Know your service rights - South Africa Government Online

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Know your service rights - South Africa Government Online Powered By Docstoc
					  Know Your
Service Rights!
                        There is! We all have a right
                         to the services government
      There must be     provides. If we find out more
     a better way to      about these services and
     get things done!   get to know our rights, then
                        we will begin to see positive
                             changes around us.

  Your Guide to Government Services
    provided by the Social Cluster
How to use this book
This book was written to tell you about your rights and the organisations
and services that can help you to put your rights into practice.

The Constitution recognises that we have socio-economic rights. Many             CITIZENSHIP
South Africans have benefited from these socio-economic rights, by
receiving housing, healthcare, social grants and improved sanitation,
family support, education, fair labour relations, food security, water
and electricity.

But others are still struggling. There is still discrimination and it is still
difficult to access important information. Many struggle to get IDs,             HOUSING
and others suffer because of inefficient service delivery.

We need to know that we have socio-economic rights, and which
laws protect these rights. We must also know what to do and who to
approach when our rights are violated or ignored – in other words,
how to seek redress.
                                                                                 BASIC NEEDS
Perhaps you are a community leader, teacher, local councillor or just
a concerned member of your community. Whoever you are, this book
is for you.

We all need to know our rights, and the best way to address problems
when they occur. This is one of the ways that we keep our democracy
strong and ensure a better future for ourselves and our children.                HEALTH

This book tells you about the laws, services and programmes, and
redress and recourse options available to you to help you make sure
your rights are fulfilled.

The pictures or icons on the right-hand side of this page show you
the sections of the book.

Also look out for the icons below. Each book section will use these
icons to show you when we are talking about the laws, the services
and programmes, or the redress and recourse options:                             FAIR LABOUR

     RIGHTS                      SERVICES &                        REDRESS          SOCIAL
    AND LAWS                    PROGRAMMES                       & RECOURSE      DEVELOPMENT

                Meet our characters
                                                     This is Sarah Ndlovu. She is a strong rural
                                                     woman, raising seven grandchildren on her
                                                     own. One child is disabled. She survives on
                                                     money that her favourite son Xolani gives
                                                    her from time to time. Sometimes, during the
                                                      harvest, she gets work from the farmers.

  Xolani is Sarah’s eldest and favourite son. He
  has a wife and two children, and a small but
steady income from his job. His main goal in life
 is to move into a house of his own. He and his
family rent a shack in someone else’s backyard.
  Xolani drinks to get his mind off his troubles,
   but when he gets drunk he becomes violent.

                                                 This is Patricia, Xolani’s wife. She married
                                                   young, and even though she loves her
                                                 husband and her children, she sometimes
                                                thinks about how different life could be for
                                                her if she didn’t have a husband who drank
                                                                and got violent.

                                             And I’m Nozuko! I’ll be
                                             taking you through this
                                           book, explaining the Acts,
                                           the services and the means
                                                of redress to you.

This is Pete, Xolani and Patricia’s
 neighbour. He has children, but
  their mother won’t let him see
  them. He misses his kids a lot.
                                          Housing –p20
Introduction: Know and
Defend Your Rights –p6                    What does the Law Say? –p20
                                          Important Services –p21
What Does the Law Say? –p8                Redress and Recourse –p25
Defending Your Rights: Recourse
and Redress –p10

Social Development –p36
What does the Law Say? –p37
Important Services –p36
Redress and Recourse –p50

                                           Health –p27
                                           What does the Law Say? –p27
                                           Important Services –p28
                                           Redress and Recourse –p32
                                  4   4
                                                       For a full list of
                                                       services, see the
                                                       index on p 63.
  Education –p58
  What does the Law Say? –p58               Home Affairs –p15
  Important Services –p59
  Redress and Recourse –p61                 What does the Law Say? –p15
                                            Important Services –p16
                                            Redress and Recourse –p19

                       Work – p52
                       What does the Law Say? –p52
                       Important Services –p53
                       Redress and Recourse –p57

Basic Needs – p33
What does the Law Say? –p33
Important Services –p34
Redress and Recourse –p35

                                    5   5
                    1. KNOW AND DEFEND
                                YOUR RIGHTS

                                                            I look after seven grandchildren
                                                            on my own. The oldest is fifteen
                                                            and the youngest is two. I can’t
                                                           get a grant because I don’t have
                                                            an ID book. I did apply for one,
                                                           but it never arrived. When I went
                                                             to find out where it was, they
                                                             told me it was lost and I must
                                                           apply again. I did that, but now I
                                                           don’t have the money to go back
                                                                       and fetch it!

              Sarah has rights, but does not know how to put them into practice.
                      Sarah needs information, and she needs support.

Like all South Africans, Sarah has the following
•   The right to be a citizen of this country and enjoy equally all the
    government services for South African citizens
•   The right to be given reasons for any decisions taken by                     AND LAWS
•   The right to have access to information that concerns you
•   The right of access to adequate housing
•   The right of access to healthcare services, including
    reproductive healthcare
•   The right of access to enough food and water
•   The right to social services, including social assistance (grants)
•   The right to free emergency medical treatment
•   The right to fair labour practices
•   The right to education.

                              Sarah needs to know that she has rights and that there are
                                  organisations set up to help her exercise those rights.

                                     •    According to the Social Assistance Act, she may have the
                                      right to social assistance (grants) (page 36)
                                      • According to the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act,
                                     she has the right to fair and reasonable treatment by government
                                    (page 9).
                                  •       According to the Promotion of Access to Information Act,
                                she has the right to any information that directly affects her rights
                               (page 8).

One of the ways Sarah can access information and government services is by
going to the nearest Thusong Centre.

                                              Hello. I need
                                         information and help.
                                        I applied for an ID but
                                         have been waiting six
                                       months. They say I must
                                       apply again. But I can’t
                                          afford to keep going
                                        back to Home Affairs.

                                                     You’ve come to the right place. At the Thusong
                                                        Centre you can get access to government
                                                      services and information. I’m a Government
                                                     Communication Officer. I work here, and my
                                                      job is to give you clear, accurate information.

What are Thusong Centres?
Thusong Centres or Multipurpose Community Centres (MPCC) are one-stop
centres where government offers services and information about government
programmes to local communities. They are spread throughout the country.
The Thusong Centre is a point of two-way communication between government
and citizens, where people can share their views on government programmes,
policies and activities and where citizens can tell government about their needs  SERVICES &
for services.                                                                    PROGRAMMES
Services offered:
•   Government services, like the issuing and distribution of identity documents, pensions,
    health information, government information and passports. It also operates as a library and
    unemployment office.
•   Computer training and facilities, Internet use and other online services.
•   Other kinds of services and information, like community banking, craft shops, women’s clubs,
    and food production programmes.

    To find out where your nearest Thusong Centre is, call 1020 toll-free
                What Does the Law Say?
Promotion of Access to Information Act
Access to information is one of our human rights. It is guaranteed in our
Constitution and in the Promotion of Access to Information Act (2000). This
Act is sometimes known as PAIA. The Act says:
                                                                                      RIGHTS AND
•     All government departments and organisations must make information
      available to individuals and organisations.
•     Private companies must make information available to individuals and
      organisations if the information is needed to help them exercise any of their socio-economic
•     All public bodies must appoint an information officer whose job is to help members of the
      public get the information they need.

There’s my neighbour, Mr Maduna. He has been
living in this house for twenty years, but now he
might have to move because the municipality has
          development plans for the area.

                                                   But he should find more information on the
                                              development. It’s his right to know whether he will be
                                               affected and, if so, what compensation he will get.

According to the Promotion of Access to Information Act, the relevant government departments
have to provide the information this person requires, because it relates to his constitutional
rights. We have the right to ask for any information that directly affects our rights, from a
government body or private company, and they must give it to us.

The Promotion of Administrative Justice Act

                                                          Government departments have to act fairly,
       Now, you say that you have been
                                                     reasonably and without undue delay. They have
    waiting six months for an ID. This kind
                                                       to inform you of decisions they take before they
     of delay is unacceptable, and against
                                                        take them – if the decisions relate to your socio-
    the law, according to the Promotion of
                                                     economic rights. There are steps you can take when a
          Administrative Justice Act.
                                                      government department does not do what it should!
The Promotion of Administrative Justice Act
The Promotion of Administrative Justice Act is sometimes known as PAJA

It was passed to make sure that government acts fairly whenever it takes decisions that affect
you. It gives you the right to ask for written reasons for decisions made, and provides a way for
you to appeal for a re-consideration of a decision.
For any decision made by government that directly affects you, you can expect to be:

•     Told what decision is being planned before it is taken
•     Allowed to tell your side of the story before a decision is made
•     Told what the decision is, and of your right to an internal appeal or review by court
•     Told that you have the right to ask for reasons
•     Given written reasons for the decisions
•     Able to challenge the decision in court.

                                        If SASSA thinks the decision         If, after he has presented his
                                       might go against Mr Jakavula,          case in person or in writing,
                                        they must write and tell him           SASSA still decides not to
  Mr Jakavula applies to the           this, and give him a chance to       award the grant, Mr Jakavula
  SA Social Security Agency            present his case before a final        can ask for written reasons
(SASSA) for a disability grant.               decision is made.                     for their decision.

      SASSA must respond, in writing,
       within 90 days of receiving the
     written request. They must explain         Mr Jakavula can now make an internal appeal, or ask a
       that there is an internal appeal         court to review the decision. If the court agrees with Mr
    process that Mr Jakavula can follow.           Jakavula, it will order SASSA to award the grant.
This process applies to many decisions that government officials may take that affect you. The
same procedure must be followed when you apply for:

•     A first-time homeowner’s subsidy
•     A work or permanent residence permit
•     Refugee or asylum seeker status
•     Certain other situations.
                    To find out more about SASSA, turn to page 40
                         Defending Your Rights:
                         Recourse and Redress

                                                                                        & REDRESS

                                                           There are other ways! When we
                                                          challenge a decision that we feel is
                                                          wrong, it is called seeking redress.
  So you see, Mrs Ndlovu, you don’t have to
                                                             It is our right as citizens of a
 accept a decision that negatively affects your
                                                          democratic country to seek redress
 rights. You can challenge the decision. PAJA
                                                                 when things go wrong.
          shows us one way to do it.

Seeking redress means trying to put right what is wrong – to get what is legally yours.

It is our right and our responsibility to seek redress when our rights are abused. Our
government has made it clear that it wishes to be held accountable. To help us do just that, it
has made many avenues available through which we can seek redress.

Government officials don’t always do what they are supposed to do. We don’t have to accept
poor service, unnecessary delays or rudeness. We also do not have to accept decisions that
have a negative impact on any of our human rights (see page 6).

We need to choose the means of redress that suits the scale and the nature of the problem.
For instance, it is not always appropriate to take the matter to court. A letter or a meeting with
the person’s superior may be all you need to sort out the problem.

 The next day...

       I am not happy
     with the way your
    colleague treated me
                                                                                  Thank you for
     at the Department
                                                                                 bringing this to
     last week. I do not
                                                                                  my attention. I
      accept his advice
                                                                                 will do my best
        that I re-apply
                                                                                  to sort out the
      for my ID. This is
                                                                                 problem, so that
      unfair, according
                                                                                  you don’t have
      to the Promotion
                                                                                    to re-apply.
      of Administrative
          Justice Act.

  For information on any government service or institution, phone 1020 toll-free
Means of redress
Remember you can defend your rights, but do it positively by going to the people who are there
to help you and following the correct procedures.

First, try to sort out the problem yourself
This should always be our first option when seeking redress. Many problems can be solved
when we state our case reasonably and calmly, and are prepared to listen. Every government
department has a Communication Officer. Explain your problem to the Communication Officer,
and ask who to contact to lay a formal complaint.

You can deal with your problem verbally or in writing.

Ask to see the person’s superior at work. Explain your
position clearly and calmly. Listen to the response.Try to
sort out the problem through conversation. If an agreement
is made, make sure that dates and times are specified by
                        which certain things will be done.         I would like to complain
                                                                      about the service I
                                                                        received here.
                         In writing
                         You can also write a letter to the person’s superior at work. Your letter
                         should be factual and to the point. State what happened, the date of
                         the incident, and what you would like done about it. Keep a copy of the
                         letter. Make sure you address it to the correct person and the correct
                         postal address. If necessary, send a copy to another figure of authority
                         in the Department, indicating on the letter that you have sent a copy to
                         someone else. This helps to ensure that something is done about it.


The Public Protector
This institution was set up to investigate wrongful conduct by
government, whether at national, provincial or local level. This
includes all government employees, such as police officers, pension
payout clerks, electoral officers, staff of government hospitals and
bodies that perform public functions, such as Telkom, Eskom and

You can complain to the Public Protector if you think any such person
• Corrupt in using public money.
• Abusing their powers.                                                   Contact Details:

Cases where the Public Protector is not authorised to investigate are:    Private Bag X677
• Judgements of judges and magistrates;                                   Pretoria, 0001
• abuse by individuals or private companies; and
• abuse by doctors or lawyers who are not employed by the                 Tel: (012) 366-7000
  State.                                                                  Fax: (012) 366-7047
                                                                          Toll-free: 0800 112040

The South African Human Rights Commission
The South African Human Rights Commission is an independent
institution set up to support constitutional democracy. It acts as a
watchdog, monitoring government and private bodies.

•   It investigates human rights violations.
•   It helps people to find solutions to human rights problems.
•   It carries out research and education on human rights.                  Contact Details:

                                                                            Private Bag
                                                                            2700, Houghton,
                                                                            Johannesburg, 2041
                                                                            Tel: (011) 484-8300
                                                                            Fax: (011) 484-1360

The Commission on Gender Equality
This is another institution set up to support constitutional
democracy. If your rights are violated because of your gender (i.e.
because of the fact that you’re a woman or a man), then you have
a gender-related human rights complaint, and this organisation
can help you.

The Commission’s functions are to:
• Investigate gender-related issues, either on its own, or as
                                                                            Contact Details:
   the result of a complaint;
• conduct research and education on gender issues; and
                                                                            PO Box 32175,
• make recommendations on government policies affecting
                                                                            Braamfontein, 2017
   gender equality.
                                                                            Tel: (011) 403-7182
                                                                            Fax: (011) 403-7188

IDASA is an organisation that strengthens democracy by encourag-
ing the participation of citizens, protecting democratic institutions and
promoting social justice.

They run a number of programmes. Two programmes that may be of
interest are:

•   The Community and Citizen Empowerment Programme,
    which encourages communities and citizens to influence
                                                                            Contact Details:
    social and political processes.

•   The Local Government Centre, which seeks to strengthen                  PO Box 56950,
                                                                            Arcadia, 0007
    municipalities and their communities in order to create effective
    and accountable local governance and service delivery.
                                                                            Tel: (012) 392-0500
                                                                            Fax: (012) 320-2414/5

 The Open Democracy Advice Centre (ODAC)
 ODAC’s mission is to promote an open and transparent
 democracy; to foster a culture of corporate and government
 accountability and transparency; and to help people in South Africa
 realise their rights. They are mainly active in fighting corruption and     Contact Details:
 promoting access to information.
                                                                            Helpline: 0800 525352
 ODAC has a helpline that provides free, independent and                            0800 LALELA
 confidential advice to people who have concerns about corruption
                                                                            PO Box 1739,
 or the withholding of vital information. If you are worried about
                                                                            Cape Town, 8001
 corruption in your workplace, or you have not been given
 information you have the right to, use this helpline to get the advice
                                                                            Tel: (021) 467-5673
 you need.                                                                  Fax: (021) 461-2814

 The Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD)
 The ICD is a government department that investigates
 complaints of brutality, criminality and misconduct
 against members of the South African Police Service
 (SAPS), and the Municipal Police Service (MPS). It
 investigates the alleged misconduct and criminality of                     Contact Details:
 SAPS members, but does so independently of SAPS.
                                                                            Private Bag X941,
                                                                            Pretoria, 0001
 You can also complain to your Member of
   the National or Provincial Parliament.                                   Tel: (012) 392-0400
For more information on Parliament, contact                                 Fax: (012) 320-3116
   (021) 403-2911; Fax: (021) 403-3817.

 Going to court
 Your last resort is to take the relevant department or organisation to court.

 Magistrate’s Courts hear cases that have to do with equality, access to information and
 unreasonable or delayed action from government in delivery of services. Some of these cases
 may also be heard in the High Court.

 If the Court finds that the problem arose because of government inaction or inefficiency, it can
 order the relevant department to develop a plan of action, implement it, and report regularly to
 the court on its progress.

 There are also other courts that deal with specific areas of interest, e.g. Labour Courts hear
 labour cases, Land Claims Court hear land cases and the Water Tribunal hears cases on water
 resources and services.

 If the Constitutional Court finds that the government is violating your rights as the result of an
 Act which is unconstitutional, it can have the Act or section of the Act declared invalid.

 If you decide to go the way of court action, seek the help of a Legal Resource Centre, Legal Aid
 or university law clinic.
                Have you heard about Batho Pele ?

        Thank you for giving me so
          much useful information.
          Tell me, do you have this            Access is a principle of Batho Pele, and if people
       information in Setswana? My           are going to have equal access to information and
         neighbours would find this           services then they need to be helped in a language
        information really helpful in          they understand. Now, let me find you something
            their own language.                                  in Setswana.

Batho Pele is a set of principles that guides all government employees in their work with
the public.

Perhaps you are a government employee, or perhaps you know someone who is.

These are the principles by which they work:

Consultation: People should be consulted about the level and quality of public services they
receive and wherever possible be given a choice.

Service standards: People should be told what level and quality of public services they will
receive, so that they know what to expect.

Access: All citizens should have equal access to the services to which they are entitled.

Courtesy: All people should be treated with courtesy and consideration.

Information: People should be given full, accurate information about the services they receive.

Openness and transparency: People should be told how government departments are run,
how much they cost, and who is in charge.

Redress: If a promised standard of service is not delivered, people should be offered an
apology, an explanation and a speedy remedy. When complaints are made, people should
receive a sympathetic, positive response.

Value for money: Public services should be provided economically and efficiently.

                             2. HOME AFFAIRS
 Life is a journey, and every major step in
that journey needs to be officially recorded.        When you get married,
 When we are born, our births need to be             your marriage needs to
 registered and when we turn 16 we need              be officially recognised
       to get an identity book (ID).                     and registered.

                                                                    Finally, when you die,
                                                                   your death needs to be
                                                                  recognised and recorded.
                                                                     For this, you need a
                                                                       death certificate.

                What Does the Law Say?
    Births and Deaths Registration Act
    According to this Act, the birth of every child born alive must be reported
    to the State within thirty days of the birth. A first name and surname must be
    given to the child before a birth certificate will be issued. Deaths, too, need to
    be registered. Only a doctor can issue a death certificate.                                RIGHTS
    In terms of the Act, the following are against the law:                                  AND LAWS

    •   Failing to inform the State of any birth or death
    •   Giving false information to the State about a birth or death
    •   Losing, destroying or damaging birth certificates
    •   Counterfeiting any document that has anything to do with births or deaths
    •   Giving false information about birth
    •   Charging or receiving fees that are higher than the legal amount, or
    •   Unreasonably withholding any certificate or document related to births or deaths.

    Identification Act
    The Identification Act defines what is needed for an Identity Document
    (ID) to be issued, and what such a document should contain. See page
    17 for more information. In terms of the Act, the following are against
    the law:

    •   Giving false information when applying for an ID
    •   Presenting someone else’s ID as your own
    •   Destroying, damaging or changing any part of an ID
    •   Allowing your ID to be used for any unlawful purpose
    •   Using your old ID after a new one has been issued to you.
South African Citizenship Act
The Act protects the right to citizenship of those who were born in South Africa and who have at
least one parent who is South African. This right is not given to those who were born in South
Africa, but whose parents were illegally in the country. The Citizenship Act does allow a person to
apply for citizenship through a process of naturalisation.

To become a South African citizen, you must:

•    Have been living in South Africa for not less than a year before applying, and for not less than
     four years for the eight-year period prior to applying
•    Intend to continue living in the country
•    Be able to speak any of the official languages
•    Be of a good moral character.

Anyone who acquires the citizenship of another country can no longer be a South African citizen,
unless they apply for special permission from the Minister of Home Affairs.

    Applying for citizenship

                                                                                   SERVICES &
                           I come from Uganda.                                    PROGRAMMES
                              I’ve been living in
                            South Africa for five
                           years and would like          Yes, if you have had a permanent
                             to settle here. Can         residence permit for the full five years.
                              I become a South           After five years of living as a permanent
                                African citizen?         resident, you are eligible for citizenship
                                                         through naturalisation.

                             I’m foreign, but
                            married to a South           Yes, you qualify for citizenship two
                              African. Can I             years after receiving your permanent
                            become a citizen?            residence permit, issued at the time
                                                         of your marriage.

                                My child has a
                             permanent residence         Yes, anyone under the age of 21
                               permit. Can she           who has permanent residence
                               become a South            status automatically qualifies for
                               African citizen?          citizenship.

Getting your ID
To get your ID book, visit your nearest Home Affairs Office. You will need to bring:
•   A certified copy of your birth certificate
•   Two ID-sized, black-and-white photographs
•   A copy of your marriage certificate if you are married.

After applying, you should not have to wait more than two months to receive your ID book. Keep
it in a safe place. It is essential for life in South Africa. Without an ID, you will not be able to open
a bank account, register to vote, receive social assistance (grants), get a driver’s licence or get a
job. From time to time, mistakes appear on IDs. Common errors are:
•   Incorrect name or surname                          •   Incorrect address
•   Wrong photograph                                   •   Incorrect birth date or gender

You can apply to have these details corrected at any Home Affairs office.

No more expensive taxi fare
 for me! Now I can use the                                                    Do you live in a rural
 Home Affairs Mobile Unit                                                    area far away from the
   to get my ID and other                                                     nearest Home Affairs
important documents from                                                    office? Look out for the
       the Department.                                                         Home Affairs Mobile
                                                                              Unit. These units can
                                                                              issue birth and death
                                                                            certificates on the spot.
                                                                           You can also collect your
                                                                                ID once it is ready.

                                                                               DID YOU KNOW?
                                                                              The Department of
                                                                            Labour also has mobile
                                                                            units (turn to page 56).

Registering a birth
Children born in South Africa must be registered with the Department of Home Affairs within
30 days of the birth. If either parent is unable to register the child, they can ask someone to
do it for them, but they must supply that person with a written mandate, explaining why they
cannot do it themselves.

Once the child is registered, an abridged birth certificate is given to you on
the same day. Re-issue of the abridged birth certificate costs R10. If you
need to order a full, unabridged birth certificate, it will cost R45.

Children of non–South African citizens are issued with a
full, unabridged birth certificate free of charge on the day of
registering the birth.

Late registration
                                                     If any child does
Registration later than thirty days after            not have a birth
birth, but earlier than one year                      certificate, it is
Simply fill in the relevant form at the            possible to get one at
Department of Home Affairs, and give               any stage. However,
reasons why the registration was not done          more documents will
within the thirty-day period.                     be required to support
                                                     your application.
Registration after one year but before
fifteen years
• Fill in the relevant form and give written reasons why the
   registration was not done within the thirty-day period.
• Supply an affidavit by the parents or a close relative who must be
   at least ten years older than the child, confirming the identity of
   the child. An affidavit is a sworn statement, signed in the presence
   of a Commissioner of Oaths (e.g. a lawyer).
• Supply as much documentation as possible to support the identity of the child, including:
     ♦      a stamped certificate from the institution where the child was born;
     ♦      confirmation of the child’s personal details from the first school attended by the child;
     ♦      the child’s baptismal certificate;
     ♦      a social worker’s report, in the case of abandoned children;
     ♦      school reports; and
     ♦      any other documents that will support the child’s identity.

Registration after fifteen years
• Fill in the relevant form, as well as another, requesting an ID book.
• Explain in writing why the birth was not registered earlier.
• Supply as much of the same documentation as possible as is required for registration after
  one year and before fifteen years.

Registering a death
When a person dies, the following steps must be taken:
1    A doctor must examine the body and fill in a form called the Certificate of Cause of
     Death (death certificate).
2    The doctor gives this documentation to the closest relative of the deceased.
3    The relative takes this documentation to an undertaker to make funeral arrangements.
4    If the undertaker is authorised, he then issues a burial order.
5    The funeral undertaker then submits the completed form to the Department of Home
     Affairs and they will issue a death certificate for the relative of the deceased.

Some undertakers are not authorised to receive notices of death, complete death registers and
issue burial orders. In this case, the relative must take the partially completed form to the nearest
Home Affairs office or, if there is none, to the nearest police station, to have the form completed
and to receive a burial order and death certificate.

Once the death is registered at the Department of Home
Affairs, an abridged death certificate is given on the same
day. Re-issue of the abridged death certificate costs R10.
A full, unabridged death certificate, if required, may be
requested, at a cost of R45.

Registering a marriage
All marriages in South Africa must be registered.
Two witnesses must be present. Most are done
automatically by the presiding officer, whether in a
church or registration office. Customary marriages
can also be registered at the Department of
Home Affairs. This only requires the consent of
one spouse and can be done even after one of
the spouses has died. Registering a customary
marriage gives both partners equal status in
deciding what to do with property.

                     Recourse and redress
Use the anti-corruption hotline 0800 701 701 to report the illegal use of
ID documents, or any other kind of identity fraud.
                                                                                     & REDRESS

                   Contact the Department of Home Affairs
Province              Postal Address            Telephone Number            Fax Number
Eastern Cape          Private Bag X6030,        Tel: (041) 404-8301         Fax: (041) 487-3354
                      PORT ELIZABETH,
Free State            Private Bag X20531        Tel: (051) 403-9100         Fax: (051) 430-8814
Gauteng               Private Bag X114,         Tel: (011) 476-2382         Fax: (011) 476-2402
                      PRETORIA, 0001
KwaZulu-Natal         Private Bag X09,          Tel: (031) 564-6411         Fax: (031) 564-7126
                      GREYVILLE, 4023
Limpopo               Private Bag X9666,        Tel: (015) 297-5803/04      Fax: (015) 297-6029
                      GIYANI, 0826
Mpumalanga            Private Bag X11264,       Tel: (013) 753-9500         Fax: (013) 753-3501
                      NELSPRUIT, 1200
Northern Cape         Private Bag X5009,        Tel: (053) 807-6700         Fax: (053) 807-6719
                      KIMBERLEY, 8300
North West            Private Bag X7,           Tel: (018) 384-5443         Fax: (018) 397-9903
                      KLERKSDORP, 2570
Western Cape          Private Bag X9031,        Tel: (021) 426-1301         Fax: (021) 426-1339
                      CAPE TOWN, 8000

                                   Did you know?
                    Toll-free numbers are only free from a landline?

For information on any government service or institution, phone 1020 toll-free
                                   3. Housing
                                                                              Xolani should not
                                                                            despair, because there
                                                                          are a number of housing
                                                                          subsidies for people who
                                                                          are struggling financially.

  I’m Xolani. I have always dreamed of having my
  own house, where Patricia and I would grow old.
    But every month is a struggle just to get by. I
    worry that I’ll never be able to afford a house.

                      What Does the Law Say?
National Housing Act and the Housing Code

According to the National Housing Code, brought about by the
Housing Act of 1997, housing provision in South Africa must be based
on certain values:
Affordable: Housing must be affordable.                                        AND LAWS

Habitable: Houses must be big enough for people to live in, and must be
protected from environmental threats.

Access: Housing must be in areas with access to
transport, schools and other amenities.

Services: Housing must have access to safe
water, sanitation, fuel, refuse disposal,
drainage and emergency services.

Security of tenure: Certain people may be
evicted only if provision has been made for
alternative accommodation. Special consideration
must be given to the tenure rights of people who
have lived in a place for more than ten years,
people who are older than 60, the disabled and
women and children.

          Housing subsidies
          To qualify
•       You must have a total household income of less than R3 500 per month.
•       You must be a South African citizen or permanent resident aged 21 or
                                                                                         SERVICES &
•       You must be married or live with a partner, or be unmarried with one or
        more dependants. This restriction does not apply to the disabled.)
•       Neither you nor your partner may have received a subsidy before. (This does not apply to
        people who received land under apartheid, nor does it apply to people who need relocation
        assistance, to people with disabilities or to those who receive institutional subsidies.)
•       Neither you nor your partner may own or have owned property in South Africa. (This
        restriction does not apply to the disabled.)
•       You cannot apply for a housing subsidy if you have already received a grant from the
        Department of Land Affairs.

          To apply
To apply for a housing subsidy, or any housing-related service, ask for the application forms from:

•       Your local or district municipality;
•       The Housing Department in your area; and
•       Your Provincial Department of Local Government and Housing.
          You will need
    •    A South African applicant and his or her partner will need certified copies of their bar-coded
    •    identity documents and the birth certificates of their financial dependants.
    •    Foreigners will need a certified copy of their Permanent Residency Permit, as well as the
         permits of their partners and dependants.
    •    All applicants will need a certified copy of their most recent payslip, less than six months old.
    •    Married couples need to show a certified copy of their marriage certificate.
    •    Divorced people with financial dependants must send a certified copy of their divorce order.
    •    Unmarried couples must show an affidavit as proof that they live together as a couple.
    •    The disabled must bring a medical certificate from a registered medical doctor.

        There are many housing programmes to help South Africans with all sorts of matters
        related to housing. Perhaps one of these can be useful to you, or someone you know.

                                                  Relocation assistance
          I can’t afford my mortgage
          repayments any more. Can
                  you help me?                      Relocation assistance is for people who can
                                                    no longer afford to pay the mortgage on their
                                                    home loan. The grant helps them to relocate to
                                                    affordable housing.

                                                    First, the programme will help the person work
                                                    out what he or she can afford. Then the person
              Yes.The first thing to do             will be helped to buy an affordable property with
             is to find accommodation               a loan, if one is needed.
                that you can afford.
Individual Housing Subsidy

An Individual Housing Subsidy may be used to buy land, provide services such as water and
sanitation, buy the materials needed for building a house, or buy a house that is not part of an
existing housing subsidy project.

Beneficiaries of the subsidy will have to contribute a certain amount of their own money to the
cost of the house. This contribution can come out of their savings or they can borrow money from
an approved financial institution.

The People’s Housing Process
The People’s Housing Process is a programme that helps people to build their own
houses, thereby saving on labour costs, and enabling the homeowner to decide on the
design and construction of the house.

People on the programme need to apply for a loan through a support organisation, which
also helps them with the technical aspects of building a house. Contact the Department of
Housing (see page 26) for more information on finding a support organisation. You can apply
for this subsidy on top of any of the other subsidies mentioned here.

However, much of the work will be done by you, the homeowner!

Now that you know you can apply for
 a subsidy, you need to decide which
      subsidy suits you the best.

                      If you decide on the People’s Housing
                       Process, you will save a lot of money
                          by buying your own materials and
                            building your house yourself.

Project-Linked Housing Subsidy
This subsidy is linked to housing developments built
by developers in close cooperation with both the local
municipality and the final homeowners. The subsidy
enables individuals to buy a completed flat or house as
part of an approved project-linked housing development.

The maximum subsidy is R31 929 for beneficiaries
earning under R1 500 per month. The subsidy is reduced
as the income rises, with a maximum income of R3 500.
These amounts are reviewed annually on April 1.

  Hey, Mr Maduna, have                                                       I never knew there
  you solved your housing                                                   was so much help for
         problem?                                                          homeowners – and also
                                                                               for developers!

                                      Yes, I’m getting relocation
                                      assistance. Government is
                                     helping me to find a home I
                                              can afford!

Institutional subsidy
This subsidy is made available to institutions such
as a private company. The Department of Housing
gives the subsidy to the institution, which owns                     Your own house is
the property for at least four years. After that, the               your most important
person who lives in the home becomes the owner.                         investment.

The subsidy consists of one standard amount per
applicant for residence. Applicants must earn less
than R3 500 per month.

     National Department of Housing 0800 1 HOUSE / 0800 146873
Rural Subsidy
                 I longed for a house of my own for years.
                    Then I got a subsidy from the Housing
                 Department to pay for the cost of building
                 materials. I decided to get involved. Now I
                  have learned valuable construction skills.

A Rural Subsidy may be used by rural or urban people to cover the costs of any housing-
related expenses agreed to by the Provincial Housing Department.

The subsidy can only be accessed on a project basis. There is however no minimum or
maximum limit to the number of people involved in the project. Applicants must have a
housing development plan.

Discount Benefit Scheme
Many people live in flats built by the previous government, paying a monthly rent. With the
help of the Discount Benefit Scheme, they can now get a loan to buy the flat at a discount
price. Contact the Department of Home Affairs (see page 26) to find out how you can own the
government flat you live in.

Hostel Subsidy
This subsidy is made available to developers for redeveloping hostels.
Conditions for receiving the subsidy:
• A Local Negotiating Group (LNG) must be involved in and support the redevelopment.
• The developer must provide a concrete proposal for a post-development management plan for
   the property.
• The developer must submit a plan showing how he or she will accommodate people displaced
   by the redevelopment, who will not be seeking accommodation in the converted building.
• The redevelopment costs must be in line with the maximum subsidy for which the residents

              Housing Customer Service Hotline 0800 203 271
The Consolidated Housing Subsidy
       I was given a plot of land over twenty years ago, but I couldn’t
    afford to do anything with it. Thanks to the Consolidated Housing
               Subsidy I can get the building materials I need.

Under the apartheid government, some areas were divided into smaller pieces of land that were
given basic services such as water, electricity and a sewerage system. These plots of land were
sold to people under a housing subsidy scheme.

The Consolidated Housing Subsidy is for people who own such plots of land and want
to build houses. It is paid out to groups, who must be represented by a community-based

Recourse and redress
If there are defects in a State-subsidised house, built after March 1994, it
can be fixed. Contact your local municipality to find out more.

Houses that were built after March 2002 are protected by The Housing
Consumer Protection Measures Act. This means that you can lodge your
complaints with the National Home Builders Registration Council (NHBRC).
The Act says that the builder of the home must fix structural defects that              RECOURSE
develop in the first five years.                                                         & REDRESS

How do you lodge a complaint with the NHBRC?

Before you lodge a complaint with the NHBRC, you should:

•     Notify the builder in writing within the five-year period and keep a copy of the letter of
      complaint and proof of the date it was sent;
•     allow the builder access to your house so that he can fix the defect; and
•     make sure you pay the builder what you agreed to.

If the builder does not respond to the complaint, or if a dispute arises between you and
the builder, you may lodge a complaint with the NHBRC. You will need:

•     Proof of the date you occupied the house;
•     proof that you told the builder in writing about the problems; and
•     a list of the problems.

                             Housing Fraud line 0800 204 401
Useful organisations
The National Home Builders                          Built Environment Support Group
Registration Council                                They empower communities to address their
Toll-free: 0800 200 824                             housing needs.
Fraud Hotline: 0800 203 698                         Tel: (033) 394-4980
Tel: (011) 317-0000                                 Fax: (033) 394-4979
Fax: (011) 317-0105

Housing Consumer Protection Trust                   The Development Action Group (DAG)
Provides free legal advice to low-income            Tel: (021) 448-7886
housing consumers.                                  Fax: (021) 447-1987
Toll-free: 0800 111 663

                     Contact the Department of Housing
Province             Postal Address                 Telephone Number       Fax Number
Eastern Cape         Housing, Local Gvt. and        Tel: (040) 609-5656    Fax: (040) 639-2163
                     Traditional Affairs, Private
                     Bag X0035, BISHO, 5605
Free State           Local Gvt & Housing,           Tel: (051) 405-5719    Fax: (051) 403-3650
                     PO Box 211,
                     BLOEMFONTEIN, 9300
Gauteng              Private Bag X644,              Tel: (011) 355-4902    Fax: (011) 355-4137
                     PRETORIA, 0001
KwaZulu-Natal        Housing, Private               Tel: (033) 845-2020    Fax: (033) 845-2085
                     Bag X9045,
Limpopo              Local Gvt & Housing,           Tel: (015) 295-6851     Fax: (015) 295-4190
                     Private Bag X9485,
                     POLOKWANE, 0700
Mpumalanga           Housing and Land, Ad-          Tel: (013) 766-6229    Fax: (013) 766-8430
                     ministration, Private Bag
                     X11304, NELSPRUIT,
Northern Cape        Housing and Local Gvt,         Tel: (053) 830-9426    Fax: (053) 831-2904
                     Private Bag X5005,
                     KIMBERLEY, 8300
North West           Local Gvt and Housing          Tel: (018) 387-3747    Fax: (018) 387-3745
                     Private Bag X2099
                     MMABATHO, 2735
Western Cape         Local Gvt and Housing          Tel: (021) 483-5200    Fax: (021) 483-8789
                     Private Bag X9083
                     CAPE TOWN, 8000

                                  Did you know?
                   Toll-free numbers are only free from a landline?

                          4. HEALTHCARE
                           When it comes to health, we
                           have responsibilities and      Xolani’s wife Patricia has asthma.
                                we have rights.

                                                  Asthma can be
                                                 I do my best to
                                               keep this condition
                                               under control. But
                                                sometimes it gets
                                                 bad, and I need

Primary healthcare includes:
• Health education;
• promotion of adequate nutrition;
• adequate supply of clean water and sanitation;
• maternal and child healthcare;
• immunisation against major infectious diseases;
• prevention and control of locally endemic diseases;
• effective treatment of common diseases and
   injuries; and
• provision of essential drugs.                            Our government is bound by law to
                                                           provide primary healthcare.

       What Does the Law Say?
National Health Act

The National Health Act is the most important law concerning our right
to healthcare. Some of the aims of the National Health Act are to:

•   Give all people the best possible health service with the available          RIGHTS AND
    resources.                                                                      LAWS
•   Make effective health service available fairly and efficiently.
•   Educate people about their health rights and encourage community
    participation in health service delivery.

The National Health Act says that everyone has the right to emergency treatment
from any hospital – public or private – whether the person can afford to pay or not.
According to the law no hospital may turn away an emergency patient.

For national safety, the Act also stipulates that anyone who contracts an infectious
disease must go to a doctor. The State is obliged to make arrangements for that
person to be treated – either at a hospital or elsewhere.

                  Mental Health Information Helpline 0800 567 567
  The National Health Act says that,
 as a pregnant woman, I can get free
 medical treatment at the clinics
                                                                                   Government is
  and community health centres
                                                                                 also bound by the
        funded by the State.
                                                                                National Health Act
                                                                                to provide effective
 My children can also get free medical
                                                                                  ways to combat
treatment below the age of six. No one
                                                                                 disease. There are
can force us to pay – as long as we do
                                                                                  programmes for
  not belong to a medical aid scheme.
                                                                                  HIV, TB, cholera,
                                                                                measles and polio.

 There are a number of services available for the prevention of HIV
 transmission. These include the following:

 •   People are mobilised to get involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
 •   Good-quality male and female condoms are distributed throughout the             SERVICES &
     country.                                                                       PROGRAMMES
 •   Nevirapine and anti-retrovirals (ARVs) are given to pregnant mothers to
     prevent mother-to-child transmission.
 •   Survivors of sexual assault are given ARVs to prevent infection.

 There is also a broad range of services available to people living with AIDS
 (PLWAs), including home-based and community-based care. These services
 include the following:

 •   There are various treatment options, including proper diagnosis, treatment
     of opportunistic infections (especially TB and sexually transmitted             Abstain
     infections); as well as ARVs for HIV management.

 •   Counselling and support services are provided, including trauma and
     therapeutic counselling and counselling that deals with issues of stigma
     and discrimination. Support groups are established and information-
     sharing is promoted. PLWAs are also encouraged to maintain family
 •   PLWAs are given food parcels and supplements, particularly special            Be faithful
     products that ensure a high-protein diet.

 •   Qualifying families and caregivers are linked to poverty-alleviation
     programmes and income-generation projects.
 •   Information is provided to enhance access to all government services.


                            AIDS HELPLINE: 0800 012 322
          Tuberculosis (TB)

      Cough, cough! I don’t know what’s
                                                            Sounds like it could be TB. You should
    wrong with me. I’ve been coughing for
                                                            have it checked out, because persistent
     three weeks, I’m short of breath and
                                                             cough, shortness of breath and night
       tired, and at night I sweat a lot!
                                                               sweats are all symptoms of TB!

TB is spread through germs that live in the saliva. When an infected person sneezes or coughs,
tiny droplets enter the lungs of anyone nearby. Overcrowding therefore plays a part in the spread
of TB.

TB can be successfully treated if the patient sticks faithfully to the medication for the entire period

                                                                                   No! You must
                                                                               continue treatment
     Can’t I stop                                                               for the full period.
    my treatment,                                                                If you don’t, the
   since I’m feeling                                                            TB will come back
        better?                                                                in a stronger, more
                                                                                 resistant form.

           Measles and Polio

Both of these diseases are effectively prevented by
vaccinations. Every baby in South Africa must receive
vaccinations for measles and polio. These vaccinations
are offered at all government clinics at no cost.

 Last month we had a
 flood. Water from the                                                         Your biggest
   river washed away                                                          concern should
   some of our homes!                                                        be preventing
                                                                            cholera. Cholera
                                                                            often breaks out
                                                                            where dirty water
                                                                            enters our homes
                                                                            –especially when
                                                                             it is polluted by
                                                                           human excrement
                                                                             (waste matter).

                                                     The first sign of
                                                     cholera is watery
                                                     diarrhoea in a
                                                     person older than
                                                     five years. The most
                                                     effective treatment
                                                     is to rehydrate
                                                     the person with
  Cholera is caused by contaminated water,           an electrolyte
  and spreads quickly where people do not            solution.
     thoroughly wash hands and food.

  The electrolyte solution:

  1 teaspoon salt

  7 tablespoons sugar

  4 cups water

  Give this
  mixture to the person in small sips              Wash all food with water purified as follows:
  throughout the day and night.                    Add 1 teaspoon bleach to 20 litres of water;
                                                   let it stand overnight. Do not allow sick
  This mixture saves lives!                        persons to touch food to be eaten by others.

Cholera is simple to treat and it is easy to prevent it from spreading. The best defence is
thorough cleanliness. If cholera is suspected, contact a health worker immediately, so that
steps can be taken to prevent a widespread outbreak.


        My wife and I                                                              Did you know that
        will be visiting                                                             the lowveld area
          relatives in                                                               of Mpumalanga
         Mpumalanga                                                                 is a high-risk area
      later this month,                                                            for malaria? Other
        and are really                                                              malaria areas are
       looking forward                                                             Northern Province
          to the trip.                                                                 and the north-
                                                                                      eastern parts of

                                                              Malaria is carried by mosquitoes. Make
    Anyone visiting these areas for the first time, or        sure to use mosquito nets at night, avoid
    after a long absence, should take anti-malaria           areas with stagnant water and wear long
      tablets six weeks before entering the area.                   sleeves, especially at night.

    Every year, malaria kills thousands of people, especially children under five. Children under five
    and pregnant women need to be careful. The government’s anti-malaria programme consists of
    spraying homes with insecticide.

                                  Getting an abortion
The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act gives every woman the freedom to choose to have
an early, safe and legal termination (ending) of pregnancy.

This law makes it easier for you to have an abortion in your first twelve weeks of pregnancy.
Special justification is needed to have an abortion from the thirteenth to the twentieth week, such
as the pregnancy being a threat to the health of the mother, or the pregnancy being the result of
rape. Termination of pregnancy after the twentieth week is only allowed in very rare circumstances.

Remember that:

•     Only the consent of the woman wanting the abortion is needed.
•     It is the duty of the State to provide counselling before and after the abortion.
•     Children under the age of eighteen should consult with parents, family and friends before
      going ahead with an abortion. However, they cannot be denied their right to end their

                    Recourse and redress
The National Health Act says that every public hospital or clinic must
have clear procedures for people to follow if they wish to complain. If you
are not sure what the procedures are, ask at the hospital. They are bound
by law to explain the procedure to you. You can also approach the Health           REDRESS
Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA).                                     & RECOURSE

The HPCSA investigates and acts on complaints against health
professionals, whether private or State-employed. Because it is free      Contact Details:
of charge and accessible, you should approach the HPCSA if you
have a legitimate complaint.                                              PO Box 205
                                                                          Pretoria, 0001
The complaint must be in writing and must give the following details:
1.    Your name and the name of the person the complaint is               Tel: (012) 338-9300
      against.                                                            Fax: (012) 328-5120
2.    The date and place of the incident
3.    How the incident happened.
4.    The history of the complaint

                       Contact the Department of Health
Province              Postal Address            Telephone Number          Fax Number
Eastern Cape          Private Bag X0038,        Tel: 0800 032 364         Fax: (040) 609-3892
                      BISHO, 5605
Free State            PO Box 227,               Tel: 0800 535 554         Fax: (051) 408-1566
                      BLOEMFONTEIN, 9300
Gauteng               Private Bag X399,         Tel: (011) 407-6111       Fax: (011) 339-2866
                      PRETORIA, 0001
KwaZulu-Natal         Private Bag X9051,        Tel: (033) 395-2009       Fax: (033) 345-0792
Limpopo               Private Bag X9483,        Tel: 0800 919 191         Fax: (015) 295-3840
                      POLOKWANE, 0700
Mpumalanga            Private Bag X11291,       Tel: 0800 204 098         Fax: (013) 766-2494
                      NELSPRUIT, 1200
Northern Cape         Private Bag X5016,        Tel: (053) 387-5778       Fax: (053) 839-8215
                      KIMBERLEY, 8300
North West            Private Bag X65,          Tel: (018) 397-9919       Fax: (018) 387-3008
                      MMABATHO, 2735
Western Cape          Private Bag X9070,        Tel: (021) 465-1589       Fax: (021) 483-5677/
                      CAPE TOWN, 8000                                     4143

                                   Did you know?
                    Toll-free numbers are only free from a landline?

               Children’s Cancer HelpLine 0800 333 0555
                            5. Basic Needs
    What use is it to
know I have a right to
enough food and clean
   water, when I can’t
afford good food, and
 I have to walk a long                                                        Our Constitution says that
   way to fetch water                                                          everyone has the right of
      every day?                                                              access to enough food and
                                                                             clean water, and that every
                                                                               child has a right to good,
                                                                             basic nutrition. Yet we know
                                                                              that for many people, that
                                                                               right is not yet a reality!

              What Does the Law Say?
  Food Security

  Section 27 of the Constitution gives all citizens the right to food, but
  recognises that this right is only realised when “food security” exists.
  This means that there must be:
                                                                                        RIGHTS AND
  Sufficient, safe, nutritious food                                                         LAWS
  •     Everyone must have enough food to survive
  •     The food must be of a high enough quality to help a person live a healthy life.

  Access to food
  •    The government does not always have to provide sufficient food to everyone, but must
       make it possible for them to get their own food.
  •    The cost of getting enough food of sufficient quality must not be so high that it becomes
       impossible for an ordinary person to buy food.
  •    The government must help people who cannot afford to buy food themselves.

  Access to Water
  The Water Services Act
  The Water Services Act gets its mandate from Section 27 of the Constitution, which says that
  everyone has the right to have access to sufficient food and water. The Act recognises that
  this is a process and says that the State must take reasonable steps to ensure that this right is
  progressively realised. The Act aims to make sure that everybody has access to a basic water
  supply and basic sanitation by setting national standards and norms for tariffs, amongst other

  The National Water Act
  The National Water Act gets it mandate from Section 24 of the Constitution, which states that
  everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being.
  The Act aims to promote conservation and to prevent pollution. It also encourages use of water
  in a way that promotes social and economic development.

Household Food Production Programme
                       This programme helps people who are severely
                          affected by food insecurity, i.e. people who
                            cannot rely on getting enough to eat
                              from one day to the next. It focuses on
                                teaching people how to grow food,
                                 through agricultural starter packs and
                                  specialised equipment like “power hoes”.
                                                                                SERVICES &
                                In 2006, the programme got 40 000             PROGRAMMES
                                households growing food; the aim in 2007
                              is to reach 62 000 more households. The programme
                            focuses mostly on youth and women, particularly the existing
                          beneficiaries of the Food Security Projects and National Food
                       Emergency Scheme. It works mostly in rural areas, but has
                       included urban areas too.

Integrated Nutrition Programme
This programme operates in hospitals and clinics to prevent child malnutrition. The
programme provides Vitamin A supplements for mothers of new-born babies, infants and
children, and a range of nutritional supplements for people living with TB and/or HIV/Aids. Visit
your local clinic. Mothers should take along their child’s “Road to Health Chart”.

National Schools Nutrition Programme
This programme provides funding for school feeding programmes. Schools receive 80c per
learner per day. There is sometimes also extra money to cover the costs of transporting food
to the schools and preparing it. Beneficiary schools are selected from poverty-stricken areas,
but because of limited resources not all of them benefit. Schools can get an application form
from the Department of Education.

Free basic municipal services
The government is committed to the delivery of a basic level of municipal services to all
households. It is a constitutional duty of all spheres of government to ensure that all South Af-
ricans receive a minimum standard of service. Currently, Free Basic Services (FBS) target the
poor. These services include a capped services in water, sanitation, energy (electricity) and
refuse removal. Government’s national and provincial departments as well as all municipalities
are working towards providing the following for each household: 6 kl of water per month, 50
kWh of electricity per month, access to sanitation facilities and the removal of waste.

Free basic electricity
The amount of free basic electricity is 50 kWh per household per month for a grid-energy
system. This amount of electricity will be enough to provide basic lighting, basic water-heating
using a kettle, basic ironing and access to a small black-and-white television.

Free Basic Water
The Government provides a basic supply of water to poor
households free of charge to make sure that no one is denied
access to water because they are unable to pay for the service.
The South African standard on a ‘basic’ level of water supply
needed to promote healthy living is 25 litres per person per
day. This amounts to 6 000 litres per household per month for a
household of eight people. The policy allows for water services
authorities to decide how they will apply the policy specifically
and practically.

Free Basic Sanitation and Infrastructure Development
The government is still finalising the Free Basic Sanitation Policy, but has made great strides
in infrastructure development. Government aims to eradicate the bucket system in the 45 000
households which still use it by the end of 2007 so that all households have access to sanita-

Free basic refuse removal
The government has not yet implemented the free waste removal programme. The Department
of Environmental Affairs and Tourism is developing a framework for the provision of free basic
waste removal services. When the strategy is finalised, the local authorities will provide waste
removal services.

                    Recourse and redress
Contact the South African Human Rights Commission if anyone’s
right of access to food and water is being denied (see page 12).

For more information about the delivery of basic services, contact                REDRESS
your local municipality.                                                        & RECOURSE

Contact the Department of Provincial and Local Government
 Province             Telephone Number          Fax Number
 Eastern Cape         Tel: (040) 609-2207       Fax: (040) 635-1166
                                                                                 For postal
 Free State           Tel: (051) 405-5799       Fax: (051) 405-4803
                                                                               addresses see
 Gauteng              Tel: (011) 355-6000       Fax: (011) 836-9334            the Provincial
 KwaZulu-Natal        Tel: (031) 273-1600       Fax: (031) 273-1612          Local Government
 Limpopo              Tel: (015) 287-6000       Fax: (015) 295-3840             and Housing
 Mpumalanga           Tel: (013) 766-2641       Fax: (013) 766-2494             Department
 Northern Cape        Tel: (053) 839-5100       Fax: (053) 839-4917            contact list on
                                                                                  page 26.
 North West           Tel: (018) 387-3000       Fax: (018) 387-3008
 Western Cape         Tel: (021) 483-4705/6     Fax: (021) 483-3421

                                    Did you know?
                     Toll-free numbers are only free from a landline.
                       6. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
                                              What do you do if you need financial help just to get
                                           through the month? Or if you are burdened with too many
                                         responsibilities? For example, Sarah is raising children who are
                                          not her own, and one of them is disabled. Other people have
                                                               their struggles, too ...

                                                          I’m raising my own and my sister’s children.
                                                                    How am I going to cope?

 I care for my mentally disabled mother,
who already receives a pension. The stress
 on me is huge. Is there any help for me?

See the Grant in Aid, page 38
                                                           See the Child Support Grant, page 37
 I became disabled                                         See the Foster Child Grant, page 37
after a car accident
 and now I cannot                                                                          I am severely
work. Is there help                                                                    disabled. Both my
      for me?                                                                        parents work, but it’s
                                                                                     still a real burden for
                                                                                     them to pay for help
See the                                                                               and doctor’s bills. Is
Disability                                                                             there anything for
Grant, page 38                                                                               my family?

                                                        See the Care Dependency Grant, page 39

              What Does the Law Say?
Section 27 of the Constitution says that every person has the right of
access to social security, including social assistance (grants) if they are
unable to support themselves. The Social Assistance Act makes various
grants available. Strict conditions apply, depending on the grant.
                                                                                        RIGHTS AND
The Child Support Grant
This grant provides financial support to the primary caregiver of any
child under the age of 14, whether the caregiver is the parent or any
other person.

The amount is currently R200 per month, per child. To receive
the grant, the applicant’s income, as well as the income of the
applicant’s spouse, must be below a certain level:
• If you live in a rural area, you must earn less than R1 100 per            SERVICES &
   month, or R13 200 per year.                                              PROGRAMMES
• If you live in an urban area in a house or flat, you must earn less than
   R800 per month or R9 600 per year.
• If you live in an urban area in an informal house or
   shack you must earn less than R1 100 per month
   or R13 200 per year.
• The child and primary caregiver must be South
   African citizens and living in South Africa.
• You may not apply for more than six children who
   are not your own, i.e. of whom you are not the
   biological parent.

The Foster Child Grant
                                                 This grant is for people who care for
                                                 children who are not their own, and who
                                                 have applied through a Children’s Court
                                                 to become the foster parents of the child.

                                                 The amount is currently R620 per month,
                                                 per child.

                                                 To become foster parents, contact a social
                                                 worker through the Department of Social
                                                 Development or Child Welfare Society.

The Disability Grant
This grant gives financial support to people who cannot work because of physical or
mental disabilities. A permanent disability grant is awarded when the disability will last
for more than a year and a temporary disability grant is given if the disability will last for
between six months and a year.

The amount is currently R870 per month. To receive the grant, the applicant’s income, as
well as the income of the applicant’s spouse, must be below a certain level:
• If you live in a rural area, you must earn less than R1 100 per month, or R13 200 per
• If you live in an urban area in a house or flat, you must earn less than R800 per month
   or R9 600 per year.
• If you live in an urban area in an informal house or shack you must earn less than R1
   100 per month or R13 200 per year.
• The applicant must be a South African citizen, living in South Africa at the time of
   the application.
• Female applicants must be from 18 to 50 years of age, and male applicants must
   be from 18 to 64 years of age.
• The applicant must not be receiving care at any State institution.
• The applicant may not be receiving any other grant.

The Grant in Aid
This grant is an additional grant awarded to people who already receive an old age grant,
disability grant or war veterans grant, and who are unable to care for themselves.

The amount is currently R180 per month.

•   This grant is for people who require full-time attendance by another person,
    because of physical or mental disabilities.
•   The applicant must not be receiving care in a State institution or any institution
    that receives a subsidy.

        Grant applicants can apply at their nearest Thusong Centre or Department
               of Social Development. For contact information see page 51.

The Care Dependency Grant
This grant gives financial support to people who care for children with severe disabilities and
in need of full-time care. These people can be parents, foster parents or those who have been
appointed as caregivers by the court.

The amount is currently R870 per month.

•   The child must be a South African citizen. However, foster parents need not be South African
•   Both applicant and child must live in South Africa.
•   The child may not be cared for on a 24-hour basis for longer than six months in an institution
    that is fully funded.
•   The child must be between one and eighteen years old.
•   The applicant and spouse (if biological parents of the child) must earn less than R4 000 a
    month or R48 000 a year. The income of the child from other sources must be less than R17
    760 per year. The income of foster parents will not be taken into account.

Social Relief of Distress
This is temporary assistance for people in a crisis and in need of immediate help.

You can apply for Social Relief of Distress if:

•   you are waiting for another grant to be processed
•   a disaster has occurred, such as your house burning down
•   you do not qualify for a grant, but are in a desperate situation
•   you are unable to work because you are medically unfit or sick for less than six months
•   the breadwinner in the family has died or been sent to prison for less than six months
•   you are unable to get maintenance from your child’s other parent.

Lapsed grants
The payment of a grant may be suspended, but you can apply at the Department of Social
Development for it to be restored. Grants may be suspended for various reasons:

•   Change in your circumstances – admission to a State institution when the period of
    temporary disability has lapsed, etc.
•   Failure to cooperate when your grant is reviewed
•   Failure to claim the grant for three months in a row
•   Absence from South Africa for six months or longer.

How to apply for any grant
You will need:
• Your bar-coded ID book, and that of your husband or wife if you are married.
• Proof of your marital status; wedding certificate, divorce order or death certificate of
  spouse if he or she has died.
• The child’s birth certificate if the grant is for a child.
• A doctor’s certificate if your grant is for disability .
• Proof of your or your spouse’s most recent income, or an affidavit if you are

How to apply:

•   If you are too old or sick to apply, a family member can apply on your behalf.
•   You will be asked to fill in a form. When it is completed and handed in, you will be given a
    receipt. Keep this. It is your proof of the date that you applied.
•   If your application is approved, you will be paid from the day you applied. You may be paid
    in cash, collected by yourself or someone you appoint to collect it for you. This person is
    called your procurator.
•   If you do not have a procurator, the State must appoint someone to collect it for you.
•   You may choose to have the grant paid into your bank account, or sent to your nearest post
    office for you to collect.
•   If your application is not approved, the Department of Social Development must explain
    why in writing. You have the right to appeal against a refusal. You must lodge your appeal
    with your Provincial Minister for Social Development within 90 days of the refusal. (See The
    Promotion of Administrative Justice Act, page 9).

Social grant fraud
Social grant fraud means pretending to be something
when you are not. Fraud is a crime for which you may be
imprisoned, e.g. claiming disability when you are able to work,
or claiming pensions in more than one area.

If you receive a grant that you are not entitled to, you will have
to repay it to the government. If the Department of Social
Development decides that you did not know that you were not
entitled to it, the social grant must be cancelled; otherwise it
will be considered fraud.

It is your duty to report any social grant fraud that you are        Don’t get involved in grant
aware of. Grant fraud costs the State millions each year, and        fraud – the penalties are high.
takes away money that would otherwise be available for those
who need it.

What is SASSA?
The South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) sees to it that grants are paid out
efficiently and effectively. It has systems in place to prevent fraud and to protect beneficiaries’
information, and there are heavy penalties for staff members who bribe or accept bribes in
connection with services.

For enquiries about grants or grant fraud, contact the SASSA Call Centre: 0800 601 011
                      Marriage and Family
                                Marriage is supposed to bring happiness and
                                  companionship, but for many people, this
                                 is not the case. Physical, verbal and sexual          SOCIAL
                                abuse destroy many families. However, there         DEVELOPMENT
                                are laws to protect both men and women, as
                                         well as children, from abuse.

When Xolani is drunk, the stresses of                Patricia has become used to this. Because she
life make him aggressive, and he beats               accepts it, her children have begun to think
his wife Patricia.                                   that it’s all right for men to beat women.

                                                      It is never all right for anyone to beat his or
                                                      her partner. It is called physical abuse. There
                                                      are other forms of abuse, too, and all are
                                                      unacceptable, and against the law.

Domestic Violence: What Does the Law Say?
The Domestic Violence Act
This Act was passed to protect the many individuals and families suffering from physical,
verbal and/or sexual abuse in their own homes. All of these forms of abuse are called domestic

The Act provides steps for victims to take in order to protect themselves, and lays down clear
guidelines for the police when they deal with domestic violence reports.

One of the most difficult things for an
abused person to do is to take steps to
   break out of his or her situation.                                               Until the abused
                                                                                person becomes active
  This is partly because years of abuse                                          in helping herself and
can break our confidence and our belief                                         her children, the abuse
in the future. If you are in this situation,                                       usually continues –
 you need to convince yourself that you                                         sometimes until death
  are not worthless and incapable, and                                            occurs. Take action
       that a better life is possible.                                            before it is too late.

                        Domestic Violence: Services
     I don’t want my                    Knowing your rights is a           If she wasn’t such a
    children to grow                   good place to start. There         disobedient wife then I
       up abusing or                  are also many organisations        wouldn’t be forced to do
    being abused. I’m                and individuals who can help.          those things to her!
       worried, and I                    Don’t suffer in silence!
    don’t know what
           to do!

    Domestic violence does not only mean acts of violence by men towards women.
    It includes acts committed by adults towards their parents, abuse in same sex
    relationships, abuse of children and abuse of men by women.

According to the Domestic Violence Act, domestic violence includes:

•     physical, sexual, emotional, psychological or economic harassment;
•     damage to property;
•     stalking;
•     entry into another person’s property without their consent; and
•     any other abusive or controlling behaviour which causes harm to a person’s health or safety.

What to Do: Applying for a Protection Order
To apply for a Protection Order, go to the nearest Magistrate’s Court. A Protection Order is
an order of the court to the abuser, warning him or her to stop abusing you, or face immediate

Take the Protection Order to the Office of the Sheriff or to the police station closest to your home
or work. At the police station, make your statement and give the police your Protection Order.
Make sure you write down the name of the police officer to whom you give the Protection Order
and his or her badge number. This helps you to track the order at a later stage.

The police then take the Protection Order to the abuser. This is called Serving the Protection
Order. It is the duty of the police to serve the Protection Order on the abuser, i.e. they cannot
ask you to do it.

To prove that the abuser has received the Protection Order, the police will issue something
called a Return of Service or Proof of Service. Arrange to collect this from the police, and then
take it back to the Magistrate’s Court as soon as possible. Once the Clerk has this document,
the Court will give you a Warrant of Arrest for the abuser. Keep this in a safe place. It is to be
used if the abuser repeats the offence. He can be immediately arrested if this happens.

Anyone, including a child, can apply for a Protection Order for someone else. Protection Orders
are issued at any time – including public holidays, weekends and after office hours.

The police response
The police are duty-bound to respond to victims of abuse with respect. They have to listen to,
assist and inform you of your options without insulting or blaming you. When reporting domestic
violence, you have a right to:
• report the incident in the language of your choice
• give your statement in privacy and not in the presence of the abuser or the public.

The police must:

•   Note the complaint in the Incident Register as proof that the matter has been reported.
•   Keep a copy of the Protection Order and record all subsequent complaints or arrests.
•   Accompany the victim to his or her home and help him or her to collect personal
•   Search the premises and seize any firearms and/or dangerous weapons.
•   If the victim is in danger, they can arrest the person immediately without a warrant.
•   Help the victim get medical help, shelter and counselling, and inform him or her of other
    services that are available.

What to do if an abuser disobeys a Protection Order:

•   If an abuser disobeys a Protection Order, go to the police immediately, and give a
•   Give the police the Warrant of Arrest that was issued to you when you applied for the
    Protection Order.
•   If you are in immediate danger, the police will arrest the abuser and hold him in a cell until
    he appears in court the following day. Otherwise, if the danger is not immediate, he will be
    given a notice to appear in court the following day.

Recourse and redress
If a police officer is rude, disrespectful, blames you, belittles you or fails in
any other respect to handle your case properly, you can report this to the
Station Commissioner at the relevant police station.

The complaint will be noted in a complaints register. The Station                    RECOURSE
Commissioner will take disciplinary steps against the police officer.                 & REDRESS

If you are not happy with the way the complaint is handled, you can report the matter to
the Area Commissioner, and if you are still not satisfied, you can complain to the Provincial
                                                Commissioner. You can also report the matter to
                                                the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD).
                                                They will send a report on your complaint to
                                                the SAPS Head Office, and inform you of what
                                                steps are taken against the officer concerned.

                         Well, looking at the     Phone the SAPS Service Evaluation to report
                         way you’re dressed,      poor police service.
        I want to                                                                For ICD
                          I’m not surprised!                                contact details,
      report a rape.
                                                                              see page 13

                       SAPS Service Evaluation 0860 13 0860
Child Care: What Does the Law Say?
The Child Care Act
This Act provides for special Children’s Courts and the appointment
of welfare officers. It also lays down the law for adoption and foster
homes and sets out the steps to be taken when a child is in need of

According to the Act, a child is in need of care if he or she is under eighteen      RIGHTS AND
years of age and:                                                                       LAWS

•   has no parents (or the parents cannot be found);
•   has been abandoned or is without support;                           My neighbour’s child cries all
•   cannot be controlled by the parents or guardian;                    day and I suspect that things
•   lives in circumstances that may harm his or                           are not right. But I don’t
    her well-being;                                                           want to interfere.
•   is in a state of mental or physical neglect;
•   is being physically, emotionally or sexually
    abused; and
•   is suffering from malnutrition.

The Act also says that it is illegal to abuse or
to allow the abuse of a child. If you suspect
abuse, you must speak up for the sake of the
child. If you don’t want to approach the par-
ents directly, contact your nearest Department
of Social Development (see page 51), and
they will send a social worker to investigate
the problem. Vulnerable children need caring
neighbours, so speak up!

                   Child Care: Services
                   Where parents or guardians do not fulfil their duties,
                   and children are in need of care, the State has to step
                   in and either help the parents or take the child away
                   from the parents or guardians. This is referred to as               SERVICES &
                   child protection services.                                         PROGRAMMES

                   Child protection can be carried out by a social worker,
                   police officer or authorised officer of the law, who may
                   take a child in need of care to a place of safety.

                   After this, a Children’s Court will decide on what is best
                   for the child. The court can order the child to be returned
                   to his or her parents (under the supervision of a social
                   worker) or it may order that the child be placed in foster
                   care or sent to a children’s home. The court can also
                   order the parents or guardian to contribute to the main-
                   tenance of the child.

                          Childline Helpline 0800 055 555
    I love my kids, but I don’t see
      why I should pay money to
   that woman! She’s got another
  boyfriend, and I know she’ll just
     waste the money. And apart
 from that, she never even lets me
   see my kids! Why should I pay
  money and not even be allowed
             to see them?                                             Pete is Xolani and
                                                                  Patricia’s neighbour. He
                                                                 was never married, but has
                                                                  children. His ex-girlfriend
                                                                     won’t let him see his
                                                                   children, and he misses
                                                                   them. But he won’t pay
                                                                    maintenance for them.

                                                               Situations like this are all too
                                                               common. The law says that no
                                                               matter what the relationship is
                                                               like between the parents, both
                                                               parents have a duty to provide
                                                               for all the needs of their child.

       Maintenance: What Does the Law Say?
The Maintenance Act

The Maintenance Act says that a child must be supported or maintained              by his or her
parents, whether married or not, or his or her grandparents, if the                child’s parents
were married to each other.

When parents separate, the parent who is not living with the children,               REDRESS
and who has an income, has a duty to contribute to the welfare of the              & RECOURSE

How is maintenance paid?
If parents cannot decide on the financial arrangements themselves, the parent living with the
children can go to a maintenance court to get maintenance from the other parent.
The maintenance court will examine all the facts and decide how much the absent parent
should pay each month.

Parents have to accept that their duty to pay maintenance has nothing to do with their view of
the other parent’s morals or parenting skills. Therefore, even if the other parent gets involved in
another relationship, or doesn’t let you see the children, maintenance must still be paid.

Either parent can apply to have the amount changed, if their circumstances change.

Maintenance: Services

    should be used to
    cover the child’s
    living expenses.

    This includes:
                                    Clothes                  Education           A home

Any family member, whatever his or her age, can ask any family
member to support or maintain him or her, provided that:

•   The family member who claims support is unable to maintain
    himself or herself.
•   The family member from whom maintenance is claimed is able to
    afford the maintenance.                                                       SERVICES &
What expenses may be claimed?
You may claim support needed to provide the child with a proper living. This
includes food, clothing, accommodation and schooling. Other expenses may also be claimed.
For example, you may ask for the child to be registered on the other person’s medical aid. The
court will ask both parties to provide proof of their expenses.

Paying Maintenance
The court may rule that a person pays maintenance in one of these ways:
Garnishee order: The company that employs the person deducts the money directly from his
salary and pays it into the other parent’s account.
Cash payment: The person may be ordered to pay the cash monthly at the court.
Direct payment into a bank account: The court may order that the person deposits the money
into the bank account of the other person.

If the maintenance money is not paid on the specific date, the maintenance officer should be
                                          informed quickly, since action will only be taken if the
                                          recipient complains and makes a statement under

                                              Fathers do have rights. The Natural Fathers with
                                              Children Born out of Wedlock Act protects the
                                              rights of unmarried fathers. It gives them the right
                                              to apply for custody and guardianship of their
                                              children. Fathers can adopt their children and
                                              they have certain rights over the surname of their

    I have to pay maintenance whether
     I see my children or not. But I also
    have a right to be part of their lives.

For more information on maintenance and related matters, contact the Department of Justice and
                          Constitutional Development, see page 51.
The Family Advocate
When a family breaks up through divorce or death, children often suffer the most. Many families
benefit from expert advice, who can inform all parties of their rights and help bring about an
acceptable settlement. The Family Advocate is such a person.

The Family Advocate is an officer of the court employed by the Department of Justice. He or
she listens to both sides of the story, interviews the children, explains all the options available,
explains the rights of both parties, and makes recommendations to the court.

All matters relating to divorce, custody, guardianship and access are matters for the Family
Advocate. He or she helps only when divorces are not yet finalised and cannot intervene when
the matter has been finalised in court. The Family Advocate is a neutral person who mediates,
advises, informs you of your rights and makes
recommendations to court. He or she cannot represent
either party in court or appear as a witness for either

To obtain the services of a Family Advocate, contact
your nearest Family Court or Magistrate’s Court.

                                                                 But I
                                                                him to

Family Support Services
                                                               All problems can be solved! I thought
Family services are provided by both government              ours was impossible, but with counselling
organisations and Non-Government Organisations                and support, I realised that there was a
(NGOs). They include:                                        light at the end of the tunnel. There can
                                                                          be for you, too.
•   counselling;
•   marriage preparation and enrichment, and
•   parental programmes.

Families who are faced with challenges such as HIV/
AIDS, marriage problems and other problems should
apply to the Department of Social Development to
receive the support they need.

 Treatment for substance abuse
 Substance abuse means overindulgence in, and dependence on, any addictive substance,
 especially alcohol or drugs. In South Africa, drug addiction is a serious problem, destroying
 families and, in some cases, permanently damaging people’s minds.

 Help is available. Phone your nearest Department of Social Development and ask for a list of
 all treatment facilities near you. The South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug
 Dependence (SANCA ) is one of the organisations that can help.

               SANCA 24-Hour Addiction Helpline (082) 264-7000

                        The Elderly

                                  Our Constitution lays the
                                  foundation for a society
                                 based on respect for every
                                individual. We need to take
                                  this value seriously, and
                                   teach it to our children.
                                 Elderly people are as much
                                 a part of society as young
                                    people, and should be
                                     treated with respect.

             What does the Law say?
 The Older Persons Act
 Older persons have the same rights as those contained in the Bill of
 Rights and, in addition, they also have the right to:

 •   Take part in community services in a way that suits their interests and
     abilities.                                                                        RIGHTS
 •   Participate in the making of policies that affect them directly.                AND LAWS
 •   Participate in inter-generational programmes.
 •   Participate in activities that generate an income.
 •   Live in an environment that is safe and suitable to their life stage.
 •   Lifestyle options that will enhance their physical, mental and emotional well-being.
 •   An older person receiving community-based care has the right to stay at home as
     long as possible.
 •   Use any available opportunity to develop their potential, and benefit from family
     and community life.

For information on any government service or institution, phone 1020 toll-free
 Abuse of older persons
 Older people are victims of many different forms of abuse. We need
 to be aware of these forms, and report cases of abuse wherever we
 encounter them.

 Physical abuse: Any act that results in the injury or death of an older             SERVICES &
 person through the use of any physical means, e.g. slapping, hitting,             PROGRAMMES
 pushing, rough-handling, cutting, and use of any chemical or physical
 restraints, giving incorrect or excessive medication or any act that causes injury, physical
 discomfort, over-sedation or death.

 Sexual abuse: Any act that results in the exploitation of an older person, for the purposes of
 sexual or erotic gratification without their full knowledge, understanding and consent.

 Psychological, emotional and verbal abuse: Degrading or humiliating an older person,
 resulting in psychological or emotional damage, e.g. rejection, isolation or oppression,
 depriving them of affection and mental stimulation, name-calling, ridicule or accusations.

 Financial/Economic abuse: The illegal use of an older person’s grant, property, valuables or
 money, without their consent or full understanding of the consequences.

 Neglect: Not providing care and the basic necessities required for physical and
 mental well-being, e.g. lack of food, warmth, shelter, clothing, medication and emotional support.

 Violation of human rights: Denying an older person his or her rights, such as respect
 for dignity, privacy, freedom of thought, belief, opinion, speech, expression and movement.

       We all have a duty to protect older persons from...

           Physical abuse

                                                                                 Sexual abuse

             Economic abuse                                 Verbal and psychological abuse

                                                                                        Can’t you
                                                                                       do anything
                                                                                        right, you
                  Please don’t take my pension                                         useless fool?
                     money – it’s all I have!

Elder abuse is more common than many people realise. If you recognise or suspect any
of the above treatments in any elderly person you know, you have a duty to report your
concerns to a social worker or to the police. Let’s stamp out elder abuse.

      “Halt Elder Abuse Line” (HEAL) 0800 003 081 (office hours only)
The Elderly: Services
Admission to an Old-Age Home
The following persons can apply to live in an old-age home:

•     Elderly persons who need full-time attendance in an old-age home.
•     Persons who receive an old-age grant.                                       SERVICES &
•     Females who are 60 years and older, and males who are 65 years             PROGRAMMES
                                                                                   and older.

The Old-Age Grant
An old age grant is a monthly income of R870 per month to older people whose income is
below a certain level. The income and assets of the applicant and their spouse are assessed to
determine if they qualify, and to what amount they are entitled.

Frail care Services
Community frail care services provide basic home-based nursing
care for elderly persons who cannot take care of themselves
because of old age. The following persons can apply:
• Elderly persons needing full-time assistance due to mental
   or physical disability.
• Those who are in an old-age home which does not receive a
• Persons who receive an old-age grant.
• Females 60 years and older, and males 65 years and older.

                         Recourse and redress
                                                                                    & RECOURSE

     My son used to bring
      home money, even
       though I knew he
     wasn’t working. I saw
     cell phones and other
     valuable things in the
    house, which I knew he
         couldn’t afford.

                                                       I did what I knew I had to – I phoned the police
                                                        and had him arrested. My son was a criminal.
                                                        I stopped him before he did even worse things.
                                                        This was hard, but how will we ever stamp out
                                                        crime unless we work together with the police?
Important phone numbers
Emergency calls to police                                             10111
Police Social Work Services, 24 hours number                          082 809-2277
Police Spiritual Services, 24 hours                                   082 808-7478
SAPS Employee Assistance Programme                                    086 010-3055
Cell Phones All Networks                                              112
Safe Schools Call Centre                                              0800 454-647
National Crime Prevention Unit                                        (012) 421-8213
National Secretariat for Safety and Security                          (012) 393-2500
Network on Violence Against Women                                     (031) 304-6928
People Against Women Abuse (POWA)                                     (011) 642-4345/6
Family and Marriage Society of South Africa (FAMSA)                   (011) 975-7106
Centre for Study Of Violence and Reconciliation / Trauma Clinic       (011) 403-5102
The Trauma Centre for Survivors of Violence and Torture               (021) 465-7373
National Network on Violence Against Women                            (012) 348-1231/2
Johannesburg Parent and Child Counselling Centre                      (011) 484-1734/5/6
Lifeline (Cape Town)                                                  (021) 461-1111/3
Lifeline (Johannesburg)                                               (011) 728-1331
Lifeline (Port Elizabeth)                                             (041) 585-5581

Cape Town                                                             (021) 447-9762
Port Elizabeth                                                        (041) 484-3804
Pretoria                                                              (012) 342-2222
Pietermaritzburg                                                      (033) 394-4444
Durban Advice Desk for Abused Women                                   (031) 262-5231
Network of Violence Against Women                                     (031) 304-6928
SAPS Crime Stop                                                       0800 150 150
Corruption Helpline                                                   0800 201 414

             Contact the Department of Social Development
Province             Postal Address           Telephone Number      Fax Number
Eastern Cape         Private Bag X0039,       Tel: (041) 582-3588   Fax: (040) 639-1928
                     BISHO, 5605
Free State           Private Bag X4424,       Tel: (051) 405-4821   Fax: (051) 403-3578
                     BLOEMFONTEIN, 9300
Gauteng              Private Bag X35,         Tel: (012) 320-2059   Fax: (011) 836-6533
                     JOHANNESBURG, 2000
KwaZulu-Natal        Private Bag X27,         Tel: (035) 874-3811   Fax: (035) 874-3710
                     ULUNDI, 3838
Limpopo              Private Bag X9302,       Tel: (015) 291-5917   Fax: (015) 291-3355
                     POLOKWANE, 0700
Mpumalanga           Private Bag X11213,      Tel: (013) 766-3031   Fax: (013) 766-3463
                     NELSPRUIT, 1200
Northern Cape        Private Bag X5042,       Tel: (053) 839-5104   Fax: (053) 831-4917
                     KIMBERLEY, 8300
North West           Private Bag X6,          Tel: (018) 387-5282   Fax: (018) 387-5402
                     MMABATHO, 2735
Western Cape         Private Bag X9180,       Tel: (021) 483-3083   Fax: (021) 483-4783
                     CAPE TOWN, 8000
                                   Did you know?
                    Toll-free numbers are only free from a landline.
                        8. The world of work
                                                          Patricia says:
                                  We have the
                               right to life, food,                        I’ve been looking for a job
                               adequate housing,                             for ages. It’s so difficult
                              good education, etc.                           when you don’t have a
                              – but to many of us,                            lot of skills! I wish the
                              this means nothing,                            government would help
                               because we cannot                                  people like me.
                             find work to support
                                all these things!

                             We need jobs, and
                             we need skills to get
                                 those jobs.

               Government’s role in job creation is to create laws that promote economic
               development, and to offer skills-training through learnerships.

                 Many non-governmental organisations also offer opportunities to improve
                 skills. We need to take advantage of every opportunity to gain skills. For
                  many of us, running our own business is the only way we will ever become

              What does the Law say?
                                The National Skills Development Act

                                The aim of this Act is to make sure that all
                                South Africans become more productive by
                                making education and training available in
                                the workplace. It encourages employers to                  RIGHTS
                                provide employees with work experience and                AND LAWS
                                opportunities to get more skills, and encourages
                                employers to employ jobless people.

The Labour Relations Act
This Act governs:
• How trade unions should operate and gives specific laws on striking. All employees
   have the right to form or join a trade union, to take part in the activities of the trade
   union, and to strike. However, there are rules governing how such activities must be
   carried out.
• It encourages employees to have a say in decision-making through workplace
• It encourages resolving workplace disputes.
• It sets up the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA), to
   resolve disputes.
• It sets up the Labour Court and Labour Appeal Court.

The Basic Conditions of Employment Act
The following are against the law:

•   employing children under the age of fifteen
•   forced labour
•   limiting health and safety protection in any way
•   limiting family responsibility leave, maternity and sick leave
•   annual leave of less than two weeks, and
•   expecting employees to work more than 45 hours per week.

All employers who have more than five employees must give each employee a written
description of the details of their work (a contract of employment).

Every employee has the right to:

•   lodge a complaint with a labour inspector or trade union
•   discuss their contract of employment with another person
•   refuse to comply with any instruction that is contrary to the Act
•   inspect any record relating to their employment, and
•   request a trade union representative or labour inspector to inspect any record.

Labour inspectors
Labour inspectors help monitor and enforce this Act. They may enter any workplace, without
telling the employer that they intend to visit, as long as it is a reasonable time of day. They
do not need a warrant. Labour inspectors have the power to question, inspect and copy any
records. It is against the law to refuse to cooperate with a labour inspector, or to provide him or
her with false information.

Compliance Orders
If the labour inspector thinks that an employer is not obeying any section of the Employment
Act, they may either get the employer to agree to obey the law or they may issue a compliance
order, giving the employer a set period of time in which to comply. The compliance order must
be given to both the employer and any affected employees and it must be displayed in the

Labour Centres
                                             Labour Centres keep a
                                             register of all jobs and
                                             training available in an area,
                                             and link work-seekers with
                                             these opportunities.

                                             They also help people to start      SERVICES &
                                             income-generating projects. Look PROGRAMMES
                                             for the Labour Centre in your area.

                                             To find out where your nearest
                                             Labour Centre is, turn to page 57.

A learnership is a learning programme that leads to a qualification, arranged by employers for their
employees. Unemployed people may also benefit from learnerships, by registering at their nearest
Labour Centre. Learnerships do not cost anything, and are a good way to develop skills.

How to join a learnership

Decide what skills you want. The training you receive should match your interests and abilities.

If you are unemployed, register as a work-seeker.
If you are not yet employed register as a work-seeker at your nearest Labour Centre.

Find employers that offer learnerships
The unemployed should contact various Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) to
find out which employers offer learnerships. Employed people should ask their supervisor or trade
union representative if their employer offers learnerships.

If an employer does not offer learnerships, encourage them to start one. There are financial
rewards for employers who start learnerships. They can find out more at the Department of Labour.

Find out as much as possible about the learnership
You should find out:

•   What will be expected of you (e.g. will you have to study in the evenings?).
•   What qualification you will get, and what level the qualification will be.
•   What kind of tests there will be, and what happens if you fail.
•   Whether you will be able to cope with the classroom and practical work.
•   Whether there will be future promotion or training.

Every unemployed person should have a CV (Curriculum Vitae)

A CV tells potential employers who you are and what your strong points are. A CV should

•   Personal details: name, date of birth, address, ID number
•   Education: school attended, year and qualifications
•   Work experience: previous employers, your job title and a
    description of your responsibilities there
•   Other skills: driver’s licence, computer skills
•   Your strong points/qualities you can offer a company:
    e.g. good at teamwork, sense of initiative, good at customer
    relations, hard worker, enthusiastic – think of qualities that
    you can emphasise to market yourself (but be honest).
•   Referees: names and details of people who can be
    contacted by your potential employer, to check what kind of
    employee you are.

Referring a Dispute to the CCMA
Disputes about working conditions can be referred to
any bargaining council or to the CCMA. An inspector
will investigate the case and order compliance by
the employer or, if necessary, refer the dispute to the
CCMA. If the dispute remains unresolved, it will be
referred to the Labour Court.

The Court can order the employer to comply and/or to
pay any outstanding amounts owed to an employee.

What is Conciliation-Arbitration?

A conciliation hearing is a process where a
commissioner (or a panellist, in the case of a bargaining council or agency) meets with the
parties in a dispute to explore ways to settle the dispute by agreement.

The conciliation-arbitration (con-arb) process resolves individual unfair labour practices and
unfair dismissals quickly and fairly. The conciliation process is uncomplicated, inexpensive
and you don’t need a lawyer.

 At a conciliation meeting the employer may appear in person or may be represented
by a director or another employee or an employers’ organisation. The employee may be
represented by an office-bearer or official of the employee’s registered trade union.

Compensation for Occupational Injuries
and Diseases
The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act gives
workers the right to claim compensation if they were injured or fell ill with
a work-related disease.

     •   Employers must report all diseases or injuries that are caused
         by work to the Compensation Fund within twelve months of
         the injury or diagnosis of a disease, or the date of death.
     •   Employers must submit the required forms to the
         Compensation Commissioner within seven days after                      Contact Details:
         an injury and within fourteen days of being notified of the
         diagnosis of a disease.                                                PO Box 955,
     •   Workers may apply for more compensation if their injury, or            Pretoria, 0001
         disease was caused by the negligence of their employer or a
         worker who acts for the employer.                                      Tel: (012) 319-9111
                                                                                Hotline: 0860 105 350

                          CCMA Call Centre 0861 16 16 16
The Unemployment Insurance Fund
                                                           This fund offers security for people
                                                          who become unemployed. It pays out a
                                                          monthly sum for a few months after a
                                                              person becomes unemployed.

The Unemployment Insurance Act and Unemployment Insurance Contributions Act apply
to all employers and workers, but not to workers working less than 24 hours a month; learn-
ers; public servants; foreigners working on contract; workers who get a monthly State (old-
age) pension; or workers who only earn commission.

All employers, including employers of domestic and farm workers, must register themselves
and their workers with the Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF). The UIF will pay workers or
their families when the worker:
• becomes unemployed
• cannot work due to illness
• is on maternity leave
• is on adoption leave
• or passes away.

There are various ways to register with the UIF. It is the employer’s responsibility to fill in and
send the forms to register themselves and their workers.

Employers need
• The ID numbers and addresses of employers and workers.
• Employer reference number. If you do not have a number, the UIF will create a reference
  number and send it to you.

How you can register
• Online: Complete the online registration form and e-mail the forms.
• Via telephone (012) 337-1680.
• Via fax at (086) 712-2000. Call the UIF fax line from your fax machine and follow the voice
  prompts. Then wait for the forms to be faxed to you.
• Via mail: Mail the forms to the UIF at The UIF, Pretoria, 0052.
• At a Labour Centre.

Labour Mobile Units
Do you live in a rural area far away from the nearest
Labour Centre? Look out for the Labour Mobile
Unit. These Units will help you in the application
and processing of UIF and compensation benefits,
Enforcement and Inspection Services (IES) and
Employment and Skills Development Services
(ESDSs). Labour Inspectors, Client Services Officers (CSOs) and Employment Service
Practitioners (ESPs) are on board to help you with any labour-related service.

Claiming Unemployment Benefits
  Work is hard to find. Make
 sure you are registered with
the UIF to help you and your
 family while you are looking
          for a job.

When a worker becomes unemployed, he or she must:

•    complete the correct forms and hand it in at a Labour Centre;
•    register as a work-seeker at a Labour Centre and be available to
     start work;
•    report to a Labour Centre when asked to; and
•    undergo training and counselling when asked to.                                  REDRESS
                                                                                    & RECOURSE
When can I claim from UIF?

•    UIF does not pay benefits if you resign from your job – you have to be dismissed.
•    UIF will pay workers or their families when the worker dies.
•    UIF will pay benefits to workers who cannot work because of illness.
•    UIF will pay benefits to workers who do not receive a salary during maternity leave.

                                Contact the Labour Centres
    Province           Postal Address           Telephone Number          Fax Number
    Eastern Cape       Private Bag X6045,       Tel: (041) 506-5003       Fax: (041) 582-3694
                       PORT ELIZABETH,
    Free State         PO Box 325, ZASTRON,     Tel: (051) 673-1471       Fax: (051) 673-1491
    Gauteng            PO Box 393,              Tel: (012) 309-4000       Fax: (012) 320-5627
                       PRETORIA, 0001
    KwaZulu-Natal      PO Box 10074, MARINE     Tel: (031) 336-1500       Fax: (031) 307-1933
                       PARADE, 4066
    Limpopo            Private Bag X9368,       Tel: (015) 299-5000       Fax: (015) 290-1670
                       Polokwane, 0700
    Mpumalanga         Private Bag X11298,      Tel: (013) 753-2844       Fax: (013) 752-3270
                       Nelspruit, 1200
    Northern Cape      Private Bag X5012,       Tel: (053) 838-1500       Fax: (053) 838-1618
                       KIMBERLEY, 8300
    North West         Private Bag X2154, MA-   Tel: (018) 381-1010       Fax: (018) 381-5231
                       FIKENG, 2754
    Western Cape       PO Box 872, CAPE         Tel: (021) 460-5911       Fax: (021) 462-0981
                       TOWN, 8000

                                        9. EDUCATION
    Nozuko, I have a problem. My child’s school is putting
    him in a separate classroom and refusing to teach him
    until I pay the school fees. I know I must pay – but are
                     they allowed to do this?

                                                     No. The law says that no child
                                                    can be denied an education if the
                                                     parents cannot afford the fees!
                                                   Read about it in the South African
                                                              Schools Act.

      What does the Law say?
The South African Schools Act
The South African Schools Act of 1996 is the most important legislation
dealing with education. Although education is partly controlled by
provincial governments, the Act creates the framework within which
they must operate. It says:
                                                                                        RIGHTS AND
•     Schooling is compulsory from the ages of seven to fifteen, or up to
      Grade 9, whichever comes first.
•     No one can be turned away from a school if they cannot afford to pay the
      fees. However, anyone wanting to be exempted from paying school fees
      must apply to the governing body of the school for this exemption.

The Act also makes provision for adult basic education.

The Higher Education Act
This Act, together with the Further Education and Training Act of 1998, has been passed to
protect your right to further education. Recognising social imbalances, the Act says that a higher
education institution, like a university, must be less strict when considering an entrance application
from someone who is previously disadvantaged.

The Act also gives the State the responsibility to fund institutions for higher education. This
funding should be fair and transparent, but should also favour those who are previously

The Higher Education Act also helps define the policy of higher education institutions as follows:

•    There should be broader access to higher education.
•    Higher education should meet the needs of the market-place.
•    Higher education should help produce good citizens.
•    Higher education should contribute to the advancement of knowledge and citizenship.

The National Education Policy Act
You have the right to be taught in the official language or languages of your choice in a public
educational institution. The National Education Policy Act supports this right, but only if it is
“reasonably practicable” – in other words, if there are at least 40 learners in Grades 1 to 7, or
at least 35 learners in Grades 8 to 12, who prefer the language.

On languages as subjects at school, the Act says:

•    The language of instruction should be an official language.
•    Learners should be taught in one language in the first two years of school.
•    From the third year of school, learners must learn two languages – one of these must
     be the language of instruction.
•    Multi-lingualism (being able to use many languages) should be promoted.

Admission to a public school
A public school is an educational institution owned by the State and
registered with the Department of Education.

Admission to Grade R: The age of admission to Grade R is between
four-and-a-half and five-and-a-half years old if the child turns six on or
before 30 June in the Grade 1 year.
                                                                                   SERVICES &
Admission to Grade 1: The age of admission to Grade 1 is five years old if         PROGRAMMES
the child turns six on or before 30 June in the Grade 1 year.

When you apply to a school to enrol your child, you must produce your child’s official birth
                                              certificate and proof that your child has been

                                                If you are not South African citizens, you
                                                also need a study permit and a temporary or
                                                permanent residence permit or proof that you
                                                have applied for permission to stay in South

                                                No school may discriminate unfairly against
                                                a child. This means that no public school
                                                may make children write admissions tests,
                                                or prevent a child from coming to the school
                                                because the parents have not paid or cannot
                                                pay the school fees.

    For information on any government service or institution, phone 1020
 How to get a matric certificate                                               Has your matric certificate
                                                                                  been lost, stolen or
You have to register for six subjects and pass at least five,                     damaged? Have you
including two official languages, both on higher grade. To pass                 changed your surname?
with exemption, (i.e. be eligible to attend university) you must                 To have your matric
pass three higher grade subjects from three different subject                certificate re-issued, contact
groups.                                                                       your provincial education
You must obtain 720 marks for a senior certificate pass and nine
hundred and fifty marks 950 for a senior certificate pass with

If your matric certificate has been lost, stolen or damaged, or
you have changed your surname, you may apply to have it re-

Application forms to write matric are available from the
Directorate: National Examinations and provincial education
departments (their examinations directorates).

 Admission to an Institution of Higher Learning
 The minimum admission requirement for university is a Senior Certificate with exemption. For
 a university of technology it is a Senior Certificate (matric pass). However, if you are a mature
 student (23 years or older) you do not need a Senior Certificate with exemption to get into
 university. You may apply for conditional exemption. Check with the institution to which you
 are applying for further admission requirements.

 If you enrol at a private institution of higher learning, check that it is registered with the
 Department of Education, and that the courses you wish to take are also registered.

 National Student Financial Aid Scheme
The National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS) is a loan and bursary scheme funded
by the Department of Education. This fund was set up to help students who have potential but
cannot afford to fund their own studies.

To qualify you have to be:

•   a South African citizen, registered at a university or university of technology;
•   assessed as being financially needy;
•   performing well academically; and
•   an undergraduate, studying for your first or second degree or diploma.

NSFAS Call Centre: (021) 763-3232

                  Department of Education Hotline 0800 202 933
ABET (Adult Basic Education and Training) aims to provide basic learning tools, knowledge
and skills, and equips participants with nationally recognised qualifications.

Anyone who did not complete mainstream schooling may register with any ABET centre. The
ABET centres may conduct placement tests to determine whether you, the learner, are at level
one, two or three.

               Redress and recourse
If you have a complaint about the way your child’s school is run, or             any decision
affecting your child’s education, you should first approach the school’s          governing
body. The governing body comprises the principal and elected                     members,
including parents and teachers, and is responsible for running the school
according to national and provincial laws.                                          REDRESS
                                                                                  & RECOURSE
If the governing body does not deal with your complaint properly, you can
contact the Head of the Department of Education in your province, which has the power to
overrule any decision made by a governing body.

You can also approach the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) if you feel
that any of your educational rights are being violated (See page 12).

                    Contact the Department of Education
  Province             Postal Address           Telephone Number            Fax Number
  Eastern Cape         Private Bag X0032,       Tel: (040) 608-4202         Fax: (040) 608-4247
                       BISHO, 5605
  Free State           PO Box 521               Tel: (051) 404-8411         Fax: (051) 404-8295
                       BLOEMFONTEIN, 9300
  Gauteng              Private Bag X895,        Tel: (011) 355-0909         Fax: (011) 355-0542
                       PRETORIA, 0001
  KwaZulu-Natal        Private Bag X9137,       Tel: (033) 355-2450         Fax: (033) 394-0893
  Limpopo              Private Bag X9489,       Tel: (015) 297-8112         Fax: (015) 297-0885
                       POLOKWANE, 0700
  Mpumalanga           PO Box 3011,             Tel: (013) 766-5555         Fax: (013) 766-5587
                       NELSPRUIT, 1200
  Northern Cape        Private Bag X5023,       Tel: (053) 830-7160         Fax: (053) 830-7177
                       KIMBERLEY, 8300
  North West           Private Bag X2044,       Tel: (018) 387-3700         Fax: (018) 384-5016
                       MMABATHO, 2735
  Western Cape         Private Bag X9161,       Tel: (021) 467-2523         Fax: (021) 425-5689
                       CAPE TOWN, 8000

                   10. Community Development
                        Worker Programme
                          One of the biggest problems regarding service
                           delivery to all South Africans is that many
                            people – especially the poorest and most
                            desperate – are unable to access the full
                             potential of government programmes.

                                                             One of the reasons is that they simply
                                                          don’t know about them. Another is that the
                                                          services and programmes are too far away,
                                                          and some people lack the resources to make
                                                               repeated journeys and phone calls.

         For this reason, in 2003, through a series of
          government and public imbizos, a need was
        identified for a new kind of public servant – a
             Community Development Worker.

   Community Development Workers are special public servants who live in and work with
 communities. They interact closely with all people, listen to their needs, and put them in touch with
a wide range of services – in health, welfare, housing, agriculture, economic activities, education and
                                      training, and employment.

                 If you would like to know more about community workers, contact:
         The Department of Public Service and Administration: (012) 336-1000
         The Department of Provincial and Local Government: (012) 334-0600
                              What Are Thusong Centres?                        5

                                                                                    Index of Government
                              Defending Your Rights: Redress and Recourse      10
                              The Public Protector                             11
                              The South African Human Rights Commission        12

          YOUR RIGHTS
                              The Commission on Gender Equality
                                                                                      Programmes and
                              The Open Democracy Advice Centre                 13
                              The Independent Complaints Directorate
                              Going to Court
                              Applying for Citizenship                              16

                              Getting Your ID                                       17
                              Registering a Birth                                   17
                              Late Registration                                     18
                              Registering a Death                                   18
                              Registering a Marriage                                19

                              Housing Subsidies                                     21
                              Relocation Assistance                                 21
                              The Individual Housing Subsidy                        22
                              The People’s Housing Process                          22
                              Project-Linked Housing Subsidy                        23
                              Institutional Subsidy                                 23

                              Hostel Subsidy                                        24
                              Discount Benefit Scheme                                24
                              Rural Subsidy                                         24
                              The Consolidated Housing Subsidy                      25

                              HIV/AIDS                                              28
                              Tuberculosis (TB)                                     29
                              Measles and Polio                                     29
                              Cholera                                               30
                              Malaria                                               31
                              Getting an Abortion                                   31

                             Household Food Production Programme                    34
                             The Integrated Nutrition Programme                     34
                             National Schools Nutrition Programme                   34
                             Free Basic Municipal Services                          34

                             The Child Support Grant                                37
                             The Foster Child Grant                                 37
                             The Disability Grant                                   38
                             The Grant in Aid                                       38

                             The Care Dependency Grant                              39
                             Social Relief of Distress                              39
                             Lapsed Grants                                          39
                             How to Apply for Any Grant                             40
                             Social Grant Fraud                                     40
                             What is SASSA?                                         40
                             Domestic Violence: Laws and Services                   41
                             Child Care: Laws and Services                          44
                             Maintenance: Laws and Services                         45
                             The Family Advocate                                    47
                             Family Support Services                                47
                             Treatment of Substance Abuse                           48
                             The Elderly: Laws and Services                         48

                             Labour Centres                                         53
                             Learnerships                                           54

                             Resolving Disputes (CCMA)                              55
                             Compensation for Occupational Injuries                 55
                             The Unemployment Insurance Fund                        56
                             Claiming Unemployment Benefits                          57

                             Admission to Public Schools                            59

                             How to Get a Matric Certificate                         60
                             Admission to an Institution of Higher Learning         60
                             The National Student Financial Aid Scheme              60
                             ABET                                                   61

                            Community Development Worker Programme                  62
                    Know Your
                  Service Rights!

                                                                   And our laws make those rights
                                                                     real and meaningful. But for
                                                                   us to really benefit, we need to
                                                                   know those laws, and not only
                                                                   the laws, but the many services
                                                                     and organisations that have
                                                                   been set up to help us improve
                                                                           our quality of life!
Our Constitution recognises
that every human being has
certain rights, which no one
       can take away.

                                                                  All the information we need
                                                                    is available. It’s up to us
We all need this information, if                                   to find out about the laws
not for ourselves, then to share                                    which protect us and the
 with others. No South African                                    services that help us. When
 should be left out in the cold.                                   we know the laws and the
  Let’s share our knowledge,                                       places which can help, we
 educate one another, so that                                      can take steps to improve
  our family and community                                              our quality of life!
       begin to prosper.

         Developed for Government’s Social Cluster by the Educational Support Services Trust 2007

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