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					1. Themes: 1920’s has been referred to as
• Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die
• Return to normalcy
• US turned inward---isolationism
• Jazz Age
• first modern era in the U.S.
• change from a rural society to an urban.

2. Cultural clashes in US
   • Traditional America vs a changing America
   • Hostility towards un-American ideas
      • Why? Feared communism……..Red Scare
      • Rise of KKK
      • Immigration restriction
      • Sacco and Vanzetti
• Scopes Trial---evolution vs creation
• Liberated woman vs traditional
   • Flappers
   • Margaret Sangor----Birth control
• African Americans move to the cities
   • led to race riots
• Americans violate Prohibition
   • 18th Amendment
      • Volstead Act

3. Revolution in styles and technologies.
   • electricity, radio, automobile, mass media
   • Fads---new dances, music & clothing
4. American heroes:
   • Babe Ruth and Charles Lindbergh
5. Presidents during the 1920’s
• Conservative Republicans
• Supported laissez faire
   • Warren Harding 1921 to 1923
      • Teapot Dome Scandal
   • Calvin Coolidge 1921 to 1929
      • Coolidge-Mellon Fiscal Program

6. Foreign policy during the 1920’s and early 30s.
The Roaring 20’s
  An era of prosperity,



  Republican power,



      and conflict
    Rural Americans  identify urban culture with Communism, crime,
                                immorality
Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment
   Communities of home, church, and school are absent in the cities
     Conflict: Traditional values vs new ideas found in the cities.
• 1920's collectively known as the "Roaring 20's", or the
  "Jazz Age"
• in sum, a period of great change in American Society -
  modern America is born at this time
• for first time the census reflected an urban society -
  people had moved into cities to enjoy a higher standard
  of living
   Decade notable for obsessive
    interest in celebrities
   Sex becomes an all-consuming
    topic of interest in popular
    entertainment
   Eat, drink & be merry, for
    tomorrow we die
   Return to normalcy
   US turned inward---isolationism
   Jazz Age
   first modern era in the U.S.
The Second Industrial Revolution
   U.S. develops the highest standard
    of living in the world
   The twenties and the second
    revolution
    – electricity replaces steam
    – Henry Ford’s modern assembly line
      introduced
   Rise of the airline industry
   Modern appliances and
    conveniences begin to change
    American society
      Age of Prosperity
   Economic
    expansion
   Mass Production
   Assembly Line
   Age of the
    Automobile




   Ailing Agriculture…
   an agri. depression in early
    1920's contributed to this
    urban migration
   U.S. farmers lost agri. markets
    in postwar Europe
   at same time agri. efficiency
    increased so more food
    produced (more food = lower
    prices) and fewer labourers
    needed
   so farming was no longer as
    prosperous, and bankers
    called in their loans (farms
    repossessed)
   so American farmers enter the
    Depression in advance of the
    rest of society
       The Automobile Industry
   Auto makers stimulate sales
    through model changes,
    advertising
   Auto industry fostered the
    growth of other businesses
   Autos encourage movement and
    more individual freedom.
Glenwood Stove and Washing Machine
Consumer Economy
Culture of the Roaring 20’s
                    Radio
              KDKA Pittsburgh
           GE, Westinghouse,& RCA
                 form NBC




       Silent Movies
       Charlie Chaplin

       “Talkies”
       The Jazz Singer
       Starring Al Jolson

       Mary Pickford
       “America’s Sweetheart”
   Celebrities
Babe Ruth &Ty Cobb

                     Charles Lindbergh
                     The Spirit of St. Louis

   Jack Dempsey
The 20’s is The Jazz Age
               The Flappers
                   make up
                   cigarettes
                  short skirts

     Writers                      Musicians
 F. Scott Fitzgerald             Louis Armstrong
 Ernest Hemingway                 Duke Ellington
•Beginning of the Jazz Age
     in New York City
  •Acceptance of African
    American culture
•African American literature
         and music
    Patterns of Economic Growth

   Structural change
    – professional managers replace individual
      entrepreneurs
    – corporations become the dominant
      business form
   Big business weakens regionalism,
    brings uniformity to America
         Economic Weaknesses

   Railroads poorly managed
   Coal displaced by petroleum
   Farmers face decline in exports, prices
   Growing disparity between income of
    laborers, middle-class managers
   Middle class speculates with idle money
 •Goal: was to reduce crime and poverty
and improve the quality of life by making
it impossible for people to get their hands
                 on alcohol.
 •This "Noble Experiment" was a failure.
 •Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went
                     dry.
    •The 18th Amendment, known as the
Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture,
sale and possession of alcohol in America.
    Prohibition lasted for thirteen years.
•So was born the industry of bootlegging,
       speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.
    •People drank more than ever during
  Prohibition, and there were more deaths
             related to alcohol.
 •No other law in America has been violated
so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding"
                    people.
    •Overnight, many became criminals.
    •Mobsters controlled liquor created a
      booming black market economy.
•Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925
there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New
              York City alone.
                            Al Capone           Elliot Ness, part
                                                      of the
                         Chicago gangster        Untouchables
                         during Prohibition
    Detroit police       who controlled the      Agent with the U.S.
inspecting equipment       “bootlegging”       Treasury Department's
  found in a hidden           industry.          Prohibition Bureau
underground brewery                              during a time when
                                                  bootlegging was
during the prohibition                        rampant throughout the
         era.                                          nation.
             “Prohibition is an awful flop.
                        We like it.
       It can't stop what it's meant to stop.
                        We like it.
          It's left a trail of graft and slime,
      It's filled our land with vice and crime,
            It can't prohibit worth a dime,
               Nevertheless we're for it.”
Franklin Pierce Adams, New York World
 “It is impossible to stop liquor trickling through a
                     dotted line”
             A Prohibition agent
   “Flappers” sought
   individual freedom
  Ongoing crusade for
      equal rights
 Most women remain in
the “cult of domesticity”
         sphere
Discovery of adolescence

  Teenaged children no
  longer needed to work
    and indulged their
  craving for excitement
The Playful flapper here we see,
       The fairest of the fair.
She's not what Grandma used to be,
   You might say, au contraire.
 Her girlish ways may make a stir,
   Her manners cause a scene,
 But there is no more harm in her
       Than in a submarine.

 She nightly knocks for many a goal
        The usual dancing men.
  Her speed is great, but her control
        Is something else again.
 All spotlights focus on her pranks.
   All tongues her prowess herald.
For which she well may render thanks
     To God and Scott Fitzgerald.
   Her golden rule is plain enough -
 Just get them young and treat them
                rough.
        by Dorothy Parker
  Scopes “Monkey”                         Trial
Evolution vs. Creationism
                              Science vs. Religion




Famous Lawyers                   Dayton, Tennessee




                                   John Scopes
                            High School Biology teacher
     1925




   The first conflict between
   religion vs. science being
taught in school was in 1925 in
      Dayton, Tennessee.
 John T. Scopes    Clarence Darrow William J. Bryan         Dayton,
 Respected high      Famous trial  Sec. of State for      Tennessee
 school biology      lawyer who       President        Small town in the
teacher arrested     represented    Wilson, ran for     south became
                                   president three        protective
    in Dayton,         Scopes                            against the
                                    times, turned
  Tennessee for                      evangelical       encroachment of
     teaching                                           modern times
                                        leader.          and secular
Darwin’s Theory                    Represented the        teachings.
   of Evolution.                    prosecution.
The trial is conducted   The right to teach and     The acceptance of
   in a carnival-like       protect Biblical       science and that all
   atmosphere. The       teachings in schools.    species have evolved
 people of Dayton are                              from lower forms of
seen as ‘backward’ by                             beings over billions of
      the country.                                        years.
  IKA
Imperial
Klans of
America
Rise of the KKK was do to the ever
changing of a traditional America.
   1925: Membership of 5 million
   1926: Marched on Washington.
 Attack on urban culture and defends
  Christian/Protestant and rural values
   Against immigrants from Southern
 Europe, European Jews, Catholics and
            American Blacks
 Sought to win U.S. by persuasion and
gaining control in local/state government.
 Violence, internal corruption result in
Klan’s virtual disappearance by 1930 but
  will reappear in the 1950s and 1960s.
  The Ku Klux Klan
    Great increase       Anti-black
      In power          Anti-immigrant
                         Anti-Semitic
                        Anti-Catholic




Anti-women’s suffrage

   Anti-bootleggers
•The U.S. Government began to restrict
certain “undesirable” immigrants from
            entering the U.S.
 •Congress passed the Emergency
Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act
                of 1924
     • Kept out immigrants from
        southeastern Europe.
   •The U.S. Government began to restrict
    certain “undesirable” immigrants from
               entering the U.S.

•Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act
 of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe
were restricted at any year to a quota, which
    was set at 3% of the people of their
  nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910.

 •Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to
2% and the origins base was shifted to that of
   1890, when few southeastern Europeans
              lived in America.
Cartoon from 1919:
“Put them out and
 keep them out”
                        1. Who were Nicola Sacco
                        and Bartolomeo Vanzetti ?
                        2. What were they
                           charged with?
                        3. What was their “real”
                           crimes in many peoples
                           eyes?

4. What did they do in WWI?
5. Was it a fair trial? Give Specifics?
6. What do you think really happened here?
7. Could it happen again?
BONUS: Who is A Mitchell Palmer?
                                  •Nicola Sacco and
                                Bartolomeo Vanzetti
                                    were Italian
                                immigrants charged
                               with murdering a guard
                                 and robbing a shoe
                                factory in Braintree,
                                        Mass.

•The trial lasted 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial
 evidence, many believed they had been framed for the
    crime because of their anarchist and pro-union
                        activities.
•In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well.
•Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but
               they would be executed.
                      •Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a
                       time of great upheaval…U.S.
                         “scared out of their wits".
                       •"Reds” as they were called,
                         "Anarchists” or "Outside
                          Foreign-Born Radical
   Attorney General
   Mitchell Palmer      Agitators” (Communists).
•Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the
              Russian Revolution.
•6,000 immigrants the government suspected of
   being Communists were arrested (Palmer
 Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from
                     the U.S.
          •No due process was followed
   at this time, W.
    Wilson was gravely
    ill following a stroke
   his Attorney
    General, A. Mitchell
    Palmer, wanted to
    take a shot at the
    presidency - he
    used fears of both
    immigrants and
    communism to his
    advantage
   he had J. Edgar
    Hoover round up
    suspected radicals,
    many of which were
    deported (Palmer
    Raids)
                                •Westinghouse Radio Station
                                KDKA was a world pioneer of
                                       commercial radio
                                        broadcasting.
                                 •Transmitted 100 watts on a
                                  wavelength of 360 meters.
                                  •KDKA first broadcast was
                                the Harding-Cox Presidential
                                election returns on November
                                            2, 1920.

•220 stations eighteen months after KDKA took the plunge.
               •$50 to $150 for first radios
          •3,000,000 homes had them by 1922.
                           •Radio sets, parts
                            and accessories
                            brought in $60
                           million in 1922…
                            • $136 million in
                                 1923
                            •$852 million in
                                 1929
                          •Radio reached into
                          every third home in
                            its first decade.


•Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
The 1920 Election
The 1920 Election
    Wilson’s idealism and Treaty
       of Versailles led many
     Americans to vote for the
        Republican, Warren
             Harding…
       US turned inward and
      feared anything that was
            European…
        The 1920 Election




The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third
  from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row,
     second from right), and members of the cabinet.
    Harding and Coolidge
 Republican presidents appeal to B. Fall
    Secretary of the Interior, Albert
  traditional American values in Teapot
    leased naval reserve oil land
           Wyoming, and Elk Hills,
    Dome, dies in office after 2 years.
 Harding
    California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair
 Scandals break after his death
    and Edward L. Doheny
  – Fall had received a bribe of $100,000
    Teapot Dome Scandal
    from Doheny and about three times that
 Calvin Coolidge becomes President after
    amount from Sinclair.
  Harding’s death in 1923.
    Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.
  Republican Policies
 Return   to "normalcy"
  – tariffs raised
  – corporate, income taxes cut
  – spending cuts
 Government-business       cooperation
  – “The business of government, is
    business”
 Return   to “isolation”
  The 1924 Election
Calvin Coolidge served as
President from 1923 to 1929.
“Silent Cal”.
Republican president
REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE




                                                    $
           AND BIG BUSINESS……….




          +                  +                =
Lower Taxes   Less Federal         Higher               Strong
               Spending            Tariffs              National
                                                        Economy
              Fordney-McCumber Tariff---1923
                 Hawley-Smoot Tariff ---1930
          raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!
 • Secretary of the Interior, Albert
B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land
in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk
Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F.
   Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny
   •Fall had received a bribe of
 $100,000 from Doheny and about
  three times that amount from
              Sinclair.
•Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.
    •Sinclair and Doheny were
      acquitted of charges.

				
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