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					                         TABLE OF CONTENTS


Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………...5

Why strategic recruitment……………………………………………………………7

Human Resource Management……………………………………………………..8

Meaning of Recruitment; Types of Recruitment needs ...................................9

Importance of Recruitment. Recruiting Yield Pyramid..………………………10

Factors Involved in the process of Recruitment……………………………….11

Actual Recruitment Process……………………………………………………….12

Sources of Recruitment & its Advantages & Disadvantages………………..14

Factors affecting Recruitment…..…………………………………………………20

Recent trends in Recruitment……………………..……………………………….25

Reasons of Common recruitment Failings………………………………………27

Recruitment V/s Selection…………………………...……………………………..28

Selection……………………………………………………………………………….29

Selection Process, Selection Methods…………………………………………...31

Orientation & Induction……………………………………………………………..36

Recruitment Management System….………….…………………………………37

Recruitment Outsourcing, Its process…………...........…............………….....38

How to select a Recruitment Consultant…………..………………….…………42

Recruitment Strategies & HR Challenges in Recruitment ....………..……....43

Recruiting Expatriates……………………………….........................…………....45

Recruiting In Telecom SECTOR / Airtel……………………………….…………46

Findings & Recommendations……………………………………………………..65

Conclusion , Annexure, References…………………………………….71, 72, 81
                         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In the knowledge economy, people, not products, distinguish a company from
its competitors. An organization that wants to be a leader must attract most
able people in their field across all functions. Thus, Innovative recruiting
techniques set winning companies apart from their competitors.

The project initially consists of theory explaining Recruitment & Selection
in detail. It then covers ‘RPO’ followed by case recruitment practice in the
Co. of a telecom sector. Finally, its ended with a recommendations &
findings, as to what kind of recruitment practices are likely to be followed in
future.

The current trend demands a more comprehensive, more strategic perspective
to recruit, utilize and conserve valuable human resources. Key findings-

    Creating a winning employee value proposition. Hence, it should be
     able to depict the characteristics of the Co, its values. Hence its
     policies & procedures which make the employer brand should thus be
     coherent with the business brand.
    4 types of employees :
         o Central Core : Essential managers, professionals & technicians
            who help to maintain the organizations culture, knowledge &
            direction.
         o Contractual Fringe : Non-essential that need not be retained in-
            house.
         o Ancillary Workforce: Temporary & part-time workers, whose
            highly flexible status would enable the organization to react
            quickly to fluctuating skills & service needs.
    Generation Y- Characteristics of this group: Adaptable, innovative &
     unthreatened by technology, resilient, talented & committed,
     impatient, disrespectful, image driven, blunt & skeptical. Recruiting
     such people requires employers to be honest, lead by example &
     understand where this Gen Y is coming from. (Generation X – sums
     people comfortable with technology & fast moving world;
    It’s a transaction involving employer & employee, facilitated by the
     recruiter. Hence, transaction is possible when the demand & supply
     meet eachother. Thus, Personnel needs to be anticipated while
     framing the staffing plans.

                                                                             2
        o Eg: Generation X & Y employees : Want more work life
           balance, prefer flexibility at work & switch more jobs to have a
           greater palate of experience.
   Creating a Recruiting Culture i.e. considering it as a part of any
    strategic business planning. Eg: Dell gives top priority to its people.
   Every term of employment – schedules, location, assignments,
    coworkers & more – will be open to negotiations.
   Rewards V/s Inaction : Best people are put off where poor
    performance is overlooked upon & hence at times leave the
    organization. Accordingly, recruitment strategies should stress on
    such distinct features to stop & rehire top talent.
   Sift from traditional need of basic qualification to more of attitudes &
    behaviour. A combination of technical & leadership skills are sought
    now.
   People with behavioural awareness & flexibility.
   Finding good people is easy, whats difficult is finding people who can
    transform.
   Studies show increased shareholder value on account of excellence in
    recruitment (In Europe it increased by 1.5%)
   Shrinking pool of 35- 40 year olds, hence shortage for middle level
    employees in future;
   Changing relationship between Employer & Employee. Its more like a
    joint venture than a mere contract of employment.
   Change in advertisement focus from future job security features to
    organizational efficiency. No longer the security of having permanent
    jobs. As Tom Peter puts up, only 1/3rd of the jobs will be permanent,
    while rest will be temporary, contract-based, part-time or teleworking
    roles.
   Moving itself generates a pay rise. 9% is by moving as against annual
    pay rise of 3-4% by staying in a same organization;
   18 Months to 2 ¼ year is the usual pattern after which the employees
    skip jobs;
   Using technology extensively in the process reduces hiring time to a
    great extent Eg: Global Successor saved 14 days by using online
    system;
   Furthermore, when recruitment fails to meet organizational needs for
    talent, a typical response is to raise entry-level pay scales. This can
    distort traditional wage & salary relationships in the organization,
    resulting in avoidable consequences.


                                                                          3
                           Why Strategic Recruitment

Because of the changing times i.e. High attrition rate across sectors, the
need for curbing the increasing the training & hiring costs has become
critical for the organizations so that it can keep its competitiveness.

Director, HR (Asia) of Bausch & Lomb, Mr. P.G. George states,
achieving zero percent turnover is neither realistic nor desirable. People
tend to seek change for a variety of reasons—more money, better
benefits, the appearance of a greener pasture- and this has been a
practice from the very beginning. Then, what is it that has really changed?

The present scenario with abundant opportunities has triggered a wave
of employees, perpetually "on the move", forever seeking better
opportunities whenever, wherever and however they can. 75 % of the
senior executives admit that employee retention is a major concern today,
the obvious reason being the 'increasing rate of turnover'. This dynamically
changing and volatile demand-supply equation with such erratic
attrition trends and cut throat competition has led organisations to
focus on mechanisms pertaining to attracting and retaining talent. It is an
accepted truth that turnover will happen and companies need to device
a strategy to curb unprecedented turnover from affecting organisational
success. Organizations, by focusing on productivity, are realising that it
is imperative to hire employees who can do the job and be successful
at it & no longer want to just hire to hire.

Vice President, HR of Seagram, Mr. Gopi Nambiar, says talent is best
described as a combination of abilities and attitudes. The real trick is
to match the right motivated talents to the right role,
individually and collectively, harnessing and harmonizing this crucial
attribute to achieve the objectives of your company i.e. superior
performance.

Hence, one of the critical functions of HR is a sound Human Resource
Planning through which they are able to project the demand for human
resource and thereafter formulate strategies for acquiring them i.e.
Recruitment.

The solution is not just about finding the correct retention mechanisms,
but it starts from the very beginning by devising ways to acquire the right
people for the right jobs, doing it right the 1st time itself & thus pulling up the
bottom line of the Co.



                                                                                      4
“Talented persons are like frogs in a wheelbarrow, which can jump at any
point of time when they sense opportunities”


                HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

The goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic
goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively.
The process involves carrying out a skills analysis of the existing workforce, carrying out
manpower forecasting, and taking action to ensure that supply meets demand. This may
include the development of training and retraining strategies. Through HRP an
organization strives to have the right number & the right kind of people at the right place
at the right time.




                              RECRUITMENT
Recruitment forms the second stage in the process of procurement function, the first
being the human resource planning. It is followed by selection & ceases with the
placement of the candidate.

Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. Usually, the
recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific
vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.

However, Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a
pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific
vacancies do not exist. Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the
selection, The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection
process.



                                                                                            5
                  MEANING OF RECRUITMENT
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching the
candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the
organisation”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the
job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:

• A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment.
The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their
applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which
new employees are selected.

 Process of Attracting the best Qualified individuals to apply for a given
  Job.

 Three main stages in recruitment
     1. Identify and define the requirements. job descriptions, job
        specifications
     2. Attract the potential employees (No. of Applications to be
        calculated by using the recruitment pyramid )
     3. Select and employ the appropriate people from the job applicants




          RECRUITMENT NEEDS ARE OF THREE TYPES:

    PLANNED i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and
     retirement policy.
    ANTICIPATED: Anticipated needs are those movements in
     personnel, which an organization can predict by studying trends in
     internal and external environment.
    UNEXPECTED: Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to
     unexpected needs.




                                                                              6
                 Purpose & Importance of Recruitment


    Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the
     organisation.
    Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best
     candidates for the organisation.
    Determine present and future requirements of the organization in
     conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
    Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the
     employees.
    Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
    Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing
     number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
    Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and
     selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
    Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the
     composition of its workforce.
    Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be
     appropriate candidates.
    Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various
     recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.


The Recruiting Yield Pyramid :



                                   New Hires


                                   Offers Made ( 2: 1)


                                 Candidates Interviewed ( 3: 2)


                                  Candidates Invited ( 4: 3)


                                   Leads Generated ( 6: 1)




                                                                          7
           Factors involved in the recruitment process


1. Characteristics of the job
      Pay
      Challenge
      Job security
      Chance for promotion
      Geography
      Benefits (how much do you know?)
      Competency required

2. Characteristics of applicants
      Applicants may decide whether to take a job based on:
      Non-compensatory factors (got to have this in a job) minimum
        salary, location
      Compensatory characteristics (would like to have this)

3. Recruiting Policies :
      Sourcing: Internal / External
      EEO (equal employment opportunity) makes it sure for equal
         probability of selection in terms of gender, race and caste
      Reservations – while recruiting people all the reservations
         mentioned in the constitution needs to be taken into account
      Contingency employment – to what post and in what strength
         one can hire temporary employee
      Encouragement for disabled persons


4. Characteristics of the recruiter
      Warmth
      Informativeness (how much do they tell you about job?)
      Types & techniques of recruitment used
      How does it differentiate it self from competitors




                                                                        8
                           Recruitment Process

Recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive
strength and the strategic advantage for the organisations. A general
recruitment process is as follows:

       Identifying the vacancy: The recruitment process begins with the
        human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment
        from any department of the company. These contain:
            Posts to be filled
            Number of persons
            Duties to be performed
            Qualifications required
       Preparing the job description and person specification.
       Locating and developing the sources of required number and type
        of employees
       Advertising the vacancy
       Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with
        required characteristics.
       Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates.
       Conducting the interview and decision making

      (Planning for employment requirements need to forecast 3 things :
      Personnel needs, supply side of inside candidates & outside
      candidates. Forecasting personnel needs can be done by Ratio
      Analysis, Trend Analysis & Scatter Plot)




The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process
i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and
the appointment formalities.




                                                                           9
                                                    TH E R E C RUITME N T P R O C E S S



                                                           H u m a n r e s o u rc e pl a n ni n g
                                                            H u m a n r e s o u rc e pl a n ni n g



                                                                                 s ur pl us
            I d e n t if y H R r e q u i r e m e n t s
              I d e n t if y H R r e q u i r e m e n t s                                                   R e t r e n c h / l a y of f s


                                                                   de ma nd
  O r g a ni zati o n al
                                                                  D et e r mi n e n u m b e r s, l ev els &
R e c r u it m e n t p o l i c y                                   D et e r mi n e n u m b e r s, l ev els &
                                                                       C r it i c a l it y of v a c a n c i e s
                                                                        C r it i c a l it y of v a c a n c i e s

               C h o o s e th e r e s o ur c e s &
                C h o o s e th e r e s o ur c e s &
               M e t h o d s of R e c r u i t m e n t
                M e t h o d s of R e c r u i t m e n t
                                                                                      A n aly ze th e c o st & ti m e
                                                                                       A n aly ze th e c o st & ti m e
                                   J o b a n aly sis                                            inv olv e d
                                                                                                 inv olv e d


                          St art i m pl e m e nti n g t h e
                           St art i m pl e m e nti n g t h e
                           R e c r u it m e n t p r o g r a m
                            R e c r u it m e n t p r o g r a m


                                                                                                     S e l ect a n d hir e
                                                                                                      S e l ect a n d hir e


                            Ev al u at e th e Pr o g r a m
                             Ev al u at e th e Pr o g r a m




EVALUATION OF A RECRUTIMENT PROGRAM
  • The recruitment policies, sources & methods have to be evaluated from
     time to time
  • Successful recruitment program shows
        – No. of successful placements
        – No. of offers made
        – No. of applicants
        – Cost involved
        – Time taken for filling up the position




                                                                                                                                            10
                   SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

Every organisation has the option of choosing the candidates for its
recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external
sources. The sources within the organisation itself (like transfer of
employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are
known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from
all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the
external sources of recruitment.



Internal Search



      HRIS                                              Employee
                    Notice
                                        Ex –            Rererrals
                    Boards /
                                      Employee
                    Circulars




External Search




   Advertise-
    ments
                Educational                    Job Portals
                institutions
                                Employment
                                 agencies




                                                                       11
                 SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:




1. Internal Sources Of Recruitment :

 Transfers: The employees are transferred from one department to
  another according to their efficiency and experience.
 Promotions: The employees are promoted from one department to
  another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on
  efficiency and experience.
 Upgrading and Demotion : Of present employees according to their
  performance.
 Ex-Employee : Retired, Retrenched & ones who had resigned, emay
  also be re-recruited in case of shortage of qualified personnel or
  increase in load of work. It saves time and costs of the organisations
  as the people are already aware of the organisational culture and the
  policies and procedures.
 Dependents & relatives of Deceased / Disabled employees: done by
  many companies so that the members of the family do not become
  dependent on the mercy of others.




                                                                     12
Advantages of internal recruitment
   Gives existing employees greater opportunity to advance their careers
     in the business, hence employee loyalty & trust
   May help to retain staff who might otherwise leave, thus a retention
     tool
   Requires a short induction training period, hence reduced costs
   Employer should know more about the internal candidate's abilities (=
     a reduced risk of selecting an inappropriate candidate), reduced risk
   Usually quicker and less expensive than recruiting from outside, time
     savvy & less expensive.

Disadvantages of internal recruitment

      Limits the number of potential applicants for a job
      External candidates might be better suited / qualified for the job
      Another vacancy will be created that has to be filled
      Existing staff may feel they have the automatic right to be promoted,
       whether or not they are competent & Business resistant to change

   2. External Sources of Recruitment:

    Press advertisements: Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers
     and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main
     advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach.
    Educational institutes: Various management institutes, engineering
     colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well
     qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide
     facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known
     as Campus Recruitment.
    Placement agencies: Several private consultancy firms perform
     recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee.
     These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives
     and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process
     Outsourcing)
    Employment exchanges: Government establishes public employment
     exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job
     information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable
     candidates.



                                                                           13
    Labour contractors: Manual workers can be recruited through
     contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such
     workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs.
    Unsolicited applicants: Many job seekers visit the office of well-
     known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance
     to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the
     talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the
     organisation.
    Employee referrals / recommendations: Many organisations have
     structured system where the current employees of the organisation can
     refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organisation.
     Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the
     suitability of candidates. Management can inquire these leaders for
     suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to
     give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the
     trade union.
    Recruitment at factory gate: Unskilled workers may be recruited at
     the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker
     is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill
     permanent vacancies.


External Recruitment : Most businesses engage in external recruitment
fairly frequently, particularly those that are growing strongly, or that operate
in industries with high staff turnover
               There are several ways of looking for staff outside the
                 business


     1. Employment / recruitment agencies
These businesses specialize in recruitment and selection. Can be open to all sectors or
may specialize in specific sectors (e.g., finance, travel, secretarial). They usually provide
a shortlist of candidates based on the people registered with the agency. They also supply
temporary or interim employees.

The main advantages with using an agency are the specialist skills they bring and the
speed with which they normally provide candidates. They also reduce the administrative
burden of recruitment. The cost, is the high agency fees charged - often up to 30% of the
first year wages of anyone employed.

     2. Headhunters / Recruitment Consultancies

                                                                                           14
"Upmarket" recruitment agents who provide a more specialised approach to the
recruitment of key employees and/or senior management. They tend to "approach"
individuals with a good reputation rather than rely on long lists of registered applicants -
often using privileged industry contacts to draw up a short list. The cost of using a
headhunter or recruitment consultant is high.

     3. Job centres
Government run agency - good for identifying local candidates for relatively
straightforward jobs. The job centre service is free to employers and is most useful for
advertising semi-skilled, clerical and manual jobs.

The advantage of these schemes is that government funding lowers the cost of
employment. However, relatively few employment requirements are covered by these
schemes.

     4. Advertising
Probably the most common method. It allows the employer to reach a wider audience.
The choice of advertising media (e.g. national newspaper, internet, specialist magazine
etc) depends on the requirement for the advert to reach a particular audience and,
crucially, the advertising budget.
           Advertisement characteristics :
           o Accurate - describes the job and its requirements accurately
           o Short - not too long-winded; covers just the important ground
           o Honest - does not make claims about the job or the business that will later
             prove false to applicants
           o Positive - gives the potential applicant a positive feel about joining the
             business & employer brand
           o Relevant - provides details that prospective applicants need to know at the
             application stage (e.g. is shift-working required; are there any
             qualifications required)
           o Consistent – With all the functions of the business values & brand.

 Choice of medium - What kind of advertising medium should be chosen?
                   The following factors are relevant:
            Type of job: senior management jobs merit adverts in the national
             newspapers and/or specialist management magazines (e.g. the Economist,
             Business Week). Many semi-skilled jobs need only be advertised locally
             to attract sufficient good quality candidates
            Cost of advertising: National newspapers and television cost significantly
             more than local newspapers etc
            Readership and circulation: how many relevant people does the medium
             reach? How frequently (e.g. weekly, monthly, annually!. Is the target
             audience actually only a small fraction of the total readership or Viewer
             ship?
            Frequency: how often does the business want to advertise the post?


                                                                                           15
Advantages of external recruitment:

      These are mainly the opposite of the disadvantages of internal
      recruitment. The main one being that a wider audience can be reached
      which increases the chance that the business will be able to recruit the
      skills it needs.

Revolutionary method

   Friends program’
           Prospective employee clicked on the Friends program icon
              on the company’s website
           they had to fill in a form
           explained about the work and the company’s culture
   Internal referral program, Amazing People
           refer their friends and relatives for a job
Results
           Through Friends Programme Attract:100/150 per week &
              500,00 in a month.
           Hiring cycle comes down to 45 days (65days).
           Cost down to 40%
           Result in more qualified people
           Low attrition rate


Internet recruitment
    Advancement in technology has caused recruitment and selection
      process to be more fast and easier.
          E- mails have replaced ordinary post
          Electronic CVs has speeded the process by optical character
            recognition (OCR)
          Online recruitment sites include job sites, agency sites and
            different media sites.




                                                                            16
                      Factors Affecting Recruitment

The recruitment function of the rganization is affected and governed by a
mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are
the factors that can be controlled by the rganization. And the external
factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the rganization.
The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an
  rganization are:


                FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT




Internal Factors Affecting Recruitment :

The internal forces i.e. the factors which can be controlled by the
organisation are:

1. Recruitment policy : The recruitment policy of an organisation specifies
the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation
of recruitment programme. It states the system to be developed for
implementing recruitment programmes & procedures by filling up vacancies
with best qualified people.


                                                                            17
       FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY

                     Organizational objectives
                     Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors
                     Government policies on reservations
                     Preferred sources of recruitment
                     Need of the organization
                     Recruitment costs and financial implications

In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined
recruitment policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human
resource requirements in time. Creating a suitable, clear & concise
recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient & sound hiring process.

                         Components of the recruitment policy
      The general recruitment policies and terms of the organisation
      Recruitment services of consultants
      Recruitment of temporary employees
      Unique recruitment situations
      The selection process
      The job descriptions
      The terms and conditions of the employment

                    Characteristics of a good recruitment policy :
    Focus on recruiting the best potential people.
    To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and
     respect
    Unbiased policy
    To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential
    Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection
    Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs
    Defining the competent authority to approve each selection
    Abides by relevant public policy & legislation on hiring and employment
     relationship
    Integrates employee needs with the organisational needs
    Complies with government policies
    Provides job security
    Provides employee development opportunities
    Flexible to accommodate changes
    Ensures its employees long-term employment opportunities
    Cost effective for the organization
    Line & staff interface to encourage to promote cooperation


                                                                                 18
2. Human resource planning: Effective human resource planning helps in
determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization .
It determines the number of employees to be recruited & the qualification
they must possess.

3. Size of the firm : The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment
process. If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand
its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its
operations.

(Forms Of Recruitment - The organisations differ in terms of their size,
business, processes and practices. A few decisions by the recruitment
professionals can affect the productivity and efficiency of the organisation.
Organisations adopt different forms of recruitment practices according to the
specific needs of the organisation. The organisations can choose from the
centralized or decentralized forms of recruitment, explained below:

    CENTRALIZED RECRUITMENT- The recruitment practices of an
     organisation are centralized when the HR / recruitment department at
     the head office performs all functions of recruitment. Recruitment
     decisions for all the business verticals and departments of an
     organisation are carried out by the one central department. Centralized
     from of recruitment is commonly seen in government organisations.

Benefits of the centralized form of recruitment are:
   Reduces administration costs as duplication of processes are avoided
   Better utilization of specialists
   Uniformity in recruitment
   Interchangeability of staff & Team Building
   Reduces favoritism
   Every department sends requisitions for recruitment to their central
      office
   Synergy
   Evaluation of effectiveness of recruitment
   Recruit for more positions from the same pool




                                                                             19
    DECENTRALIZED RECRUITMENT- Decentralized recruitment
     practices are most commonly seen in the case of conglomerates
     operating in different and diverse business areas. With diverse and
     geographically spread business areas and offices, it becomes
     important to understand the needs of each department and frame the
     recruitment policies and procedures accordingly. Each department
     carries out its own recruitment. Choice between the two will depend
     upon management philosophy and needs of particular organization. In
     some cases combination of both is used. Lower level staffs as well as
     top level executives are recruited in a decentralized manner. )

4. Cost : Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try
to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of
recruitment to the organization for each candidate.

5. Growth and expansion : Organization will employ or think of employing
more personnel if it is expanding its operations. Here is where Recruitment
gets aligned with the business strategy.


External Factors Affecting Recruitment :

The external forces are the forces which cannot be controlled by the
organisation. The major external forces are:

1. Supply & demand : The availability of manpower both within and outside
the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If
the company has a demand for more professionals & there is limited supply
in the market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the
company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them
special training & development programs. If there is surplus of manpower at
the time of recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like
notice boards display of the requisition or announcement in the meeting etc
will attract more than enough applicants. Lower the rate of unemployment,
more the difficulty to recruit from outside.


2. Labour market : Employment conditions in the community where the
organization is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the
organization.

                                                                           20
3. Image / goodwill : Going beyond the Business brand, comes the Employer
brand. How does an Organization treat its employees ? Image of the
employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization
with positive image & goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and
retain employees than an organization with negative image..

4. Political-social- legal environment : Various government regulations
prohibiting discrimination in hiring & employment have direct impact on
recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced
legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled
tribes, physically handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in
recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals
who it believes would be the best performers. If the candidate can’t meet
criteria stipulated by the union but union regulations can restrict recruitment
sources.

Equal Employment Opportunity – When the diversity in work force is
increasing along with the organizational size, it is the responsibility of the
employer to create an equality-based and discrimination-free working
environment and practices.

Equal employment opportunity is necessary to ensure:
   To give fair access to the people of all development opportunities
   To create a fair organisation, industry and society.
   To encourage and give disadvantaged or disabled people a fair chance
      to grow with the society
   help to realize and respect the actual worth of the individual on the
      basis of his knowledge, skills, abilities and merit,

Discrimination in employment refers to the any kind of prejudice, biasness
or favoritism on the basis of
     disability ● race       ● age ● sexuality ● pregnancy
     sex ● Educational Background ● Cast ● Marital status
     Temporary/ Permanent Employment

5. Unemployment rate : One of the factors that influence the availability of
applicants is the growth of the economy (whether economy is growing or not



                                                                            21
and its rate). When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often
oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment.

6. Competitors : The recruitment policies of the competitors also effect the
recruitment function of the organisations. To face the competition, they have
to be competitive or have a distinct feature.

                    Recent Trends in Recruitment

The following trends are being seen in recruitment:

    1. OUTSOURCING –
 In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade
now. The outsourcing firms help the organisation by the initial screening of
the candidates according to the needs of the organisation & creating a
suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organisation. Outsourcing
firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and
make available personnel to various companies as per their needs & in turn
earn fees for their services.

Advantages of outsourcing are:
   Can focus on its core activities
   Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage
   Turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM
   Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable
     resumes/candidates
   Company can save a lot of its resources and time as costs are reduced
     by almost 40%

    2. POACHING / RAIDING -
“Buying talent” (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being
followed by the organisations today. Poaching means employing a
competent & experienced person already working with another reputed
company in the same or different industry; the organisation might be a
competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm
by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better
than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical
practice and not openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are
the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today. It has become a


                                                                             22
challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching, as it
weakens the competitive strength of the firm.




   3. E-RECRUITMENT-
The buzzword in recruitment is the “E-Recruitment /Online recruitment” for
technological advances. Many big organizations use Internet as a source of
recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job
seekers send their applications or CV’s through e-mail using the Internet.
Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be
drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.

Advantages of erecruitment are:
   Low cost
   No intermediaries
   Reduction in time for recruitment
   Reaches out to masses easily
   Easy , Quick & time savvy process
   Automation is possible

The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential.
According to a study by NASSCOM – “Jobs is among the top reasons why
new users will come on to the internet, besides e-mail.” There are more than
18 million resume’s floating online across the world.


                                                                          23
The two kinds of e- recruitment that an organisation can use is –
    Job portals : Posting the position with the job description and the job specification
      on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site
      corresponding to the opening in the organisation.
    Job Sites : Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the
      companies own website. Companies have added an application system to its
      website, where the ‘passive’ job seekers can submit their resumes into the
      database of the organisation for consideration in future, as and when the roles
      become available.
    Resume Scanners : Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job
      portals to the organisations. It enables the employers to screen and filter the
      resumes through pre-defined criteria’s and requirements (skills, qualifications,
      experience, payroll etc.) of the job.

Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the
employees facilitating the just-in-time hiring by the organisations. Also, the
jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately & is also cheaper than
advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes companies can get
valuable references through the “passers-by” applicants.

       Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the “Evolving face of
       recruitment.”

                          Common Recruitment Failings

Errors of process :
    Overlooking the business strategy
    Failing to clarify what you are looking for
    Using the wrong method
    Rushing the decision

Errors of attitude :
    Looking for superman / superwoman
    Pre-occupation with qualification, skills & ignoring attitudes &
      behaviours
    Recruiting people in your own image / that of previous incumbent

Errors of application :
    Over selling / Underselling the opportunity
    Ignoring emotion
    Giving candidates an inconsistent message


                                                                                       24
                        Recruitment Vs Selection


Recruitment & Selection is a continuous process for :

    Staff departures (e.g. retirements, sackings, resignations)
    Changes in business requirements (e.g. new products, markets,
     expanded operations)
    Changes in business location (a relocation often triggers the need for
     substantial recruitment)
    Promotions

Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment
process. The differences between the two are:
    Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for
      employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation
      WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the
      candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for
      vacant posts.
    The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of
      candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the
      organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the
      organisation WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to
      choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the
      organisation.
    Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more
      employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it
      involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.
    Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human
      resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most
      suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.
    There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment
      WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the
      employer and the selected employee.




                                                                        25
                                        Selection
Having identified the potential applicants, the next step is to evaluate their experiences
and qualifications and make a selection. Selection refers to the process of offering jobs to
one or more applicants from the applications. Great attention has to be paid to selection
because it means establishing the “best fit” between job requirements on one hand, and
the candidate’s qualifications on the other. Faulty judgment can have a far-reaching
impact on the organizational functioning. Selection is a long process, commencing from
the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment.

The hiring procedure is a series of stages. At each step, additional information is secured
about the applicant, which may lead to the rejection to the applicant. A procedure may be
compared to a series of successive hurdles or barriers, which an applicant must cross.
These are intended as screens, and they are designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant
at any point in the process. This technique is known as the successive hurdles
technique. The complexity of a process increases with the level and responsibility of the
position to be filled.

Thus, an effective selection programme is a non-random process because those selected
have been chosen on the basis of the assumption that they are more likely to be “better”
employees than those who have been rejected.

                                Types Of Job Seekers

    Quid Pro Que: These are the people who say that “ I can do this for you, what
     can you give me” These people value high responsibilities, higher risks, and
     expect higher rewards, personal development and company profiles doesn’t
     matter to them.
    I will be with you: These people like to be with big brands. Importance is
     given to brands. They are not bothered about work ethic, culture mission etc.
    I will do you what you want: These people are concerned about how
     meaningful the job is and they define meaning parameters criteria known by
     previous job.
    Where do you want me to come: These people observe things like where is
     your office, what atmosphere do you offer. Career prospects and exciting projects
     don’t entice them as much. It is the responsibility of the recruiter to decide what
     the employee might face in given job and thus take decision. A good decision will
     help cut down employee retention costs and future recruitment costs.




                                                                                         26
How crucial is selection process?

Its better not to select
then selecting a bad candidate !!




Objective of Selection : TO SELECT THE MOST SUITABLE CANDIDATE.

     Selecting                                   Rejecting
the right candidate      POSITIVE OUTCOME   the wrong candidate




     Selecting                                    Rejecting
the wrong candidate      NEGATIVE OUTCOME   the correct candidate




                                                                    27
                                            T H E S EL E C TI O N P R O C E S S



    R eessuum eess/ /C V ss R eevvi ieew
     R       m        CV     R          w                                          ii i l S
                                                                              I Inn t t iaa l S ccr reeeenn inngg I Innt teer rvv ieew
                                                                                                           i                    i     w



                                                        i
               A nnaal lyyzzee t thhee A ppppl i iccaat t ioonn B l laannkk
                A                       A      l                 B


                                                     i
                                       C oonndduucct t inngg TTeesst tss aanndd
                                        C
                                                    i             f
                                     E vvaal luuaat t inngg ppeer r foor rm aannccee
                                      E                                    m

                                           rt m
                   C oor ree aanndd D eeppaa r tm eennt taal l
                    C                D
                                                                                                                          t
                                                                                          P r reel i im i innaar ryy I Inn teer rvvi ieew
                                                                                           P       l m                                   w
                                     te
                                I Inn t er rvvi ieew ss
                                                    w


                                                            R eef feer reennccee cchheecckkss
                                                             R

       O ffe r to th e                      R EJ E CT IO N
                                                                                                          J ob O ffer
       n e x t s ui t a b l e                                                                              J ob O ffer
       c a n di d a t e                                          A CCE PT


                                                  i     l E               ti
                                            M eedd iccaa l E xxaam i innaa t ioonn
                                             M                    m

                                                                                                       P l laaccee m ee n t t
                                                                                                        P          m n




SELECTION METHOD STANDARDS

 • Reliability : Reliability can be measured by using:
             • The repeat or test-retest approach
             • The alternate-form or parallel-form method
             • The split-halves procedure

 • Validity :
            • Criterion validity
            • Content validity
            • Construct validity

 • Generalizability : Generalizability of a selection method is defined as
   the degree to which its validity, established in one context, can be
   extended to other “primary contexts”.
            • Utility
            • Legality




                                                                                                                                             28
Selection Methods : The following aspects have to be considered before
Choosing any particular Selection Method.
       Strategic goals of organization

       Utility (benefits less costs)

       Legal defensibility

       Reliability and validity


                            Selection methods

       Application forms

            Computer screening of application forms
            Used by many large firms (Microsoft, IBM) to save time
            Used for large numbers of applicants
            Biodata- education, other information about accomplishments


APPLICATION FORMS
   Personal information
   Educational qualifications
   Work experience
   Salary
   Personality items
   Reference checks

EVALUATION OF APPLICATION FORMS
     – Clinical method:
          • In this method, all the information furnished by the
             applicant in the application form is analyzed and
             inferences are made about applicant's personality.
     – Weighted method:
          • In this method, certain points or weights are assigned
             to each item in the application form.



                                                                           29
                                                Tests



                        S E LE C TI O N TE S T S


             I n t e l li g e n c e t e s t s             I nt ere st t e st s




                A p tit u d e te st s                   P e r s o n alit y t e st s




            A c hie ve m e nt te st s                   P oly gr a p h te sts




             S it u a ti o n al te st s                    Gra phology




 Psychometric test
     Personality:
            Projective Technique: TAT
            16Pf Test
     Interest Inventory:
            Thurston Inventory
     Motivation:
            Achievement Test
            Need for Affiliation
            Need For Power
     Honesty:
            Polygraph
            Graphology

 Assessment center
   The focus is on behavior
   Includes role-plays and group exercises
   Interviews and tests will be used in addition to exercises
   Performance is measured in several dimensions in terms of the
    competencies


                                                                                      30
                    Several participants are assessed together in order to allow
                     interaction
                    Several assessors and observers are used in order to increase the
                     objectivity


    Peer assessments- Important if teamwork involved

            Interviews

   Problems with interviews : Interviewer should be skilled
            Biases on part of interviewer
            Halo & Primacy Eeffects




                                                 IN TE R VIE W TYP E S




                                                       I nt e r v i e w s
                                                         I nt e r v i e w s




             P r e li m i n a r y                        S el ectio n                                      D e c i si o n - m a k i n g
              P r e li m i n a r y                         S el ectio n                                     D e c i si o n - m a k i n g
              I nt e r v i e w                           I nt e r v i e w                                       I nt e r v i e w
                I nt e r v i e w                           I nt e r v i e w                                       I nt e r v i e w




 F or mal &                                                                      Gr o u p                                   In-de pth
    F or mal &             U n str u ctur e d        S tr ess                      Gr o u p            P a nel                In-de pth
S tr uctur e d              U n str u ctur e d        S tr ess                I n t er v i e w           P a nel
 S tr uctur e d                                   I n t er v i e w              I n t er v i e w   I n t er v i e w         I n t e rv i e w
                              Intervi e w           I n t er v i e w                                 I n t er v i e w         I n t e rv i e w
  I n t er v i e w             Intervi e w                                      Method
    I n t er v i e w                                                              Method




                                                                                                                                            31
                                                            T H E I N T E R VI E W
          P re p a ra tio n
           P re p a ra tio n                                          P R O C E S S

                           ttti
                       SSee t i nngg



                                           t    f I t r vi
                               C oonndduucc t oo f I nn tee r v ieew
                                  PP LL AA C EE M EE N TT
                                C                                   w



                                                             C l o si n g a n I n t e r v i e w
                                            C


                                                              C l o si n g a n I n t e r v i e w
                                                 M




                                                                                    al      tti
                                                                                EEvv a luuaa i oonn
                                                      N




                                                                                                      e      e C          s
                                                                                           R eef feer r enncc e C hheecckk s
                                                                                            R



                                                                                                         i al         a m
                                                                                                   M eedd icc a l EExx am i innaat it ioonn
                                                                                                    M




Reference Checks
      It is necessary to confirm the nature of the previous, period of time
        in employment, the reason for leaving, attendance record etc.
      But Allowance should made for prejudice and a check should
        made.
      Some firms fear liability in defamation suits for giving references
      Importance of training referees to know difference between facts
        and generalizations
      Credit checks- contain biographical data which can be checked
        against applicant info
      If rejected due to credit check, applicant must be told under Fair
        Credit Reporting Act

Placement : The determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is
to be assigned and his assignments to the job.




                                                                                                                                              32
                          ORIENTATION OR INDUCTION

After an applicant has been hired, he or she must be oriented and placed on the chosen
job. Orientation, also called as induction, is designed to provide a new employee with the
information he or she needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organization.

It is a technique, by which a new employee is rehabilitated into his surroundings and
introduced to the practices, polices and purposes of the organization. In other words, it is
a welcoming process- the idea is to welcome a newcomer, make him feel at home and
generate in him a feeling that his own job, however small, is meaningful and has
significance as a part of the total organization.

Importance of Orientation : When a newcomer joins an organization, he is a stranger
to the people, work place and work environment. He may feel insecure shy and nervous.
The first few days may be anxious and disturbing ones for him. He may have anxiety
caused by not following the usual practices prevalent in the organization. These may
develop discouragement, disillusionment or defensive behaviour. Induction leads to
reduction of such anxieties; dispels the irritational fears of present employees and hold
colleagues responsible for assisting the newcomer so that he may feel confident.

There is another reason for effective induction. It helps minimize what might be called a
reality shock some new employees undergo. This reality shock is caused by the
incompatibility between what the employees expect in their new jobs and the realities
they are confronted with.

The newcomer may expect:
    Opportunities for advancement
    Social status and prestige – the feeling of doing something important and the
      recognition of this by others
    Responsibility
    Opportunities to use special aptitudes and educational background
    Challenge and adventure
    Opportunity to be creative and original
    Lucrative salary

But when these expectations are often not fulfilled and, therefore,
result in frustrating experiences for new employees, inadequate
feedback, and inadequate performance appraisals. Orientation can help
overcome these problems by providing far more realistic expectations on
the part of new employees and more understanding on the part of the
supervisors.Orientation may be done informally or formally. Informal
induction is brief. The employee is expected to familiarize with the
new environment by himself or herself while working on the allotted
job.Formal orientation is lengthy and may last even a few months.
Formal induction is shared by the HR representative and the line
manager. The latter briefs the new employee about specific job duties
while the HR representative provides all the other details. Some
companies even conduct anxiety-reduction seminars.



                                                                                         33
                    Recruitment Management System
Just like performance management, payroll and other systems, Recruitment
management system helps to contour the recruitment processes and
effectively managing the ROI on recruitment.

The features, functions and major benefits of the recruitment management
system are explained below:
    Structure and systematically organize the entire recruitment processes.
    Recruitment management system facilitates faster, unbiased, accurate
      and reliable processing of applications from various applications.
    Helps to reduce the time-per-hire and cost-per-hire.
    Recruitment management system helps to incorporate and integrate
      the various links like the application system on the official website of
      the company, the unsolicited applications, outsourcing recruitment,
      the final decision making to the main recruitment process.
    Recruitment management system maintains an automated active
      database of the applicants facilitating the talent management and
      increasing the efficiency of the recruitment processes.
    Recruitment management system provides and a flexible, automated
      and interactive interface between the online application system, the
      recruitment department of the company and the job seeker.
    Offers tolls and support to enhance productivity, solutions and
      optimizing the recruitment processes to ensure improved ROI.
    Recruitment management system helps to communicate and create
      healthy relationships with the candidates through the entire
      recruitment process.

The Recruitment Management System (RMS) is an innovative information
system tool which helps to sane the time and costs of the recruiters and
improving the recruitment processes.




                                                                           34
                               Outsourcing Recruitment

Outsourcing in recruitment is commonly known as RPO i.e. recruitment
process outsourcing. More and more medium and large sized organizations
are outsourcing their recruitment process right from the entry level jobs to
the C-level jobs. The functions that are typically outsourced are the ones that
need expertise, relevant experience, knowledge and best methods &
practices.

Constant increase in the complexities in recruitment process forces many
companies to redefine the whole processes. Numerous entities come ahead
to take the challenge to serve various industries in their staffing functions.
Non-core part of their recruitment services are handled by service providers
locating in other shores. Many leaders in human resource staffing companies
have emerged in the outsourcing market. RPO services providers manage
non-core functions of recruitment activities with its unparallel solutions.

The present value of the recruitment process outsourcing industry (RPO) in
India is estimated to be $2.5 billion and it is expected to grow at the annual
rate of 30-40 per cent for the next couple of years. According to a recent
survey, only 8-10 per cent of the Indian companies are complete recruitment
processes.

Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) is growing rapidly and has the potential to be a multi-
billion dollar market, taking advantage of the trend towards single process deals in human
resources outsourcing. The global RPO market in 2007 to be worth US$720 million and forecasts
it will grow by 22% in 2008 to US$880 million, surpassing the US$1 billion level in 2009.
According to the report, demand is predominately from Fortune 1000 companies in the US, but
the market is growing rapidly in the UK and continental Europe and is beginning to gain traction in
the Asia Pacific region.


The portion of the recruitment cycle that is outsourced range from preparing
job descriptions to arranging interviews, the activities that consume almost
70 per cent of the time of the whole recruitment process.

Outsourcing the recruitment processes for a sector like BPO, which faces an
attrition of almost 50-60 per cent, can help the companies in BPO sector to
save costs tremendously and focus on other issues like retention.

In India, the trend of outsourcing recruitment is also catching up fast. For
example: Vodafone outsources its recruitment activities to Alexander Mann
Solutions (RPO service provider). Wipro has outsourced its recruitment

                                                                                                35
process to MeritTrac. Yes bank is also known to outsource 50 per cent of its
recruitment processes.

Advantage Of Outsourcing Recruitment :
Traditionally, recruitment is seen as the cost incurring process in an
organization. Outsourcing helps the HR professionals of the organisations to
concentrate on the strategic functions and processes of human resource
management rather than wasting their efforts, time and money on the routine
work.

Outsourcing the recruitment process helps to cut the recruitment costs to 40
% and also provide economies of scale to the large sized organizations.




Apart from increasing their revenues, outsourcing provides business
opportunities to the service providers, enhancing the skill set of the service
providers and exposure to the different corporate experiences thereby
increasing their expertise.

The advantages accruing to the corporates are:
   turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM
   accessibility to the expertise of the service providers
   freedom from red tape and adhering to strict rules and regulations
   optimal resource utilisation
   structured and fair performance management.
   a satisfied and, hence, highly productive employees
   value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage



                                                                           36
Therefore outsourcing helps both the organisations and the consultancies to
grow and perform better.

Offshore companies get lots of advantageous by outsourcing their part of or
whole of recruiting functions such as:

  * Reducing operative costs to considerably
  * Access to all available job boards & portals
  * Get considerably skilled search recruiters
  * Deliver of results in shorter period
  * Turnaround working time makes company’s work to be processed on
    24 X 7 basis
  * Able to provide the details of passive candidates which are not
    mentioned in any job portals
  * Can process collaborative with in-house recruitment staff
  * Unhidden costs are not involved

Changing Role of Recruitment Intermediaries –

Recruitment consultancies, agencies or intermediaries are witnessing a boom
in the demand of their services, both by the employers and the job seekers.
With an already saturated job market, the recruitment intermediaries have
gained a vital position acting as a link between the job seekers and the
employers.

But at the same time, one of the major threats faced by this industry is the
growing popularity of e-recruitment. With the changing demand,
technologies and the penetration and increasing use of internet, the
recruitment consultancies or the intermediaries are facing tough competition.
To retain and maintain their position in the recruitment market, the
recruitment intermediaries or consultants (as they are commonly known) are
witnessing and incorporating various changes in terms of their role,
functions and the services.

According to a survey amongst top employers, most of them agree with the
growing influence of technology and the Internet on the recruitment
processes. 70 per cent of employers reported the use of application portal on
their company’s official website. Apart from that, the emerging popularity of
the job portals is also growing.



                                                                          37
But the fact that the intermediaries or the consultants are able to provide
their expert services, economies of scale, up to 40 percent savings in the
recruitment costs, knowledge of the market, the candidates, understanding of
the requirements, and most importantly, the assess to the suitable and
talented candidates and the structured recruitment processes. The
recruitment intermediaries save the organisations from the tedious of
weeding out unsuitable resumes, co-coordinating interviews, posting
vacancies etc. give them an edge over the other sources of recruitment.

To retain their position as the service providers in the recruitment market,
the recruitment intermediaries are providing vale added services to the
organisations. They are incorporating the use of internet and job portals,
making their services more efficient.

Outsourcing Process:




                                                                         38
                How To Select A Recruitment Consultant

If an organisation decides to outsource its recruitment processes or activities,
it is very important to find and select a suitable recruitment consultant or
consultancies, which can deliver results according to the needs of the
organisation. Today, there are thousands of consulting firms (consultancies)
as well as freelance consultants working independently. An organisation
looks for various considerations and qualities before selecting the suitable
recruitment consultant.
   The reputation of the consulting firm in the job market (based on
      expertise and experience).
   Who are the consultant’s or firm’s past and present clients?

    Consultant’s expertise and experience (from how long has he/firm
     been in the business)
    Does the recruitment consultant have the requisite resources to
     complete the targets on time?
    Get the idea of the effectiveness and the services of the recruitment
     consultant from its current and past clients.

           Qualities of an independent recruitment consultant

Some of the qualities or characteristics looked in recruitment consultants
are:
    Marketing skills
    Flexibility and adaptability
    Wisdom
    Exuberance
    Ability to prioritise
    Ambition
    Resourcefulness
    Diplomacy/ delicacy
Selecting the right recruitment consultant is essential for the effective
recruitment processes. A successful Recruitment consultant is someone who
is determinative, focused, and able to create opportunities for him, works
harder and smarter than competitors and continually set and achieve higher
standards.




                                                                             39
                Steps while framing Recruitment Strategies

A successful recruitment strategy should be well planned and practical to
attract more and good talent to apply in the organisation. For formulating an
effective and successful recruitment strategy, the strategy should cover the
following elements:

1. Identifying and prioritizing jobs
Requirements keep arising at various levels ; it is almost a never-ending
process. It is impossible to fill all the positions immediately. Therefore, there
is a need to identify the positions requiring immediate attention and action.
To maintain the quality of the recruitment activities, it is useful to prioritize
the vacancies whether to focus on all vacancies equally or focusing on key
jobs first.

2. Candidates to target
The recruitment process can be effective only when the requirements of the
type of candidates that are required are understood well. This covers the
following parameters as well:
     Performance level required:
     Experience level required: fresher / experienced senior professionals.
     Category of the candidate: same / different industry, unemployed, top
      performers of the industry etc.

3. Sources of recruitment
External / Internal by weighing the pros & cons keeping in mind the kind of
position to be filled, as for eg. Technology reduces the cycle time by 14days.

4. Trained recruiters
The recruitment professionals conducting the interviews and the other
recruitment activities should be well-trained and experienced to conduct the
activities. They should also be aware of the major parameters and skills
(e.g.: behavioural, technical etc.) to focus while interviewing and selecting a
candidate.

5. How to evaluate the candidates
The various parameters and the ways to judge them i.e. the entire
recruitment process should be planned in advance. Like the rounds of
technical interviews, HR interviews, written tests, psychometric tests etc.


                                                                              40
                        HR Challenges In Recruitment

Recruitment is a function that requires business perspective, expertise,
ability to find and match the best potential candidate for the organisation,
diplomacy, marketing skills (as to sell the position to the candidate) and
wisdom to align the recruitment processes for the benefit of the organisation.

In the last few years, the job market has undergone some fundamental changes in terms
of technologies, sources of recruitment, competition in the market etc. In an already
saturated job market, where the practices like poaching and raiding are gaining
momentum, HR professionals are constantly facing new challenges in one of their most
important function- recruitment.

The major challenges faced by the HR in recruitment are:
   Adaptability to globalization – The HR professionals are expected and
     required to keep in tune with the changing times, i.e. the changes
     taking place across the globe & should maintain the timeliness of the
     process.
   Lack of motivation – Recruitment is considered to be a thankless job.
     Even if the organisation is achieving results, HR professionals are not
     thanked for recruiting the right employees and performers.
   Process analysis – The immediacy and speed of the recruitment
     process are the main concerns of the HR in recruitment. The process
     should be flexible, adaptive and responsive to the immediate
     requirements. The recruitment process should also be cost effective.
   Strategic prioritization – The emerging new systems are both an
     opportunity as well as a challenge for the HR professionals.
     Therefore, reviewing staffing needs and prioritizing the tasks to meet
     the changes in the market has become a challenge for the recruitment
     professionals.
   Attracting highly talented ones - The number of highly talented
     professionals is less. All the big MNC's are trying to attract these
     people with high salaries, perks, incentives etc. There is a tough
     competition among these companies to get these candidates on their
     roles.
        o These days, it’s not just salaries which will pull the candidate
            in but various factors like brand, culture, location ,job
            security, reputation of the company etc play a major role in
            recruiting a talented professional.



                                                                                        41
                               Recruiting Expatriates

Expatriate is a person who leaves his country to work and live in a foreign
country. Generally, expatriates are the nationals from the other countries
than the host and the MNC’s parent country, i.e. expatriates are the third
country nationals.

The unavailability of the required skills and talents takes the organisation to
source talent from other countries. The procedures and processes of
recruiting and selecting the human resources are never uniform even within
a single organisation. The procedures vary according to the post, the skill set
required, the nature of work etc. More of it is seen in the case of recruitment
of expatriates. The recruitment and selection procedures and considerations
are drastically different for expatriates than that of the domestic employees.
Recruitment of expatriates involves greater time, monetary resources and
other indirect costs.

A mismatch between job (its requirements) and people can reduce the
effectiveness of other human resource activities and can affect the
performance of the employees as well as the organisation. They may also
return hastily. Hence, recruiting expatriates require special considerations
and skills to select the best person for the job. The expatriate selection
criterion is generally organisation and nation specific.

The recruiters for recruiting the expatriates should be carefully selected and trained. The
recruitment strategies for expatriates should be aligned with requirements of the job. The
interviews of expatriates are designed in a manner to judge their:
      Adaptability to the new culture
      Intercultural interaction & Flexibility
      Professional expertise
      Past international work experience
      Tolerance and open-mindedness
      Family situation
      Language ability
      Attitude and motivation
      Empathy towards local culture
A few researches in this field also suggest that women are more likely to be successful in
certain positions as expatriates as they are more sensitive towards new culture and
people. Recruitment of expatriates should be followed by cultural and sensitivity training,
and language training.


                                                                                        42
RECRUITMENT Process IN TELECOM SECTOR



           SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT



      INTERNAL                             EXTERNAL

1. Transfers                         1. Press Advertisements.
2. Promotions                        2. Educational Institutes.
3. Upgrading                         3. Placement Agencies /
4. Retired Employees                     Outsourcing.
5. Retrenched Employees              4. Employment Exchanges
6. Dependants and Relatives          5. Labor Contractors
   of Deceased Employees             6. Unsolicited Applicants
                 Some Top     Consultants
7. Acquisitions and Mergers          7. Employee Referrals
                                     8. Job Portals
                                     9. Factory Recruits
                                     10. Walk-ins, Write-ins and
                                         Talk-ins




                                                                   43
    Top 5 Job Sites

1        www.naukri.com
2        www.monsterindia.com
3        www.clickjobs.com
4        www.jobstreet.com
5        in.jobs.yahoo.com




                                44
               9 Recruitment Trends '08 &’09
1) Bigger paychecks, say 80 % of the survey respondents. Of those expecting to increase
   wages, 64 % say it will be at least 3 %, and 17 % say 5 % or more.
2) Flexible work arrangements are on the rise. 60% of employers offer flexible work
   plans now — usually alternative schedules (shifted start and quit times), condensed
   work weeks or telecommuting, while 39 % expect to offer some form of flex-time in
   ‘09.
3) Online candidate screening will grow, and not only the use of qualifying pre-
   application questions, but full-blown searching of social networking sites and search
   engine checks.
4) Video & audio Resume will be preferred as is a way for job seekers to showcase
   their abilities beyond the capabilities of a traditional paper resume. The video resume
   allows prospective employers to see, hear and get a feel for how the applicant
   presents themselves.
5) Retiree rehiring will increase as companies remain pressured from the loss of more
   experienced workers. 21 % say they are likely to rehire retirees from other companies
   in 2008; another 14 % plan to provide incentives for workers at or approaching
   retirement age to stay on with the company longer. The numbers here aren’t large, but
   this trend won’t go away.
6) Recruiting diversity workers, especially workers bilingual, will continue to be an
   important focus of recruiters. Survey respondents particularly noted “mature”
   workers.


                                                                                       45
7) Freelance or contract hiring will continue to be a key part of the workforce mix,
    with 31 % of employers anticipating a working relationship with freelancers or
    contractors this year.
8) Perks and benefits will receive more attention from companies wanting to remain
    competitive in attracting and keeping workers. In light of rising healthcare costs,
    nearly 1-in-5 employers (19 %) report their companies plan to offer more
    comprehensive or better health benefits to employees in 2009. 10 % plan to enhance
    or add perks such as bonuses, discounts, company cars, stock options, free childcare,
    educational reimbursement, transit passes and wellness programs.
9) One in four (26 %) of the surveyed companies are likely to provide more promotions
    and career advancement opportunities in 2009. More than half of workers stated
    that a company’s ability to offer career advancement is more important than salary, so
    employers are taking action to carve out career paths for employees.
10) 27 % of workers say they are dissatisfied with pay, but 67 % of workers reported they
    received a raise in 2007.
11) A quarter of the surveyed workers plan to change jobs within the next two years: 41
    % are leaving their jobs to find a position with better pay and/or career advancement
    opportunities; 8 % are changing careers; 7 % say they want to find a company where
    they would feel appreciated; 7 % are retiring; and 5 % plan to start their own
    business.

This survey was released by CareerBuilder.com conducted by Harris Interactive, tracking
projected hiring trends for 2008. The 2008 Job Forecast survey is based on the responses
of 3,016 hiring managers and human resource professionals in private-sector companies.


         Telecom tops in employment growth

According to estimates of the World Bank, employment in the telecommunications
sector has grown by 33 per cent since 1994, the highest growth among all the sectors
in the services industry. While the Word Bank numbers, released in its recent report on
`India's Services Revolution,' head-hunters and recruiters say that telecom is still the
favorite among higher level professionals.

Thanks to the aggressive rollout of a countrywide network, operators like Reliance
Infocom, Tata Teleservices and Bharti have gone on a hiring overdrive. From a career
point of view, telecom sector continues to offer growth and new learning as the sector
matures and the business opportunities expand.

The growth can also be attributed to the large number of telecom equipment
manufacturers and applications developers from Korea, China and Europe foraying into
the Indian market in their bid to take a share of the pie in the booming telecom industry.
These Telecom companies require large number of telecom engineers, telecom
software engineers and Telecom test engineers in the functional areas of Embedded
software development, Analog Digital engineering technology, Telecom networking,
Protocol, Chip Design Engineering, VLSI Software Testing. In the Mumbai Telecom


                                                                                         46
companies there are Software Engineer jobs, Telecom software Engineers jobs, Quality /
Test Engineer jobs, Product Manager job openings, Network Security Systems Specialist
vacancies, NMS Engineer jobs, Network Management specialists, Managers, UNIX
Network Systems Operations Engineers, NMS Administrator jobs, Cisco Specialist
Software Engineer etc.

Taking a cue from the demand for telecom professionals, top educational institutions
have begun specialized courses in telecommunication management. Symbiosis in Pune
and Amity in Delhi are examples of such institutions. Even state-owned Mahanagar
Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL) has set up a training facility for telecom engineers in
Mumbai.

HR (employment) in telecom industry:
With more and more players entering the industry, the competition in the industry in
terms of attracting and retaining the best talent is also increasing. The employment
scenario in the telecom sector is very promising. The sector is creating employment
opportunities and adding around 1 lakh people in its workforce. The telecom sector has a
huge demand for the trained and qualified engineers and other professionals specializing
in telecommunications.
Compensation:
According to various studies in recent times, the telecom sector offers the best salary
packages at the entry level i.e. an average of 20k. The average hike in salaries across the
various levels in the telecom sector ranges from 15 to 20 percent. Incentives also form a
part of the compensation till the middle levels.
Attrition and retention:
Although the sector faces the moderate attrition rates of 20 to 25 percent, the HR’s prime
strategic function in the sector is retaining the talent and employee engagement. The only
functional area which faces the high attrition rate is the sales people in the telecom
industry.




         TOP 10 Recruiters in Telecom Sector

                                                                                         47
        Recruiters                                                     Total No. Of Vacancies
1       Vodafone Essar                                                           45
2       Reliance communications                                                  44
3       Bharti Airtel                                                            43
4       Tata teleservices                                                        23
5       Cable & Wireless                                                         19
6       IMI mobile                                                               14
7       VSNL Internet Services Ltd                                               12
8       Motorola Worldwide                                                       10
9       GTL Limited                                                               4
10      Nokia                                                                     3
 The ranking is based on the number of vacancies notified by the company on different job portals (Till 29th
                                             January 2008)




Here rankings of the ten companies in the Indian Telecom sector are given on the basis of
their workforce relationship factors. Ten companies were selected on random basis from
the sector. The companies were given a consolidated rank on a scale of 1-10 on the basis
of sum of their individual ranks on various HR practices, procedures, policies and
parameters like recruitment practices, compensation policies, work culture, recognition
for good work, retention, training and development, performance appraisals et al. The
scores are consolidated on the basis of data collected through recent surveys and studies
by renowned names like Business Today, Hewitt, IDC Data Quest, NASSCOM and
naukrihub.com




                                                                                                               48
                              Our Vision & promise
              By 2010 Airtel will be the most admired brand in India:
      Loved by more customers
      Targeted by top talent
      Benchmarked by more businesses

 “We at Airtel always think in fresh and innovative ways about the needs of our
customers and how we want them to feel. We deliver what we promise and go out of our
way to delight the customer with a little bit more”


Bharti Airtel
Telecom giant Bharti Airtel is the flagship company of Bharti Enterprises. The Bharti
Group, has a diverse business portfolio and has created global brands in the
telecommunication sector.

Airtel comes to you from Bharti Airtel Limited, India’s largest integrated and the first
private telecom services provider with a footprint in all the 23 telecom circles. Bharti
Airtel since its inception has been at the forefront of technology and has steered the
course of the telecom sector in the country with its world class products and services.
The businesses at Bharti Airtel have been structured into three individual strategic
business units (SBU’s) - Mobile Services, Airtel Telemedia Services & Enterprise
Services. The mobile business provides mobile & fixed wireless services using GSM
technology across 23 telecom circles while the Airtel Telemedia Services business offers
broadband & telephone services in 94 cities. The Enterprise services provide end-to-end
telecom solutions to corporate customers and national & international long distance
services to carriers. All these services are provided under the Airtel brand.


Our Brand




                                                                                        49
Airtel was born free, a force unleashed into the market with a relentless and unwavering
determination to succeed. A spirit charged with energy, creativity and a team driven “to
seize the day” with an ambition to become the most globally admired telecom service.
Airtel, after just ten years, has risen to the pinnacle of achievement.

As India's leading telecommunications company Airtel brand has played the role as a
major catalyst in India's reforms, contributing to its economic resurgence.

Today we touch people’s lives with our Mobile services, Telemedia services, to
connecting India's leading 1000+ corporates. We also connect Indians living in USA with
our callhome service.


                           Business Divisions




                                                                                       50
                        FUTURE Development
In the mobile business, Bharti Airtel plans to make considerable investments in Network
expansion to establish presence in all census towns and over 500,000 villages across
India by 2010, thereby covering 95% of the country’s total population. The company’s
strategic focus will be on further strengthening the Airtel brand through best-in-class
customer service, which is backed by wide national distribution.


The Airtel subscriber base according to COAI - Cellular Operator Association of India
as of May 2008[7] was:




The total is 67,425,935 or 32.81% of the total 205,460,762 GSM mobile connections in
India till May 2008.




                                                                                       51
                            Achievements
 Airtel was the first private player in telecom sector to connect all states of India.
 Airtel is the first mobile service provider to introduce the lifetime prepaid
  services and electronic recharge systems.
 the network has spread over 93 per cent along the National Highways and 88 per
  cent of key rail routes across the State .
 Having achieved huge success in mobile services- postpaid and prepaid- Airtel
  has now entered fixed-line telephony providing broadband services in 92 cities
  across India.
 The company has an optical fiber network of 35,016 km and a customer base of
  35,440,406 GSM mobile and 1,819,083 broadband subscribers.
 Airtel is listed on The Stock Exchange, Mumbai (BSE) and The National Stock
  Exchange of India Limited (NSE).
 Rapidly expands network, to roll out across all census towns and over 5,00,000
  villages – covering over 95% of the population.
 Bharti Airtel crosses the 50 million customer mark – OCT 1,2007 ( 65million is the
  latest figure & adding nearly 2 million subscribers every month)
 Becomes the fastest private telecom company in the world to achieve this
  milestone
 Enters into the league of the world’s top telecom companies, moves towards
  top 5 global mobile companies
 Adding 25000 towers every month expanding their network all over India.
 Wide range of Value Added Services – like ringtones, caller tunes, news etc
 One of the 1st company to introduce mobile banking, mobile bill payments etc

    For Employees
   It has 25000 employees & with increase in network, it has wide prospects.
   Provide attractive salary to employees, performance turnover, ESOPS( Employee
     Stock Options Programme)
   Provides an opportunity for career growth – from Management trainee to CEO.
   Gives an opportunity to employee to grow vertically as well as horizontally.
   Gives an opportunity to move any part of the country considering they have
     network everywhere..

                                 Targets
   Aggressive efforts are on to provide a superior network service that is
    congestion-free and to help customers get connected the first time.
   Also, the SMS capacity is sought to be raised from the current 5,500 messages
    per second to 6,500 messages per second by March 2009.
   After establishing itself in the domestic market, Airtel is now spreading its wings
    in US by providing its mobile service under the name 'CALLHOME' to the NRIs.


                                                                                     52
                            Advertisements
Airtel’s advertising campaigns are always admired. Their idea of creating a signature
ringtone with A R Rehman was brilliant; and they still continue to use that tone. In a
masterstroke they elevated the brand without having to talk of talk time , rates etc.
         Then came the almost magical ‘Express Yourself ‘ campaign stunningly executed
with excellent imagery and creativity. It showcased the ubiquitous utility of the mobile
phone through the situations ( a fighting couple, a bride entering church, an irate mob)
but converted a rational purchase decision to an extension of one’s voice. And from that
Bharti’s market share has kept increasing to being the biggest mobile service provider.
        They chose the country’s most popular people i.e. SRK, Kareena and Sachin for
their campaign & made connection with people. Its advertisements always touch the
chord of the people.




          Airtel to focus on rural expansion
Bharti Airtel, which had 48 million mobile users in September 2007, had 9.80 million
subscribers coming from rural areas.
Airtel, the leading mobile service provider, has planned to increase the pace of its
network expansion in rural areas during 2008-09.
People in the rural markets are ready to go mobile and the growth depends on the strength
and the quality of the network. Distribution has been growing at a rapid pace and Airtel
will be in easy reach for all customers in the State. “We want to increase the brand
presence and become far more local,” CEO says.




        Organizational Structure of AIRTEL


                                                                                      53
Departments




              54
                                        Levels




98% of organizational success depends upon efficient employee
selection

The Talent Acquisition / Recruitment Process
The recruitment process is the basic procedure, however there are few changes in
different departments, for e.g. IT dept & Customer Care dept cannot have same type of
recruitment process as the abilities & skills required are different in different department.
However the basic process is as following :
 1. Prepare the organizational chart with the support of respective departments based
     on industry norms & projection of growth.
 2. Co-ordinate with all departments for their manpower requirements.
 3. Create the job profile and person specification as per department requisition.
 4. Create the company profile for advertising the company to attract prospective
     candidates & also for the consultants etc.

5. Follow internal or external methods of Recruitment



                                                                                           55
      Commonly used External Methods
         i. Co-ordinate with recruitment agencies & HR consultants e.g.. HEED
            Consultancy, ABC Consultancy etc
        ii. Advertisements in print e.g.. Times Ascent, Hindustan Times etc
       iii. Web - in own website or portals like naukri.com, monster.com etc.
       iv. Campus Recruitments

      Commonly used Internal Methods (IJR – Internal Job Requirement)
        i. Employees Referral
       ii. Transfer & Promotions

6. Application Scrutiny & Preliminary Screening .
7. Shortlist for preliminary interview – telephonic, video conferencing, personal
    interview.
8. Organizing further rounds of interview with department heads etc depending upon
    the position.
9. Briefing company profile to potential candidates, convincing them about the
    organisational strength & about their career path & Compensation.
10. Providing offer letter to selected candidates & help them in joining formalities
    within the organization.
11. Induction, followed by training as required.
12. Taking monthly/quarterly feedback from the department about the candidates who
    have joined.
13. Organizing market survey of salaries, job opportunities etc.




       Recruitment through AIRTEL Website




                                                                                 56
57
58
Recruitment through Job Portals




                                  59
        Outlines for prospective candidates
To apply for a position, it’s important that you have a clear idea of your career
progression, including how you wish to utilize your skills and experience in your next
role.
There are two (2) ways to make yourself known to us! The first is a general submission
of your CV into one of our Divisions. In this case, you become part of a “pool of
candidates” categorized into a professional skill area. When the Talent Acquisition Team
begins a talent search against a vacant role, CVs in this pool are considered against the
selection criteria. If your details are matched you will be linked to the vacant role and
reviewed for suitability well before the role is advertised! The second way is to apply
directly to an advertised opportunity and include a covering letter which demonstrated
how and why you are suitable.
Useful tips for applying for positions
         You are more likely to be successful in the recruitment process if you tell us how
you fit the position you are applying for, i.e. in your covering letter
         We recommend you only apply for targeted positions for which you have suitable
skills and experience - applying for multiple positions can damage your credibility
Step One - Tailor your CV
Your CV is very important – Think of it like a Passport which should be up-to-date and
current at all times to facilitate “travel” to your next career opportunity!
A CV should also “sell” and “market” you in an interesting and honest manner. A
functional CV should highlight the skills and experience you have gained throughout
your career to date. It may be helpful to consider the following tips to enhance your
current CV:
  a. Compile your CV in reverse order (showing your most recent experience first)
  b. Show the month and year you commenced each position
  c. If there are any gaps in your employment explain these
  d. As well as responsibilities, list your achievements in a position
  e. Keep it concise
  f. Check and double check your spelling and grammar
  g. Highlight in a covering letter why you believe your skills meet the requirements of
       the position


Step Two – Applying Online
To apply for a position you will need to follow the steps in the online application process.
As part of this process, you'll be required to create a personalized profile. Click the
'Apply Online' link at the bottom of the advertised position to create or update your
profile. When you have successfully submitted an application, you will receive a system
generated confirmation email, letting you know we have received your application.
As we often receive a large number of applications for any given position, you may not
hear from us again until two or three weeks after we receive your details, however we are
conscious of progressing as quickly as possible and often can advise of your suitability or
next steps before this.


                                                                                         60
If your application will not progress to the next stage, you will be advised in writing via
email.
If, after applying for a position, you have not heard from us within three weeks please
contact us and ask for the Recruitment Team. Alternatively you may email us
Step Three – Interviewing
When we progress your application, you will be contacted by phone and informed of the
next steps, which may include an initial telephone interview or face-to-face interview.
Step Four – Assessments and Reference Checks
When you progress to the next stages, for some roles you may be required to participate
in psychometric assessments and for all roles there will be reference checks, so please be
prepared to provide at least two professional referees for us to contact.
These referees must ideally be people you have reported to in prior positions - or at least
people who have working knowledge of your abilities and experience.
Step Five - Being Made an Offer
If you are successful in becoming the preferred candidate, you will be advised of the offer
by telephone and promptly provided with a written employment agreement. The offer of
employment is valid for a finite period of time and requires your acceptance by signature
and its return to our HR Department.




                                                                                        61
              Findings & Recommendations


  1. Creative Recruitment Strategies : For Sales and business
     development are needed as retaining talent is most difficult in these
     areas.

  2. Culture & Rewards : More than 60% of the respondent view
     organizational culture as a main driving force for the new talent and for
     the existing talent. Rewarding plays a important role (48%)

  3. Compensation Structure : Base pay (60%) and Job security
     (44%) are in top priority for the employees in coming years. Hence, its
     features could be different & accordingly highlighted while interviewing.


  4. Training : Organizations are using certification for improving the
     training programs. Junior executives, being just the beginners, prefer
     Co’s known for their quality Training Programs as against Seniors who
     would look for leadership roles instead. (In more than 90% of the
     organizations budget for recruiting developing and retaining employees
     is going to increase over the next 3 years.)

  5. Career Growth Path : Apart from financial benefits, employee
     emphasis more on career growth, work culture and international
     opportunities. Hence, showing an employee his future growth plan
     shall attract & also enable a prospective employee to take a sound
     decision.

(The above recommendations come from the secondary data
where the survey size of HR Professionals involved in Talent
Management surveyed was 25 & that of employees was 30 at
http://www.eSurveysPro.com/Survey.aspx?id=49e4bb13-faf3-
424cbdb8-b0c9d885ef60 )




                                                                             62
      6. Recruitment Strategies during the Downturn :
(From the news paper articles i.e. here: Ascent from Times of India dated
March 18, 2009, Mumbai)

    Jack of All Trades / Multi Competency : It helps to employ
     multi skilled people who can handle more tasks as
     Organizations aim for maximizing productivity with the help of
     minimal resources. It benefits both i.e.
       o The Employer: Reduced costs as the no. of recruits are
          reduced, output increases with fewer employees.
       o The Employee: His wide knowledge base & skills enable
          him to work on variety of projects efficiently & hence, high
          probability of job being secured & not getting redundant
          during the downturn where there are job cuts.
              Growth in Organization horizontal as well as
                 vertical.
              Job security


Example 1: As quoted by, Thaigarajan, MD, Paramount Airways,
Multi-tasking is adopted in Security, Ground handling & In-flight
services. “Security personnel also handle assignments in ticketing
check-in counters & boarding gates besides their core function.
Ground handling personnel also look after passenger convenience.
Our cabin crews are trained to handle catering assignments as well.
This allows our employees to grow within the organization &
employees who have started as cabin crews have moved to
managerial positions in the in-flight services.”


    Re-recruitment : Choosing to train the employees in varied
     areas so that they can handle efficiently instead of going
     through the entire process of hiring, thus saving costs in the
     times of economic downturn. Following steps need to be
     followed: (As quoted by Malathi Rai, Head HR, Lionbridge India
     to encourage multitasking at workplace)
         o Identify additional responsibilities that employees can
           shoulder




                                                                            63
                  o Ensure these are broadly aligned to their area of work &
                    do not give something that they cannot find value in or
                    identify with
                  o Train them to bridge the gaps in knowledge & skills
                  o Motivate them to stretch their boundaries of their
                    capabilities.


            A few Industry Excerpts on what they are doing different in this
             downturn where getting quality talent is the most difficult tasks
             for any Organization.

Paramath Nath,                                    Vivek Kapoor,
centre HR Head, Hewlett Packard:                  Director – Sales & Marketing,EmmayHR :

Recession has led organizations to focus on       Hiring is now need based strictly i.e. Co’s are
employee referrals & campus recruitment,          hiring only for critical positions which will help
without compromising on the quality of the        them tide over this downturn.
candidates.

Indrajeet Sengupta,                               Saket Agarwal,
Director-HR, MARS India:                          CEO, Cellebrum Technologies Ltd :

Besides the functional competencies, we           Hiring process has slowed down. This indeed has
look for individuals who bring in the             presented our existing people with greater
entrepreneurial flair to the business. The        opportunities & a chance to excel in those areas
slowdown has given us an opportunity to           where they may have otherwise not ventured
raise the bar for talent as we continue to hunt   into.
for the best.

Sanjay Shelvankar,
VP-Talent Acquisition, MindTree Ltd:

Organizations no longer look at campus
recruitment as a cost effective way because
it is no more about the cost but the Business
Viability. Today firms are looking at people
who are flexible to learn new skills & adopt
newer technologies.




                                                                                             64
 Active & Entrepreneurial (April 1,2009) : As the organizations
  become competitive during downturn, they seek employees
  who can give ideas to the organization to give another
  dimension to the business. The employees need to be intuitive
  & take risk when the situation calls for it. Out of the box thinking
  takes an organization to new levels of growth, achievement &
  prestige. However, it does have a risk of an employee leaving
  the organization to undertake his own venture.
     o The book, Road to Organic Growth, points out that –
        employees who promote organic growth usually belong to
        the middle management level. These growth managers
        have usually had a varied experience early in their career,
        which allows them to innovate & have entrepreneurial
        bent of mind. They look out for challenging & leadership
        roles, where they can build effective teams who are
        passionate, responsible & accountable to take up new
        ventures.


 Work life balance seeking employees have grown. Hence,
  helping them achieve this would attract the talent.




                                                                   65
Recruiting Trend -
Revolution in the concept of Recruitment Advertising
The REMMY AWARDS (The Recruitment Marketing Awards)
(From the news paper articles i.e. here: Ascent from Times of India dated
April 1, 2009, Mumbai)

The award recognizes & rewards the advertisements that set a
benchmark for innovative, ingenious & high quality recruitment
communication.

A good advertisement has to satisfy the following parameters:

      1. It should clearly position the Co. as an ‘Employer of Choice’ ;
      2. It should specifically convey the employer brand attributes to
         its prospective employees;
      3. clearly describe the career opportunities that’s in store;
      4. should answer the most important question, ‘what purpose of
         the candidate does joining a particular organization serve?’.

In today’s tough times, where Co’s are competing with each other , in
an endeavor to attract & retain the best, recruitment ads have
become a critical tool for employers & even for employees for whom
the need to work for a compelling brand far surpasses factors like pay
& job title.

Ajay Kakar, CMO – Financial Services, Aditya Birla Group, was the
chief guest at the event held at Hyatt Regency, Mumbai.

Best Ads in Various sectors went to :

              BPO         IT &  Manufacturing        Services
                                                                    Sales &
                        Telecom Engeering &
SECTOR                                                             Marketing
                                Construction

        Hutchison       Google                      Oak Bridge
                                      Marico
Company 3 Global         India                     International    Domus
                                                      School
             RK
                         Alok
            Swamy                                    Mindset       Mindset
Agency                  Nanda &      Bates 141
           BBDO Pvt                                   JWT           JWT
                          Co
             Ltd


                                                                            66
Excerpts from few of the Industry speakers, who voice their
views on recruitment ads :

KV Shridhar, National creative director, Leo Brunett :
 ‘Recruitment ads in India are still underutilized, specially in terms of
employer branding. While creating an ad, organizations need to build
values & emotions & create a desire for a passive employee to join that
organization. Hence, its important to break from the clutter. If the ad
doesn’t stand out, its waste of money for the organization. Make people
look at you, make them like you with the ad & then build a bond with them.’

K S Chakravarthy, National creative director, Draft FCB Ulka :
‘….It should have the ability to jump out of the page, build philosophy &
ethos of the organization.’

Henriques, Global head HR, Crompton Greaves:
‘….The 3 things that are important for a good recruitment ad are its
authenticity, the brand promise that it it will deliver against the claims it
has made & effectively depict its brand attributes & image aptly.’




                                                                                67
CONCLUSION


As organizations continue to pursue high performance and improved

results ,the mandate is clear: For organizations to succeed in today’s

rapidly changing and increasingly competitive marketplace, intense

focus must be applied to aligning human capital with corporate

strategy and objectives. It starts with recruiting talented people and

continues by sustaining the knowledge and competencies across the

entire workforce. With rapidly changing skill sets and job

requirements, this becomes an increasingly difficult challenge for

organizations. Meeting this organizational supply and demand

requires the right “Talent DNA” and supporting technology solutions.

By implementing an effective talent management strategy, including

integrated data, processes, and analytics, organizations can help

ensure that the right people are in the right place at the right time, as

well as organizational readiness for the future.




                                                                         68
                                    ( Annexure - I )

(This was prepared to get inputs from industry. However, for reasons couldn’t be
achieved )

Note :
    Page 1 : Part I - Something about you & your organization

      Pages 2 to 6 : Part II - Kindly fill the following 12 questions & you may also
       add in your valuable feedback & views on that particular question )

      Page 7 : Contains my project outline just for your reference on the basis of
       which the questionnaire was prepared.


                                       ( Part I )

1. Name : _________________________________


2. Job description : _____________________________________


3. Years of experience in your Organization : ___________________


4. Your role, responsibilities & authorities :
   _____________________________________________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________


5. Type of Organization Structure followed at your Organization :
   _____________________________________________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________




                                                                                      69
                                     ( Part II )

   1. What are the sourcing trends in your sector for various levels i.e. Junior
      level, middle level & senior level ? (Before recession & during recession)
Ans : Junior Level Trends :




       Middle Level Trends :




       Senior Level Trends :




   2. What kinds of tests are taken at your organization at various levels ?
       (Psychometric tests, assessment centers, simulation & so on)
Ans : Junior Level Tests :




     Middle Level Tests :




     Senior Level Tests :




                                                                                   70
   3. What would be the cost of hiring at your organization ?

Ans : At Junior Level :




     At Middle Level :




     At Senior Level :




   4. What is the Turn up ratio at your organization ? (i.e. No. of applicants
      turning into interviews, interviews into offers & offers into hires)
Ans :




                                                                                 71
   5. a) What is the usual time taken to fill up the position ?
Ans :




   b) Time taken during the current downturn times ?
Ans :




   6. How does the organization structure affect the recruitment strategies in your
      organization ?

Ans :




   7. How much does a Resigning Employee cost to the Co. ? (e.g : twice the
       employees salary )
Ans : Junior Level Trends :




        Middle Level Trends :




        Senior Level Trends :




   8. What is the Roi (Return on investment ratio) with reference to recruitment ?
Ans : At Junior Level :



                                                                                 72
     At Middle Level :




     At Senior Level :




   9. What steps are taken at the time of Recruiting inorder to have the least
      attrition rate?
Ans :




   10. Are there any steps for measuring recruiting effectiveness ?
Ans :




   11. What are the effects of the economic downturn on at your organization on :

             Recruitment strategies :




                                                                                 73
             Sourcing Pattern :
                 i. At junior level :


                 ii. At middle level :


                iii. At senior level :




             Costs of Recruitment :




             Roi (Return on investment ) :
                  i. At junior level :


                 ii. At middle level :


                iii. At senior level :




   12. Any further information you would like to provide specific to your industry
       or your organization ,which you think is important & I may have missed out
       in the questionnaire :
Ans :




                                                                                74
                                ( Annexure II )


Types of Interview Questions :
Many employers will use a mix of traditional and behaviourally-based
questions in job interviews.
Study the following questions and think about the answers you would give
them.

Question 1 (Academic)

      What courses have you taken which have prepared you for this position?
      Tell us briefly about the course you have just completed.
      How did you balance your studies and extra-curricular activities?
      How do you feel about the results of your studies?
      Describe the biggest problem you have had with your studies. How did you
       solve it?
      If you could choose again, would you select UTS in preference to some other
       institution?
      How did you decide on your major?

Question 2 (Why you?)

      Why did you apply for this position?
      What do you know about the company and what it does?
      Why have you chosen this particular profession?
      What are the most important considerations for you in choosing a job?
      What did you do to prepare for this interview?
      Why would you like to work for this company?
      What do you feel you can offer this company?

Question 3. (Personal skills & abilities)

      Tell us something about yourself.
      What are the special features you have that make you the outstanding
       candidate for the job?
      Are there any aspects of the job where you feel a little apprehensive?
      What special qualifications do you have that make you think you will
       be successful in the job?
      What do you hope will be your main contributions to this position?
      Do you think your University studies have equipped you well for this
       job?
      How do you see the job? How do you envisage filling the role?
      Describe your strengths and weaknesses.
      Why should we offer this position to you?



                                                                                 75
Question 4. (Social activities)

      How did you cope with the transition from high school to university?
      What are your leisure activities?
      Do you prefer a large or small circle of friends?
      Have you ever found yourself on the committee of a particular club,
       association or activity?

Question 5. (Ambition)

      How are you going to achieve your career goals?
      What would you like to be earning in two years?
      What do you see yourself doing in five years?
      Do you have any long range ambitions?
      How do you see employment with this company helping you achieve
       your long term aspirations?

Question 6 (Specific Abilities - leadership, decision-making etc)

      What was your most significant accomplishment at University?
      What is your procedure for keeping track of matters that require your
       attention?
      What were your objectives for the last year? Were they achieved?
      Give me an example of one good decision you have made in the last
       twelve months.
      How do you pick yourself up after a disappointment?
      Describe a world leader you admire and why.

Question 7 (Salary expectations)

      How much do you expect to be paid?
      Are you applying for a position with any other companies?
      Should you be offered the position, when would you be able to
       commence?
      Why do you want to leave your present employer?
      Do you have any questions for us?

Behavioral-Based Questioning

      Interviewers use these sorts of questions to probe applicants' past
       behaviour to determine whether they meet the pre-selection
       performance criteria for a particular job.

Some sample behavioural questions:



                                                                              76
   What was the biggest challenge you ever faced? How did you handle
    it? What was the outcome?
   Describe an incident in which you disagreed with a
    supervisor/manager/lecturer. How did you resolve the situation?
   Give an example of how you have demonstrated
    leadership/teamwork/problem-solving skills/conflict resolution? What
    were the results?
   Tell me about a time when you have had to deal with members of the
    public. Who was involved? What did you do? How did they respond?
   Tell me about a big project you had to plan at school or work. What
    steps were involved? What was the outcome?




                                                                       77
                       References


 Recruiting Excellence
  An insider’s guide to sourcing top talent
  (By Jeff Grout & Sarah Perrin)

 Human Resource Management (10th edition)
  (By Gary Dessler)

 www.scribd.com

 Times of India - Ascent




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