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					                                 1




                   ,e;jpa murpayikg;G

murpayikg;G vd;why; vd;d>

      xU ehl;L kf;fis Ml;rp GhpAk; mbg;gilahd murpay; Kiwiaf;
$WtNj me;ehl;bd; murpayikg;G MFk;. murpd; jiyaha mq;fq;fshfpa
rl;lkpaw;Wk; rig> eph;thfk;> ePjpj;Jiw Mfpatw;iwj; Njhw;Wtpj;J>
mtw;wpd; mjpfhuq;fis tiuaWj;J> nghWg;Gfisg; gFj;J> gu];guk;
mtw;Wf;F ,ilNaAk;> mtw;Wld; kf;fSf;Fk; cs;s cwTfis
newpg;gLj;JtNj murpayikg;G MFk;.


murpay; eph;za rig Fwpg;Gfs;

1.   1922y; kfhj;kh fhe;jp ,e;jpah;fSf;nfd murpay; rl;lk; cUthf;f
     Ntz;Lnkd fUjpdhh;.

2.   Nk 16 1946 - fhgpndl; J}Jf;FO murpay; eph;za rigia Fwpj;J
     mwpf;if ntspapl;lJ.

3.   9 brk;gh; 1946 - lhf;lh;. rr;rpjhde;j; rpd;`h ,e;jpa murpay; eph;za
     rigapd; jw;fhypf jiytuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;.
4.   11 brk;gh; 1946 - lhf;lh; uhN[e;jpu gpurhj; ,e;jpa murpay; eph;za
     rigapd; epue;ju jiytuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;.
5.   ,e;jpa murpay; eph;za rig 13 FOf;fis mikj;jJ.

6.   Njhuhakhd tiuT tp.vd;. uht; mth;fshy; jahhpf;fggl;lJ.

7.   Murpayikg;G Kd;Djhuzq;fs; vd;w jiyg;gpy; %d;W thpirfspy;
     jug;gl;l me;jg; gpd;dzp tptuq;fspy; Rkhh; mWgJ ehLfspd; murpay;
                                  2



     rl;lq;fspd; rpwg;Gf; $Wfs; njhFj;Jj; jug;gl;bUe;jd. lhf;lh;. gp.Mh;.
     mk;ngj;fh; jiyikapy; murpay; rl;l tiut[f;F xd;W 1947 Mf];l;
     29Mk; njjp epakpf;fg;gl;lJ.

8.   tiuTf;FO 7 cWg;gpdh;fis nfhz;lJ.
     jiyth;: gp.Mh;. mk;Ngj;fh;
     kw;w cWg;gpdh;fs;: Nfhghy];thkp Ia;aq;fhh;> Myb fpU~;z];thkp
     Iah;> Nf.vk;. Kd;rp> iraJ KfkJ rJyh> vd;. khjtuht;> b.b.
     fpU~;zkhr;rhhp.

9.   1949 etk;gh; 26Mk; Njjp murpay; eph;za rig thapyhf ,e;jpa
     ,iwahz;ik kf;fshl;rpf; Fbaurpd; murpayikg;ig ,e;jpa kf;fs;
     ,aw;wp    Vw;W    nfhz;L   jkf;Fj;jhNk    mspj;Jf;  nfhz;ldh;.
     murpayikg;ig        cUthf;Fk;    ,khyag;      gzpia      %d;W
     Mz;LfSf;Fs;shfNt         murpay;     eph;zarig     ntw;wpfukhf
     epiwNtw;wptpl;lJ.

10. 1950 [dthp 26k; Njjp         Kjy;      nfhz;L    ,e;jpa   murpayikg;G
    eilKiwf;F te;jJ.


,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; %yq;fs;


             %yq;fs;                      filgpbf;fg;gl;l tpjpfs;
1935k;   Mz;L    ,e;jpa   murhq;f murpayikg;gpy; fpl;lj;jl;l 75%
rl;lk;                            ,jpypUe;J   ngwg;gl;lJ.   Ml;rp
                                  mikg;gpd;   mbg;gil>      khepy
                                  cwTfis          newpg;gLj;JtJ>
                                  mtru epiy gpufldk;.
Ihp~; murpay; mikg;G                  NewpKiw Nfl;ghLfs;. FbauR
                                      jiyth; Njh;th;> uh[;a rigapd;
                               3



                                   epakd  cWg;gpdh;fs;     FbauR
                                                 ;
                                   jiytuhy; Njh;enjLf;fg;gLtJ.
fdlh murpay; mikg;G                $l;luR mikg;G> xd;wpa khepy
                                   muRfSf;F ,ilNaahd cwT>
                                   mjpfhug; gfph;T
M];jpNuypa murpay; mikg;G          xd;wpa-khepyg; nghJg;gl;bay;>
                                   xd;wpa-khepy cwT> thzpfk;>
                                   ehlhSkd;w chpikfs;
n[h;kd; murpay; mikg;G             mtru epiy gpufldj;jpd; NghJ
                                                        ;
                                   mbg;gil chpikfis ePfFtJ
A.v];.v. murpay; mikg;G            $l;lhl;rp>          ePjpj;Jiwapd;
                                   jdpTAhpik>          ePjpj;Jiwapd;
                                   kWghprPyid>              mbg;gil
                                   chpikfs;> cah; ePjpkd;w> cr;r
                                   ePjpkd;w   ePjpgjpfis        ;
                                                             ePfFtJ
                                   Fwpj;J
gphpl;b~; murpay; mikg;G           xw;iwf;FbTAhpik>       rl;lj;jpd;
                                   Ml;rp> rl;lk; ,aw;Wk; Kiw.


Kfg;Giu

nghUs;: Kfg;Giu vdg;gLtJ> ,aw;wg;gl;l rl;lj;ij mwpKfk; nra;J
itf;Fk;    gFjpahFk;.    NkYk;   mr;rl;lj;jpd; nfhs;iffis      Ghpe;J
nfhs;sTk;> rl;lkd;wj;jpd; fUj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;sTk; rl;lj;jpd; Kfg;Giu
nghpJk; cjTfpwJ.


     hP ngUghhp tof;fpy; “Kfg;GiuahdJ murpayikg;gpd; xU gFjp
MfhJ” vd $wg;gl;lJ. (1960)
                                  4



     Nfrthde;jghujp tof;fpy; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; ngUghhp tof;fpd;
fUj;jpid kWj;J Kfg;GiuahdJ murpayikg;gpd; xU gFjpNa MFk;
vd;W $wg;gl;lJ. (1973)

     1976k; Mz;by; 42tJ murpay; jpUj;jk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,j;jpUj;jk;
Kfg;Giuapy; %d;W nrhw;fis GFj;jp cs;sJ. mjhtJ rkjh;knewp>
rkar; rhh;gpd;ik> kw;Wk; xUikg;ghL.


     ,e;jpah kw;Wk; mjd; vy;iyfs;: gFjp 1 ~uj;J xd;wpypUe;J ehd;F
     tiu
     FbThpik - gFjp 2 ~uj;J Ie;J Kjy; gjpndhd;W tiu

                                          NkYk;
      FbThpik rl;lk; 1955y; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. NkYk; 1986k; Mz;L ,r;rl;lk;
jpUj;jg;gl;lJ.

                                        gFjp-
mbg;gil chpikfs; (~uj;J 12ypUe;J 35 tiu gFjp-3)

mbg;gil chpikfspd; tifg;ghL:

1.   rkj;Jt chpik (~uj;Jfs; 14-18)
2.   Rje;jpu chpik (~uj;Jfs; 19-22)
3.   Ruz;lYf;nfjpuhd chpik (~uj;Jfs; 23-24)
4.   rka Rje;jpu chpik (~uj;Jfs; 25-28)
5.   fyhr;rhu kw;Wk; fy;tpapy; chpikfs; (~uj;Jfs; 29-30)
6.                   ;
     murpayikg;G jPhtopfs; ngw chpik (~uj;Jfs; 32-35)


                                             ;
     Nkw;gb mbg;gil chpikfspy; nrhj;Jhpik ePffg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjdhy;
     ~uj;J 19(i) (f) k; ~uj;J 31k; murpay; mikg;gpypUe;J vL;fg;gl;L
     ~uj;J 300A = apy; NrHf;ff;gl;Ls;sJ.
                                   5



,e;jpa murpayikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpy; mbg;gil chpikfs; mikf;fg;gl;ljd;
Nehf;fNk rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rp eilngw Ntz;Lk;.
rpWghd;ikNahh; eyd;   ghJfhf;fg;glNtz;Lk;  vd;gJ   mbg;gil
chpikfspd; kw;nwhU Nehf;fkhFk;. muR kw;Wk; muR rk;ge;jg;gl;l
Jiwfs; jiyapLk;NghJjhd;> mbg;gil chpikfspd; Njitg;ghL vOk;.
MjhtJ mbg;gil chpikfis muRf;F vjpuhfj; jhd; vOg;g KbAk;.
jdp kdpj nray;fSf;F vjpuhf mbg;gil chpikfisf; Nfhu KbahJ.
,e;jpa murpayikg;gpy;> ePjpKiw kWrPuha;T mjpfhuk; gw;wp 13> 32> 226
Nghd;w ~uj;Jfspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.
~uj;J 14 “rl;lj;jpd; Kd; rkj;Jtk;” kw;Wk; “rl;lq;fspd; %yk; rk
ghJfhg;G” vd;w ,U nrhw;nwhlh;fSk;> ePjpapd; Ml;rpiaAk; rkePjpiaAk;
Fwpf;fpd;wd.    “rl;lj;jpd;Kd;         rkj;Jtk;”    vd;gjpy;       xUikapy;
gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s “rl;lk;” vd;gJ> ilrp vd;gth; Fwpg;gpl;l ePjpapd;
Ml;rp my;yJ rl;lf; Nfhl;ghL my;yJ ePjpf; Nfhl;ghL vd;gijNa
Fwpf;Fk;.
~uj;J 15 rhjp> rka> ,d> ghy;> gpwg;gpl NtWghLfspdhy; ghugl;rk;
fhl;lhik.
~uj;J 16 rhjp> rka> ,d> ghy;> tk;rhtop> gpwg;gpl> ,Ug;gpl
NtWghLfspdhy; kl;Lk; muRg;gjtpia my;yJ Ntiyiag; ngwj; jFjp
,y;iy vd;W ve;jf; FbkfDf;Fk; ghugl;rk; fhl;lf;$lhJ.
1992k;   Mz;L   etk;gh;    16k;    Njjp   kz;ly;   fkp~d;      ghpe;Jiuapd;gb
r%fhPjpahfTk;> nghUshjhu hPjpahfTk;           gpd;jq;fpa    gphptpdUf;F    27
                 P
tpOf;fhL ,lxJf;fL nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
            ;                ;
~uj;J 17 jPzlhik xopg;G - jPzlhikr; rl;lk; 1955> gpd;dh; ,jidNa
‘rptpy; chpikfs; ghJfhg;Gr; rl;lk;’ vd 1976y; khw;wg;gl;lJ.
~uj;J 18 ‘gl;lq;fs; xopg;G’ vdpDk; uhZtj;jpYk; fy;tpj; JiwapYk;
rhjid       GhpNthUf;Fg;          gl;lq;fs;   toq;Ftjw;F          tpjptpyf;F
mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
~uj;J 19 Rje;jpu chpik
                             6




  19 (1)
  a. Ngr;R kw;Wk; fUj;J ntspg;ghl;L Rje;jpuk;
  b. MAjq;fs; ,y;yhky; mikjpahff; $l;lk; $Ltjw;Fr; Rje;jpuk;
  c. rq;fq;fs; mikg;gjw;Fr; Rje;jpuk;
  d. ,e;jpa Ml;rpg;gFjpf;Fs; vy;yh ,lq;fSf;Fk; Ngha; tUtjw;fhd
  Rje;jpuk;
  e.    ,e;jpahtpd;   ve;jg;  gFjpapy;  Ntz;LkhdhYk;   trpf;fTk;
  FbapUg;gjw;Fk; Rje;jpuk;
  g.     ve;jj;   njhopiyNah>    tpahghuj;ijNah>  thzpfj;ijNah
  Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd Rje;jpuk;


1978Mk; Mz;L nfhz;L tug;gl;l 44tJ murpay; rl;l jpUj;jj;jpw;F
Kd;G nrhj;JhpikahdJ ~uj;J 31d; fPo; xU mbg;gil chpikahf
,Ue;jJ. ,jdhy; rpf;fy;fs; gy vOe;jjhy;> 44tJ murpay; rl;l
jpUj;jkhdJ       nfhz;Ltug;gl;L>  mbg;gil  chpikahf      ,Ue;j
nrhj;Jhpik> ~uj;J 300d; fPo; rhjhuz chpikahf;fg;gl;lJ. ~uj;J 31
   ;
ePffk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.
Fw;wq;fSf;Fj; jz;lidaspg;gJ Fwpj;j ghJfhg;G: ~uj;J 20 ,e;jg;
gphpT kpf Kf;fpakhdjhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ. Vnddpy; mtru epiyapd;
NghJk;$l gphpT 359d;gb Xh; Miz %yk; ,e;j chpikia
epWj;jpitf;f KbahJ vd;W murpayikg;gpd; 42tJ jpUj;jr; rl;lk;
$WfpwJ.
~uj;J 21 capUf;Fk; jdpg;gl;l Rje;jpuj;jpw;Fk; ghJfhg;G: rl;lj;jpdhy;
eph;zapf;fg;gl;Ls;s Kiwg;gb my;yhky; ve;j xU eghpd; capiuAk;
jdpr; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; gwpf;f KbahJ vd;W murpayikg;gpd; 21MtJ
gphpT cj;juthjkspf;fpwJ. ,JTk; mtru epiyapd;NghJk;$l gphpT
359d;gb Xh; Miz %yk; ,e;j chpikia epWj;jpitf;f KbahJ.
~uj;J 22 ifJ nra;ag;gLtjw;Fk;> fhtypy; itf;fg;gLtjw;Fk; vjpuhd
ghJfhg;G.
                             7



~uj;J 22 (1) jLg;Gf;fhty; rl;lk;. MNyhridf;FO NghJkhd fhuzk;
,Ug;gjhff; $wpdhy; xopa ve;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gbAk; jLg;G %d;W
khjq;fSf;F Nky; Nghf mDkjpf;ff;$lhJ.         mj;Jld;> jLg;Gf;
fhtYf;F tifnra;Ak; ve;jr; rl;lkhdhYk;> mjpfgl;rk; vt;tsT
fhyj;jpw;Fj; jLg;Gf; fhtypy; itf;fyhk; vd;gijAk; fz;bg;ghff;
$wpahf Ntz;Lk;.
~uj;J 23 Ruz;lYf;F vjpuhd ghJfhg;G. rl;ltpNuhjkhf kdpjh;fis
tpahghuk; nra;tJ> ‘ngfh;’ eph;gge;jg;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;FtJ Nghd;w
                               ;
Ruz;ly;fspy; ,Ue;J ghJfhg;G mspf;fpwJ.
~uj;J 24 14 taJf;F cl;gl;l rpWth;fisj; njhopw;rhiyfspNyh>
Ruq;fq;fspNyh> gpw   mghafukhd   njhopy;fspNyh   Ntiyf;F
     ;
mkh;jJtijj; jil nra;fpwJ.
~uj;J 25. Fbkf;fs;> vt;tpjf; fl;Lg;ghLk; ,d;wp ve;jr; rkaj;ijAk;
Vw;fTk;> gpd;gw;wTk; gug;gTk; midtUf;Fk; Rje;jpuk; cz;L.
~uj;J 26. vy;yh rkaj;jtUf;Fk;> rkag; gphptpdUf;Fk;> rka kw;Wk;
mwepiya mikg;Gfis Vw;gLj;jpg; guhkhpf;f> rkak; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
tp~aq;fisj;      jhNk eph;tfpj;Jf;nfhs;s> nrhj;Jf;fis   thq;fp
eph;tfpf;fj; Njitahd mbg;gil chpikia mspf;fpwJ.
~uj;J       27.  ve;j xU   Fwpg;gpl;l rkaj;jpd;      ;
                                                tsh;rrpf;fhfTk;>
guhkhpg;gpw;fhfTk; MFk; nryTfSf;fhf thp nrYj;JkhW ve;j xU
egiuAk; fl;lhag;gLj;j KbahJ.
~uj;J 28. Kw;wpYk; murhq;f epjpapy; nray;gLk; fy;tp epWtdq;fspy;
rka Nghjid $lhJ vd;W $WfpwJ.
~uj;J 29. ,e;jpahtpd; ve;jg; gFjpapNyDk; trpf;fpd;w Fbkf;fspd; ve;j
xU gphptpdUk; jkf;nfd;W gpuj;Nafkhd nkhopiaNah> vOj;J
tbtj;ijNah> gz;ghl;ilNah nfhz;lth;fshf ,Ue;jhy; mtw;iwg;
Ngzpf;fhf;Fk; chpik mth;fSf;F cz;L.
~uj;J    30.  rpWghd;ikapdh;      midtUk;     -  mth;fs; rkar;
rpWghd;ikapduhdhYk; nkhopr;      rpWghd;ikapduhdhYk; - mth;fs;
                                8



tpUg;gj;jpw;F   Vw;g>   fy;tp   epWtdq;fis   cUthf;fp   eph;tfpg;gjw;F
chpikAz;L.
~uj;J 32. 1. ePjpg;Nguhiz Ntz;Lk; kDit cah; ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
jhf;fy; nra;ahky;> xU egh; Neubahf cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpYk; jhf;fy;
nra;ayhk;.          2.    murpayikg;gpd;       3tJ      gFjpapy;
cj;jputhjkspf;fg;gl;Ls;s mbg;gil chpikfs; kPwg;gLk; nghOJ> cr;r
ePjpkd;wk; ePjpg;Nguhiz ntspapl mjpfhuk; gilj;Js;sJ.

1.   Ml;nfhzh;tpf;Fk; ePjpg;Nguhiz: rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd Kiwapy;
     rpiwg;gpbj;J     itf;fg;gl;ltiu  tpLtpf;fr;  nra;a   ,t;thiz
     ,lg;gLfpwJ.
2.   nraYWj;Jk; ePjpNguhiz: nghJf;flikahd xU nraiy Xh;
     mjpfhhp my;yJ $l;likg;G my;yJ fPo; ePjpkd;wk; nra;aj;
     jtwpdhy; mf;flikiar; nra;a ,t;thiz ,lg;gLfpwJ.
3.   jilAWj;Jk; ePjpg;Nguhiz: fPo; ePjpkd;wNkh> Ml;rp mjpfhhpNah jk;
     mjpfhu tuk;ig kPwp my;yJ rl;l Kuzhf VNjDk; eltbf;if
     vLj;jhy;> mij Nkw;nfhz;L elj;jhky; nra;a> ,t;thiz
     ,lg;gLfpwJ.
4.                                                  ;
     newpKiwAWj;Jk; ePjpg;Nguhiz: ePjpKiw rhh;ej mYty;fisr;
     nra;Ak; jPHg;ghaq;fs;> mjpfhhpfs;> jk; mjpfhu tuk;ig kPwp
     nray;gl;lhNyh mwKiwf;F khwhf eltbf;if vLj;jhNyh mtw;iw
                                ;
     kW Ma;T nra;J ePffk; nra;tjw;nfd mit rk;ge;jkhd
     Mtzq;fisj; jkf;F mDg;GkhW ePjpkd;wk; MizapLtJjhd;
     newpKiwAWj;Jk; ePjpg;Nguhiz MFk;.
5.   jFjpKiw tpdTk; ePjpg;Nguhiz: nghJ mjpfhug; gjtpapy;
     cs;stiu mth; vj;jFjpapy; mg;gjtp tfpf;fpwhh; vd;w tpdtp>
     gpwg;gpf;fg;gLk; Mizjhd; jFjpKiw tpdTk; ePjpg;Nguhiz MFk;.
                                  9



mbg;gilf; flikfs;

      1976Mk; Mz;bd; murpayikg;G jpUj;jr; (42tJ jpUj;jk;) rl;lkhdJ>
,e;jpaf; Fbkf;fSf;F gj;J mbg;gilf; flikfspd; njhFg;gpid
                             51-
mwpKfg;gLj;jp cs;sJ. ,jw;fhf 51-A vDk; xU ~uj;ijf; nfhz;l gFjp
Gjpjhf murpay; mikg;gpy; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,r;~uj;jpd; fPo; mg;gj;J
mbg;
mbg;gilf; flikfs; gpd;tUkhW $wg;gLfpwJ.

      gj;J Gjpjhf murpay; mikg;gpy; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j ~uj;jpd;
fPo; mg;gj;J mbg;gilf; flikfs; gpd;tUkhW $wg;gLfpwJ.

  1. murpayikg;gpidg;       gpd;gw;Wjy;>  kw;Wk;    mjd;     Fwpf;Nfhs;fs;>
     mikg;Gfs;> Njrpaf;nfhb kw;Wk; ,tw;wpw;F khpahij nrYj;Jjy;;   ;
  2. ekJ       ehl;L    tpLjiyg;     Nghuhl;lj;ij       J}z;ba      cah;ej;
     Fwpf;Nfhs;fis gpd;gw;Wjy; kw;Wk; Nghw;wp tsh;jjy;;
  3. ,e;jpahtpd; xw;Wik> ,iwik kw;Wk; xUikg;ghl;il epiyepWj;jy;
     kw;Wk; ghJfhj;jy;
  4. ehl;bidg; ghJfhj;jy; kw;Wk; miof;fg;gLk; nghOJ Njrpag;
     gzpGhpjy;
  5. rkak;> nkhop kw;Wk; tl;lhuk; my;yJ gphpT NtWghLfisf; fle;J
     ,e;jpa      kf;fSf;Fs;     nghJ     rNfhjuj;Jt       czh;T       kw;Wk;
     ,zf;fj;jpid Nkk;gLj;Jjy;; ngz;fspd; Nkd;ikiaj; jho;jJfpd;w     ;
     gof;fq;fisj; Jwj;jy;.
                                                ;
  6. ekJ gy;tifahd fyhr;rhuj;jpd; cah;ej ghuk;ghpaj;jpw;F kjpg;G
     mspj;jy; kw;Wk; NgZjy;
                                                  ;
  7. fhLfs;> Vhpfs;> MWfs; kw;Wk; td tho;fif cs;spl;l ,aw;if
     Rw;Wg;Gw #oiy ghJfhj;jy; kw;Wk; Nkk;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; thOk;
     caphpdq;fSf;fhf ,uf;fk; nfhs;Sjy;
  8. Ma;twpT tpisT epiy> kdpj eyk; kw;Wk; tprhuiz czh;T
               ;
     kw;Wk; rPhjpUj;jq;fis Nkk;gLj;Jjy;
  9. nghJr; nrhj;Jf;F ghJfhg;G mspj;jy;;
                                10



  10. vy;yhj; JiwfspYk;> jdpkdpjd; kw;Wk; $l;Lr; nray;ghLfspd;
      Kjd;ik epiyia Nehf;fp KaYjy; kw;Wk; ,jdhy;> ehL
      Kaw;rpapd; cah;gb  epiy   rhjidfis      Nehf;fp epiyahf
      caUfpwJ.


,e;jpaf; FbauRj; jiyth;


     ~uj;J 52. ,e;jpahtpw;F xU FbauRj; jiyth; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;
     vd;Wk; ,th; ,e;jpa murpd; jiytuhf tpsq;Ffpwhh; vd;Wk;
     murhq;fj;jpd;   nrayhl;rp  mjpfhuk;  FbauRj;    jiythplk;
     toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vdTk;> ,th; mt;tjpfhuj;ij ,e;jpa murpay;
     mikg;Gf;Fl;gl;L   NeubahfNth>   jdJ    fPOs;s   mjpfhhpfs;
     %ykhfNth nraYWj;jyhk; vd;W $WfpwJ.


jFjpfs;

  1. xU ,e;jpa FbkfdhfTk;
  2. 35 taJ epuk;gpatuhfTk;
  3. ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; kf;fs; rigf;Fg; Nghl;baplj; jFjp ngw;wtuhfTk;
     ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;
  4. kj;jpa murhq;fj;jpNyh my;yJ VjhtnjhU khepy murhq;fj;jpNyh
     my;yJ Nkw;fz;l murhq;fq;fspd; fPo; ,aq;Fk; VjhtnjhU tl;lhu
     my;yJ gpw mjpfhu mikg;gpNyh Mjha mbg;gilapy; mike;j ve;j
     xU gjtpiaAk; tfpg;gtuhf ,Uj;jy; $lhJ.


Cjpak;

khjr;rk;gsk; - &.1>50>000

NkYk; thlif         juhky;   murhq;f   FbapUg;ig   gad;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s
chpikAz;L.
                              11




     ;
Njh;enjLf;fg;gLk; Kiw


                        ;
kf;fshy; Neubahf Njh;enjLf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. khwhf> mth; xU Njh;jy;
                               ;
FOtpd; cWg;gpdh;fshy; Njh;enjLf;fg;gLfpwhh;. ,j;Njh;jy; FO (m)
                                      ;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; ,U mitfspd; Njh;enjLf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdh;fisAk; (M)
                                                      ;
khepy rl;lkd;wj;jpd; fPoitahd rl;lg;Nguitapd; Njh;eJ vLf;fg;gl;l
cWg;gpdh;fisAk; cs;slf;fpajhFk;. ,t;thW ~uj;J 54 $WfpwJ.
                                                 ;
,j;Njh;jy; FOtpduhy; FbauRj; jiytiuj; Njh;enjLf;Fk; NghJ tpfpjg;
gpujpepjpj;Jt  Kiw    gpd;gw;wg;gLk;.   cWg;gpdh;fs; mspf;Fk; Xl;L>
xw;iwkhw;W Xl;L MFk;.

    ,e;jpaf; FbauRj; jiyth;> jhk; gjtp Vw;w jpdj;jpy; ,Ue;J 5
Mz;Lfs;           ;
           njhlh;eJ  gjtp   tfpf;fyhk;.  xUth;    vj;jid      Kiw
Ntz;LkhdhYk; FbauRj; jiyth; gjtpj; Njh;jYf;Fg; Nghl;baplyhk;.


     “FbauRj; jiyth; kPJ gopr;rhw;WtJ” njhlh;ghd eilKiwfis
~uj;J 61 $WfpwJ. FbauRj; jiyth; jhkhfNt jdJ gjtpia
,uh[pdhkh nra;ayhk;. my;yJ ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; VjhtJ xU mitapy;
nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fspy; ehd;fpy; xU gq;F cWg;gpdh;fSf;Ff; Fiwahj
                                    ;
cWg;gpdh;fs; ifnahg;gkpl;l xU jPhkhdj;jpd; thapyhf> FbauRj; jiyth;
                                      ;
kPJ Fw;wQ;rhl;lyhk;. Fw;wr;rhl;L jPhkhdj;jpd; efy; FbauRj; jiytUf;F
mJ njhlq;fg;gLk; 14 ehl;fSf;F Kd;ghfNt nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. gpwF
    P ;
mj;jhkhdk; rigapd; nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fspy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L gq;Ff;Ff;
Fiwahj cWg;gpdh;fshy; Mjhpf;fg;gl;L epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.


FbauRj; jiythpd; mjpfhuq;fis gw;wp ~uj;J 109 $WfpwJ

  1. nrayhl;rpj; Jiw mjpfhuq;fs; - cr;r kw;Wk; cah; ePjpkd;w
     ePjpgjpfs; khepyq;fspd; MSeh;fs;> ml;lhh;dp n[duy;> jzpf;ifj;
                               12



     jiyth;> nghJg; gzpf;FOtpd; jiyth; kw;Wk; cWg;gpdh;fs;.
           ;
     jho;jjg;gl;Nlhh; kw;Wk; goq;Fbapdh;fSf;Fz;lhd jdp mYtyh;fs;>
           ;
     jho;jjg;gl;l gFjpapd; tptuj;ij jahh; nra;Ak; FO gpw;gl;Nlhh;
     epiyia MAk; FO kw;Wk; nkhop thhp rpWghd;ikapNdhUf;F jdp
     mYtyh; ,th;fis epakpf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ij FbauR jiyth;
     ngw;Ws;shh;.
  2. ,uhZt mjpfhuq;fs;
  3. J}jhz;ik mjpfhuq;fs;
  4. rl;lkd;wj;Jiw       mjpfhuq;fs;     -    ghuhSkd;wj;jpd;   mitf;
     $l;lq;fisg; nghWj;j tiuapy; mitfisf; $l;Lk; mjpfhuKk;>
     xj;jpitf;Fk;     mjpfhuKk;       FbauRj;     jiythplk;    cs;sJ.
     kf;fsitiaf;         fiyf;Fk;       mjpfhuKk;    mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
     Nkyitahd> khepyq;fsitiaf; (uh[;a rig) fiyf;Fk; mjpfhuk;
     FbauRj; jiytUf;F nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
     NkYk;>    FbauR      jiyth;     ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; rigfspy;    ciu
             ;
     epfo;jjTk;> my;yJ ,U rigfspd; $l;Lf; $l;lj;jpy; ciu
             ;
     epfo;jjTk; chpikg; ngw;W cs;shh;. rigfSf;Fr; nra;jp mDg;Gk;
     chpikiaAk;       ,th;   ngw;Ws;shh;.   (~uj;J   86)    Nkyitahd
     khepyq;fsitf;f 12 cWg;gpdh;fisAk;> fPoitahd kf;fsitf;F 2
     Mq;fpNyh ,e;jpa cWg;gpdh;fisAk; epakpf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ijAk;
     ngw;wpUf;fpwhh;.

      FbauRj; jiyth; ghuhSkd;wj;jhy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l kNrhjh Fwpj;J
jdJ ,irtpid mspf;fyhk;. (~uj;J 111) my;yJ epWj;jp itf;fyhk;>
my;yJ gz kNrhjh jtpu rhjhuz kNrhjhf;fspy; jhk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s
                    ;
tpguk; Fwpj;J kPzLk; kW ghprPyid nra;tjw;fhf mk;kNrhjhit
mitf;Nf     jpUg;gp   mDg;gyhk;. mk;kNrhjh    FbauRj;     jiythpd;
                                                     ;
Nahridg;gb jpUj;jg;gl;Nlh my;yJ jpUj;jg;glhkNyh kPzLk; mtUila
,irtpw;F mDg;gg;gl;lhy;> FbauRj; jiyth; jd;Dila ,irtpid
mspf;f> kWf;f KbahJ. Mdhy; epjp kNrhjhf;fisf; FbauRj; jiythpd;
xg;Gjy; ,y;yhky; nra;a KbahJ.
                              13




     XU rhjhuz kNrhjh Fwpj;J> ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; ,U mitfSf;F
                                       ; ;
,ilNa Kuz;ghL vONkahapd;> mjidj; jPhjJ itf;f> ,U mitfspd;
$l;L $l;lj;jpw;F Vw;ghL nra;a FbauRj; jiytUf;F mjpfhuk; cz;L
(~uj;J 108).

   ;
,;ejpa muRj; jiyik tof;fwpQh;

             ;
      murhq;fjjpw;F rl;l rk;ge;jkhd tp~aq;fspy; MNyhrid toq;fTk;
rl;l rk;ge;jkhf ,lg;gLg; gpw gzpfis nra;aTk; cr;rePjpkd;w ePjpgjp
Mf epakpf;fg;gLtjw;fhd jFjpfis cila xUtiu ,e;jpahtpd;
jiyik tof;fwpQuhf FbauRj; jiytuhy; epakpf;fg;gLfpwhh;.       (~uj;J
76) FbauRj; jiyth; tpUk;Gk;tiu muRj;jiyik tof;fwpQh; gjtp
tfpg;ghh;.     vdpDk; murhq;fj;jpd; MNyhridapd; NghpNyNa mth;
epakpf;fg;gLtjhy; Ml;rp khwpaTld; ml;lh;dp-n[duYk; gjtp tpyFtJ xU
kughf cUthfptpl;lJ.

     ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s ePjpkd;wq;fs; midj;jpYk; Kjypy; jd;Dila
fUj;ijf; Nfl;FkhW $Wk; chpik mtUf;F cz;L.        ehlhSkd;wj;jpd;
,uz;L mitfspYNk $l;lj;njhlhpd; eltbf;iffspy; gq;F nfhz;L
NgRfpd;w    chpikAk;  mtUf;F     cz;L   vdpDk;      ;          P
                                                 jPhkhdq;fspd;kJ
thf;fspf;Fk; chpik fpilahJ.
ehlhSkd;wk;

             ;
FbauRj;jiyth;> khepyq;fsit kw;Wk; kf;fsit vd;w ,uz;L mitfs;
Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;ljhf ,e;jpa ehlhSkd;wk; mike;Js;sJ.

FbauRj;jiyth;:

    ehlhSkd;wj;jp;y; ,uz;L mitfspd; $l;lj;njhlh; eilngwhjNghJ>
FbauRj; jiyth; cldbahfr; nray;glNtz;ba mtrpakhd #o;epiy
                                14



,Ug;gjhf        mth; jpUg;jpaile;jhy;> ehlhSkd;wj;jhy; ,aw;wg;gLk;
                            P ;
rl;lj;ijg; NghyNt nray;trRila mtrur; rl;lj;ij       FbauRj;jiyth;
         ;
gpwg;gp;ffyhk;.


khepyq;fsit:
        sit

       xd;wpaj;jp;d; gy;NtW mq;fq;fshfpa khepyq;fs; kw;Wk; xd;wpa Neub
Ml;rpg;gFjpfspy; cs;s kf;fsp;d; kiwKf gpujpepjpj;Jt mikg;ghf
khepyq;fsit jpfo;fpwJ.           kf;fs;njhif mjpfKs;s cj;jug;gpuNjr
khepyj;jpy; ,Ue;J kpf mjpfgl;rkhf 34 cWg;gpdh;fSk;> kzpg;G+h;>
kpN[huk;> rpf;fpk;> jphpGuh Nghd;w rpwpa khepyq;fspy; ,Ue;J jyh xU
cWg;gpdUk;              khepyq;fsitf;Fj;              ;
                                                 Njh;enjLf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;.
murpayikg;gpd;gb khepyq;fsitapy; 250; - f;Fk; kpfhj cWg;gpdh;fs;
,Ug;gh;. ,th;fspy; 12 Ngh; FbauRj;jiytuhy; epakpf;fg;gLth;. 238 Ngh;
khepyq;fspy;        ,Ue;Jk;>    Neub     Ml;rpg;  gFjpfspy;     ,Ue;Jk;
     ;
Njh;enjLf;fg;gLth;.


kf;fsit :

                                ;
     kf;fshy; Neubahfj; Njh;enjLg;fg;gl;l gpujpepjpfisf; nfhz;lJ.
18 taJ epuk;gpa ,e;jpaf; Fbkfd; xt;nthUtUk;> rl;lj;jpd;gb
jFjpapog;Gr; nra;ag;glhj gl;rj;jpy;> kf;fsitj; Njh;jypy; thf;fspf;Fk;
chpik      ngw;wtuhthh;. khepyq;fspy;    cs;s   njhFjpfspy;   ,Ue;J
                   ;
Nehpilahfj; Njh;enjLf;fg;gLk; cWg;gpdh;fs; 530 - f;F kpfhkYk;> Neub
                                          ;
Ml;rpg;gFjpfspy; ,Ue;J Nehpilahfj; Njh;enjLf;fg;gLk; cWg;gpdh;fs; 20
- f;F kpfhkYk; nfhz;ljhf kf;fsit ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;                 vd;W
murpayikg;Gf; $WfpwJ. NkYk;> Mq;fpNyh ,e;jpa rKjhaj;ijr; Nrh;ej    ;
,uz;L cWg;gpdh;fisf; FbauRj; jiyth; kf;fsitf;F epakdk;
nra;ayhk;.     ,t;thwhf> kf;fsitapy; mjpfgl;rkhf 552 cWg;gpdh;fs;
,Uf;fyhk;.
                                15




                         jFjpfs;;
ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fspd; jFjpfs:

       ,e;jpa Fbkfdhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. khepyq;fsitf;F cWg;gpduhf
Ntz;Lkhdhy; 30 taJ epiwe;jtuhfTk; kf;fsitf;F cWg;gpduhfj;
     ;
Njh;enjLf;fg;gl 25 taJ epiwe;jtuhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

      kf;fsitf;Fk;        khepyq;fsitf;Fk;   jitth;      xUtUk;,
Jizj;jiyth; xUtUk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd murpayikg;Gf; $WfpwJ.
,e;jpahtpd; FbauRj; Jizj;jiytNu khepyq;fsitapd; jiytUk;
Mthh;.     khepyq;fsitapd; Jizj;jiytuhf jkf;Fs;NsNa xUtiu
                                    ;
me;j mitapd; cWg;gpdh;fs; Njh;enjLj;Jf; nfhs;th;.    kf;fsitapd;
jiytiuAk;       (rghehafh;)   Jizj;jiytiuAk;   (Jiz    rghehafh;)>
                                             ;
jkf;Fs;NsNa me;j mitapd; cWg;gpdh;fNs Njh;enjLg;gh;.

     kf;fsitj;jiytUk;>           Jizj;jiytUk;>          kf;fsitapd;
cWg;gpdh;fshf ePbf;f Kbahj epiyapy; gjtp tpyf Ntz;Lk;. ,Uthpy;
vtNuDk; gjtp tpyf vz;zpdhy; kw;wtUf;Fj; jkJ gjtptpyfy;
fbjj;ij mDg;g Ntz;Lk;.                             ;
                              mth;fisg; gjtp ePffk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;
vd;why;>  14   ehl;fs;    Kd;dwptpg;Gf;   nfhLj;Jtpl;L  kf;fsitapd;
                                                 ;
ngUk;ghd;ik cWg;gpdh;fsp;d; MjuNthL xU jPhkhdj;ij epiwNtw;w
                                                      ;
Ntz;Lk;. khepyq;fsitj;Jizj; jiytiug; gjtp ePffk; nra;tjw;fhd
,Nj Nghd;w Vw;ghL gphpT 90-y; nrhy;yg;gl;L cs;sJ. kf;fsitj; jiyth;
       ;
njhlh;eJ gjtpapy; ,Ug;ghh;.

       XU $l;lj;njhlUf;Fk; ,d;ndhU $l;lj; njhlUf;Fk; ,ilNa
MWkhj fhy ,ilntsp ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. nghJthf xt;Nthuhz;Lk; %d;W
ehlhSkd;wj;jpd; $l;lq;fs; eilngWk;        mit 1. gl;n[l; $l;lj;njhlh;
(gpg;uthp>Nk) 2. kiof;fhyf; $l;lj;njhlh; ([{iy>nrg;lk;gh;) 3. Fsph;fhyf;
$l;lj;njhlh; (etk;gh;>brk;gh;).     Mdhy; khepyq;fsitapd; gl;n[l;
                              16



$l;lj;njhlh; kl;Lk; %d;W-ehd;F thufhy ,ilntspAld; ,uz;L
gFjpfshf eilngw;W> xuhz;by; ehd;F $l;lj;njhlh;fshf eilngWk;.

     ve;j Xh; mitahdhYk;> mjid elj;jpr; nry;tjw;F mitapd;
nkhj;j cWg;gpdh;fspy; gj;jpy; xU gq;F cWg;gpdh;fs; fl;lhak; M[uhfp
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

      gz kNrhjhf;fs; kw;Wk; Vida epjp kNrhjhf;fs; jtpu NtW ve;j
kNrhjhthdhYk;     mjid       VNjDk;       Xh; mitapy;    Kjypy;
mwpKfg;gLj;jyhk;.   mt;thW mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gLk; kNrhjh> FbauRj;
jiythpd; xg;GjYf;F mDg;gg;gLk; Kd;dh;> ehlhSkd;wj;jpd; ,uz;L
mitfspYk;> jpUj;jq;fs; VJkpd;wpNah> ,uz;L mitfSk; xg;Gf;nfhz;l
jpUj;jq;fSlNdh> Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. gz kNrhjhitj; jtpu>
VNjDk; xU kNrhjh rk;ge;jkhf ,uz;L mitfSf;Fk; ,Wjpahff; fUj;J
                                      ; ;
NtWghLfs; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtw;iwj; jPhggjw;fhff; FbauRj; jiyth;
,uz;L mitfspd; $l;Lf; $l;lj;ij miof;fyhk;.

   kNrhjh:-
gz kNrhjh:-

      xU kNrhjh> gzkNrhjhth vd;w Iak; Njhd;wpdhy;> mjpy;
                           ; ;
kf;fsitj; jiythpd; jPhgNg ,WjpahdJ.             gzkNrhjhitf; FbauR
jiythpd; xg;GjYf;fhf mDg;Gk;NghJ> mJ xU gzkNrhjh vd;W
kf;fsit      jiyth;      rhd;wspf;f    Ntz;Lk;.        gzkNrhjhitf;
FbauRj;jiythpd;      ghpe;Jiuapd;     Nghpy;>   kf;fsitapy;    kl;LNk
mwpKfg;gLj;j   KbAk;.          kf;fsitapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l gpd;dh;
khepyq;fsitf;F      mDg;gg;gLk;      gzkNrhjhtpd;      kPJ    VNjDk;
jpUj;jq;fSf;fhd ghpe;Jiufs; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtw;iw 14 ehl;fSf;Fs;
khepyq;fsit my;yJ VNjDk; xU jpUj;jj;ijNah> jpUj;jq;fs;
midj;ijANkh epuhfhpj;Jtplyhk;.         jpUj;jq;fis kf;fsit Vw;Wf;
nfhz;lgbNa ,uz;L mitfSk; me;j kNrhjhit Vw;Wf;nfhz;ljhff;
fUjg;gLk;.   khepyq;fsitapy; ,Ue;J 14 ehl;fSf;Fs; me;j kNrhjh
                                  17



jpUg;gp mDg;gg;glhtpl;lhYk;> kf;fsit Vw;Wf;nfhz;l tbtj;jpNyNa me;j
kNrhjh ,uz;L mitfspYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhf fUjg;gLk;.

      Xh;    cWg;gpdh;   NgrpaJ Fwpj;Njh>  thf;fspj;J Fwpj;Njh>
ehlhSkd;wj;ijj; jtpu NtW ve;j mjpfhu mikg;gpNyh my;yJ
ePjpkd;wj;jpNyh ve;jtpjkhd eltbf;ifAk; Nkw;nfhs;s KbahJ vd;W
murpay; rl;lk; tpjpj;Js;sJ.

     ehlhSkd;wj;jpw;Fs; Xh; cWg;gpdh; Ngrpa Ngr;R ePjpkd;wj;ij
mtkjpg;gjhf ,Ue;jhYk;$l> ve;j xU ePjpkd;wKk; mth; kPJ eltbf;if
vLf;f KbahJ.

                          ;                  ;
     ePjpgjpfisg; gjtp ePffk; nra;tjw;fhd jPhkhdj;jpd; kPJ NgRk;NghJ
jtpu kw;w rkaq;fspy;> mth;fspd; elj;ijia tpkh;rpf;f $lhJ.

fl;rpj;jhty; jilr;rl;lk;:-

      ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdh; gjtpapy; ,Ue;Jk;> khepyr; rl;lNguit
cWg;gpdh;    gjtpapy; ,Ue;Jk;     ,lj;ijf;   fhypnra;tJ     rk;ge;jkhf
Ik;gj;jpuz;lhtJ jpUj;jr; rl;lk; 1985> murpayikg;gpd; 101> 102> 190> 191
Mfpa gphpTfisj; jpUj;jpaJld;> Gjpa ml;ltiz xd;iwAk; (gj;jhtJ
                 ;
ml;ltiz) Nrh;jjJ. fl;rpj;jhty; fhuzkhf cWg;gpdh;fs; gjtpapog;gJ
                                                         ;
rk;ge;jkhd rpy tifAiufs; ,e;jj; jpUj;jj;jpd; %yk; Nrh;ffg;gl;ld.


                                 ePjpj;Jiw

                       (~uj;J 124-147 kw;Wk; 214-237)


cr;r ePjpkd;wk;:-
                                18



      jiyik ePjpgjp xUtUk;> gpw ePjpgjpfs; vOtiuAk; nfhz;ljhf
cr;rePjpkd;wk; xd;W cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W murpay; rl;lj;jpd;
124tJ gpHpT $WfpwJ. vdpDk; Vida ePjpgjpfspd; vz;zpf;ifia rl;lk;
,aw;Wtjd;         %yk;       mfpfhpf;f      ehlhSkd;wj;jpw;F     mjpfhuk;
mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.       1986Mk; Mz;L ,aw;wg;gl;l rl;lj;jpd;gb> jiyik
ePjpgjpiaj; jtpu cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; kw;w ePjpgjpfspd; vz;zpf;if 25 Mf
eph;zapf;fg;gl;L cs;sJ.                                            P
                              cr;rePjpkd;w ePjpgjpfs; kw;Wk; cah;ejpkd;w
ePjpgjpfs; Nghd;Nwhiuf; fye;jhNyhrpj;J cr;rePjpkd;w ePjpgjpfisf;
FbauRj;jiyth; epakdk; nra;fpwhh;. jiyik ePjpgjp epakdk; jtpu kw;w
ePjpgjpfis      epakpf;Fk;   NghJ     fl;lhakhfj;   jiyik     ePjpgjpiaf;
fye;jhNyhrpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

       cr;rePjpkd;w  ePjpgjp  xt;nthUtUk;   65   taJtiu      gjtpapy;
,Uf;fyhk;.      FbauRj; jiythpd; Mizapd; NghpNyNa cr;rePjpkd;w
                                  ;
ePjp;gjp xUtiug; gjtpapypUe;J ePff KbAk;. FbauRj;jiyth; mj;jifa
Miziag; gpwg;gpf;f Ntz;Lkhdhy; rk;ge;jgl;l ePjpgjpf;Fj; jpwik
,y;iy vd;Nwh> mth; KiwNflhf ele;Jnfhz;lhh; vd;Nwh fhuzk; fhl;b>
ehlhSkd;wj;jpd; ,uz;L mitfspYk; %d;wpy; ,uz;L gq;F cWg;gpdh;fs;
M[uhfp thf;fspj;Jg; ngUk;ghd;ik MjuTld;> jdpj;jdpahf xU
   ;
jPhkhdj;ij      epiwNtw;w>   mjid     ehlhSkd;wj;jpd; me;jf;    $l;l
                                    ;
njhlhpNyNa FbauRj;jiythplk; rkh;ggpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

    cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpy; ePjpgjpahf gjtptfpj;j xUth;> ,e;jpahtpw;Fs; ve;j
xU ePjpkd;wj;jpYk; tof;FiuQuhfj; njhopy; Ghpaf; $lhJ vd;W murpay;
mikg;Gj;jil tpjpj;Js;sJ.

       jw;NghJ cr;rePjpkd;wj; jiyik ePjpgjpf;F> khjnkhd;Wf;F (&gha;
1>00>000) Vida ePjpgjpfSf;F 90>000 &ghAk;> Cjpakhf toq;fg;gLfpwJ.
Cjpak; jtpu Vida gbfs;> ,ytrf; FbapUg;G> ehLKOtJk; gazk;
nra;agazr; nryTfs;> Xa;T+jpak; Nghd;w gpw rYiffSk; mth;fSf;F
cz;L.
                                 19




     VNjDk;       xU        rkaj;jpy;     cr;rePjpkd;w    eltbf;iffis
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fg;     Nghjpa    ePjpgjpfs;   ,y;iy      vd;why;> ePjpkd;w
                          ;                        P
eltbf;iffisj; njhlh;eJ elj;Jtjw;fhf> cah;ejpkd;w ePjpgjpfspilNa
cr;rePjpkd;w ePjpgjpahf epakdk; ngWk; jFjpAilath;fisj; Njitahd
fhyj;jpw;Fj; jw;fhypf ePjpgjpfshf epakpf;Fk; mjpfhuk; jiyik ePjpgjpf;F
cz;L.                                   P
          vdpDk;> rk;ge;jg;gl;l cah;ejpkd;wj;jpd; jiyik ePjpgjpiaf;
fye;jhNyhrpj;j gpd;dUk;> FbauRj;jiythpd; Kd; mDkjpiag; ngw;w
gpd;dUNk ,j;jifa jw;fhypf epakdq;fisr; nra;ayhk;.


       pkd;
cr;rePjpkd;w mjpfhuKk; ePjptuk;Gk;:


  cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; %y ePjptuk;G.    ~uj;J 131
                               ;
  cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; Nky;KiwaPlL ePjptuk;G.   ~uj;J    132
  cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; MNyhrid $Wk; ePjptuk;G.      ~uj;J      143
  cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; kWrPuha;T mjpfhuk;.   ~uj;J 137
  cr;rePjpkd;wk; xU gjpT nra;Jnfhs;Sk; ePjpkd;wk;.     ~uj;J 129

     P
cah;ejpkd;wk;:

                                        P
     xt;nthU khepyj;jpw;Fk; Xh; cah;ejpkd;wk; ,Uf;fNtz;Lnkd
murpayikg;G tpjpf;fpwJ.   vdpDk; rl;lk; ,aw;Wtjd; %yk;> ,uz;L
                    ;
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l khepyq;fSf;F nghJthdjhfTk; my;yJ ,uz;L
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l khepyq;fSf;Fk; xU Neub Ml;rpg; gFjpf;Fk;
                        P
nghJthdjhfTk;> Xh; cah;ejpkd;wj;ij ehlhSkd;wk; cUthf;fyhk;.

                                              P
      cr;rePjpkd;wj;ijg; NghyNt xt;Nthh; cah;ejpkd;wKk; Xh; Mtz
                                                       ;
ePjpkd;wkhfj; jpfo;tJld;> %ytprhuiz tuk;G> Nky;KiwaPlL tprhuiz
tuk;G Mfpatw;Wld;> ePjpkd;w mtkjpg;Gf;fhfj; jz;lid mspf;Fk;
mjpfhuKk; cilajhfj; jpfo;fpwJ.
                              20




     cr;rePjpkd;wj;  jiyik      ePjpgjpiaAk;>   rk;ge;jg;gl;l khepy
                                  P
MSeiuAk; fye;jhNyhrpj;J> cah;ejpkd;wj;jpd; ePjpgjpfisf; FbauRj;
                                P
jiyth; epakdk; nra;fpwhh;. cah;ejpkd;wj;jpd; jiyik ePjpgjpiaj; jtpu
                                       P
kw;w ePjpgjpfis epakpf;Fk;NghJ> cah;ejpkd;w jiyik ePjpgjpiaAk;>
FbauRj;jiyth; fye;jhNyhrpj;J KbntLg;ghh;.

                              P
      62 tajhFk; tiu cah;ejpkd;w ePjpgjpahfg; gjtpapy; ,Uf;fyhk;.
cr;rePjpkd;w  ePjpgjpiag;         P ;
                            gjtp;effk; nra;tjw;fhd    eilKiwiag;
                          P                       ;
gpd;gw;Wtjd; %yNk cah;ejpkd;w ePjpgjpiaAk; gjtpePffk; nra;aKbAk;.

khjr;rk;gsk; : njhd;D}W Mwhapuk; &gha;

                                                                 P
       cr;rePjpkd;wj; jiyik ePjpgjpiaf; fye;jhNyhrpj;J> Xh; cah;ejp
                                P
kd;wj;jpypUe;J ,d;Ndhh; cah;ejpkd;wj;jpw;F ePjpgjpfisf; FbauRj;
                                             P
jiyth; ,lkhw;wk; nra;ayhk; vdpDk; cah;ejpkd;w ePjpgjp xUtiu
mtUila xg;Gjy; ,d;wp ,lkhw;wk; nra;af;$lhJ vd;W cr;rePjpkd;wk;
   ; ;
jPhggspj;jpUf;fpwJ.

      FbauRj;jiythpd; xg;Gjiyg; ngw;W> Xa;Tngw;w ePjpgjp xUtiu
      P                                   P
cah;ejpkd;wj;jpy; nghWg;G ePjpgjpahf cah;ejpkd;wj; jiyik ePjpgjp
epakpf;fyhk;.

     Xt;nthh;           P
                 cah;ejpkd;wj;jpw;Fk;   jd;Dila mYtyh;fs;       kPJ
KOikahd fl;Lg;ghL ,Uf;Fk;. ePjpgjpfs; kw;Wk; Vida mYtyh;fspy;
CjpaKk; kw;wgbfSk;> me;je;j khepyj;jpd; xUq;fpizg;G epjpaj;jpypUe;J
toq;fg;gLfpd;wd.
     P
cah;ejpkd;wj;jpd; ePjptuk;G kw;Wk; mjpfhuq;fs;


       gjpT nra;J nfhs;Sk; ePjpkd;wk;.   ~uj;J 215
       vy;yh ePjpkd;wq;fisAk; Nkw;ghh;itapLk; mjpfhuk;.   ~uj;J 227
                                  21



        tof;Ffisj; jhNd vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; mjpfhuk;.    ~uj;J 228
        rpy ePjpg;Nguhizfis ntspapLk; mjpfhuk;.   ~uj;J   226
        nghJ ePjptuk;G.   ~uj;J    225
        mjpfhhpfisAk; Copah;fisAk; epakpf;Fk; mjpfhuk;


Ml;rpnkhop


     kj;jpa murpd; Ml;rpnkhop Njtehfhp vOj;JUtpYs;s ,e;jp Mf
,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> kj;jpa murpy; mYty; Kiw Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf
gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;ba vz;fspd; tbtk;> ,e;jpa vz;fspd; gd;dhl;L
tbtkhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> ~uj;J 343 (1) $WfpwJ.


      ,e;jpa murpayikg;G njhlq;fpa 15 Mz;L fhy msTf;F mj;jifa
njhlf;fj;ij xl;b Kd;G Mq;fpy nkhop> kj;jpa murpd; ve;j mYty;
Kiw Nehf;fq;fSf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L te;jNjh me;j mYty; Kiw
                                   ;
Nehf;fq;fs; midj;jpw;Fk; ,J njhlh;eJ gad;gLj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.


      Mdhy; Nkw;nrhd;d fhy mstpd; NghJ> kj;jpa murpd; mYty;Kiw
Nehf;fq;fspy; vjw;fhfNtDk; Mq;fpy nkhopNahLk; $l Njtehfhp tbt
vz;fisAk; (,e;jp nkhop vz;fs;) gad;gLj;Jtjw;F FbauRj; jiyth;
Miz thapyhf mjpfhukspf;fyhk; vd ~uj;J 343 (2) $WfpwJ.
22

				
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