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JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY

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JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY Powered By Docstoc
					          JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY
          SCHOOL OF TROPICAL BIOLOGY




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                            TERRESTRIAL
          FIELD SAFETY HANDBOOK
                              EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION



EMERGENCY .............................................................................................................. 000


Qld Emergency Services Rescue Unit (Emergency Calls Only) ............................... (07) 4725 1066


Royal Flying Doctor Service (24 Hour Medical Enquiries) ...................................... (07) 4743 2802


Royal Flying Doctor Service (Emergency Patient Transfers) .................................... (07) 4725 5827


Poisons Information Centre (Australia Wide) ................................................................... 13 1126




                           OTHER USEFUL CONTACT INFORMATION



Qld Emergency Services Rescue Unit (General Enquiries) ......................................... (07) 47757711


Biological Sciences Safety Officer, Sue Reilly ....................................................... (07) 47814181


JCU Gatehouse (24 hours) .............................................................................. (07) 4781 5555


RACQ Road Service (24 hour roadside service for JCU vehicles) .............................. 1800 648 058


RACQ Recorded road Conditions (24 hours) .......................................................(07) 4775 3600


Tropical Cyclone Warnings ................................................................................. 1300 659 212


Weather Information (Recorded Information, Townsville region) ............................................... 1196


Bureau of Meteorology homepage .......................................................... http://www.bom.gov.au
CB Radio Emergency Channels:-                      27mHz...................................................... Channel 9

                                                   UHF ........................................................ Channel 5

                                                   Trucks ..................................................... Channel 40




                                                 INTRODUCTION

The environments available for teaching and research work in Northern Queensland are diverse and magnificent.
However, they can present many types of hazards, especially to the unwary. It is essential that all field workers
(staff, students, volunteers, etc) are properly prepared for their trip, and comply with University requirements.


Safety of the field party should be the primary concern of all persons participating in field trips. In particular it is
the group leader’s responsibility to ensure that all proper procedures are followed in the planning and execution of
a field trip, and in dealing with any incidents that threaten health and safety on the trip.


This guide will assist group leaders and all field workers to follow procedures, and I urge you to read it and
comply with it. It refers readers to additional material that you may need to consult. Additional queries relating
to health and safety should be directed to the Biological Sciences Safety Officer, (Mrs Sue Reilly, extension 4181)
or to the JCU Workplace Health and Safety Officer, Mr Leigh Winsor (extension 5418).
Professor R G Pearson
Head of School
School of Tropical Biology
                                                         CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION

    Definition of terms......................................................................................................5

    Statement of Responsibilities ........................................................................................5

    Supervision – Who is in Charge? ................................................................................. 6

    Student Accident Insurance - Are you covered? ..............................................................8

    Volunteers ................................................................................................................8

    Administrative Arrangements ........................................................................................8



HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

    Field Work Activities .................................................................................................. 11

    Fauna and Flora...................................................................................................... 12

    Camp site and Camp Requisites ................................................................................. 16

    Swimming and Bathing ............................................................................................. 16

    Health .................................................................................................................... 17

    Transport ................................................................................................................ 17

    Limits on Driving and Work Time ................................................................................ 19

    Bush Etiquette ........................................................................................................ 19

    Climate and Weather ................................................................................................20

    Navigation .............................................................................................................. 22

    Traverses on Foot ................................................................................................... 22

    Firearms ................................................................................................................ 23

    Other Hazards ........................................................................................................24



APPENDICES

    Appendix 1 Field Trip Operational Details form ............................................................... 25

    Appendix 2 Hazard Identification and Risk Control form ................................................... 31
Appendix 3 Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form ...............................................34

Appendix 4 First Aid Kit Contents – Small Sized Workplace ............................................. 35

Appendix 5 First Aid/Major Trauma Kit Contents – Remote Locations ................................ 37

Appendix 6 First Aid Treatment for Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke ................................ 38

Appendix 7 Basic First Aid for Bites and Stings ............................................................ 40

Appendix 8 What to Do When Lost ............................................................................ 44

Appendix 9 Checklist of Vehicle Spare Parts – Remote Area Field Trip .............................. 45

Appendix 10 List of Relevant Forms and Contacts .......................................................... 47

Appendix 11 Bibliography and Useful Sources of Information .............................................48

Appendix 12 Field Work – Essential Induction Elements .................................................. 49
                                                                    GENERAL INFORMATION




DEFINITION OF TERMS

Field activities and field work are defined as any work, studies or research approved by the Head of School or
nominated deputy on behalf of James Cook University (JCU) and conducted by staff, postgraduate and
undergraduate students at various field sites which may be on-campus, or at off-campus urban, rural (terrestrial),
freshwater or marine locations.


Remote field work is defined as any work carried out at any non-permanently staffed University site and which
entails:
              working at a non-urban site off-campus where it takes more than half an hour to get medical aid to
               an injured or ill person.
              off-road in areas where very little traffic is likely or where topographic features would make it
               difficult to summon or receive help.


Off-road is any location other than a major or minor formed road.


The Officer-in-charge (OIC) is that person authorised by the Head of School to lead the field work. The OIC has
the authority to cancel, postpone or modify the planned schedule at any time during the field trip.


Authorised officers are those persons nominated by the Head of School and listed on the Field Trip Operational
Details form (Appendix 1).


A qualified first aider is a person holding a current Senior First Aid Certificate.


Participants are all persons undertaking all or any part of the field activities, and includes JCU employees,
whether being paid or not, students and volunteers.
STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

The Head of School must give final approval of all field activities.


The School Safety Officer must assess the Field Trip Operational Details.


The Officer-in-charge is responsible for the health and safety of all attending persons for the duration of the field
activity.


Authorised officers shall initiate search and rescue procedures in the event that the field party fails to return by
the agreed time which is indicated on the Field Trip Operational Details form. They shall undertake the actions
agreed to should the field party fail to make a scheduled contact. (See Communications Section.)


All persons participating in field activities have an obligation - a duty of care - to work safely in the field, taking
care to protect their own health and safety and that of fellow workers and students.


All participants should:
               understand the JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety.
               understand the relevant statutory requirements within the Workplace Health and Safety Act and
                all associated regulations and codes of practice.
               understand and meet all legal requirements and safety guidelines associated with any licensing
                requirements (e.g. motor vehicles, firearms).
               understand and comply with the conditions imposed in permits issued by the relevant authorities
                (e.g. Dept. of Environment, Dept. of Natural Resources).
               obtain permission to traverse and access private and public lands and respect the wishes of
                landholders.


All field activity participants shall be given a safety induction (Appendix 12) to the field trip by the Officer-in-
charge, and shall be made fully aware of the possible hazards, and hazard control measures associated with the
activities and location. Field workers should familiarize themselves with this handbook, the reference literature
cited, and, in the case of undergraduate field trips, the information provided at lectures and in the course field trip
manual.
Persons who deliberately expose themselves or others to risk by non-compliance with the JCU Policy for Field
Work Health and Safety or the agreed School rules are to be counselled and if necessary excluded from field
work.
SUPERVISION - WHO IS IN CHARGE?

The Officer-in-charge has full authority to influence or direct the actions of students, employees and volunteers
involved in any field activities. Any participants disregarding directives from the Officer-in-charge may be
requested to return to the University hence terminating his/her field activity.


   Field activities involving postgraduate and honours students

All postgraduate field activities must be logged and approved by the student’s supervisor and the Head of School.



                                           NEVER WORK ALONE !
           The minimum working party should be two (2), preferably three (3) persons. This is so
           that if an accident occurs, one person is available to attend the victim while another
           person is available to notify emergency services. (See JCU Policy for Field Work
           Health and Safety, Section 7.1 for more information including dealing with exceptional
           circumstances.)



   Field activities involving undergraduate students

All undergraduate students participating in field activities must:

        be accompanied by at least one member of staff, except in the case of on-campus field work which has
         an appropriately low risk assessment. See JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety, Section 7.1(d)
         for recommended staff-to-student ratios.

        always adhere stringently to any directives or instructions given by the Officer-in-charge or other staff
         members acting for the Officer-in-charge.

        carefully adhere to all University safety policies, guidelines and procedures.

        be provided with a safety induction to the trip and must acknowledge the induction by completing the
         Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form.


   Keeping the field party intact

The Officer-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that no participant is left behind in the field at any time.
Undergraduate field trips usually involve a large group travelling in a number of vehicles. Once at the field station,
this may split up into smaller groups travelling in different directions, with the groups rotating through a range of
activities and staff. To avoid the possibility of a participant becoming separated from the field party, the Officer-
in-charge must ensure appropriate procedures are in place.
These should at least include:
         During the trip to and from the field station:

        a roll-call before the trip departs, so that an accurate list of all participants exists. This must include
         staff and volunteers.

        drivers being responsible for knowing how many passengers they have, then carrying out head counts
         before resuming the trip after stops along the way.

        passengers not swapping vehicles along the way without telling the respective drivers.
And while based at the field station:

   lists of names of participants in each group.

   head counts before groups go out to study sites, and before leaving the sites to return to camp.
Particular circumstances may necessitate further measures such as sign-out/sign-in sheets.


   Free time and individual activities

On some undergraduate field trips, students are granted free time for sight seeing and individual activities. This
should be subject to the following conditions:

   no participant is to leave the field station or study site unaccompanied.

   the proposed activity must be discussed with the Officer-in-charge.

   written information including the names of the personnel going, time of departure, expected time of return,
    destination and intended route must be left in a designated place e.g. on a notice board.

   if not following a defined road or track, the procedures laid out for “Traverses on Foot” should be applied.
                               Student Accident Insurance – Are you covered?


Yes. All members of the Student Union are covered for University related accidents by an insurance policy
subscribed to by the Union. For more information (including exclusions), obtain a copy of the “Student Accident
Insurance Scheme” available from Welfare Services, Student Union, James Cook University.



          NOTE: YOU ARE NOT COVERED FOR ILLNESS


          You need to ensure you have your own medical and ambulance cover and carry
          adequate supplies of medication, including treatments for known allergies, spare
          puffers etc.



Participants should be reasonably fit and have no existing uncontrolled medical condition which might give rise to
a life-threatening situation in the field. The Officer-in-charge should be made aware of any medical condition
which may require special consideration in planning.




                                                   Volunteers

Volunteers must receive the same level of safety induction as other participants, and accept the same obligations
in respect to safety and behavior standards.




                                        Administrative Arrangements

   Field Trip Operational Details Form and Risk Assessment

A Field Trip Operational Details form (Appendix 1) and a Hazard Identification and Risk Control form (Appendix 2)
must be completed and submitted to the School Safety Officer prior to departure on all field trips, allowing plenty
of time for the trip to be properly assessed and approved.
           ALLOW TIME – AT LEAST 5 WORKING DAYS – TO HAVE YOUR FIELD TRIP
           OPERATIONAL DETAILS AND RISK ASSESSMENT EVALUATED AND APPROVED.
           ELEVENTH HOUR SUBMISSIONS MAY BE REJECTED.
           NO PERMISSION MEANS NO FIELD TRIP



   Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form

An Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form (Appendix 3) must be completed by each person participating in
the field trip. One copy should be lodged with the School Safety Officer, another should be carried on the trip by
the Officer-in-charge.


   First Aid

The presence of a person with a current qualification in Senior First Aid is mandatory for remote field work. An
appropriate number of suitable first aid kits must be carried on all field trips. A normal first aid kit (Appendix 4)
may have to be augmented (Appendix 5) depending on the location and type of field activities. For further
information see the JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety, section 7.5.



                                   FIRST AID – REMOTE FIELD WORK
           Remote field work parties must include a qualified first aider. This applies to research,
           postgraduate and undergraduate field work.



   Communications

Whenever carrying out remote field work, the field party must be equipped with a 2 way communications system
suitable for contacting emergency services, should this be required, and for maintaining contact with the
authorised officer.


Satellite telephones meet these requirements and are available for hire from several sources in Townsville. Details
can be obtained from the School Safety Officer.


All participants must be instructed in the use of the communication equipment to be used on that trip.


Daily call-in schedules, and action to be taken if a call is not received, must be arranged before departure and
detailed on the Field Trip Operational Details form.
If you are unable to contact your authorised officer, call the JCU gatehouse on 07 4781 5555 and ask them to
pass on the message.


The Officer-in-charge must consider whether communication between participants whilst in the field is required
e.g. if the party splits into smaller groups once on site.


   EPIRB’s (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons)

The University has a number of EPIRB’s for the use of field parties as backup for normal communications, and
especially for those who have no other form of communication available to them. These are to be activated only
in cases of serious injury or other potentially life-threatening situations. For further information, contact the School
Safety Officer.



             THE AUTHORISED OFFICER MUST BE ADVISED OF THE SAFE RETURN OF
                                              THE FIELD PARTY



   Vehicle operations

No person is permitted to drive a JCU vehicle unless his or her driver’s license is currently registered with the
JCU Transport Section. No person is permitted to drive a 4 wheel drive vehicle (JCU owned, or hired) unless he
or she has completed the JCU 4 wheel drive instruction course and test. Persons qualified to drive 4 wheel drive
vehicles must be noted on the Field Trip Operational Details form.


   Accident procedures

In the event of an accident:

   ensure the victim is stabilized and made medically comfortable.

   contact emergency services if warranted giving details of the number of persons injured, the nature of the
    accident and injuries, and the exact location and/or meeting point. If using a mobile or satellite phone, dial
    000.

   as soon as free to do so, notify the University.




   Accident reports

All accidents involving injury, no matter how minor, must be reported by completing an Accident Report Form.
These are in all School first aid kits, and are also available from the School Safety Officer. This is a statutory
requirement under the Queensland Workplace Health and Safety Act.
          ACCIDENT REPORTS MUST BE SUBMITTED WITHIN 3 DAYS OF THE RETURN
          OF THE FIELD PARTY



   HOSPITALISATION

In the event of an accident which results in an overnight stay in a hospital, the Workplace Health and Safety
Coordinator MUST BE NOTIFIED WITHIN 24 HOURS (phone (07) 4781 5418 or after hours (07) 4773 3482)


This is a Statutory requirement as such accidents must be reported to the Division of Workplace Health and
Safety by the Workplace Health and Safety Coordinator within the specified time.
                                                                   HAZARD IDENTIFICATION,
                                                                                     RISK ASSESSMENT AND

                                                                                                  RISK CONTROL


A wide variety of hazards may be encountered during field activities. They may range from hazards posed by
poor road conditions en-route to the field site, to dangerous wildlife. The checklist provided in the Hazard
Identification and Risk Control form (Appendix 2) may assist in identifying hazards associated with your field work.



           The risks posed to personnel by identified hazards must be assessed, and
           appropriate achievable control measures put in place to reduce the risks to an
           acceptable level.



Using the Hazard Identification and Risk Control form (Appendix 2) (or similar methodology), you must:

       list in the table provided the HAZARDS you have identified that are associated with the field activities.

       briefly describe in the table the risks associated with each hazard.

       using the risk assessment chart assess, and record in the table the risk presented by that hazard (HIGH,
       MEDIUM, LOW).

       address risks with a HIGH rating first.

       in the table indicate what control measures are being taken to minimize the risk.

       attach the completed form to the Field Trip Operational Details form and submit both for assessment.

       prepare and implement the control measures.


Control Measures

       ELIMINATE the hazard.

       SUBSTITUTE something with a lesser risk e.g. manual handling - substitute a smaller container.

       ISOLATE the hazard e.g. proper storage of chemicals or firearm.

       use ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS - provide training, adequate supervision.

       have available PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT e.g. gloves, safety boots, sunhat, sunscreen.


Controls should be selected from as high up on this list as is reasonably practical to maximize effectiveness. In
many cases a combination of controls may be necessary to reduce the hazard.
Courses in Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment are conducted during the year at Townsville and Cairns
campuses. Ask your School Safety Officer, or the Workplace Health and Safety Coordinator for details.




                                               Field Work Activities

Safe work practices must be established and communicated in a safety induction verbally and in writing to all
participants. This includes details of appropriate safety equipment and clothing.


All participants must comply with safety directives including:

   wearing of suitable clothing including footwear.

   not undertaking activities for which they have not been trained or competency assessed (e.g. tree and rock
    climbing, abseiling).

   adopting correct manual handling techniques, especially loading and unloading vehicles.


Students who do not comply with the safety directives shall not be permitted to participate in the activity.



                 NO SUITABLE CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR MEANS NO FIELD TRIP !




                                                 Fauna And Flora

Field parties must consider potential hazards from flora and fauna. The Officer-in-charge must adequately brief
participants, and the field party must carry appropriate first aid supplies for the area in which they will be working.


Crocodiles


Crocodiles are very common in most mangrove and estuarine areas in the tropics, and may occur many
kilometres upstream in larger rivers. Crocodiles can remain submerged for long periods, and swim slowly without
so much as a ripple, even in shallow water, to get within striking distance of their prey. They then lunge with
great speed – much faster than a person can escape – to attack and drag their prey back into the water. When
working in possible crocodile habitats, do not enter the water, be very vigilant, and do not stand or sit close to
the water’s edge. Seek reliable local information if in unfamiliar territory.


Snakes


Snakes are common and a number of highly venomous species may be encountered. Do not attempt to capture
or handle snakes unless you have adequate training and experience. Wear stout boots and long pants. Take care
when traversing the work site, look over logs before stepping over. Check carefully before putting hands into
hollow logs, between rocks or into thick grass. If lifting logs, sheets of iron etc. do so in such a way that any
animal which may be underneath is directed away from, not towards you or other personnel. Use a torch when
moving around at night.


A summary of first aid for snake bite is provided in Appendix 7. All participants should be familiar with the first aid
procedure.


         FIRST AID FOR SNAKE BITE MUST BE RENDERED IMMEDIATELY.
         MEDICAL TREATMENT IS NEEDED URGENTLY.




Sea snakes


Sea snakes may be encountered in intertidal areas. Avoid any contact as most species are
dangerous, any bite should be considered life-threatening and treated in the same manner as
terrestial venomous snake bites.




Stone fish and Bullrouts


These fish are well camouflaged to blend in with rocks. They occur in saltwater habitats and fresh water streams.
They have sharp venomous spines which will easily penetrate soft footwear, resulting in intense pain which can
lead to shock. Stout footwear should be worn. If envenomated, medical treatment is needed urgently, CPR may
be required. First aid for stone fish sting is detailed in Appendix 7.




Cone shells
Cone shells lie buried in sand or amongst rocks and coral. They can envenomate through soft footwear, so stout
footwear should be worn. If envenomated, medical treatment is needed urgently, EAR may be required. First aid
for cone shellfish sting is detailed in Appendix 7.




Blue-ringed octopus


Blue-ringed octopus occur in all coastal areas. They are normally small and sandy brown in appearance, but
display iridescent blue rings and stripes when touched or disturbed. Avoid any contact as the bite, whilst not
usually initially painful can be life-threatening. If envenomated, medical treatment is needed urgently, EAR may
be required. First aid for blue ringed octopus bite is detailed in Appendix 7.




Jellyfish


All jellyfish have stinging capsules and in some species, the stings can be life-threatening. When working in
intertidal areas, all parts of the body which may enter the water should be covered. This is especially important
during the warmer months (October to May). Jellyfish, including the extremely dangerous box jellyfish can be
encountered even in ankle deep water and in the uppermost reaches of mangrove systems. Jellyfish stings
require urgent medical treatment, CPR may be required. First aid for jellyfish stings is detailed in Appendix 7.


            2 LITRES OF VINEGAR MUST ALWAYS BE AVAILABLE TO FIELD PARTIES WORKING IN MARINE,
            ESTURINE OR MANGROVE AREAS FOR IMMEDIATE TREATMENT OF JELLYFISH STINGS




Mammals


Many mammals are capable of inflicting painful bites. Participants must receive instruction in the handling of
animals and use protective gloves when appropriate. Disinfect the bite site thoroughly. Watch for signs of
infection. Medical advice should be sought as soon as possible regarding tetanus precautions and risk of zoonotic
diseases.
Bats


Bats (fruit bats and microbats) are carriers of lyssavirus, an organism which causes an untreatable terminal
disease in humans. Bats must only be handled by staff members, and then only if they have been vaccinated
against the disease.


Should a participant be scratched or bitten by a bat, no matter how minor the injury may seem, the victim will be
immediately conveyed to town for medical attention. The bat must be conveyed to DPI Oonoomba for testing.




Leeches


These are common in rainforest areas. To deter leeches, use insect repellant on exposed skin. To remove
leeches, touch with a hot match head or cigarette, or apply a little salt.




Insects


Ticks attach themselves and engorge blood, becoming partially buried in the skin. They secrete a toxin which can
produce a progressive, possibly fatal paralysis in humans. They can also inject infective material which may
cause diseases including Lyme disease and Q fever. Ticks are about the size of a pin head initially, but rapidly
increase in size. The first indication of a tick’s presence is usually itchiness. Investigate any itches, and when in
tick infested areas, a specific daily check should be made. To remove a tick, first kill it by applying kerosene,
turpentine, diesel, alcohol or tea tree oil. The victim should feel it releasing, it can then be carefully levered out.
Do not squeeze with tweezers as this may cause more poison to be injected. Make sure the head is intact. If the
head is left behind and cannot be removed, or any symptoms develop, seek medical advice as serious poisoning
may occur.


Scorpions, bees, wasps, bull ants and centipedes carry a sting which they inject when
disturbed. These can be extremely painful, but rarely serious for the victim. Some
indivuals are allergic to honey bee or wasp stings. If an allergy develops, medical treatment is
needed urgently, CPR may be required.


Spider bites inflicted by red-back, northern funnel-web and whistling spiders may be life
threatening. Always watch for spiders and avoid contact.


A summary of first aid treatment for bites and stings is provided in Appendix 7.


Mosquitoes and sandflies (midges) may carry diseases such as Dengue or Ross River fevers. It is advisable to
protect yourself from insect bites by using insect repellants and clothing which covers as much of your body as
possible.
Poisonous plants


Poisonous plants may be encountered in any habitats. Do not eat any plant material unless advised that it is safe
to do so by a “bush tucker” expert, and then only in small quantities in case of an adverse reaction.


Wait-a-while or Lawyer Vine is a climbing palm which gets its common name from the backward facing hooks
on the long leafless stems which emerge opposite each leaf. These catch unwary walkers, forcing them to “wait-
a-while”. If caught, the best way to release yourself is to stop and back up until the tension on the stem is
relieved. The main stem is covered with fine spines which break off in the skin in large numbers if brushed
against. If not removed, these can cause a great deal of irritation and may become infected. Watch for wait-a-
while at all times in rainforest areas, especially in disturbed areas and along margins. When walking in a group,
take care so as not to allow vines and other vegetation to swing back onto the person following you.


Stinging trees (“Gympie”) are common in and adjacent to rainforest areas, especially in disturbed areas, along
tracks and roadsides and at the edges of clearings. They range from low plants close to the ground, to trees
several metres high. The leaves are large, deep green, and heart-shaped. They are relatively few, are held
near-horizontally, have a distinctive serrated edge and are commonly eaten with holes. The surface looks soft,
but features fine visible hairs which contain poison. Participants need to be able to identify Gympie correctly and
take care to avoid any accidental skin contacts. The sting, even when lightly brushed, causes intense pain and
later glandular swelling; the fine siliceous spines are hollow and are embedded in the skin. The pain will last for
hours, even days. It recurs whenever the affected area is washed, or perspires, for up to a year afterwards.


Take extreme care at rainforest margins. Wear long pants, boots and preferably long sleeves. A classic sting
scenario is contact when pushing vegetation aside with the back of the hand to pass through understory shrubs
when entering or exiting rainforest. Treatment for Stinging Tree stings is detailed in Appendix 7.


        WAX STRIPS SHOULD BE CARRIED AT ALL TIMES WHEN WORKING IN AREAS WHERE STINGING
        TREES MAY BE ENCOUNTERED


Scrub itch (in forest areas) or black soil itch (in savannah areas) results from the bite of larvae of mites which
climb onto warm-blooded animals, including humans, and settle in skin folds or where clothing is tight e.g.
around the waist and ankles, and in the groin. The larvae remain attached for several days, resulting in itchy,
hard lumps. The mites are most common in grassy areas, and in leaf litter, and seem to be more prevalent when
conditions are drier. Avoid sitting on the ground or logs without a ground sheet, use insect repellant around the
ankles. Dabbing on Selsun shampoo as soon as symptoms are apparent helps get rid of the irritation sooner.
Watch for any sign of infection.




Zoonotic infections


Mammals or their parasites may transmit zoonoses including Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Melioidosis, Q Fever,
Scrub Typhus and Toxoplasmosis to handlers via bites or open wounds, eyes, hand to mouth, or from infected
soil and water through skin abrasions, inhalation and ingestion. Always use gloves when handling animals, wash
hands thoroughly and always wear footwear in the field.




                                      Camp Site And Camp Requisites

A campsite should be selected so as to be free from hazards such as falling branches, flash flooding, vehicular
traffic, dangerous wildlife, and stock. Particular attention must be paid to hygiene, especially with regard to food
storage and preparation, and sanitation. Personnel unfamiliar with camping should seek advice from an
experienced person or the Workplace Health and Safety Coordinator.


If there is no toilet facility, go 100 metres from camp and dig a hole at least 15 cm deep.


Activities which commonly lead to accidents are:
-   cutting up food; take care with sharp knives.
-   cutting fire wood; use a bow saw for cutting through logs, not an axe. Chain saws should be used only when
    absolutely necessary, and then only by an experienced operator.
-   pouring boiling water; use a ladle to decant water for hot drinks, use extreme care when pouring hot water
    for washing up.


Liquefied petroleum gas equipment requires special care:
-   always transport cylinders in an upright position, outside the passenger compartment and in a well ventilated
    area.
-   always immediately investigate any smell of gas in case of leaks.
-   never leave cylinders in direct sunlight.
-   never use LP gas equipment in a confined space e.g. a tent.
If using a 240 volt generator, remember that contact with a bare conductor will be just as fatal as with mains
power. Do not use generators in confined spaces, position so that exhaust fumes are carried away from the
camp.


A range of camping equipment is available from the Biological Sciences Equipment store.




                                           Swimming And Bathing

Take extreme care in water-holes, creeks and rivers. Most contain logs and rocks, these are often not visible
because of turbidity. Many streams are fast flowing. Cases of death or serious injury due to diving into shallow
water or onto obstacles are all too common. A lookout should be kept by a responsible person on the bank
whenever hazards such as crocodiles, sharks, fast-flowing, deep and/or cold water may exist.


        NEVER DIVE INTO STREAMS OR WATERHOLES


Do not use soaps, shampoos or toothpaste in waterways, do not go to the toilet within 30 metres (further if
possible) of a watercourse.




                                                     Health

Persons who participate in remote field work should be reasonably fit and have no existing uncontrolled medical
conditions which might give rise to a life threatening situation. Participants should make the Officer-in-charge
aware of any medical condition that may require special consideration in planning.




                                                   Transport

An appropriate type of vehicle, suitably equipped, should be used for field work. When working in remote
locations, extra tools, spare parts, water, fuel and recovery equipment may be needed.


   Utilities and station wagons
Passengers must not be carried in the cargo space or on the outside of any vehicle. The number of persons that
can be legally carried in a vehicle is the seating capacity as given on the vehicle compliance plate and
registration certificate. The carrying of passengers in the cargo space of utilities is extremely hazardous and even
a low speed incident can result in death or very serious injury. Unsecured passengers in the cargo space of
station wagons and “troop carriers” are also at unacceptable risk.


Unsecured cargo in such vehicles is a danger to passengers in the event of even a minor accident. Station
wagons and “troop carriers” should be used to transport soft baggage only. Heavy, solid equipment should be
carried in utilities and trailers.
It is an offence to carry baggage in buses, a trailer or separate vehicle must be used.


         PERSONNEL SHALL NOT BE CARRIED IN THE CARGO SPACE OF UTILITIES AND STATION
         WAGONS


    Private vehicles

The use of private vehicles on field trips by staff and postgraduate students must be approved in writing by the
Head-of-School before departure.


Private vehicles owned by undergraduate students are not permitted on a University field trip unless there are
extenuating circumstances. A final decision will rest with the Officer-in-charge.
For further information, see the JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety. Section 7.9.


    Driver’s responsibilities


          SMOKING IS NOT PERMITTED IN UNIVERSITY VEHICLES


Personnel driving vehicles must:

    hold a current, relevant licence for the type of vehicle being operated, and that licence must be registered
     with the JCU Transport Section.

    have completed the JCU 4 wheel drive instruction course and test before operating a 4 wheel drive vehicle
     (JCU owned or hired).

    comply with all government regulations.


After receiving the vehicle, the driver is responsible for all aspects of preparation and general maintenance of the
vehicle and equipment during the trip. When taking delivery of a JCU or hired vehicle, ensure that:
   you have the jack, jack handle and wheel spanner. Extra tools and spare parts will be required if travelling to
    remote areas.

   you are familiar with the vehicles controls, in particular the 4 wheel drive and high and low range controls,
    free wheeling hubs and winch on 4 wheel drive vehicles. Check that you are able to engage and disengage
    the front hubs, you may need a pair of pliers.

   you know which fuel the vehicle uses, how far it will travel on a full tank of fuel and that you have the fuel
    card.

   the fire extinguisher is in place, and its indicator is in the green area.


The following checks should be made before departure, and daily during the trip:

   Tyres: tread conditions, inflation. Correct inflation is especially important when carrying heavy loads, and in
    trailer tyres. Don’t forget the spares.

   Radiator: check coolant level when cold. Do not remove the cap when hot.

   Engine oil level.

   Brake and clutch master cylinders: check fluid level.

   Trailer coupling: check all is secure and safety chains connected.

   Lights: check correct operation including trailer lights.

   Battery condition: check electrolyte level, and that mounting and terminals are secure.

   Load: ensure that your load is secure.


Further information is available from the Officer-in-charge, Vehicle Maintenance and in the 4 wheel drive vehicle
training course booklet. A checklist of vehicle spare parts and equipment is provided in Appendix 9.


Prior to setting off, check local conditions, particularly in the wet season. If going to an area you are not familiar
with, obtain a map and plan your trip. If travelling through very remote areas, find out where fuel is available. Not
all towns will have fuel suppliers who accept University fuel cards. Extra fuel, if required, should only be carried
in metal jerry cans; make sure that you have a spout, funnel or other suitable means of transferring fuel to the
vehicle’s tank. Adequate water must be carried for the personnel and vehicle.


   Driving through long grass

Driving a vehicle through long grass presents the driver with a number of hazards:
-   the flow of air through the radiator may become blocked by grass, causing the motor to overheat. Check the
    radiator and grill regularly and remove any obstructions.
-   grass may become packed around the exhaust system, causing a very real risk of fire. Grass may also wrap
    around the driveshafts, and the axles of vehicles with independent suspensions. This can cause fire due to
    friction, or may cause mechanical damage to the vehicle. Check under the vehicle regularly and remove any
    buildup. Immediately investigate unusual noises or smells.


        KNOW WHERE TO FIND THE FIRE EXTINGUISHER AND HOW TO USE IT




   Vehicle recovery

This handbook is not concerned with techniques in recovery or repairs. It should be remembered that in
attempting any recovery or repair, new possibly severe risks exist. Proceed with care and attention. Take time to
study all aspects of your predicament and plan your tactics.


   Changing drivers

When changing drivers, extra care must be taken as it takes time for a new driver to adjust to the vehicle
handling and characteristics, and to road conditions. This is recognized as a classic time for accidents to happen.


        CHANGING DRIVERS? – TAKE EXTRA CARE WHILST BECOMING FAMILIAR WITH THE VEHICLE
        AND ROAD CONDITIONS


   Field work on roadsides

When working on roadsides, it is important not to hinder or distract passing traffic. This becomes a much greater
problem when there is a large group with a number of vehicles. When in this situation:

   try to avoid curves where visibility is restricted.

   park all the vehicles on the same side of the road.

   park as far from the road as possible, at least 5 metres from the centre line.

   make sure your passengers stay on the side of the vehicles away from the road.

   discourage participants from distracting drivers by standing close to or crossing the roadway when vehicles
    are approaching.


         ROADSIDE PARKING - THINK SAFETY, ACT SAFELY AT ALL TIMES
                                      Limits On Driving And Work Time

Drivers travelling alone should not drive more than 2 hours without a break of 20 minutes away from the vehicle.
Where driving is shared, it is recommended that drivers change every 2 hours. You should not drive more than 8
hours in 24, or work (including) driving more than 12 hours in 24.


Alcohol shall not be consumed nor any non-prescribed or drowsiness inducing drugs taken within 8 hours of or
during the period of the journey by any officer undertaking driving duties.
For further information, see the JCU Policy for Fieldwork Health and Safety, Section 7.11.


         YOU MUST NOT DRIVE WITHIN 8 HOURS AFTER CONSUMING ALCOHOL OR DRUGS


                                                  Bush Etiquette

When working on private property, it is very important to have permission. It is proper to contact the land owner
in advance of the planned visit and explain its purpose. Seek advice on access, and ask if there is any special
care you should take or areas which should be avoided (they might be mustering, or have sensitive stock in a
particular paddock). Ask about fire risks and preferred camp sites. Pay particular attention to the following:-

   leave all gates as you find them. Don’t leave a gate open for a following vehicle unless you have a definite
    arrangement with the driver. Don’t close a gate which is open when you come to it, you
    could prevent stock from accessing their water supply.

   don’t drive on property roads when they are affected by rain, the wheel ruts you leave
    will haunt the landholders until they can afford the time and/or money to
    repair them.

   be scrupulous about putting your camp fire out.

   properly dispose of, or preferably remove ALL rubbish.




                                             Climate And Weather

Field personnel should make themselves aware of the climatic conditions and weather events that may be
encountered, and obtain current weather forecasts on a regular basis. For much of the year, coastal and near
coastal tropical regions experience hot and humid conditions whilst inland regions have hot to very hot days with
low humidity. Night temperatures in inland areas can fall to zero during winter. Personnel must be aware of the
risk of heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
   How to avoid heat exhaustion and heat stroke:

       keep fully covered (i.e. keep your clothes on), this allows perspiration to evaporate more slowly, giving the
       maximum cooling effect.

       wear light coloured clothes as these reflect the sun. Wool and flannelette enhance the body’s cooling by
       controlling the rate of evaporation of perspiration.

       ensure you have a high intake of water (more than 1 litre a day in ideal conditions, you may require 4 to
       6 litres). Remember to drink before you become thirsty. It is best to drink a little often.

       avoid activities when unwell, e.g. vomiting or diarrhoea, as these greatly increase your water loss.
If you are feeling unwell or suspect you may be becoming dehydrated, tell your first aider or Officer-in-charge.
First aid for heat-related conditions is provided in Appendix 6.


          YOU MUST MAINTAIN ADEQUATE FLUID INTAKE DURING HOT WEATHER




Sunburn


Sunburn occurs more quickly in the tropics and can occur even on dull, overcast days. The most dangerous time
is between 10 am and 4 pm. During this time, wear protective clothing (no bare shoulders, wear a hat) and apply
SPF 15+ sunscreen. If burnt, make sure that you are not exposed to further sun, keep the affected area as cool
as possible and maintain fluid intake. If extensive blistering occurs, seek medical attention. Do not break blisters.




Cyclones


Tropical cyclones are extremely dangerous storms, known elsewhere as hurricanes or typhoons. Wind gusts may
reach 240 km/h. They are usually accompanied by very heavy rainfall leading to flooding, and may cause higher
than normal tides and tidal surges. The main areas affected are tropical coastal areas, between November and
April, but cyclones can strike at any time and in other areas. Tropical cyclone advice
bulletins are broadcast by radio and television stations in the cyclone belt:


   Cyclone Watch

A cyclone watch is issued if a cyclone or potential cyclone exists and
there are strong indications that winds above gale force will affect
coastal or island communities within 24 to 48 hours of issue. Cyclone
watch messages are renewed every 6 hours.
             In the event of a cyclone watch, field parties should consider whether to move to a
             secure location. No field trips are to begin, nor camping equipment to be taken from
             the equipment store during this period. All equipment from returning field trips must
             be secured in the appropriate stores or buildings.



   Cyclone Warning

A cyclone warning is issued as soon as gale or stronger winds are expected to affect coastal or islander
communities within 24 hours. A warning will identify the communities being threatened and contains the cyclone’s
name, its location, intensity, its movements and travelling speed. Communities under threat should take
precautions necessary to safeguard their lives and property. Cyclone warning messages are renewed every 3
hours, or more often if under radar surveillance.


        ALL FIELD ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE TERMINATED IMMEDIATELY AND FIELD PARTIES MOVED TO A
        SECURE LOCATION. All equipment from returning field trips must be secured in the appropriate stores
or buildings.


Tropical cyclone advice bulletins indicate the expected severity of the cyclone as a category number. These range
from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe).


Things to remember:

   always check the official weather report prior to any field activity.

   always follow weather bureau warnings; cyclones don’t always give hours of warning.

   the area affected by the destructive winds may extend well out from the center.

   never assume that just because you are experiencing calm weather, a cyclone isn’t heading towards you – it
    is very common to have a period of complete calm before a cyclone.

   coastal areas may be affected by abnormal high tidal levels, or even a destructive tidal surge.

   extremely heavy rainfall, usually mainly south of the center, will cause flooding, which may isolate you in the
    field.

   if the center passes close to or over you, you may experience a calm “eye”, do not leave your place of
    shelter as the full force of the winds will very soon return, but from the opposite direction.


   Cyclone procedures
    Immediately prior to / during a cyclone:
    -    listen to the radio.
    -    keep calm.
    -    seek shelter in the strongest part of the building.
    -    if no building available, seek secure shelter in a depression, but remember that low lying areas may
         suddenly flood with heavy rain.


    After a cyclone:
    -    continue to listen to your radio.
    -    do not go outside until advised officially.
    -    do not remain in the open unnecessarily.
    -    watch for fallen power lines and other dangerous situations.
    -    if your communications equipment is functioning, attempt to contact your authorised officer and advise of
         your situation.
    -    do not attempt to travel home until officially advised to do so.




        NEVER DISREGARD A CYCLONE WARNING, OR ANY OTHER WEATHER BUREAU ADVICE




                                                       Navigation

All field parties should be equipped with appropriate large scale maps, an accurate compass, and if possible, a
GPS (global positioning system).


Field workers who intend or even possibly may be required to leave established tracks, either in vehicles or on
foot should undertake a course in basic navigation. Information is also available in survival guides including “Aids
to Survival” and “Stay Alive” (see Appendix 11).




                                                Traverses On Foot

When field workers leave their vehicle or camp to traverse some distance across country, their circumstances
change considerably and different safety routines must be respected. A variety of potentially severe risks exist.
These include the risk of becoming lost, suffering heat or physical exhaustion, and a range of accidental objective
dangers, such as snake bite, falling trees, loose stones on steep ground, severe stinging tree contact etc.


There are three basic rules cross-country field workers must observe:
1.   never work alone.
2. be scrupulous in leaving details of the planned traverse. Leave a note if the vehicle or camp is being left
     unattended. Park the vehicle in a conspicuous place.
3. continuously review progress to keep control of the parties known location, judge carefully the time and
     effort required for the return journey, monitor water and food, and try to perceive new objective risks ahead.


    Preparation for a field traverse

The following details should be checked before starting any traverse:
    minimum equipment to be carried should include a compass, a map or aerial photographs, a watch, and, if
     possible, a GPS and spare batteries. A compass should be carried even if a GPS is being used as batteries
     can fail, satellite contact is sometimes restricted by forest canopy, or the unit itself may be damaged in a fall.
    correct starting point on the map.
    appropriate clothing for the anticipated terrain and vegetation, including hat and strong, comfortable footwear.
     Long pants and long sleeved shirts are recommended. Bright colours will be easier to spot should any
     participant become separated or the party become lost.
    careful estimation of the time anticipated for the traverse.
    well judged quantities of food and water, sunscreen and repellant.
    emergency gear including matches, a knife, and a “bum bag” first aid kit.
    shelter and cooking equipment if an overnight traverse.
    leaving of notes of intended route and time of return.


        NEVER ATTEMPT TO TRAVEL CROSS-COUNTRY WITHOUT A COMPASS
        AND A WATCH


For “Procedures When Lost”, see Appendix 8.




                                                      Firearms

The use of firearms on field trips is subject to the JCU Policy on Firearms – purchase, storage and use (E.3.4,
Policy and Procedures manual). See JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety, section 7.13.
                                                 Other Hazards

Field work may entail the carriage of equipment and substances which may present a variety of hazards. These
should be identified and appropriate controls and safe work practices implemented. Mandatory packaging and
labeling requirements must be met and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) must be available for all hazardous
substances taken into the field e.g. preserving alcohol and fixatives.


   Smoking and Alcohol

It is University policy to provide a smoke-free workplace. Accordingly smoking is prohibited in JCU vehicles and
hired vehicles used on field trips and smoking is prohibited in shared places in the field (whether indoors or not).


Smokers should take all due care with respect to LP gas, and to any other fire hazards. These may be extreme
during the dry season.


        NO SMOKING IN SHARED OR GROUP ACTIVITY AREAS


The field is a workplace, and appropriate standards of workplace behaviour should be maintained. Accordingly
alcohol should not be consumed while undertaking field work. Should participants choose to consume alcohol
after work, it is the individuals responsibility to ensure that they are not affected by alcohol when next they
undertake work.


        NO PERSON SHALL BE IN CHARGE OF A MOTOR VEHICLE LESS THAN 8 HOURS AFTER
        CONSUMING ALCOHOL.




   Sexual Harassment

The field is a workplace and the same standards of workplace behaviour including the right to work and study in
an environment free from personal intimidation and harassment apply as on campus. If a person considers that
they are being sexually harassed during a field trip, he or she should bring this to the attention of the Officer-in-
charge or another staff member.
Appendix 1
                                                     BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES GROUP


                                    FIELD TRIP OPERATION DETAILS
                                                            (NON-BOATING)
    Form must be submitted to your School Safety Officer one week prior to departure on terrestrial or marine field trips.

         School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture

         School of Tropical Biology

Project Title:


Officer in Charge:

Position: Staff     UG Student                  PG Student     
Proposed Dates of Trip: From / /                To     / /


Location of proposed field work (attached photocopy of map of work areas if available and indicate most likely works
areas and camp sites):




Describe purpose of trip and principal work methods to be used:




Have the Hazard Identification and Control form (attached) been completed by the OIC? Yes         No   

PERSONNEL (include every person on the trip. Attach additional sheet if necessary)
Status           Name                                     Next of Kin                                          Phone

OIC
Status:
L = Leader; B= Bus Driver; D = Driver; D4 = Four-wheel drive driver; S = University Staff; UG = Undergraduate; PG = Postgraduate; V =
volunteer; O = other; C = Communications operator; F = First Aider – First Aider is mandatory for remote area field trips that are in areas where it
takes more than a half hour to get medical aid to an ill or injured person.



                                    DEPARTMENTAL SAFETY OFFICER’S FIELD TRIP ASSESMENT

Is field trip documentation complete? Yes                No   
Are proposed control measures appropriate for the hazards identified?                          Yes       No   
If No, then what additional control measures are required?


Assessed: ……………………..on ……../……/….. Approved: …………………….……..on ……../……/…..
School Safety Officer                                                         Head of School

As OIC I understand my responsibilities as outlined in the JCU Policy on Field Work. I have undertaken to
personally check the safety equipment and safety procedures required for this field trip.


OIC Name ………………………………………….. Signature……………………………..Date …../……/…..
                                                BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES GROUP


                                                COMMUNICATION DETAILS

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS TO BE USED: (tick)


       Mobile telephone: Phone Number (…….)…………………………………………………………………….


       Satellite telephone: Phone Number (…….)…………………………………………………………………..


       Radio Communication


If radio: Radio type:         UHF              VHF      HF          27 MHz   

Call Sign: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………



Frequency or channel number:………………………………………………………………………………………..

Radio Schedules (times):……………………………………………………………………………………………….

With whom (including address and phone number): ……………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..


       Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) No.:……………………………………………...


       Other (Describe)………………………………………………………………………………………………..


Pre-trip training/instruction in communication procedures for personnel completed Yes      No   
How can the field party be contacted in an emergency? …………………………………………..

How often::………………………………………Times:………………………….………………………

JCU Contact After Hours:…………………….Phone:………………………………………………….

Authorised Officer:…………………………… Phone:………………………………………………….

Address: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Action    to    be       taken   if   a     scheduled   contact     is    not       received         by   the   Authorised

Officer:…………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Search and rescue shall be initiated if the field party fails to return by ……………….(time) on

…………..………………………………….(day and date )




SAFETY EQUIPMENT: Tick safety equipment carried and indicate number where applicable:

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUPMENT

 Hat  Clothing  Footwear  Sunscreen  Other ……………………………………….…….




CAMPING

 Tents (no. and size) ………………………………………….  Water drums (                        x              lt)

 Food (for how long) …………………………..……..  First aid kit                     Portable generator

 Compass             GPS  Torch  Cooking Equipment             Lighting Equipment

VEHICLE

 Spare tyres         Water (……….lt)  Tools (vehicles, other)  Spare fuel (………lt)

 Winch  First aid kit                Radio  GPS                Spare battery

 Spare parts (details)……………………………………………………………………………………….
                                                    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES GROUP


                                                   TRANSPORTATION DETAILS


   School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture

   School of Tropical Biology


JCU vehicle details:

Registration Number :___________________________________________


Vehicle (make, model, type):__________________________________________________________________



If vehicle is a four-wheel drive, has the driver completed JCU 4WD training course?         

Hired vehicle details:

Company Name:_______________________________________________



Vehicle (make, model, type):___________________________________________________________________


Company Phone Number:______________________________________________________________________



Private vehicle details:           This must be approved by your Head of School :

Why is it necessary to use a private vehicle:_____________________________________________________




Vehicle Registration Number:___________________________________________________________________



Current comprehensive insurance policy:   

Attached complete proof of payment of your insurance policy:   

Name of all passengers accompanying you: ________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
TRAVEL REQUISITION NO (If applicable): JCU ________________________________________________




Approval of HOD--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------


DISCLAIMER:
In the event of an accident in your own vehicle whilst on University business, any insurance claim which may
arise should be made through your own insurers. This will NOT be a claim against the University insurers.
(Mileage allowance covers the cost of maintenance, wear and tear, fuel and insurance costs).


Signature:………………………………………………………… Date:……………………………
Appendix 2                                                                HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND
                                                                                          RISK CONTROL FORM

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION                     handling of large animals                  secure from theft, harassment,
                                          harmful plant contacts (sap,                hostile persons
The following checklist of hazards         stinging hairs)
and other items to be considered                                                   Camp requisites
when planning field work.              First Aid requirements                         potable water and food
                                          first aider                                cooking facilities
Fieldwork party                           kit in transport                           LP gas arrangements
   size                                  portable kit                               electrical power facilities
   composition                           additional items required?                 lighting
   novice/experienced                                                                noise
   fitness                            Clothing                                       privacy
   medical conditions                    hat                                        accommodation facilities
                                          shirt,                                     hygiene and ablution
Fieldwork activities at the site          trousers/overalls                           arrangements
   urban survey                          footwear                                   smoking and alcohol consumption
   bushwalking, traverse on foot
   abseiling                          Personal protective equipment
   rock / tree climbing                  gloves                                  Transport
   working at height                     goggles                                    vehicles
   sample collecting                     face masks                                 motor bikes
   underground work, caving              respirator                                 boats
   diving (refer to Diving SO)           harness                                    aircraft
   boating                               helmet                                     driver licensing
                                                                                      driver training
Etiquette requirements                 Personal
   bush etiquette                        sunburn                                 Navigation
   native etiquette                      heat stress                                route selection
   collecting permits                    cold stress                                location determination
   permission to enter private land      manual handling, lifting                   direction determination
                                          striking and grasping
Fauna & Flora                             slips and trips                         Communication
   box jellyfish, etc.                   mental stress                              between participants
   stonefish, etc.                       personal security & safety                 with locals
   crocodiles, sharks, etc.              medical conditions?                        with authorised officer
   wild pigs, cattle etc.
   snakes                             Camp site                                   Tides and Weather
   bats (vaccinations?)                  terrain                                    tide data
   spiders, ticks, leeches etc.          falling tree branches                      Met Bureau forecasts
   allergens                             flash flooding                             radio broadcasts
   zoonoses                              safe from wildlife                         cyclone warnings
   handling of small animals             safe from vehicles
Fire Risks                               Overseas fieldwork
   extinguisher                            disease
Firearms                                    vaccinations
   safe storage                            political climate
   ammunition
                                         Other
Mechanical hazards                       Specify
   vehicles
   machinery, equipment in motion
   vibration
   pressure equipment                   Complete the Risk Control
   generation of dust                   section of this form overleaf.


Radiation hazards
                                         
   ionizing - sealed / unsealed
    source
   laser
   radiofrequency


Fire and Explosion
   flammable substances
   explosives


Thermal hazards
   cryogenic fluids
Electrical
   high voltage equipment
     e.g. electrofisher
   240v electrical equipment


Chemicals/Hazardous Substances
   carcinogens, genotoxins
    (mutagens, teratogens)
   sensitizing agents
   corrosive agents
   irritants
   toxic/harmful substances (poisons)


   solvents
   MSDS available
   dangerous goods transport
Urban
   urban dogs
   hostile, or violent persons
                                                          RISK CONTROL*


        One method of evaluating risks is to use a risk assessment chart:
                                                                                             LIKELIHOOD
                                                               Very             Likely         Unlikely          Highly
                                                              likely                                            unlikely
                                          Fatality             High              High           High            Medium


                                      Major injuries           High              High          Medium           Medium


                                       Minor injuries          High            Medium          Medium                Low



                                        Negligible           Medium            Medium            Low              Low
                                          injuries
        CONSEQUENCE


      What you should do:
    1. List in the following table** the HAZARDS you have identified that are associated with the field activities.
    2. Briefly describe in the table the risks associated with each hazard.
    3. Using the risk assessment chart assess, and record in the table the risk presented by that hazard (HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW).
    4. Address risks with a HIGH rating first.
    5. In the table indicate what control measures are being taken to minimize the the risk.


    Control Measures
         ELIMINATE the hazard
         SUBSTITUTE something with a lesser risk eg. manual handling - substitute a smaller container
         ISOLATE the hazard eg. proper storage of chemicals or firearm.
         Use ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS - provide training, adequate supervision.
         Provide PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT eg. gloves, safety boots, sunhat, sunscreen


        Controls should be selected from as high up on this list as is reasonably practical to maximise effectiveness.
        In many cases a combination of controls may be necessary to reduce the hazard.


* Safetywise: Self assessing OH&S in the workplace. COMCARE 1997** Guide for Workplace Health and Safety Plans. DTIR WorkplaceHealth & Safety

               Description of hazard                                   Description of risk                Assessed             Risk Control measures

                                                                                                              Risk
      box jellyfish sting                               wading waist deep in sea whilst dragging net          high         wear stinger suit; have 2 litres
                                                        (during February)                                                  vinegar with first aid kit; first
                                                                                                    aider present; assistant briefed
                                                                                                    on hazard.
manual handling - back strain / sprain    lifting field gear in and out from the back of   medium   pack gear into easily lifted
                                          vehicle                                                   containers; team lift heavy items;
                                                                                                    revise correct lifting technique




    APPENDIX 3


    Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction


    School of ……………………………………………………………………………………..


    Subject /Project ………………………………………………………………………………


    Field Trip dates ………………………………………………………………………………


    Destinations ………………………………………………………………………………….


    I hereby acknowledge that I have been informed of the nature of the field trip specified above and I am aware
    that participation in field work may require extensive work in remote areas, long, strenuous hikes and/or long
    periods of time outdoors in tropical conditions recording field data.


    I accept full responsibility for my own behaviour and actions while on the field trip.


    I agree to take all reasonable precautions to avoid hazards and I also agree to conform to all reasonable requests
    by the staff member in charge of the field trip. I understand my obligations to follow safety directives.


    I am aware that it may be essential for people other than myself to know about conditions which pertain to me,
    and that any information I provide to the staff member-in-charge of the field trip will be treated with the strictest
    confidence and not disclosed to anyone without my consent, except in the case of a medical emergency.
I am aware that the field trip first aid facilities do not include provision of medications such as analgesics,
antihistamines, Ventolin, insulin etc..




………………………………………………………………….                                      ……………………………
  Name (and student number if applicable) please print                                       Signed




Please specify the following:


Name, address and phone number of person to be contacted in the event of an accident:




                                                                      Phone:(            )


The JCU Student Union Student Accident Insurance Scheme covers students for University-related accidents only, not
sickness. It includes ambulance transfer, and insurance cover for students on field trips. For further information contact the
Union Welfare Office Administration Assistant.
Appendix 4

                SUGGESTED CONTENTS OF A FIRST AID KIT FOR A SMALL
                                                      SIZED WORKPLACE


Preference is for all items to be disposable where possible.


CONTENTS                                                                                       USE/FUNCTION/COMMENTS

adhesive strips (assorted sizes) ............................................................... minor wound dressing

non-allergenic adhesive tape (e.g. 5m x 2.5cm) ......................................... secure dressings, strapping

eye pads (e.g. 5 single packs) ................................................................ emergency eye cover

triangular bandage (e.g. 2) ..................................................................... slings, support. Padding

hospital crepe or conforming bandage ........................................................ retain dressings (heavier crepe
(various sizes e.g. 2.5cm - 10cm)                                                              bandages for sprains may also be
                                                                                               required)

wound/combine dressings (assorted sizes) ................................................ bleeding control, cover wound

non-adhesive dressings (assorted sizes) ................................................... wound dressing

safety pins (e.g. packet of 10) ................................................................. secure bandage, slings

scissors (e.g. stainless steel sharp/blunt type-12.5cm) ................................ cutting dressings, clothing

kidney dish .......................................................................................... holds dressings, instruments (where
                                                                                               reusable, clean and disinfect after use)

small dressings bowl .............................................................................. holds liquids e.g., antiseptic solutions
                                                                                               (where reusable, clean and disinfect
                                                                                               after use)

gauze squares (e.g. 2 packets) ............................................................... wound cleaning

forceps/tweezers or needle...................................................................... remove foreign bodies e.g., splinters
(preferably disposable splinter type - 12.5cm)                                                 (where reusable, clean and sterilise
                                                                                                after use)

disposable latex or vinyl gloves (e.g. box of 10                                               infection control

sharps disposal container. ...................................................................... infection control - disposal purposes

sterile saline/wafer ................................................................................ emergency eye wash - irrigating eye
(e.g. 1 bottle - 250ml,                                                                        wounds (once opened contents MUST
or single use ampoules - 3Oml)                                                                 be discarded)

resuscitation mask ................................................................................. to be used by qualified personnel for
                                                                                               resuscitation purposes

antiseptic solution (e.g. 30 ml) ................................................................ pre-measured containers with expiry
                                                                                               dates, low use - single packs

plastic bags (e.g. 12 medium size) ........................................................... waste disposal

note pad and pencil ............................................................................... recording the injured or ill person's
(and accident report forms)                                                                    condition and treatment given

re-usable ice-pack ................................................................................ for treatment of strains, sprains and
                                                                                               bruises




Other items suggested for inclusion in a field first aid kit are:


             Hydrocolloid wound dressings which are waterproof and can be left on for some days.
             Pre-packed sterile dressings for minor cuts, grazes and burns e.g. Cutifilm, Cutiplast, Cutinova, available from
                chemists shops.


Vinegar (2 litres) must be taken on all marine field activities. This includes field work in mangroves and estuar ies. All
vessels must carry a first aid kit, and in addition 2 litres of vinegar if used for marine operations.




The above contents are suggested for a small workplace (less than 30 workers), where the risk of injury or illness is low. The
bracketed numbers are for guidance only and do NOT represent minimum requirements. The actual quantity of particular items
and contents of the kit SHOULD be determined by the Risk Assessment for First Aid requirements undertaken for particular
field work.
Appendix 5

                SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF A FIRST AID KIT
                   AND A MAJOR TRAUMA KIT FOR REMOTE LOCATIONS


Type of hazards                    Additional contents                     Comments


distance from medical                   heavy smooth crepe                                for snakebites (sufficient number
assistance                              roller bandages, 10 cm                            for bandaging lower limbs)


                                        splint                                            for snakebites and fractures
                                                                                          (to immobilise limit)


                                        vinegar (2 litres)                                for box jellyfish stings


                                        large burns sheet                                 for covering burn areas


                                        thermal/emergency blanket                         for treatment of shock
                                        (also for assisting portability)


                                        cold water supply and                             for cooling and dressing of burns
                                        clean sheeting

                                        first aid text                                    emergency reference manual

                                        torch/flashlight                                  for use at night, attracting attention
                                        note pad and pencil                               for recording the injured or ill
                                                                                          person's condition,
                                                                                          and treatment given


rainforest field work                   Hair remover wax strips                           treat stinging tree contact


                                        vinegar                                           treat stinging tree contact


                                        EURAX ointment(S2)                                treat stinging tree contact


                                        Teatree oil                                       removing ticks


In addition, it may be worthwhile considering a major trauma kit for a remote location:
Universal Dressing large (2)
Conforming Bandage 15cm (2)                                             Foil Dressing for Sucking Chest Wounds 10cm x 10cm (1)
Conforming Bandage 10cm (2)                                             Combine Pads 9cm x I 0cm (2)
Scissors (1)                                                            Adhesive Plaster Strips (6)
Adhesive Tape 2,5cm (1)                                                 Triangular Bandage (1)
Safety Pins (pkt of 6)                                                  Eye Pads Sterile (2)
Non-adherent Burn Dressing Small (1)                                    disposable Gloves (1 pair)
Thermal Accident Blanket (1)


A Major Trauma Kit is available from St. John Ambulance. Code 6011)
The above additional items for including in a first aid kit are guidelines only.
Appendix 6

                        FIRST AID TREATMENT FOR HEAT EXHAUSTION
                                              AND HEAT STROKE*


HEAT EXHAUSTION


Heat exhaustion is the common form of heat-related illness. It typically occurs after long periods of strenuous exercise or work
in a hot environment. Although heat exhaustion is commonly associated with athletes, it also affects field workers, and those
who wear heavy clothing in a hot, humid environment.


Heat exhaustion is an early indication that the body's temperature-regulating mechanism is becoming overwhelmed. The victim
loses fluid through sweating, which decreases the blood volume. Blood flow to the skin increases, reducing blood flow to the
vital organs. Because the circulatory system is affected, the person develops mild shock.


The symptoms and signs of heat exhaustion include:
              normal or below normal skin temperature;
              cool, moist, pale skin progressing to red skin;
              headache;
              nausea;
              dizziness and weakness;
              exhaustion;
              sweating;
              rapid,
              weak pulse


Heat exhaustion in its early stage can usually be reversed with prompt care. Often the victim feels better after resting in a
cool place and drinking cool water. If heat exhaustion progresses, however, the victim's condition worsens. The body
temperature continues to climb and the victim may vomit and begin to show changes in the level of consciousness.

    Care for Heat Exhaustion

    1. Encourage the victim to rest lying down with the legs slightly raised. Loosen any tight clothing.
    2. If fully conscious, give small drinks of cold water to drink. If the victim is vomiting and unable to take any fluids,
            arrange for urgent medical treatment.


If unconscious, position the victim on the side and care for the airway, breathing and circulation.
HEAT STROKE
Heat stroke is the least common and most severe heat emergency. Heat stroke develops when the body systems are
overwhelmed by heat and begin to stop functioning. Sweating stops because body fluid levels are low. When sweating stops,
the body cannot cool itself effectively, and body temperature rapidly rises. It soon reaches a level at which the brain and other
vital organs, such as the heart and kidneys, begin to fail. If the body is not cooled, convulsions, unconsciousness and death
will result.
Heat stroke is a serious medical emergency. You must recognise the signs of this heat-related illness and provide care
immediately. The signs of heat stroke include:
                  high body temperature (often as high as 40°C);
                  red, hot, dry skin;
                  progressive deterioration in the conscious state;
                  full, bounding pulse;
                  rapid, shallow, noisy breathing.
Someone with heat stroke may at first have a strong, rapid pulse, as the heart works hard to rid the body of heat by dilating
blood vessels and sending more blood to the skin. As consciousness deteriorates, the circulatory system begins to fail and the
pulse becomes weak and irregular. Without prompt care, the heat stroke victim will die.


     Caring for Heat-Stroke

When any symptoms and signs of sudden illness develop and you suspect the illness is caused by overexposure
to heat, follow these general care steps immediately:
         1. Stop the person from continuing any activity.
         2. Cool the body.
         3. Give cool, clear fluids if the victim is fully conscious.
         4.        Minimise shock.
         5. Seek urgent medical care.


When you recognise heat-related illness in its early stages, you can usually reverse it. Remove the victim from the hot
environment and give the victim frequent drinks of cool water. Moving the victim out of the sun or away from the heat allows
the body's own temperature-regulating mechanism to recover, cooling the body more quickly. Remember, it is important that
the victim be persuaded to stop all activity as the person may be beyond the point of making a rational decision.


Loosen any tight clothing and remove clothing soaked with perspiration. Apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets, to
the skin and fan the victim to increase evaporation. Continue cooling the victim until the body temperature fails to 38°C.


If the victim is conscious, drinking cool water slowly will help replenish the vital fluids lost through sweating. The victim is
likely to be nauseated, and water is less likely than other fluids to cause vomiting and is more quickly absorbed into the body
from the stomach. Do not let the victim drink too quickly. Give half a glass (100ml) about every 15 minutes. Let the victim rest
in a comfortable position, and watch carefully for changes in the victim's condition. A victim of heat-related illness should not
resume normal activities the same day.
    When to seek medical attention.

Refusing water, vomiting and changes in the victim's conscious state are signs that the victim's condition is worsening. Call an
ambulance immediately or in an isolated area transport the victim to a medical facility immediately. If the person vomits, stop
giving fluids and position the victim on the side. Make sure the airway is clear. Monitor the airway, breathing and circulation
and check vital signs. Keep the victim lying down and continue to cool the body.


A change in the conscious state is the first reliable sign that a victim's condition is deteriorating. If you observe changes in the
conscious state, cool the body by any means available. Soak towels or sheets and apply them to the victim's body. If you
have ice packs or cold packs, place them on each of the victim's wrists and ankles, on the groin, in each armpit and on the
neck to cool the large blood vessels. Do not apply rubbing alcohol, which closes the skin's pores and prevents heat loss.
Maintain an open airway and monitor the airway, breathing and circulation. Immersing the victim in cool water is not a good
idea because doing so may cause additional problems, including abnormal heart rhythms. A person with heat stroke may
experience respiratory or cardiac arrest. Be prepared to give EAR or CPR.


Summary of first aid treatment for heat-related illness

         Monitor the victim's condition for signs of deterioration.

         Loosen tight clothing.

         Remove perspiration-soaked clothing.

         Apply cool, wet cloths to skin, and fan the victim.

         Monitor the condition carefully.

         Call an ambulance, or in an isolated area transport the victim to a medical facility immediately.

         Cool the body by any means available: wet towels or sheets or ice packs to armpits and/or groins.

         Monitor the Airway, Breathing, Circulation

         Be prepared to perform EAR or CPR.


* Australian Red Cross. First Aid. Responding to Emergencies. (Queensland Ambulance Service) 1995.




Appendix 7




                   BASIC FIRST AID FOR BITES AND STINGS
Field workers should familarise themselves with the full account of first aid for these injuries as provided in the publication
Australian Red Cross, First Aid, Responding to Emergencies (Queensland Ambulance Service) 1995.



PRESSURE IMMOBILISATION TECHNIQUE

This is the most common method of treating many bites and stings. It is effective because the pressure over the bite area
slows the rate at which venom enters the circulation, thus reducing the toxic effects of the poison. This method should not be
used for bites and stings of red-backed spiders, bees, wasps, ants, ticks and venomous fish spines unless the victim has
a known allergy to the venom.


         Apply firm pressure over the bite site, using your hand if necessary.

         Apply a crepe roller bandage to maintain pressure over the area of the bite.

         For a bite on the leg or arm, use a second crepe bandage starting at the fingertips or toes and working upwards to
          cover as much of the limb as possible. The bandages should not be so tight as to cut of circulation below them.

         Immobilise the limb with splint. Do not allow the victim to stand or walk.

         Check for signs of impaired circulation below the bandaging (discolouration, coldness, numbness). If necessary,
          loosen the bandage to allow blood flow.

         Do not remove the compression bandage. The patient should be handed over to skilled medical personnel with
          bandages and splints in place.




               Name                                   Signs/symptoms                                  Recommended First Aid

SCORPIONS, CENTIPEDES,                       pain at the bite site                         1.   For a bee sting, remove the barb quickly
BULLANTS,BEES, WASPS                         swelling and redness around the site               by scraping sideways with a fingernail.
                                             in the case of honey bees, a barb             2.   Apply a cold compress or ice pack for pain
                                              lodged in the skin                                 relief.
                                             allergic reactions including itching, rash,   3.   Keep the injured part elevated and
                                              swollen eyelids, respiratory distress,             supported to reduce swelling.
                                              altered conscious state                       4.   Monitor breathing and circulation in case of
                                                                                                 an allergic reaction.

                                             pain at the site that spreads to a red,
RED-BACK SPIDERS                                                                            1.   Use an ice pack to lessen the pain.
                                              swollen, sweating, hot area
                                                                                            2.   Continually monitor the victim’s breathing
                                             nausea, vomiting and stomach pain
                                                                                                 and circulation.
                                   heavy sweating                                3.   Call an ambulance immediately or in a
                                   swollen glands in the groin or armpits             remote area transport the victim to a
                                   pain away from the bite site                       medical facility immediately.

            Name                            Signs/symptoms                                     Recommended First Aid

SNAKES (including sea snakes)      single or paired puncture marks               1.   Use the pressure immobilisation technique
                                   nausea, vomiting                                   for a bite on a limb. If no compression
                                   headache                                           bandage is available, or the bite is not on
                                   altered conscious state                            a limb, direct compression over the bite
                                   double vision or blurred vision                    site with the hand should be used.
                                   problems with speaking and/or                 2.   Continually monitor the airway, breathing
                                    swallowing                                         and circulation and be prepared to give
                                   respiratory distress or cardiac arrest             EAR or CPR if needed.
                                   clotting defects                              3.   Keep the victim calm, reassured and at
                                                                                       total rest.
                                                                                  4.   Call an ambulance, or in an isolated area
                                                                                       transport the victim to a medical facility
                                                                                       immediately. If possible, advise the facility
                                                                                       that you are coming. Antivenom is
                                                                                       available for most poisonous snake bites.
                                                                                  5.   DO NOT wash the bite. DO NOT cut the
                                                                                       bite or try to drain or suck out the venom.
                                                                                       DO NOT apply a tourniquet.
                                   pain, but little other reaction in the bite   1.   Use the pressure immobilisation technique
NORTHERN FUNNEL-WEB
                                    area                                               if the bite is on a limb.
AND WHISTLING SPIDERS
                                   heavy sweating                                2.   Continually monitor breathing and
                                   heavy production of saliva; tingling about         circulation and be prepared to give EAR or
                                    the mouth                                          CPR if required.
                                   stomach pain                                  3.   Keep the victim calm, reassured and at
                                   altered conscious state, possibly                  rest.
                                    progressing to unconsciousness                4.   Call an ambulance immediately or in a
                                   twitching of muscles                               remote area transport the victim to a
                                   respiratory distress, possibly leading to          medical facility immediately.
                                    respiratory arrest

STONEFISH, BULLROUTSAND            immediate excruciating pain in the local      1.   To reduce pain, plunge the envenomated
STINGRAYS                           area                                               part into comfortably hot (not boiling) water
                                   swelling, an open wound and                        (gauged by the rescuer, not the patient).
                                    discolouration at the site                    2.   DO NOT apply compression immobilisation
                                   panic or irrational behaviour                      technique.
                                                                                  3.   Apply EAR or CPR as required.
4. Seek skilled medical help.
             Name                        Signs/symptoms                                Recommended First Aid

JELLYFISH (including Box      instant and severe pain (often a burning   1.   Prevent the victim from rubbing the stung
Jellyfish)                     sensation)                                      area.
                              sting marks on the victim / tentacles      2.   Keep the victim calm, at rest and
                               adhered to the victim                           reassured.
                              localised muscle cramps                    3.   Douse the stung area with vinegar.
                              breathing difficulties/painful breathing   4.   Apply a cold pack or ice wrapped in cloth
                              lower back pain                                 to relieve local pain.
                              anxiety                                    5.   For stings of Irukundji and box jellyfish,
                              nausea/vomiting                                 use the pressure immobilisation technique
                              headaches                                       (as above) after applying vinegar.
                              convulsions                                6.   Monitor the victims airway, breathing and
                              respiratory arrest                              circulation and call an ambulance or in an
                                                                               isolated area, transport the victim to a
                                                                               medical facility immediately. There is an
                                                                               antivenom for box jellyfish stings.
                                                                          7.   Be prepared to give EAR or CPR if
                                                                               needed, and continue until help is
                                                                               available. Sometimes this may be for
                                                                               several hours, but there is still a chance of
                                                                               complete recovery.



CONE SHELLFISH AND BLUE-      relatively painless bite                   1.   Keep the victim calm, reassured and at
RINGED OCTOPUS                numbness of the tongue and lips                 rest.
                              progressive muscle weakness which can      2.   Use the pressure immobilisation technique
                               lead to respiratory arrest within 30            for the bite area.
                               minutes                                    3.   Call an ambulance, or in an isolated area
                                                                               transport the victim to a medical facility
                                                                               immediately.
                                                                          4.   Continually monitor airway, breathing and
                                                                               circulation and be prepared to give EAR.
                                                                               The venom may cause the muscle of
                                                                               respiration to cease functioning, although
                                                                               the heart will continue to beat if EAR is
                                                                               given.
         Name                      Signs/symptoms               Recommended First Aid

STINGING TREE CONTACT      Immediate severe pain    1.   Apply wax strips to the affected area.
                                                          Carefully pull off the strip (as per
                           Redness and swelling
                                                          instructions) or plastic skin to remove the
                           Enlarged glands
                                                          plant hairs. Repeat this treatment (using a
                           Pain may lead to shock        new strip each time) until most of the hairs
                                                          are removed. If wax strips or plastic skin
                                                          are not available use adhesive plaster or
                                                          tape, or carefully shave the affected area.
                                                          It is important to remove as many hairs as
                                                          possible as soon as possible.
                                                     2.   Wash the area with tepid water to remove
                                                          any remaining wax and dry.
                                                     3.   The application of vinegar after removal of
                                                          the hairs may reduce the painful reaction
                                                          in some cases.
                                                     4.   Badly stung victims may exhibit signs of
                                                          shock arising from the severe pain
                                                          experienced. Treat the victim for shock
                                                          first, then treat the affected area.
                                                     5.   The application of EURAX cream may
                                                          further reduce the effects of a stinging tree
                                                          contact. Eurax cream (an S2 item) should
                                                          be carried in First Aid kits, so that victims
                                                          can administer it to themselves if they wish
                                                          to.


                                                     *Hair remover wax strips (e.g. Mariana wax
                                                     strips, Nair Easiwax) are available from chemist
                                                     shops and supermarkets. They are ready to use
                                                     immediately, no heating is required. The wax is
                                                     water soluble.
Appendix 8

                                          WHAT TO DO WHEN LOST


The following information is taken from Stay Alive - a handbook on survival Chapter 6, Dunlevy, 1981.


               If you do get lost, don’t panic - sit down and think
               Examine your map if you have one - can you recognize any landmarks?
               What was the last one you saw?
               Get out your sketch map. Compare the two. Is the map in error?
               If not ask yourself whether you have drifted to the right or left, or whether you have passed your objective
               Did you walk around an obstacle and fail to take account of it?
               Do you have a record of the distance you have travelled?
               Try to reconstruct the course you took since the last known landmark
               Climb a tree or hill and look around.


If you are really lost,
              Stay where you are
              Try to make yourself and your camp easily visible
              Brightly coloured garments, groundsheet or coloured plastic may help, so may signals in the sand, if there is
               sand
              Light a fire and keep it smoking
              Be prepared to signal to rescuers - remember if there is a search for you it may be conducted by ground and
               air (see diagrams below)
              Conserve your water, your food and energy
              Do not blunder about
              Should you decide to walk out, leave plenty of evidence that you were there and
              Indicate where you are going next, and the physical condition of members of the party
 Appendix 9


                   CHECKLIST OF VEHICLE SPARE PARTS AND EQUIPMENT
                   THAT MAY BE REQUIRED ON A REMOTE AREA FIELD TRIP


 Items currently provided by the JCU vehicle maintenance section are indicated*


 Other items, if available, may be provided on request, or may have to be provided by the School.
 Please refer to the OIC Vehicle Maintenance section in the first instance.


ITEMS FOR BOTH PETROL & DIESEL ENGINES                                   TOOLS

   Drive belts (e.g. fan & power steering belts etc.)                       Wheel brace / spanner *
   Radiator and heater hoses                                                Comprehensive tool kit (with all necessary size sockets
   Oil filter                                                                and spanners)
   Fuel filter                                                              Jack (standard)* and base plate
   Brake fluid                                                              Jumper leads
   Wire                                                                     Tyre pump
   Fuses and fusible link                                                   Tyre pressure gauge
   Globes                                                                   Tyre levers
   Oil seals for input/output shafts                                        Rubber mallet
   Wheel bearings                                                           Spare tube
   Tyres and tubes                                                          Tube patch kit
   Valves for tubes                                                         Hacksaw and blades
   Tyre/tube patches, glue etc.                                             G Clamp
   Spare wheel*                                                             Drill - hand or 12 volt and set of drill bits
                                                                             Soldering iron (12 volt) and solder
                                                                             Wire brush
   Electrical circuit tester                                    Maps and compass
LUBRICANTS ETC.                                                  First-aid kit
                                                                 Fire extinguisher*
   Engine oil
                                                                 Knife (pocket or sheath)
   Transmission oil
                                                                 trouble lamp
   Distilled water
                                                                 Workshop manual
   Water - enough to fill radiator in addition to drinking
    water
                                                                 Survival book
                                                                 Survival kit



MISCELLANEOUS REPAIR ITEMS

   Aero start
   Spare nuts
   bolts
   washers etc.
   Gasket cement
   PVC fuel hose
   Contact cement
   Silicone adhesive
   Araldite, Plastibond etc.
   Radiator stop leak
   fencing wire
   Dewatering fluid (e.g. CRC)
   Duct or Gaffers tape
   Self amalgamating tape
   Insulation tape




RECOVERY. EQUIPMENT

   High lift jack
   Leather gloves
   Snatch strap
   Rope
   Winch* (standard equipment, JCU 4-WD)
   Shovel
   Snatch block
   Shackles*


OTHER ESSENTIAL ITEMS

   Vehicle Handbook *
OPTIONAL ITEMS TO CONSIDER

   Portable warning signs
   Wheel chains
   Jerry cans *
   CB Radio
   Pick
   Radiator blind or tarpaulin
   Flares
Appendix 10



                          LIST OF RELEVANT FORMS AND CONTACTS
                                       All forms are located online:
                        http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/bsg/resources.html


FORM                                           LOCATION                          SUBMIT TO


*Field Trip Operational Details                Online                           School Safety Officer


*Hazard ID and Risk Control                    Online                           School Safety Officer


*Acknowledgement of Field Trip                 Online                           School Safety Officer
Induction


Travel Request (when claiming expenses)        Bio Science Finance Office       Bio Science Finance Office


Transport Requisition (Vehicle Bookings)       Online                           Transport Office




Approval for non-JCU passenger in JCU          Online                           Transport Office
vehicle


Approval to garage JCU vehicle at home         Online                           Transport Office
overnight


Equipment Store Bookings                       Equipment Store                  Equipment Store


Accident Report                                First Aid Kits, Safety Officer   School Safety Officer


Applications for Permits (DOE, Nat Resources   Online                           Respective Authority
etc)


First Aid Kit Booking                          Equipment Store                  Janice Cran
Appendix 11

                 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND USEFUL SOURCES OF INFORMATION


   Fauna and Flora

    Toxic Plants and Animals – a guide for Australia. Covacevich, J, Davie, P, and Peam, J (eds). Qld
    Museum.1987


   First Aid

    Australian First Aid, Volumes 1 and 2. St John Ambulance, 1998
    Remote Area First Aid. St. John Ambulance. 1991 (out of print)
    Australian Red Cross First Aid, Responding to Emergencies. 1995 (reprinted 1997)


   General Field Work and Survival

    Australian Bushcraft. Graves, R. Revised edition. Dymocks Publishing. 1984
    Aids to Survival. Western Australian Police Academy. 17th edition. 1998
    Four Wheel Drive Training Course Notes. University of Western Australia.
    Map Reading Handbook. Emergency Services, Tasmania.
    Stay Alive. Dunleavy, M. AGPS Canberra. 3rd ed. 1981


   JCU Publications

    JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety. Central Services Office, Workplace
    Health and Safety Coordinator. 1998

    Field Safety Handbook for Marine Biologists. Marine Biology Department and WH&S. JCU. 1998
    Fieldwork on Land. Doak, G.B. and Stevenson, P.J. (eds). JCU. 1991
Appendix 12




                      FIELD WORK - ESSENTIAL INDUCTION ELEMENTS


All personnel undertaking particular field trip / work for the first time shall be given a safety induction by the officer-in-charge.
Undergraduate students shall be provided with this information verbally , and in writing e.g. as part of class notes or a copy of
the relevant field safety handbook.


The induction shall include
           an overview of the parts of the University Policy for Field Work Health and Safety relevant to the particular field
              work, or reference to the relevant field safety handbook;
           information on the nature and objectives of the field work;
           safety obligations of personnel;
           information on suitable clothing and behaviour;
           identified hazards including heat -related illnesses;
           the risks associated with the hazards, and the proposed control measures;
           where to access first aid facilities and who is the first aider on the project;
           instruction in the safe operation of any equipment to be used;
           instruction the correct use and maintenance of any personal protective equipment to be used;
           reporting accidents and illnesses;
           communications procedures;
           when-lost procedures;
           emergency procedures.
Compiled in 1999 by the School of Tropical Biology and the Workplace Health and
Safety Section (Central Services Office),
James Cook University, QLD 4811, Australia.


Text compiled by Rob Gegg.
  Designed and typeset by Orpha Bellwood.


  The comments and contributions of L. Winsor and S. Francis are gratefully
  acknowledged.




This word document was downloaded from the website: http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, please remain
                     this link information when you reproduce , copy, or use it.
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 S. Francis are gratefully
  acknowledged.




This word document was downloaded from the website: http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, please remain
                     this link information when you reproduce , copy, or use it.
          <a href='http://www.wordwendang.com/en'>word documents</a>

				
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