Landmark Cases Outline Packet by lanyuehua


									Name: __________________________ Date: _____________ Per.:______ #:________

                                      Supreme Court Landmark Cases
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
    In his last days of office, President John Adams appointed several federal judges and justices of peace
      including John Marshall, _____________________ and ___________________ as Justice of
      Peace for Washington D.C.
    Not all of the appointments were _____________before the end of Adams presidency.
    President Thomas Jefferson informed his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to install (or deliver)
      the remaining commissions because they were no longer __________.
    Marbury (one of Adams’ appointees invoked an act of Congress sued Madison for his government
    The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
    This landmark case helped _____________ the checks and balances system and established the
      Supreme Court’s power of ___________ ____________(the Supreme Court has the final say on
      what the Constitution means).
Plessy v. Ferguson ( 1896)
   • Under Louisiana law, whites and blacks were required to ride in ___________ railway cars.
   • Although ____________________ was seven-eighths (7/8) white, he was required to ride the
      “colored” car.
   • Plessy was ______________ for refusing to leave the “whites-only” railway car.
   • He took his case to state court because he felt segregation violated his
      __________________rights (14th Amendment).
   • The Louisiana judge, John Ferguson, ruled that Louisiana can enact ___________________laws
      within the_________.
   • The case was taken to the United States Supreme Court.
   •   The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   • This decision upheld the _____________ - ______- __________ doctrine, that separate
      facilities for blacks and whites satisfied the _________________________ as long as they are
Brown v. Board of Education ( 1954)
   • Black children were _______ allowed to attend the same public schools as white children because
      laws permitted racial segregation.
   • Several parents of black children, including Oliver Brown, sued the Topeka School Board claiming
      _________ _________________is unequal and violates the 14th Amendment.
   • Lower courts agreed with the school system; the case was brought to the United States Supreme Court.
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   • The Supreme Court _____________ Plessy v. Ferguson
   • Racial segregation in public education is ______________________.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1962)
   • Clarence Gideon was arrested and charged in Florida court for breaking and entering.
   • He was unable to afford a lawyer and the court ____________ to appoint a free lawyer.
   • Gideon was forced to ___________ _______________in court and the jury found him guilty.
   • He claimed the court violated his rights under ______ and _______ Amendments.
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   • The Supreme Court held that Gideon and other poor defendants in criminal cases have the right to a
      ____________ - _______________ _______________________.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
   • Arizona arrested Ernesto Miranda for kidnapping and the state court found him guilty.
   • He was questioned _______________being advised of his right to consult with an attorney or any
      of his other ________ ____________.
   • Miranda appealed his conviction to the Supreme Court claiming the police violated his rights under the
      ______ Amendment (self-incrimination).
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of _____________.
   •  The decision held that the police cannot question a person in custody unless they have been read their
      legal rights.
In Re Gault (1966)
   • At the age of fifteen (15), Gerald Gault was arrested for making an indecent phone call.
   • Gault was denied the right of _____ _____________because he was a _______________.
   • Gault was tried in juvenile court and sentenced _______ years to the State Industrial School.
   • The case was taken to the Supreme Court.
   •   The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   •   The Supreme Court ruled the ________________ of the Juvenile Court was unconstitutional.
   • Criminal cases for ______________must obey the _____________________.
   • Minors have the same ____________as adults.
Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1968)
   • John Tinker, his sister Mary Beth Tinker, and other students decided to wear __________
      _______________to school in protest of the Vietnam War.
   • The school adopted a policy prohibiting armbands.
   • When the students arrived to school, they refused to remove their armbands and were
   • They claimed the school officials violated their First (1st) Amendment rights.
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   • The students were ______________ to wear armbands because it is protected by the
United States v. Nixon (1974)
   • In 1972, the offices of the ________________ ______________ in Washington D.C. was
      broken into.
   • During the criminal investigation, a federal judge ordered President Nixon to turn over _________
      ____________ of conversations recorded by Nixon about the break-in.
   • Nixon refused and claimed ________________ _______________allowed him to withhold
      the conversation tapes from the other government branches and preserve confidentiality.
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the ___________________.
   • The decision in this case made it clear that the ________________ is NOT above the law.
   • Nixon was required to turn in the tapes which revealed ________________ linking the President
      to the conspiracy to obstruct justice.
   • Nixon________________ the presidency shortly after.
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1987)
   • Students of Hazelwood East High School wrote and edited the school-sponsored newspaper.
   • The school principal _________________two articles from the issue and claimed they were
   • Cathy Kuhlmeier and two other students brought the case to court because they believed the principal
      violated their _______________________________.
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   • The Supreme Court ruled that ____________ ______________have the right to censor articles
      in the student newspaper or limit speech that interferes with the
Bush v. Gore (2000)
   • During the 2000 presidential election, Al Gore and George W. Bush were so close in their number of
      votes, the state of Florida was required to manually______________ the disputed votes.
   • These votes determined which candidate won Florida’s ______________ __________ and
      would ultimately win the ______________.
   • Bush requested to _________the recount and claimed it violated the Fourteenth (14th ) Amendment.
   • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________.
   • The Supreme Court ruled the recount must be stopped because the manual recount had no uniform way
      to judge each disputed vote equally, which violated the ________________________.
   • _______________________ won the presidential election.

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