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					ginger cultivation

How to planting or cultivation of ginger. Ginger is one of the spices export commodities of Indonesia,
but it is also a traditional medicine and fitofarmaka, providing significant role in employment and
foreign exchange income. Packaged commodities such as fresh ginger, pickled (large white ginger),
dry ginger (ginger large white, small and red ginger), as well as essential oils of ginger small white
(ginger CVD) and red ginger. Volume demand continues to increase along with the demand for
ginger products and the growing world food and beverage industry in the country that uses raw
ginger. In 1998, exports reached 32,807 tonnes of ginger Indonesia with a nominal value of U.S. $
9,286,161. 2003 fell to 7470 tons with a value of U.S. $ 3,930,317 due to not meeting quality
standards. However, demand has increased every year ginger. This condition in Indonesia,
responded with the growing planting and emergence of various ginger products.



Development of large scale ginger to date cultivation efforts need to be supported with an optimal
and sustainable. To achieve an optimal level of success necessary cultivation of plant material with
production and quality assurance as well as stabilized by applying the recommended cultivation. The
rejection of Indonesian ginger export destination countries, especially Japan, due to the high
contaminant microorganisms, resulting in drop in farmers' income ginger. This needs to be
anticipated by applying the best suggestion cultivating them with the use of healthy plant material
derived from varieties. In addition, because the quality of crude feedstock downstream industries
are determined by the process of cultivation and pascapanennya, the standardization of standard
operating procedures (SPO) is to support the cultivation of ginger GAP (Good Agricultural Practices).



REQUIREMENTS GROW



Land required for cultivation of ginger in the appropriate area for growth. For the growth of ginger
optimal necessary conditions of climate and land use as follows: climate types A, B and C (Schmidt
and Ferguson), altitude 300-900 m asl., Temperature annual average 25-30 º C, the number of wet
months (> 100 mm / bl) 7-9 months per year, annual rainfall 2500-4000 mm, light intensity 70-100%
or slightly shaded to open, good soil drainage, soil texture sandy clay loam to clay, soil pH 6.8 to 7.4.
On land with a low pH can be given agricultural lime (Kaptan) 1-3 ton / ha or dolomite 0.5 to 2 tons /
ha to raise the soil pH.



On the slopes> 3% recommended to do terracing, patio benches are highly recommended when the
slope is quite steep. This is to prevent the leaching of land resulting in land became infertile, and
ginger seeds washed away. Other land requirements are also important for land penamaman ginger
is not a soil borne disease endemic area (soil borne diseases), especially bacterial wilt and
nematodes. To ensure the health of the land, the land should be used instead of the former ginger,
or no bacterial wilt disease dilahan and only two times in a row planted ginger. The next year are
encouraged to move to avoid crop failure due to constraints of the disease and the symptoms
allelopati.



PLANT MATERIAL



Ginger (Zingiber officinale ROSC.; Ginger) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family
Zingiberaceae, with two leaf-shaped berpasangpasangan two swords, rhizomes like horns, flavorful.
During this time in Indonesia, based on shape, color and aroma as well as its chemical composition is
known rhizomes are 3 types of ginger, that big white ginger, ginger and red ginger CVD. Large white
ginger (Z. officinale var. Officinarum) having large jointed rhizomes, yellowish white with a diameter
of 8.47 to 8.50 cm, less sharp scent, height and length of rhizomes from 6.20 to 11.30 and 15.83 -
32.75 cm, light green leaf color, light green stems with roots in the essential oil content from 0.82 to
2.8%. Small white ginger (Z. officinale var. Amarum) have small rhizomes layered, sharp aroma,
creamy with a diameter of 3.27 to 4.05 cm, height and length of rhizomes from 6.38 to 11.10 and
6.13 - 31.70 cm, light green leaf color, light green stems with essential oil content from 1.50 to
3.50%.



Red Ginger (Z. officanale var. Rubrum) have small rhizomes plated, scent is very sharp, light orange
to red with a diameter of 4.20 to 4.26 cm, height and length of rhizomes from 5.26 to 10.40 and
12.33 - 12.60 cm, color light green leaves, reddish green stems with essential oil content from 2.58
to 3.90%. IMACRI has removed a large white ginger varieties (Cimanggu-1) with the potential to
produce 17-37 tonnes / ha. While the candidate varieties small white ginger and red ginger average
production potential of each to a small white ginger is 16 tonnes / ha with the essential oil content
of 1.7 to 3.8%, oleoresin content of 2.39 to 8.87% . While red ginger production potential 22 ton /
ha, essential oil content from 3.2 to 3.6%, oleoresin content of 5.86 to 6.36%.




Seeding



Seeds used to be clear origins, healthy and not mixed with other varieties. Healthy seeds must come
from a healthy crop, not disease. Some of the important diseases that are common ginger plant,
especially the large white ginger, is a bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), Fusarium wilt
(Fusarium oxysporum), wilted rizoktonia (Rhizoctonia solani), nematodes (Rhodopolus similis) and
flies rhizome (Mimergralla coeruleifrons, Eumerus figurans) and lice shield (Aspidiella hartii).
Rhizome has been infected with the disease can not be used as a seed because it will be a source of
transmission of the disease in the field. The selection must be made from the seed crop still in the
field. If there is a plant disease or mixed with other species, the plants with the disease and other
types of plants should be removed and kept away from the planting area. The selection (sorting) is
then performed after the harvest, which is in storage. Inspection is done to remove the infected
seed pests and diseases or discard seeds of other kinds. Rhizome be used for seed should have a
minimum age of 10 months old. The characteristics of the old rhizomes include high fiber content
and a rough, hard skin slippery and not easy to peel, skin color shiny show signs pithy.



Rhizome elected to serve as the seed, should have 2-3 good buds going with a weight of about 25-60
g for large white ginger, 20-40 g for a small white ginger and red ginger. Seed requirement per
hectare for red ginger and ginger CVD 1 to 1.5 tons, while the large white ginger is harvested seed
parent takes 2-3 tonnes / ha and 5 t / ha for the large white ginger harvested young. The best parts
of the rhizome is used as seed rhizome on the second and third segments.



Before planting the seed rhizomes ditunaskan first by the sow, spread roots in the straw / reed thin,
in the shade or in the warehouse and stacked. For that commonly used containers or racks made of
bamboo or wood as the base. During seeding watering every day as needed, to keep the moisture
rhizomes. Seed rhizomes sprout shoots a uniform height 1-2 cm, ready to be planted in the field and
can adapt immediately, also not easily damaged. Rhizomes are already sprouting are then selected
and cut to size. To prevent bacterial infection, soaking in antibiotic solution at recommended doses.
Then the wind dried.



RAISING



To achieve optimal results in the cultivation of a large white ginger, white ginger and small red
ginger, in addition to using high-yielding varieties that clear origins to note also how cultured.



Tillage



Tillage before planting done. Processed in such a way that the soil friable and cleared of weeds.
Tillage is done by menggarpu and hoeing the soil as deep as 30 cm, cleaned of twigs and plant debris
rotting perilous. For if a thin layer of soil, soil treatment must be carefully adapted to the soil and do
not hoe or digarpu so deep that the topsoil mixed with the soil, it can lead to less fertile crop growth.
Having cultivated land and digemburkan, made beds slope direction (for sloping land), the system or
the system guludan pris (trench). In beds or ridges then made the planting hole.



Spacing
Seeds planted deep ginger 5-7 cm with buds facing up, not upside down, as it can inhibit growth.
Spacing used for the cultivation of large white ginger is harvested old is 80 cm x 40 cm or 60 cm x 40
cm, small white ginger and red ginger 60 cm x 40 cm.



Fertilization



Sheep or cow manure is ripe as much as 20 tons / ha, given 2-4 weeks before planting. While
artificial fertilizers SP-36300-400 kg / ha and KCl 300-400 kg / ha, given at the time of planting. Urea
given 3 times at the age of 1, 2 and 3 months after planting as much as 400-600 kg / ha, respectively
1/3 dose of each administration. At the age of 4 months after planting can also be extended to two
manure 20 tons / ha.



Maintenance



Maintenance done so that plants can grow and produce well.



a. Weeding



Until the plants are 6-7 months grow weed, so weeding must be done in a clean intensively.
Weeding after the age of 4 months must be done carefully so as not to damage the roots which can
lead to the entry of seed disease. To reduce the intensity of weeding could use a thick mulch of
straw or husks.



b. Stitching



Embroider plants that do not grow done at age 1 to 1.5 months after planting using seed reserves
that have been selected and planted.



c. Pembumbunan / pendangiran
Pembumbunan started on time have formed clumps with 4-5 tillers, so that the rhizome is always
covered with soil. Moreover, the performed pembumbunan, drainage is always maintained.



d. Control of plant pests



Pest control carried out as appropriate. The main diseases of ginger rhizome rot is caused by
bacterial wilt attack (Ralstonia solanacearum). Until now there is no adequate method of control,
but to introduce measures to prevent the entry of seed diseases, such as sound land use, use of
healthy seeds, healthy seed treatment (antibiotics), to avoid injury (using rice husk ash), crop
rotation, cleaning crop residues and weeds, making irrigation channels so that there is no stagnant
water and water does not flow through healthy plots (sanitation), inspection of the garden on a
regular basis.

Bacterial wilt affected plants immediately removed and burned to prevent the spread of the pest
attack. Significant pests are flies rhizome Mimergralla coeruleifrons (Diptera, Micropezidae) and
Eumerus figurans (Diptera, Syrpidae), lice shield (Aspidiella hartii) that attacks ranging from planting
rhizomes and roots causing poor performance and leaf spot caused by the fungus (Phyllosticta sp.).
This disease occurs in plants when young (before 6 months) would lead to a significant decline in
production. Measures to prevent the expansion of the disease by spraying fungicide as soon as it
appears there was an attack (repeated every week), diseased plant sanitation, regular inspections.



PLANTING PATTERN



To increase the productivity of land, ginger can be intercropped with food crops such as beans and
vegetables, according to the condition of the land.



HARVEST



Harvest to consumption begins at age 6 to 10 months. However, the roots for seeds harvested 10-12
months. How to harvest done by dismantling the entire rhizome using a fork, hoe, and then stick to
cleared land. By using a large white ginger varieties (Cimanggu-1) produced an average of 27 tons of
fresh ginger, white ginger varieties prospective small (JPK 3; JPK 6) recommended by cultivation,
produced an average of 16 tonnes / ha fresh ginger Essential oils with high levels of 1.7 to 3.8%,
oleoresin content of 2.39 to 8.87%.

While red ginger 22 tonnes / ha with the essential oil content of 3.2 to 3.6%, oleoresin content of
5.86 to 6.36%. Quality of rhizomes of high-yielding varieties Cimanggu-1 and candidate varieties and
the small white ginger red ginger, standards Materia Medika Indonesia (MMI).
According to trading standards, the quality of fresh ginger categorized as follows:



Quality First: weight 250 g / rhizomes, skin is not peeling, do not contain foreign materials and
molds;

Quality II: weight 150-249 g / rhizomes, skin is not peeling, do not contain foreign materials and
molds;

Quality III: weighting corresponding analytical results, exfoliate the skin up to 10%, 3% maximum
foreign matter, molds up to 10%



POST-HARVEST



Stages of ginger processing includes sorting, washing, slicing, drying, packaging and storage. After
harvest, the rhizomes should be promptly cleaned to avoid excessive dirt and unwanted
microorganisms. Rhizomes are cleaned with high-pressure water spray, or washed by hand. After
washing, dry the rhizomes dianginanginkan for washing water. For sale fresh ginger can be directly
packaged. But if desired in the form of dry or crude, it is necessary to slicing thick rhizomes 1-4 mm.
To get the bulbs with interesting texture, before sliced ginger boiled a few minutes until the process
of gelatinization Rhizome sliced, then dried with solar energy or with artificial hair / oven at a
temperature of 36-46 ° C. When the water levels have reached about 8-10%, that is, when the
rhizomes can be broken, drying has been considered sufficient. In addition, dry ginger is known logs
(small white ginger and red ginger) are processed by ginger rhizome intact tingling that most of the
water out, then dried with solar energy or dried or oven until the moisture content reaches 8-10%.
Dried rhizome can be packed in a crate,

				
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posted:8/27/2012
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