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The-Presidency-of-John-Adams

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					    The
Presidency
  of John
  Adams
         About John Adams
 2nd President of the United States
 Originally a lawyer in Boston
 Defended British soldiers after Boston
  Massacre
 Helped negotiate peace treaty with Britain
  after American Revolution
 Served as Washington’s Vice President
    As Vice President
 Cast 29 tie-breaking votes
  in Senate, a record that
  still stands
 Largely ignored by
  Washington
 Joined Federalist Party,
  won nomination for
  President over Hamilton
 Defeated Jefferson in
  1796 election, mainly due
  to popular Jay Treaty
            The Jay Treaty
 Officially the “Treaty of London of 1794”
 Resolved issues between U.S. and Great
  Britain, likely averted war
 Strengthened economic ties with Britain
 Britain withdrew last military forces from
  western forts
 U.S. gave Britain most favored nation
  trading status
Election of 1796
      Foreign Policy Problems
 Britain and France were at war (again)
 Britain favored Adams, France favored
  Jefferson
 Adams wanted to stay out of the conflict
 France viewed us as Britain’s ally, began
  attacking American ships
 Most Americans still viewed the French as
  friends due to the Revolution
The XYZ Affair
                The XYZ Affair
 Adams sent Charles Pinckney to France as
  ambassador, but French Foreign Minister
  Talleyrand ignored him
 Adams appoints a commission to negotiate a
  treaty to establish peaceful relations
    – Charles Pinckney
    – John Marshall
    – Elbridge Gerry
   Talleyrand sends three agents to meet
    commission to demand a bribe
           The XYZ Affair
 French agents demand $250,000 for
  Talleyrand and a $10 million loan for
  France
 Commission sent report to Adams and
  Congress detailing demand
 Named French agents as X, Y, and Z
 American people and Congress outraged
The Quasi War with France
    The Quasi War with France
 “Millions for defense but not one cent for
  tribute!”
 Congress rescinds treaties with France,
  authorizes a new Navy to attach French
 Adams refuses to ask Congress for a
  declaration of war
 80 French ships captured or sunk
 France however had captured over 2,000
  American merchant ships during this time
      Alien and Sedition Acts
 4 laws enacted by Congress
 Naturalization Act – must be resident for
  14 years instead of 5 to become citizen
 Alien Act – authorized President to deport
  aliens "dangerous to the peace and safety
  of the United States" during peacetime
 Also, Alien Enemies Act & the Sedition Act
Let’s look at these last
        two Acts
    Are they constitutional?
               Results of Acts
   25 men, mostly newspaper editors of Republican
    newspapers were arrested
   Their newspapers were forced to shut down
   Benjamin Franklin Bache, (Ben’s grandson) was
    among those arrested
   These Acts were in part responsible for
    Jefferson’s election as President over Adams
   Jefferson pardoned all 25 and repaid their fines
    with interest
             Adams’ Last Acts
   After Adams lost election of 1800, Congress
    passed the Judiciary Act of 1801
   Reduced seats on Supreme Court from 6 to 5
   Increased number of circuit courts and
    judgeships
   Adams appointed a series of new judges called
    “Midnight Judges”
   Adams also appointed John Marshall as Chief
    Justice of the Supreme Court
   Eventually led to Marbury v. Madison
               Footnotes
 Adams and Jefferson were fierce rivals for
  many years
 Reconciled in 1812 and became close
  friends again
 Both died on July 4, 1826 – the 50th
  anniversary of the Declaration of
  Independence
 Adams is the first of only 2 presidents to
  have sons also become President
         Homework/Questions
 What were the foreign policy issues of
  Adams’ presidency?
 What domestic issues resulted from the
  foreign policy issues?
 PATRIOT Act of 2001 Reading
    – How is the PATRIOT Act similar to the Alien
      and Sedition Acts?
    – Explain the events that led to Congress
      passing the PATRIOT Act

				
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posted:8/27/2012
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