UNIT 1 VCE BIOLOGY
AREA OF STUDY ONE
* The scientific method and the need for experimental controls. You must be familiar enough
to recognize parts of the scientific method and experimental process in a given scenario.
* The composition of living organisms. Explain the difference between organic and inorganic
compounds and be familiar with some of each type.
* Know the 3 parts to the cell theory.
* Understand the basic properties of cells of all cells (the things that are common to all cells)
* Be able to explain and tell the difference between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell.
* Be able to recognise and explain at 1-2 differences in plant and animal cells.
EXAMPLE: Label the cells below as either plant or animal and list 2 differences between
their structure and suggest a reason why this may be so.
* Understand what the following organelles are and their function: chloroplasts, ribosome,
cytoplasm, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, plasma
membrane, nucleus, vacuole and lysosomes.
EXAMPLE: In the table below draw a simple diagram of each organelle and give a brief
explanation of their function.
* Know a little about cell movement, light and electron microscopes.
* Understand what enzymes are and be about to recognize and explain:
* the lock-key and induced fit model
* the substrate and product
* co-enzymes and cofactors
* The effect of pH and temperature on enzyme function.
* Understand the ATP and ADP cycle.
* The inputs and outputs of aerobic respiration.
* Understand the differences and similarities between anaerobic and aerobic respiration.
(Your Double Bubble Map that we did in class should help)
* Understand the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis
* What is the importance of proteins? Where are they made? What is the entire process of
production from start to transport?
* Understand and be able to explain the difference and the importance of extracellular fluid,
external environment and internal environment.
* Understand and explain the functions of membranes in cells.
* Understand and be able to label or draw a diagram of the plasma membrane.
EXAMPLE: Label the diagram below.
* Understand the concept of Surface Area to Volume Ratio and be able to recognize when it
is important to the cell/product.
* Understand and be able to explain why some molecules can cross the plasma membrane
and how others can’t. Also be able to explain how molecules can cross the plasma membrane
(Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport)
* What are exocytosis and endocytosis?
* How does cell replication take place in non-sex cells? Know the stages and order of cell
replication and what is occurring at every stage. (It is enough to just know interphase and not
the 3 sub-stages of it.)
* Understand the importance of cell specialisation and death and what is involved in each.
Make sure you know the importance of stem cells and apoptosis.
AREA OF STUDY TWO
* Plant structure and function. What do plants need to survive and what do the different parts
* The shoot system
* The root system
* Phloem and Xylem cells and how water and nutrients travel around the plant.
* How do plants obtain nutrients and remove wastes?
* Digestion in animals. Particularly humans. What do each of the digestive organs do?
* Small Intestine
* Large Intestine
* Difference between mechanical and chemical digestion
* How absorption takes place in the intestine.
* The circulatory system.
* Blood cells- white and red and their function
* Plasma – purpose
* Gas transport
* The structure and function of the heart
* The passage of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood through the heart.
* The lymphatic system
* Gas Exchange- How fish do it. How humans and other mammals do it.
* The purpose of exchanging gases, the passage of air through the lungs and how at the
alveoli is surrounded by capillaries that capture the oxygen and deliver it to the heart etc.
* Waste Removal and water balance
o Structure and function of kidneys and nephrons
o Know the process of filteration, reabsorption and excretion
o How water balance in maintained.
* Reproduction- Asexual and sexual, the differences and benefits of each
* Plant reproduction – General idea on how pollination and where gametes are made
* Animals reproduction- External and internal fertilisation
* Human reproduction- Male and Female roles, Fertilisation, Implantation, Foetus and
embryo development. Brief understanding of main ideas.