Docstoc

Training Principles and Methods

Document Sample
Training Principles and Methods Powered By Docstoc
					Training Principles
and Methods


Unit 10
What is Training?

   ► Makes the body more efficient
   ► Makes the body better able to
    perform certain tasks
   ► Can make the human machine
    more effective
   ► We can run faster, jump higher,
    and throw further
FITT Principle

   The four building blocks of exercise
    prescription

   ►   F = Frequency
   ►   I = Intensity
   ►   T= Type
   ►   T= Time
Frequency

   ► the amount of time per week
    spent training
   ► general guideline is 3-5
    times/week
   ► determination of frequency
    depends greatly on the athlete’s
    level of fitness, athletic aspirations,
    and type of training
Intensity

   how hard the individual must work
   taken as a percentage of the
    individual’s maximal aerobic and
    anaerobic power
   general guideline is 50%-100% of
    athlete’s maximal intensity
Type

   ► either aerobic or anaerobic
    training prescriptions, or a
    combination of both
   ► depends on the athlete’s level of
    fitness, athletic aspirations, and
    sport or activity for which he or she
    is training
Time

   ► amount of time spent in a single
    training session
   ► general guideline is 3-6
    times/week
   ► depends on the athlete’s level of
    fitness, athletic aspirations, and
    type of training
The Role of Energy Systems
   The three energy systems
    available…
   ► Anaerobic alactic
   ► Anaerobic lactic
   ► Aerobic
            Each system has certain limitations and
             strengths
            Training can be incorporated to either
             enhance one or all energy systems,
             depending on the athlete’s needs
Anaerobic Alactic Energy System

   ► High speed explosive movements,
    generally 85%- 100% of maximal
    intensity
   ► Long rest periods between sets
   ► High intensity and volume training
   ► Training prescription will depend
    greatly on the athlete’s level of fitness,
    athletic aspirations, and type of sport
Anaerobic Lactic Energy System
   ► High speed explosive movements,
    generally 75%- 85% of maximal intensity
   ► Long rest periods between sets
   ► Moderately high intensity and volume
    training
   ► Training prescription will depend
    greatly on the athlete’s level of fitness,
    athletic aspirations, and type of sport
Aerobic System
   ► Repetitive movements, generally
    50%-75% of maximal intensity
   ► Short rest periods between sets
   ► Moderately low intensity and
    volume training
   ► Training prescription will depend
    greatly on the athlete’s level of
    fitness, athletic aspirations, and
    type of sport
Other Training Principles
   ► The Principle   of Overload
   ► The Principle   of Progression
   ► The Principle   of Specificity (or
    S.A.I.D.)
   ► The Principle   of Individual
    Differences
   ► The Principle   of Reversibility
   ► The Principle   of Diminishing
    Returns
Overload
   ► To get stronger, the body must
    perform tasks that are more challenging
    than those to which it is accustomed
   ► Over time the body will adapt
   ► New demands must be incorporated
   ► Overload can include all aspects of
    training, i.e., physiological, emotional,
    mental, and psychological
Progression

   ► In order to constantly improve,
    an athlete must progressively
    increase the overload over time
   ► The athlete must be aware that
    loads and demands on the body
    must occur over time to increase
    performance and decrease injury
Specificity or Specific Adaptation To
Imposed Demand (S.A.I.D)

   ► In order for specific outcomes to occur,
    training must be specific to those
    outcomes
   ► Example: if you need to improve your
    vertical jump, your exercise prescription
    should include explosive power such as
    exercises that target the legs
   ► Specific muscle adaptations will occur if
    training is specific
   ► Training must reflect athlete’s “game
    situation needs”
Individual Differences

   Every athlete has a different
    physical and psychological makeup
       Pre-training fitness levels
       Requirements within their sport

       Age and gender

       Ability to recover from workouts

       Ability to recover from injury
Reversibility

   ► “Use it or lose it”
   ► Detraining
   ► Loss of one’s edge
   ► Loss in intensity
   ► Atrophy
   ► Reasons include: injury, lack of
    motivation, overtraining, and
    burnout
Diminishing Returns

   ► A person’s training gains will
    reflect that person’s prior level of
    training
   ► Performance plateau
   ► Must change exercise
    prescription
   ► Ethical vs. unethical training
    methods
Training Methods

   ►   Periodization
   ►   Concurrent training
   ►   Interval training
   ►   Fartlek training
   ►   Resistance training
   ►   Plyometric training
Periodization

   ► Breakdown of year-long training
   ► Three major seasons: off-season,
    pre-season, and in-season
   ► Macrocycle – the year or years
   ► Mesocycle – months or weeks
   ► Microcycle – day(s) or week
Concurrent
   ► Training all energy systems at
    the same time
   ► Different types of training
    simultaneously
   ► Great for general fitness
   ► Performed during the off-season
    for certain athletes
   ► Ideal for keeping variety in one’s
    exercise program
Interval
   ► Can benefit both anaerobic and
    aerobic systems
   ► Alternating periods of intensity
    within a given workout
   ► Great for lactic acid training
    threshold
   ► Manipulates length of intense
    period, its intensity, length of rest,
    and number of repetitions
Fartlek

   ► Means “speed play”
   ► Basically the same as interval,
    without rigid numerical control
   ► Athletes change variables
    according to terrain or how they
    feel
   ► Speed up or slow down when you
    want
Resistance

   ► Lifting weights is the most
    common form
   ► Weight provides resistance to
    muscles
   ► Broken down into number of:
    sets, repetitions, rest, tempo (speed
    of repetition), loads, and volume
Plyometrics
   ► “Stretch-shortening exercises”
   ► Examples include: bounding, hopping,
    jumping, box jumps, box drills
   ► Used to develop strength and power
   ► Caution: should not be used until
    athletes have a solid aerobic and
    anaerobic base. Children should also
    avoid repeated long, high intense
    plyometric routines.
Other Important Factors

   ►   Rest and recovery
   ►   Avoiding injury
   ►   Stretching
   ►   Warm-up and cool-down periods
   ►   Sleep
   ►   Interest level
       An Overview of fitness training
       methods and their effects
Training Method                   Training Effects
Resistance Training
Resistance Training              Strength fitness
Circuit Training / Plyometrics   Strength and muscular endurance
                                  fitness
Cardiorespiratory Training
Endurance Training               Aerobic Fitness
Fartlek Training                 Aerobic Fitness
Interval Training                Aerobic and anaerobic Fitness
Tempo or repetition Training     Activity-specific



Combination Training
Concurrent Circuit Training      Strength and aerobic fitness
Cross Training                   Cardiorespiratory fitness
The Effects of Environmental Factors
on Training

   Body Temperature Regulation
   Heat
   Clothing
   Altitude and atmospheric pressure
   Air Quality
What are the effects on the body?

   Take notes on effects on page 199 –
    202 in textbook
   Then Finish crossword in workbook
    at end of training chapter.
   Start Part Two of ISU next week

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:8/27/2012
language:
pages:29