; - g";rhg;/
      kfhuh#;ouk;/ jkpH;ehL/ nkw;F t';fhsk;.
                                ;                   [               ;
  11. irdh gP'fhd; - tPlLg;ghj;jpu';fs;/ kpd;fhg;gg; bghUl;fs;/ gP'fhd;
      bjhl;ofs; jahhpf;fg; gad;gLfpd;wJ.
  12. rhjhuz nrhg;g[ jahhpf;fg;j; njitg;gLk; bghUl;fs; - 1. gpuhzpfspd;
      bfhGg;g[ my;yJ jhtu vz;bza; 2. vhp nrhlhf;fiury;      3.   rhjhuz
      cg;g[
  13. gpuhzpfspd; bfhGg;g[ my;yJ jhtu vz;bza[ld; mlh; vhpnrhlhf;
                      ;                                        ;
      fiuriyr; nrh;jJr; NLgLj;Jk; nghJ/ ntjptpid epfH;eJ nrhg;gk/;      [
      fpspruhYk; fpilf;fpwJ. ,t;tpid nrhg;ghjy; tpid vdg;gLk;.
                                   28



14. fpspruhy; kUe;Jg; bghUl;fs;/ eWkzg;bghUl;fs;/ btokUe;Jfs;/ tz;zf;
           [
    FHk;gfs; Mfpatw;iwj; jahhpf;fg;gad;gLfpd;wJ.
15. epyf;fhp vd;gJ jhtu';fspy; ,Ue;J bgwg;gLk; fhh;gd; kpF bghUshFk;.
16. Fhw;wpy;yhr; NH;epiyapy; g{kpapDs; Vw;gLk; btg;g khw;w';fspdhy;
    khw;wkile;J jhtug;bghUl;fs; epyf;fhpahfpd;wd.
17. gGg;g[ epyf;fhpapy; 70 rjtPjk; fhh;gd; cs;sJ. ,J rw;W g[ifa[ld;
    vhpfpd;wJ.
18. g[ifkpF epyf;fhpapy; 80 rjtPjk; fhh;gd; cs;sJ. ,J mjpf g[ifa[ld;
    vhpfpd;wJ.
19. mdy;kpF epyf;fhpapy; 90 rjtPjk; fhh;gd; cs;sJ. ,J g[ifaw;w epiyapy;
    vhpfpd;wJ. mjpf btg;gj;ijf; bfhLf;fpd;wJ.
20. gPfhhpy; bghfhnuh/ nkw;F t';fhsj;jpy; cs;s ,uhzpf";r; Mfpa ,l';fspy;
    epyf;fhp Ru';f';fs; cs;sd. jkpH;ehl;oy; bea;ntypapy; gGg;g[ epyf;fhp
    btl;obaLf;fg;gLfpwJ.
21. epyf;fhpiar; rpijj;J toj;J/ epyf;fhp tha[ jahhpf;Fk;nghJ mlh;tkpF  [
    fUikepw jputk; fpilf;fpwJ. ,jw;F epyf;fhp jhh; vd;W bgah;.
22. xU jputj;jpy; cs;s gy;ntW gFjpg; bghUs;fis mt;wwpd; bfhjpepiy
    ntWghl;oidg; gad;gLj;jp/ bfhjpf;f itj;Jg; gpd;dh; mtw;wpd; Mtpiaf;
                                               ;
    Fspuitj;Jg; gphpf;Fk; Kiwf;F gpd;df; fha;rrp toj;jy; vd;W bgah;.
23. gd;bdL';fhykhf XLfs;/ br';fw;fs; jahhpf;Fk; gzpfs; ele;J tUfpd;wd.
    mjw;F gad;gLk; kz; tz;ly; kz; MFk;.
24. bghJthf gad;gLk; rpbkz;l; nghh;yz;l; rpbkz;l; vdg;gLk; rpbkz;l;
                                        [
    jahhpf;f \yg;bghUshd Rz;zhk;gfy; kw;Wk; fspkz; \d;Wf;f xd;W
    tpfpjj;jpy; fyf;f ntz;Lk;.
25. rpbkz;l;     bfl;og;gLk;     ntfj;ij    Fiwf;f    rpbkz;Lld;     $pg;rk;
         ;
    nrh;ffg;gLfpwJ.
             ;                    ;
26. rpbkz;lLld; ePhpidr; nrh;fFk; nghJ ePhpiz cwp";rp mGj;jj;ijj;
                               ;
    jh';fty;y fodj;jd;ika[ss bghUshf khWfpwJ. ,jw;F bfl;og;gLjy;
    vdg;gLk;.
27. fz;zho vd;gJ gy;ntW cnyhf rpypnfl;Lfis cUf;fp bgwg;gLk; gof
    cUtkw;w/ xsp CLUtf;Toa bghUshFk;.
                                  29



ntjpj;bjhHpYk;/ Rw;Wr; NHYk;

  28. khRg;gLjypd; tiffs; - fhw;W/ ePh/; kz; kw;Wk; rj;jk;.
                            ;
  29. khRg;gl;l fhw;wpid ePzl neuk; Rthrpg;gjhy; gy;ntW EiuaPuy; neha;fs;
      tUtnjhL ekj cly;eyKk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
  30. g[ifg;gth; Rthrpf;Fk; fhw;wpy; fhh;gd; Jfs;fs;/ fhh;gd; nkhdhf;irL/
      epnfhod; Mfpa khRfs; cs;sJ.
  31. fhh;gd; il Mf;irL g{kpapd; nkw;gug;gpy; btg;gk; mjpfhpg;gjw;Ff;
                  ;
      fhuzkhft[ssJ.
  32. Ch;jpfspypUe;J btsptUk; g[ifapy; fhh;gd; nkhdhf;irL cs;sJ. fhh;gd;
                                                 ;
      nkhdhf;irL epwkw;w/ kdkw;w/ er;Rj;jd;ika[ss tha[.
  33. fhh;gd; nkhdhf;irL ,uj;jj;jpYs;s QPnkhFnshgpDld; To ,uj;jj;jpd;
      Mf;rp$d; Vw;Fk; Mw;wiyf; Fiwf;fpwJ.
  34. ry;gh; il Mf;irL Rthrf; nfhshiw Vw;gLj;Jk;.
  35. ry;gh; il Mf;irL kiHePhpy; fiue;J mkpy kiH bghHpa fhuzkhf
      cs;sJ.
                                   ;          ;           ;
  36. mkpy kiHapdhy; jhtu thH;fif/ kPdfs; kw;wk; ePhthH; caphpd';fSf;Fj;
          ;
      jP'F Vw;gLfpwJ.
  37. ry;gh; il Mf;irL gsp';F fw;fshy; Md epidt[r; rpd;d';fis/ Fwpg;ghf
      jh$;kQhy; nghd;w gHk;bgUk; rpd;d';fis gGjilar; bra;fpd;wJ.
  38. bgl;nuhy;/ Ory;/ vz;bza; nghd;wtw;iw vhpf;Fk; bghGJ iel;u$d;
      Mf;irLfs; bgspaplg;gLfpd;wd.
  39. kpd;dy; Vw;gLk;nghJ cz;lhFk; kpd;rhuj;jpdhYk;/ iel;u$d; Mf;irLfs;
      cUthFk;.
                                          ; ;
  40. Mf;irLfs; kiH ePhpy; fiue;J/ ePhjj iel;hpf; mkpyk; cUthfp mkpy
      kiH cUthf VJthfpwJ. rpy neu';fspy; iel;u$d; Mf;irLfs; fz;fspy;
      vhpr;riy cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd.
                                    30



ePh; khRgLjy;

   41. itu!;/ ghf;Ohpah kw;Wk; g[nuhl;nlhnrhth Mfpatw;wpdhy; Vw;gLk;
       neha;fs;/ caphpay; khRfspdhy; Vw;gLtnjhL/ Fzg;gLj;jf;Toa ePzl     ;
       ehs; neha;fSk;/ Fzg;gLj;j ,ayhj fLikahd neha;fSk; cUthfpd;wd.
   42. rhf;filf; fHpt[ ePh; flypy; brd;W fyg;gjhy; ngust[ fly; ePh;
       khRg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; kPd; kw;Wk; fly;thH; caphpd';fs;
                                                      ;
       ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mt;thW ghjpg;gpw;Fs;shd kPdfis rhg;gpLtjhy; ehKk;
              [
       Rw;Wg;gwr; NHy; khRf; nfl;ow;F ,iuahf nehpLk;.
   43. FoePhpy; rpy rka';fspy; mjpf mst[ `g;SiuL ,Uf;f nehpLk;. ,it
       g;Surp vDk; nehapid cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd. ,it gw;fs; kPJ k";rs; epwf;
       fiwapid cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd.
   44. njhy; gjdpLk; bjhHpw;rhiyfspy; ,Ue;J btsptUk; fHpt[ePhpy; mjpf
       mst[ FnuhkpaKk; kw;w ntjpg; bghUl;fSk; cs;sd.


jhtutpay;
itu!;fs;

• itu!; vd;w yj;jPd; brhy;Yf;F e";R vd;W bghUs;.
                                                ;
• kdpjh;fSf;F rspj;bjhy;iy/ rpw;wk;ik/ g[S fha;rry; jhtu';fSf;F ,iyr;
  RUs; neha;fs; tUtjw;F fhuzk; - itu!; MFk;.
                                         ;
• itu!;fs; capUs;s bry;fspy; kl;Lnk thH;eJ ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;fpd;wd.
                                                ;
• ghf;ohpa';fisj; jhf;fp mHpf;Fk; itu!;fs; ghf;lhpahng$;fs; MFk; (cjhuzk;
   - ghf;ohpah`ng$; T4)
• 1892k; Mz;oy; okpl;hp Itndht!;fp vd;w u#;ah; itu!; ,Ug;gij
  ep+gpj;jhh;.
• 1935k; Mz;L W.M. !;lhd;yp g[ifapiy gy;tz;z neha; itu!;fis
   (TMV) gofg;gLj;jpf; fhl;odhh;.
                                      31



                                       ;                          ;
• nghypnah/ rpd;dik/ k";rs; fhkhiy/ ePhf;nfhit/ nugp!;/ \isf;fha;rry;/
       [                    ;
  ,d;gSad;rh/ bghd;Df;F tP'fp/ jl;lk;ik nghd;w neha;fs; itu!;fshy;
  njhw;Wtpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
                                                                    ;
• jhtu iturpy; epa{f;spf; mkpyk; bgUk;ghYk; Mh;.vd;.V. tifiar; rhh;ejJ.
• itu!;fisg;gw;wp mwpe;J bfhs;Sk; mwptpay; ituhy$p MFk;.
• ghf;Ohpahf;fs; kpfr;rpwpa xU bry; caphp.
• ,it vy;yh ,l';fspYk; gutpf; fhzg;gLk;/ ,it kz;/ ePh/; fhw;W/
        ;
  czt[gbghUl;fs;/ mGFk; m';ff/ md';ffg; bghUl;fspy; tputpatz;zkhf
  cs;sd. ghf;Ohpahf;fs; ,y;yhj ,lnk ,y;iy vdyhk;.
                                  ;
• 1975Mk; Mz;L lr;R ehl;ilr; nrh;ej md;ld; thd; y;a{btd;Qhf; vd;w
  mwptpayhh; ,jid Kjy; Kjypy; fz;lwpe;jhh;.
• My;fhf;fisg; gw;wp mwpe;Jf;bfhs;Sk; Jiw `igf;fhy$p my;yJ My;fhy$p
   vdg;gLk;.
                         ; ;                               ;
• !;ignuhifuh (ghrp) ‘ePhggl;L’ vdg;gLfpwJ – ePhpd; bjhlh;ej miytpdhy;
        ;
   ePzl ,iHfs; rpW rpW Jz;Lfshf Jz;of;fg;gLfpd;wd. xt;bthU Jz;Lk;
   g[jpa jhtuj;ijj; njhw;Wtpf;ff;ToaJ. ,Jnt cly; ,dg;bgUf;fk; MFk;.
• nghh;`iguh      vd;w    My;fhtpid      $g;ghdpah;fs;       ;
                                                        czt[gbghUshf
  gad;gLj;Jfpwhh;fs;. My;$pdpd;/ mfh;mfh; nghd;w bghUs;fs; My;fhf;fspy;
                                            ;
  ,Ue;Jjhd; bgwg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;iw I!;fphPkfSf;F Rita{l;lt[k;/ eWkzk;
  Cl;lt[k; gad;gLj;Jfpwhh;fs;.
                            ;
• My;fht[k; g{";ira[k; nrh;eJ iyf;fd; vd;w xU Tl;L thH;jhtuj;ijj;
   njhw;Wtpf;fpd;wd. ,it rikaYf;F eSkzg;bghUshf gad;gLfpwJ.
• mf;khh;f; - jukhd rpwe;j ntshz;ik/ njhl;lg;gaph;fis cUthf;Fk; fiy
  mf;khh;f; my;yJ cah; ntshz; juk; vdg;gLk;.
                                   32



My;fhf;fs;

  1. jhnyh`igl;lh ,U gphpt[fshfg; gphpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. mit 1. My;fhf;fs;
     2. g{";irfs;
  2. jhnyh`igl;lhtpy; iryk;/ `g;nshak; jpRf;fisf; bfhz;l th!;Fyhh;
     mikg;g[ ,y;iy.
  3. My;fhf;fspy; gr;irak; vd;Wk; epwkp cs;sJ.
  4. Fsk;/ Vhpfs; nkw;gug;gpy; gr;ir epwkhf ,Ug;gjw;F fhuzk; ePhpDs; tsUk;
     My;fhf;fs; MFk;.
  5. fpshkplhnkhd!; xU bry; My;fhthFk;.
  6. fpshkpnlhnkhd!; fHpt[ ePiur; Rj;jk; bra;a cjt[fpwJ.
  7. Fnshbuy;yh vd;w ghrpapypUe;J Fnshbuy;ypd; vd;w caphp vjph;gghd;  ;
     jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
                                             ;
  8. ,jpy; fhuh vd;fpw xUtif Fjpiuthy; ePhghrpa[k; xd;W.


g{";irfs;

  1. g{";irfs; gr;irakw;w jhtu';fs;/ gy bry;fshy; Mf;fg;gl;l jhtuk;
     a{nfhpahl;of; bry;fisf; bfhz;lJ.
  2. jk; czit jhnk jahhpf;Fk; rf;jp mw;wit. Jk; czit mGfp/ ,we;j
     m';ffg; bghUs;fspy; ,Ue;J vLj;Jf; bfhs;fpd;wd.
  3. rpy g{";irapd';fs; bghUshjhu Kf;fpaj;Jtk; bfhz;lit. eha;fFil/;
     buhl;of;fhshd;/ fhshd; u!;l/; !;kl; Mfpa jhtu';fs; g{";irapdj;ij
          ;
     nrh;ejJ.
  4. g{";irapdj;ijg; gw;wp tphpthf mwpe;J bfhs;Sk; Jiwf;F ikf;fhy$p
     vd;Wbgah;.
                                                           ;
  5. kpa{f;fh; (g{";ir) bghJthf buhl;of; fhshd; (m) fUg;g[ffhshd; vd;W
     miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.
  6. mfhhpf!; xU kl;Fz;zpg; g{";irahFk;. ,J czthf gad;gLfpwJ.
                                  33



  7. mbyf;!hz;lh; gpbskp'; vd;Dk; mwptpay; mwp"h; bgd;rpypd; vd;w
         [
     mw;gj mUe;ij ,g;g{";irapypUe;J fz;lwpe;jhh;.
  8. bgd;rpypd; kUe;J bgd;rpypak; behl;nll;lk;/ bgd;rpypak; fpiunrh$Pdk;
     vdg;gLk; g{";irfspy; ,Ue;J jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
  9. bgd;rpypaj;jpd; cly; gFjp ikrPypak; vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jd;
     clyg;gFjp fpisj;j iQghf;fisg; bgw;wpUf;Fk;.


jhtu';fspd; mikg;g[

  1. vy;yhj; jhtu';fSk; bry; vd;w mog;gil myfhy; MdJ.
  2. bry;ypd; totk;/ mikg;g[ Mfpatw;iwf; Tl;L Ez;nehf;fpapd; \yk;
     fz;lwpayhk;.
  3. bry;ypd; cs;ns mike;Js;s bry; m';f';fisg; kpd;dq Ez;nehf;fpapd;
     \yk; mwpe;J bfhs;sKoa[k;
  4. jhtu bry;fs; midj;Jk; bry; Rtuhy; NHg;bgw;wpUf;Fk;.
  5. bry; Rtiu xl;odhw;nghy; gpsh!;kh rt;t[ my;yJ glyk; mike;Js;sJ.
  6. bry;ypd; cs;ns irl;nlhgpshrk; jput mikg;gpy; cs;sJ.
  7. ,e;j irl;nlhgpshrj;jpy; cl;fU/ vz;nlh gpshr          tiygpd;dy;/
                                                      [
     ikl;nlhfhz;ohpah/ fzpf';fs;/ nfhy;$p mikg;gfs;/ hpnghnrhk;fs;/
     iynrhnrhk;fs; nghd;w m';f';fs; tputpa tz;zkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.


bry;ypd; cl;fU

  1. bry;ypd; cl;fU epa{f;spa!; vd;wiHf;fg;gLfpwJ.
  2. cl;fU epa{f;spah; rt;t/[ epa{f;spnah gpshrk;/ Fnuhkhl;od; tiy kw;Wk;
     xd;W my;yJ mjw;F nkw;gl;l epa{f;spnahy!; bgw;Wf; fhzg;gLk;.
  3. vz;nlhgpshr tiyg;gpd;dy; irl;nlhgpshrj;jpy; tiyg;gpd;dy; totpy;
     mike;Js;sJ.
                                      34



ikl;nlhfhz;ohpahtpd; ntiyfs;

            - ikl;nlhfhz;ohpah/ bry;fspd; rf;jp epiyak; vdf; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

nfhy;$p m';f';fs;

            - ,J of;onahnrhk;fs;       my;yJ    nfhy;$p   cly';fs;    vd;Wk;
              miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.



nfhy;$papd; ntiyfs;

            - ,J ghyprhf;fiuLfs;/ fpisnfh g[uj';fs; Rug;gjpnya[k; gpsh!;kh
              rt;t[ njhw;wtpg;gjpnya[k; g';F bfhs;fpwJ.

fzpf';fs;

      - ,U tifahFk;. mit 1. btsph; fzpfk;          2. tz;zf; fzpfk;

btsph; fzpfk;

            - ,it tz;zkw;wf; fzpf';fs;
            - bgUk;ghYk; nrkpf;Fk; ntiyiar; bra;fpwJ.
            - ypg;gpl; vz;bza; bghUs;fisr; nrkpf;Fk; fzpfk; vz;bza;f;
              fzpfk; vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.
            - g[ujj;ijr; nrkpf;Fk; fzpfk; g[ujf;fzpfk; vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.

tz;zf; fzpfk;

            - gr;ir epw tz;zj;ijf; bfhLf;Fk; fzpf';fs; gR';fzpfk; my;yJ
              Fnshnuhgpsh!;l; vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.
                                        35




gR';fzpfj;jpd; ntiyfs;

          - gR';fzpfj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; Fthz;nlhnrhk;fs; xsp ntjpapay;
            tpidfspy; g';F bfhs;fpd;wd. ,r;rf;jpapd; cjtpnahL jhtu';fs;
                      ;
            xspr;nrh;fifapd; nghJ fhh;gd;il Mf;irL kw;Wk; ePiu
            vLj;Jf;bfhz;L fhh;ngh iQl;nul; kw;Wk; !;lhh;r; bghUs;fisj;
            jahhpf;fpd;wd. mg;nghJ Mf;rp$id btsptpLfpd;wd.


• neh;Kf gFg;g[ - ,J cl;fU gphpjyhFk;. ,t;tif gFg;g[ xU bry;
  caphpd';fspy; fhzg;gLfpwJ. v.fh. g[nuhl;nlhnrhtd;fs;
• ikl;lhrp!; gFg;g[ cly; bry;fspy; eilbgWfpwJ.
            ;
• ed;F tsh;rrpaile;j ,U ika Fnuhnkhnrhk;fis cila bry;fspy; kl;Lnk
   Fd;wy; gFg;g[ eilbgWfpwJ.
• fphpnfhh; n$hfd; bkz;ly; vd;gth; kugpaypd; je;ij vdg;gLfpwhh;.
• bkd;lypd; xU gz;g[ fyg;g[ tpfpjk; 3 : 1
• bkz;lypd; ,Ugz;g[ fyg;g[ tpfpjk; 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
• uhgh;l; QPf; jhtu bry;ypid Kjd; Kjypy; fz;lwpe;jth;.
• rpiyld;/ #Pthd; Mfpnahh; bry; bfhs;ifia btspapl;ldh;.
• cl;fUtpy; o.vd;.V. vd;w kug[g; bghUs; cs;sJ.
                                         ;
• Tl;L Ez;nzhf;fpapd; \yk; 1 kp.kP. mst[ss bghUis 10/000 kl';Ff;s
  bghpjhf cUbgUf;fpf; fhzKoa[k.;
                                          ;
• kpz;zq Ez;nzhf;fpapd; \yk; 1 kp.kP mst[ss bghUis 1000 x 1000
                              ;
   kl';Ffs; bghpjhf;fpg; ghh;ff Koa[k.;           vdnt      itu!;fis          kpd;dq
   Ez;nzhf;fpapd; \yk; fhz Koa[k.;
• ikf;uhd; vd;gJ kpfr;rpwpa myF MFk;. bry;fs; ikf;uhd; vd;w myfhy;
   Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wJ. (1 ikf;uhd;; = 1/1000kp.kP. 1 kp.kP = 1000 ikf;uhd;.
                                    36



tpy';fpay;

• xU bry; caph;fs; - mkPgh/ gunkrpak;/ a{f;spdh/ gpsh!;nkhoak;
• Jiza[lypfs; - irf;fhd;
• FHpa[lypfs; - iQl;uh/ Mnuypah
          [               [
• jl;ilg;gGf;fs; - ehlhg;gGf;fs;/ Odpah
           [
• tisjirg;gGf;fs; - bkfh!;nfhyf;!;/ ePhp!;
• fqf;fhypfs; - ghypankhd;/ bghpg;sndl;lh
• bky;Ylypfs; - igyh/ yhbky;ypld;!;
• Kl;njhypfs; - M!;Ohpah!;
• jiyKJF ehqilait – Mk;gpahf;r!;
• miuKJF ehqilait – gyndhfpshr!;
• thy;KJF ehqilait – mrpoah
          [
• KJbfYk;gilait – vyp


ikl;nlhfhz;Ohpah

                                 ;
         - bgUk;ghYk; ,it nth;ffliy mikg;gpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
         - ikl;nlhfhz;Oahtpd;         bky;ypa       ,U           Rth;fSk;
                                       [
           g[nuhl;Od;fshyhdit. Cl;gwk; KGtJk; Xh; ,ilaPl;Lg;
                              ;                 ;
           bghUshy; epuk;gpa[ssJ. cl;Rth; gy ePlrpfisa[k/; gpJf;f';fisa[k;
           bfhz;Ls;sJ. ,it fhp!;nl vdg;gLfpd;wd.
         - ,d;wpaikahj gzp bry; Rthrk; MFk;.

cl;fU (m) epa{f;spa!;

         - xU bry;ypd; caph;ikak; vd;Wk;
         - ,jd; btsp vy;iy cl;fUg;glyk; my;yJ epa{f;spah; rt;t[ vd;Wk;
                                    37



                      ;
         - ,jd; ,ilaPlLg;bghUs; cl;fUr;rhW (m) fhhpnahypk;g; MFk;.
         - mjDs;ns Fnuhkhl;od; tiy bghjpe;Js;sJ.



Fnuhnkhnrhk;fs;

         - bry;gphpjypd; nghJ Fnuhkhl;od; tiy ed;whfr; RUf;fk; mile;J
           Fnuhnkhnrhk;fs; Mfpd;wd.
         - kdpjdpy; 23 ,iz fnuhnkhnrhk;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
         - ,itfspy; 22 ,izfis cly;Fnuhnkhnrhk;fs; vd;Wk;/ Xh;
           ,isiag;ghy; (m) ,df;Fnuhnkhnrhk;fs; tifg;gLj;Jfpnwhk;.

irl;nlhgpshrj;jpd; gzpfs;

   1. bry; gphpjypy; <LgLfpwJ.
   2. kugpay; bghUs;fis flj;JfpwJ.       bry;ypd;   midj;J    bray;fisa[k;
      fl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ.


• caphpfspd; mikg;g[ kw;Wk; bray; myF bry; MFk;.

,uj;jj;jpd; gzpfs;

         -   clypd; vy;yh ghfj;jpYk; czit mspf;fpwJ.
         -   jpRf;fSf;F Mf;rp$id vLj;J bry;fpwJ.
         -   jpRf;fspypUe;J fhh;gd; il Mf;i!il btspnaw;WfpwJ.
         -   cliy nehapypUe;J ghJfhf;fpwJ.
         -   ehskpy;yh Rug;gpf;s Rug;gij Qhh;nkhd;fSf;F vLj;J bry;fpwJ.
         -   cly; btg;gepiyia rPuhf itf;fpwJ.
                                     38



czt[k; Cl;lr;rj;Jk;

      czt[g; gz;l';fspd; Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fis MW tifg;gLj;jyk;. 1.fhh;ngh
                       [                               [ ;
iQl;nul;Lfs; 2. bfhGg;gfs; 3. g[nuhl;Od;fs; 4. jhJ cg;gffs; 5. tpl;lkpd;fs;
                                           [
6. jz;zPh.; ,tw;Ws; g[nuhl;ODk;/ bfhGg;gk/; fhh;ngh iQl;nul;Lk; bgUk;
Cl;lr;rj;Jfs;

       g[nuhl;Od; kdpj bry;fspd; Kjd;ikahd Mf;ff;TwhFk;. jirfspYk;/
                                         ;
jpRf;fspYk; ,uj;j Xl;lj;jpYk; ml';fpa[ss kpfKf;fpakhd rj;J ,J. czitr;
brhpf;fitf;Fk; behjpfs;/ bjhw;Wneha;j; jLg;g[ vjph; bghUl;fs; midj;Jk; ,e;jg;
g[uj \yf;TWfns.

     g[ujj;jpd; Cl;l kjpg;g[ mjpy; ml';fpapUf;Fk; ,d;wpaikahj mkPndh
                              [
mkpy';fisg; bghWj;jJ. jpRg;gujk; xU fl;llk; vd;why; ,e;j mkPndh
mkpy';fs; br';fw;fs; khjph. czthFk; g[ujj;jpy; Rkhh; 20 mkPndh mkpy';fns
cs;sd. mtw;wpy; 10 mkPndh mkpy';fis ek; clny/ cs;Sf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk;
mkPndh mkpy';fs; my;yJ g[ujkw;w bghUl;fspypUe;J cUthf;fpf; bfhs;fpwJ.
,ju 10 mkPndh mkpy';fsij; jhk; ehk; cz;qk; cztpypUe;J bgw
         ;
ntz;oa[ssJ. ,e;j 10 mkPndh mkpy';fisna ,d;wpaikahj mkPndh
mkpy';fs; vd;fpnwhk;.

                                [
      g[ujj;ijg;nghynt bfhGg;gr; rj;Jk; cztpy; Kf;fpakhf ,lk;bgw
ntz;Lk;. clYf;Fr; brwpt{l;Lk; vhpbghUs; ,J. jhtu vz;bzapy;/ clYf;F
                     ;
,d;wpaikahj ypndhyPf; muhf;fp blhdpf; mkpy';fs; kpFe;Js;sd.

      ,uj;j     Xl;lj;jpy;  fye;Js;s          [
                                      bfhGg;gfspy;   oiufpspriuLfs;
gh!;nghypgpl;Lfs; nghd;w gytif cz;L. ,tw;wpd; mst[k; juKk; ,uj;jj;jpy;
cs;s “bfhGg;g” mk;rj;ijg; ghjpf;Fk;. Fliy vz;bza;/ ey;byz;bza;/
Nhpafhe;jp vz;bza; nghd;wtw;wpy; g{hpjkilahj gd;TW bfhGg;g[ mkpy';fns
                                             ;
fye;jpUf;fpd;wd. ,tw;why; ,uj;jj;jpy; bfhy!;luhy; mst[ mjpfhpf;fhJ. Mnj
                                   39



ntisapy; nj';fha; vz;bza;/ btz;bza;/ bea;/ td!;gjp nghd;w iQl;u$d;
brw;eJ g{hpjkh bfhGg;g[ mkpy';fisf; bfhz;l jhtu vz;bza;fshy; bfhGg;g[
TLjyhfp cly; eyk; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

       fhh;nghiQl;nul;Lfspy;   !;lhh;r; kht[g;  bghUSk;/     rh;f;fiua[k;
            ;                                      ;
ml';fpa[ssJ. jhdpa tiffspy; fhh;nghiQl;nul;Lr; rh;ffiu mjpfk; cz;zJ.
cly; rf;jpf;Fj; njitahd Kf;fpa czt[ fhh;nghiQl;nul;Lfs; MFk;. Kypthff;
fpilg;gjhnyh vd;dnth ,e;j czt[ ,e;jpa czt[g; gHf;fj;jpy; bgUk;g';F
tfpf;fpd;wJ.

                                                        ;
       rhptpfpj czt[ vdg;gLtJ cly; typikf;Fk;/ tsh;rrpf;Fk;/ eyDf;Fk;
njitahd vy;yh Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fSk; nghjpa tpfpjj;jpy; fye;Js;s czt[ MFk;.
   ; ;
fPHffhqk; ml;ltizapy; xU ruhrhp ,e;jpaDf;Fj; njitg;gLk; rhptpfpj
cztpd; mst[fs; jug;gl;Ls;sd.

      tpl;lkpd;fspy; bfhGg;gpy; fiutdt[k/; ePhpw;fiutdt[k; vd ,Utif
cz;L. itl;lkpd;-V/o/,/nf Mfpad bfhGg;gpYk;/ tpl;lkpd;-gp-1/ gp-2 cl;gl gp-
tpl;lkpd;fs; jz;zPhpYk; fiuaf; Toad.

       clypd; tsh;rpij khw;wj;jpw;F cWJiz g[hptd ,e;j tpl;lkpd;fs;. ,it
rpy Fwpg;gpl;l g[uj';fSld; ,ize;J clypd; fhh;ngh iQl;nul;Lfs;/
                            [
g[nuhl;Od;fs; kw;Wk; bfhGg;gfis Mf;rp$ndw;wp behjpf;fpd;wd. mjd; tpisthf
                        [
Mw;wYk;/ fhpakpy tha[tld; ePUk; btspahfpd;wd.

                                                 ;               ;
      kdpj vilapy; Rkhh; 4 tpLf;fhL jhJ cg;g[ffns ml';fpa[ssd. ,e;jj;
                                                    [ ;
jhJj; jdpk';fspy; Kf;fhy; ghfk; fhy;rpaKk; (Rz;zhk;grrj;J) gh!;guKnk. ,it
jtpu bghl;lhrpak;/ fe;jfk;/ nrhoak;/ Fnshhpd;/ kf;dPrpak; Mfpa Ie;J ju
\yf';fSk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fit. Mstpy; kpff; Fiwthdjhy; ,tw;iw ,k;kpj;
jdpk';fs; vd;nwh “Ez;zst[ Cl;lr; rj;Jf;fs;” vd;nwh miHg;gh;.
                                        40



                                        ; ;
      cztpy; mog;gil g';F tfpg;gJ ePhrrj;J MFk;. xU Mnuhf;fpakhd
kdpjdpd; cly; Rkhh; 45 ypl;lh;fs; (cly; vilapy; 70 rjtPjk;) ePh; ml';fp
,Uf;fpwj. bry;fspy; 30

ypl;lh;fSk;/ ,uj;j epzePhpy; 3 ypl;lh;fSk; (bry;fs; kpjf;fpd;w epzePUld; Toa
,uj;jk; ek; clypy; Rkhh; 5 ypl;lh;fs;) Mf 33 ypl;lh;fs; nghf v";rpa 12 ypl;lh;
                                                                 ;
jz;zPh; jpRf;fpsd; bry; Tl;l';fspd; ,ilbtspapy; epuk;gpa[ssJ. ,e;jj; jpR
   ;
ePhkj;jpy; jhd; bry;fs; \H;rp ,Uf;fpd;wd.

      czt[r;     brhpkhdj;jpw;Fk; cl;fpufpg;gpw;Fk; jz;zPh; ,d;wpaikahjJ.
Czt[g; bghUl;fisf; fiuj;J/ rkepiyg;gLj;Jk; mhpanjhh; fiug;ghd; ,J.
clypDs; ntjp tpidfs; midj;Jk;/ ,e;j ePhpy;jhd; eilbgWfpd;wd.
Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fis clypy; vy;yh ghf';fSf;Fk; vLj;Jr; bry;Yk; thfdk; ,J.
cly; btg;g epiyiar; rPuhff; fhf;ft[k/; clw;fHpt[fis btspf;bfhzut[k; jz;zPh;
,d;wpaikahjJ. fz;zPh/; tpah;it/ rpWePh/; kyk; midj;ija[k; jz;zPnu
                                                              ;
btspnaw;WfpwJ. \l;Lf;fspd; cuha;itf; Fiwf;Fk; cuha;t[gbghUs; Tl
       ;
jz;zPhjhd;.

                                                      ;           ; ;          ;
         ,uj;jj;jpd; mkpyg;bgUf;fk; fhug;bgUf;fk;/ ePhtw;Wjy;/ ePhtPffk;/ fha;rry;/
       ;                                                ; ;         [
mjph;rrp/ ,uj;ja{hpahg; bgUf;fk; nghd;wit clypd; ePhrrj;J/ cg;gr; rj;Jf;fspd;
                      ;
gw;whf;Fiwia czh;jJk; mwpFwpfs;.

      mhprp/ nfhJik/ nrhsk;/ fk;g[ nghd;w jhdpa';fspy; fhh;nghiQl;nuhl;Lfs;
mjpfk; c;ssd.

                                 [ ;
       jhdpa tiffspy; jhJcg;gffs; Fiwnt. mjpYk; mhprpapy; kpff;Fiwt[.
                            [          [                 [ ;
Mapd; nfH;tufpy; Rz;zhk;gj; jhJ cg;gk;/ jpidapy; ,Uk;grrj;Jk;/ jhdpa';fspy;
gp-tpl;lkpd;fSk; brwpe;jpUf;Fk;. Mhprpapd; nkw;gug;gpy; c;ss ijkpd; vDk;
tpl;lkpd;/ miuf;Fk; nghJ fise;JnghfpwJ. Mdhy; ntf itj;j bey;ypypUe;J
mhprpiag; gphpj;bjLg;gjpy; ,r;rj;J ,Hf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. mjdhy; iff;Fj;jy;
mhprpiatpl g[G';fs; mhprpna Cl;lr;rj;J kpf;fJ.
                                    41




     gUg;g[ my;yJ gaW tiffspy; g[ujk; TLjy;. ,jpy; iyrpd; vDk;
                                     ;
mkPndh mkpyk; brwpe;Js;sJ. vdpDk; kPjjpnahdpd; vd;fpw ,d;wpaikahj
mkPndh mkpyk; Fd;wp ,Ug;gjhy; gUg;gpd; g[ujj;jpd; caphpay; kjpg;g[
Fiwt[jhd;.

      fPiu   ,d';fspy;  Rz;zhk;g/[         [
                                     ,Uk;gr;    rj;Jf;fSld;/ fnuhl;Od;/
hpngh`gpstpd; `nghypf; mkpyk; kw;Wk; tpl;lkpd; rp nghd;w Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fs;
Vuhskhf cs;sd.

        fpH';F tiffspy; fhh;nghiQl;nul;Lf;s kpFe;Js;sd. fhul;L nghd;w
nth;f; fpH';Ffspy; tpl;lkpd;-V a[k;/ cUisf;fpH';F nghd;wtw;wpy; tpl;lkpd;-rp
                                 ;                   [
a[k/; kuts;spf;fpH';F Kjyhd nth;ffpH';Ffspy; Rz;zhk;gr; rj;Jk; mjpfk;.

                                                 [ ;
      bfhl;ilfSk; vz;bza; tpj;Jf;fSk;/ bfhGg;grrj;J epiwe;jit. ,tw;wpy;
               [ ;
g[ujKk; jhJcg;gffSnk kpFjp. Epyf;fliy/ Ke;jphpg; gUg;g[ nghd;wd. ,t;tif
       ;
czt[fFr; rpwe;j vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;.

       bey;ypf;fdp/ bfha;ah/ vYkpr;ir Kjyhd fdp tiffspy; tpl;lkpd;-rp a[k/;
                                                   ;        ;
khk;gHk;/ gg;ghsp ,tw;wpy; tpl;lkpd-V a[k/; cyh;ej nghPrrk; gHj;jpy;
      [ ;
,Uk;grrj;Jk; Kf;fpa ,lk; bgWfpd;wd.

                                                                      [
       kPd; kw;Wk; fly;jU czt[fspy; g[ujk;/ gp-tpl;lkpd;fs;/ Rz;zhk;gj;
         [
jhJcg;gfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. Khkpr czt[fspy; g[ujK;/ gp-tpl;lkpd;fSk;
Fwpg;ghf gp-12 ck; ml';fp ,Uf;fpd;wd. tpl;lkpd;-V ,y;iy. vdpDk; fy;yPuy;
,jw;F tpjptpyf;F.

      Kl;ilapy; tpl;lkpd;-rp jtpu Vida vy;yh Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fSk; nrkpj;J
itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. jukhd g[ujr;rj;J kpf;f Cl;lczt[ ,J. tpl;lkpd;-rp/
     [ ;
,Uk;grrj;J jtpu ,ju midj;J Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fSk; brwpe;j ey;Yzt[ ghy; MFk;.
                                     42



        czt[ Cl;Lfpd;w Mw;wiy “fnyhhpfs;” vd;fpw btg;g myfpnyna
mstpLth;. Clypaypy; mjd; Mapuk; kl';fpid “fpnyh fnyhhp” vd;w
ngustpdhy; Fwpg;gpLtJ tHf;fk;. xUfpnyh fnyhhpahtJ xU fpnyhfpuhk;
jz;zPiu xU ofphp bry;rpa!; btg;gepiy mstpw;F cah;j;j cjt[k; btg;gnk
MFk;. xU fpuhk; g[ujk; my;yJ fhh;nghiQl;nul;L Cl;Lk; Mw;wy; 4 fnyhhpfs;.
xUfpuhk; bfhGg;g[ 9 fnyhhp btg;gKk;/ mnj mst[ My;fQhy; 7 fnyhhp
Mw;wYk; jUk;.


              ;
rhptpfpj czt[ffyit

     ;
czt[gbghUl;fs;      mst[ (fpuhk;)     fpilf;Fk; Mw;wy; g[uj mst[ (fpuhk;
                                      (fnyhhp)
                    irtk;     mirt    irtk;     mirtk; irtk;        mirtk;
                              k;
jhdpa';fs;          325       325     1150      1150    29          29
     [
gUg;gk; fliya[k;    100        50         320    160    22          11
ghy; (kp.yp)        200       100         235    117     8           4
fpH';F tiffs;       150       150         145    145     2           2
ntW fha;fs;         100       100          50     50     3           3
fPiufs;             100       100          50     50     3           3
gH';fs;             100       100          80     80
Kl;il                          50                 85                 6
,iwr;rp/ kPd;                 100                195                18
bfhGg;g[             50        50         450    450
    ;
rh;ffiu/ fUg;gl;o    30        30         120    120
bkhj;jk;                                        2600         2602        67
76
                                       43



tpl;lkpd;fs;
bgah;               gad;                Fiwthy;     Vw;gLk; tpl;lkpd;fs; cs;s
                                        neha;                      ;
                                                            czt[gbghUl;fs;
1. tpl;lkpd;-V      ey;y fz;ghh;it/ fz;neha;                  gr;irf;fha;fs;
                               ;
                    njhy;tsh;rrp/ neha;                       kw;Wk; fPiu kPd;
                          ; [
                    vjph;ggj; jpwd;                           vz;bza;
2. tpl;lkpd;-gp1    Mnuhf;fpakhd             [
                                        euk;gj;         ;
                                                   jsh;rrp/   gUg;g[   tiffs;/
                    euk;g[   mikg;g[/   bghpbghp    neha;/    nful;/      vs;/
                               ;
                    \is tsh;rrp grp              ;
                                        \istsh;rrp                  ;
                                                              nth;ffliy/ <!;L/
                    czh;t[              Fd;wy;                Kl;il/      ghy;/
                                                              ,iwr;rp
3. tpl;lkpd;-gp2    bry; kw;Wk; jpR fz;rpfg;g/[                    [
                                                              gUg;gfs;/    gr;ir
                          ;               ; [
                    tsh;rrp bfhGg;g[ tha;ggz;                 ,iyf;fha;fs;/ ghy;/
                    kw;Wk;  mkpndh                            Kl;il/        <uy;
                    mkpy';fis                                 ,iwr;rp
                    vhpj;J   rf;jpahf
                    khw;w
4. tpl;lkpd;-gp6    Mkpndh              fz;ghh;it Fiwt[ gUg;g[ kw;Wk; fPiu
                    mkpy';fspy;                         tiffs;/ <uy;
                    ,Ue;J
                    fhh;nghiQl;nul;i
                    l btspnaw;Wjy;
5. tpl;lkpd; gp12   ,uj;jnrhif jLg;g[ mdPkpah                 ,iwr;rp/      ghy;/
                                                              Kl;il/ kPd/; <uy;
6. tpl;lkpd;-rp     gy;cWjp/      ,uj;j !;fhh;tp (gy;neha;) rpl;u!;     gH';fs;/
                                ;
                    xGf;F vjph;gg[      jLg;g/[ kyr;rpf;fy;/ (bey;yp vYkpr;ir)/
                                        nrhh;t[              gr;ir ey;y kpsF/
                                                             gr;irf;fha; kw;Wk;
                                                             fPiutiffs;/
                                                                   [
                                                             gUg;gtiffs;
                                       44



7. tpl;lkpd;-o                             [
                    gy; kw;Wk; vYk;g[ vYk;gUf;fp neha;     <uy;/ btz;bza;/
                         ;
                    tsh;rrpapd;ik                                 [
                                                           bfhGg;gkpf;f kPd/;
                                                           Kl;il/ ghy;
8. tpl;lkpd;-,      ,uj;jnrhif/            Mz;ikf;Fiwt[/   <uy;/      fpl;dp/
                    ,Ujaneha;              Fiwg;gpurtk;    btz;bza;/
                    Fiwg;g/[         jir                   Kl;il k";rs;fU/
                         ;
                    tsh;rrp                                gr;ir fha; kw;Wk;
                                                           fPiu     tiffs;/
                                                           jhtu vz;bza;
9. tpl;lkpd; - nf   ,uj;j      nrhif ,uj;jnghf;F           nrhahgPd;
                    epWj;JfpwJ       mdpkPah               vz;bza;/    fPiu
                                                           nrhsk;/   gH';fs;/
                                                           ghy;
10.       `nghypf; ,uj;j                   uj;jnrhif/      <uy;/      Kl;il/
mkpyk;             rptg;gqf;fs;            Mz;ikf; Fiwt[   fPiufs;
                         ;
                   tsh;rrpf;F
11. epah!pd;        g[nuhl;Od;/            njhy;btog;g/[   gUg;g[   tiffs;/
                    bfhGg;g[               kdneha;         ,iwr;rp/      kPd/;
                    Mfpatw;iw                              Kl;il/ nrhsk;
                    vhpj;J
                    rf;jpahfkhw;w/
                                ;
                    neha; vjph;gg[

				
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