05b Proteins and Nucleic Acids by lanyuehua

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                                            Nucleic Acids

Food sources: high protein foods like nuts, meat, fish, milk, beans
There are two types of nucleic acids:
1. DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid
     Location - inside nucleus
     Function – genetic instructions to make RNA
2. RNA -Ribonucleic Acid
     Location - in nucleus and cytoplasm
     Function – converts DNA instructions into proteins

Nucleic Acid Structure
   • Nucleic acid monomers are nucleotides.
   • All nucleotides are made of three parts:
            1. A pentose sugar, deoxyribose for DNA and ribose for RNA
            2. Phosphate
            3. One of five nitrogen containing bases
                - In DNA, either adenine, thymine,
                guanine, or cytosine
                - In RNA, uracil replaces thymine
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Nucleic Acid Polymers
- DNA is a large polymer made of many nucleotides.
- Two strands of DNA hydrogen bond between the nitrogen
bases and coil together.
- RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid.



                           Proteins
Food sources for proteins are the same as nucleic acids.

Proteins have four main functions:
1. Major structural component of all cells, organs and tissues
2. Enzymes that speed up all chemical reactions are all
proteins
3. Transport substances within and between cells
4. Chemical messengers and protein based hormones

Protein Monomers
• All proteins are made of the same 20 amino acids
    connected in different combinations.
• 10 amino acids are considered essential in the diet of
    adult humans and our bodies can make the remaining 10 from the amino acids that we eat.
• Infants and children need more amino acids because their bodies can not make as many.

Amino Acids
All amino acids have a nitrogen functional group, an acid functional group and a side functional group
that makes each amino acid unique.
Here are a few amino acids:




Forming Polypeptides
• Amino acids bond by dehydration synthesis between the amino and acid functional groups of two
   amino acids.
• This forms a covalent peptide bond.
• Polypeptides have from 40 to 1000 amino acids in a long chain.
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Protein Folding and Structures
• Proteins are only functional when the polypeptide folds into the correct 3D shape.
• A polypeptide is a primary protein structure.
• The secondary protein structure involves forming hydrogen bonds
        –  helix folds forming a spiral
        –  pleated folds forming sheets
• A tertiary protein folding occurs to make an active protein.
• The tertiary structure is a complex shape.
• Bonds are formed between the functional groups on the different amino acids. Some R groups are
    hydrophilic and will be on the
    outside of the protein,
    hydrophobic groups will be
    inside the protein, as well cations
    are attracted to anions.
• Often a tertiary protein is
    complete and works.
• Sometimes two or more tertiary
    proteins bind to form a
    quaternary protein.
• Hemoglobin has two alpha and
    two beta chains all joined
    together. Each of the tertiary
    proteins has one iron atom that
    binds to oxygen.
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                                            Nucleic Acids

Food sources: high protein foods like ________________________________________________
There are two types of nucleic acids:
1. DNA - ___________________________________________
     Location - ___________________________
     Function - ____________________________________
2. RNA -_______________________________
     Location - ______________________________
     Function – __________________________________________
Nucleic Acid Structure
•    Nucleic acid monomers are _________________________________.
•    All nucleotides are made of three parts:
1.   A pentose sugar, ______________________________________________
2.   _________________________
3.   One of five ____________________ containing
     bases
     - In DNA, either ___________________
     ________________________________
     - In RNA, _________________________
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Nucleic Acid Polymers


- DNA is a large polymer made of many ______________________
- _______________________________hydrogen bond between the
nitrogen bases and coil together.
- RNA is a _________________________ nucleic acid.



                              Proteins
Food sources for proteins are the same as nucleic acids.

Proteins have four main functions:
1. Major __________________________ component of all cells,
organs and tissues
2. ________________________________ that speed up all chemical
reactions are all proteins
3. ____________________________ substances within and between cells
4. ___________________________________________ and protein based hormones


Protein Monomers
• All proteins are made of the __________________________________________________________
•   Ten amino acids are considered ________________________ in the diet of adult humans and our
    bodies can make the remaining 10 from the amino acids that we eat.
•   Infants and children need more amino acids because their bodies cannot make as many.


Amino Acids
All amino acids have a ______________________________ functional group, an _______________
functional group and a ____________________ functional group that makes each amino acid unique.
Here are a few amino acids:
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Forming Polypeptides
• Amino acids bond by ___________________________________________________ between the
    amino and acid functional groups of two amino acids.
•   This forms ________________________________________ bond.
•   _____________________________ have from 40 to 1000 amino acids in a long chain.




Protein Folding and Structures
• Proteins are only functional when the polypeptide folds into the ____________________________.
•   A polypeptide is a ____________________
    protein structure.
•   The ________________ protein structure
    involves forming hydrogen bonds
        –    _________________________
        –    _________________________
•   A __________________________ protein
    folding occurs to make an active protein.
•   The tertiary structure is a complex shape.
•   Bonds are formed between the functional
    groups on the different amino acids. Some
    R groups are hydrophilic and will be on the
    outside of the protein, hydrophobic groups
    will be inside the protein, as well cations are
    attracted to anions.
•   Often a tertiary protein is complete and
    works.
•   Sometimes two or more tertiary proteins
    bind to form a ________________ protein
    like ____________________________ .

								
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