1. Themes: 1920’s has been referred to as • Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die • Return to normalcy • US turned inward---isolationism • Jazz Age • first modern era in the U.S. • change from a rural society to an urban. 2. Cultural clashes in US • Traditional America vs a changing America • Hostility towards un-American ideas • Why? Feared communism……..Red Scare • Rise of KKK • Immigration restriction • Sacco and Vanzetti • Scopes Trial---evolution vs creation • Liberated woman vs traditional • Flappers • Margaret Sangor----Birth control • African Americans move to the cities • led to race riots • Americans violate Prohibition • 18th Amendment • Volstead Act 3. Revolution in styles and technologies. • electricity, radio, automobile, mass media • Fads---new dances, music & clothing 4. American heroes: • Babe Ruth and Charles Lindbergh 5. Presidents during the 1920’s • Conservative Republicans • Supported laissez faire • Warren Harding 1921 to 1923 • Teapot Dome Scandal • Calvin Coolidge 1921 to 1929 • Coolidge-Mellon Fiscal Program 6. Foreign policy during the 1920’s and early 30s. The Roaring 20’s An era of prosperity, Republican power, and conflict Rural Americans identify urban culture with Communism, crime, immorality Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment Communities of home, church, and school are absent in the cities Conflict: Traditional values vs new ideas found in the cities. • 1920's collectively known as the "Roaring 20's", or the "Jazz Age" • in sum, a period of great change in American Society - modern America is born at this time • for first time the census reflected an urban society - people had moved into cities to enjoy a higher standard of living Decade notable for obsessive interest in celebrities Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die Return to normalcy US turned inward---isolationism Jazz Age first modern era in the U.S. The Second Industrial Revolution U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world The twenties and the second revolution – electricity replaces steam – Henry Ford’s modern assembly line introduced Rise of the airline industry Modern appliances and conveniences begin to change American society Age of Prosperity Economic expansion Mass Production Assembly Line Age of the Automobile Ailing Agriculture… an agri. depression in early 1920's contributed to this urban migration U.S. farmers lost agri. markets in postwar Europe at same time agri. efficiency increased so more food produced (more food = lower prices) and fewer labourers needed so farming was no longer as prosperous, and bankers called in their loans (farms repossessed) so American farmers enter the Depression in advance of the rest of society The Automobile Industry Auto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertising Auto industry fostered the growth of other businesses Autos encourage movement and more individual freedom. Glenwood Stove and Washing Machine Consumer Economy Culture of the Roaring 20’s Radio KDKA Pittsburgh GE, Westinghouse,& RCA form NBC Silent Movies Charlie Chaplin “Talkies” The Jazz Singer Starring Al Jolson Mary Pickford “America’s Sweetheart” Celebrities Babe Ruth &Ty Cobb Charles Lindbergh The Spirit of St. Louis Jack Dempsey The 20’s is The Jazz Age The Flappers make up cigarettes short skirts Writers Musicians F. Scott Fitzgerald Louis Armstrong Ernest Hemingway Duke Ellington •Beginning of the Jazz Age in New York City •Acceptance of African American culture •African American literature and music Patterns of Economic Growth Structural change – professional managers replace individual entrepreneurs – corporations become the dominant business form Big business weakens regionalism, brings uniformity to America Economic Weaknesses Railroads poorly managed Coal displaced by petroleum Farmers face decline in exports, prices Growing disparity between income of laborers, middle-class managers Middle class speculates with idle money •Goal: was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of life by making it impossible for people to get their hands on alcohol. •This "Noble Experiment" was a failure. •Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went dry. •The 18th Amendment, known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol in America. Prohibition lasted for thirteen years. •So was born the industry of bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin. •People drank more than ever during Prohibition, and there were more deaths related to alcohol. •No other law in America has been violated so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding" people. •Overnight, many became criminals. •Mobsters controlled liquor created a booming black market economy. •Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925 there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone. Al Capone Elliot Ness, part of the Chicago gangster Untouchables during Prohibition Detroit police who controlled the Agent with the U.S. inspecting equipment “bootlegging” Treasury Department's found in a hidden industry. Prohibition Bureau underground brewery during a time when bootlegging was during the prohibition rampant throughout the era. nation. “Prohibition is an awful flop. We like it. It can't stop what it's meant to stop. We like it. It's left a trail of graft and slime, It's filled our land with vice and crime, It can't prohibit worth a dime, Nevertheless we're for it.” Franklin Pierce Adams, New York World “It is impossible to stop liquor trickling through a dotted line” A Prohibition agent “Flappers” sought individual freedom Ongoing crusade for equal rights Most women remain in the “cult of domesticity” sphere Discovery of adolescence Teenaged children no longer needed to work and indulged their craving for excitement The Playful flapper here we see, The fairest of the fair. She's not what Grandma used to be, You might say, au contraire. Her girlish ways may make a stir, Her manners cause a scene, But there is no more harm in her Than in a submarine. She nightly knocks for many a goal The usual dancing men. Her speed is great, but her control Is something else again. All spotlights focus on her pranks. All tongues her prowess herald. For which she well may render thanks To God and Scott Fitzgerald. Her golden rule is plain enough - Just get them young and treat them rough. by Dorothy Parker Scopes “Monkey” Trial Evolution vs. Creationism Science vs. Religion Famous Lawyers Dayton, Tennessee John Scopes High School Biology teacher 1925 The first conflict between religion vs. science being taught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee. John T. Scopes Clarence Darrow William J. Bryan Dayton, Respected high Famous trial Sec. of State for Tennessee school biology lawyer who President Small town in the teacher arrested represented Wilson, ran for south became president three protective in Dayton, Scopes against the times, turned Tennessee for evangelical encroachment of teaching modern times leader. and secular Darwin’s Theory Represented the teachings. of Evolution. prosecution. The trial is conducted The right to teach and The acceptance of in a carnival-like protect Biblical science and that all atmosphere. The teachings in schools. species have evolved people of Dayton are from lower forms of seen as ‘backward’ by beings over billions of the country. years. IKA Imperial Klans of America Rise of the KKK was do to the ever changing of a traditional America. 1925: Membership of 5 million 1926: Marched on Washington. Attack on urban culture and defends Christian/Protestant and rural values Against immigrants from Southern Europe, European Jews, Catholics and American Blacks Sought to win U.S. by persuasion and gaining control in local/state government. Violence, internal corruption result in Klan’s virtual disappearance by 1930 but will reappear in the 1950s and 1960s. The Ku Klux Klan Great increase Anti-black In power Anti-immigrant Anti-Semitic Anti-Catholic Anti-women’s suffrage Anti-bootleggers •The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. •Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 • Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe. •The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. •Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910. •Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America. Cartoon from 1919: “Put them out and keep them out” 1. Who were Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti ? 2. What were they charged with? 3. What was their “real” crimes in many peoples eyes? 4. What did they do in WWI? 5. Was it a fair trial? Give Specifics? 6. What do you think really happened here? 7. Could it happen again? BONUS: Who is A Mitchell Palmer? •Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. •The trial lasted 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. •In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. •Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed. •Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". •"Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Agitators” (Communists). •Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. •6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. •No due process was followed at this time, W. Wilson was gravely ill following a stroke his Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, wanted to take a shot at the presidency - he used fears of both immigrants and communism to his advantage he had J. Edgar Hoover round up suspected radicals, many of which were deported (Palmer Raids) •Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting. •Transmitted 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters. •KDKA first broadcast was the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, 1920. •220 stations eighteen months after KDKA took the plunge. •$50 to $150 for first radios •3,000,000 homes had them by 1922. •Radio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922… • $136 million in 1923 •$852 million in 1929 •Radio reached into every third home in its first decade. •Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925 The 1920 Election The 1920 Election Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European… The 1920 Election The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet. Harding and Coolidge Republican presidents appeal to B. Fall Secretary of the Interior, Albert traditional American values in Teapot leased naval reserve oil land Wyoming, and Elk Hills, Dome, dies in office after 2 years. Harding California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair Scandals break after his death and Edward L. Doheny – Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 Teapot Dome Scandal from Doheny and about three times that Calvin Coolidge becomes President after amount from Sinclair. Harding’s death in 1923. Fall found guilty of taking a bribe. Republican Policies Return to "normalcy" – tariffs raised – corporate, income taxes cut – spending cuts Government-business cooperation – “The business of government, is business” Return to “isolation” The 1924 Election Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to 1929. “Silent Cal”. Republican president REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE $ AND BIG BUSINESS………. + + = Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National Economy Fordney-McCumber Tariff---1923 Hawley-Smoot Tariff ---1930 raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!! • Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny •Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. •Fall found guilty of taking a bribe. •Sinclair and Doheny were acquitted of charges.
Pages to are hidden for
"1920s - Download as PowerPoint"Please download to view full document