Name: __________________________ Date: _____________ Per.:______ #:________ Supreme Court Landmark Cases Marbury v. Madison (1803) In his last days of office, President John Adams appointed several federal judges and justices of peace including John Marshall, _____________________ and ___________________ as Justice of Peace for Washington D.C. Not all of the appointments were _____________before the end of Adams presidency. President Thomas Jefferson informed his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to install (or deliver) the remaining commissions because they were no longer __________. Marbury (one of Adams’ appointees invoked an act of Congress sued Madison for his government position. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. This landmark case helped _____________ the checks and balances system and established the Supreme Court’s power of ___________ ____________(the Supreme Court has the final say on what the Constitution means). Plessy v. Ferguson ( 1896) • Under Louisiana law, whites and blacks were required to ride in ___________ railway cars. • Although ____________________ was seven-eighths (7/8) white, he was required to ride the “colored” car. • Plessy was ______________ for refusing to leave the “whites-only” railway car. • He took his case to state court because he felt segregation violated his __________________rights (14th Amendment). • The Louisiana judge, John Ferguson, ruled that Louisiana can enact ___________________laws within the_________. • The case was taken to the United States Supreme Court. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • This decision upheld the _____________ - ______- __________ doctrine, that separate facilities for blacks and whites satisfied the _________________________ as long as they are “equal”. Brown v. Board of Education ( 1954) • Black children were _______ allowed to attend the same public schools as white children because laws permitted racial segregation. • Several parents of black children, including Oliver Brown, sued the Topeka School Board claiming _________ _________________is unequal and violates the 14th Amendment. • Lower courts agreed with the school system; the case was brought to the United States Supreme Court. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • The Supreme Court _____________ Plessy v. Ferguson • Racial segregation in public education is ______________________. Gideon v. Wainwright (1962) • Clarence Gideon was arrested and charged in Florida court for breaking and entering. • He was unable to afford a lawyer and the court ____________ to appoint a free lawyer. • Gideon was forced to ___________ _______________in court and the jury found him guilty. • He claimed the court violated his rights under ______ and _______ Amendments. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • The Supreme Court held that Gideon and other poor defendants in criminal cases have the right to a ____________ - _______________ _______________________. Miranda v. Arizona (1966) • Arizona arrested Ernesto Miranda for kidnapping and the state court found him guilty. • He was questioned _______________being advised of his right to consult with an attorney or any of his other ________ ____________. • Miranda appealed his conviction to the Supreme Court claiming the police violated his rights under the ______ Amendment (self-incrimination). • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of _____________. • The decision held that the police cannot question a person in custody unless they have been read their legal rights. 1.___________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________ In Re Gault (1966) • At the age of fifteen (15), Gerald Gault was arrested for making an indecent phone call. • Gault was denied the right of _____ _____________because he was a _______________. • Gault was tried in juvenile court and sentenced _______ years to the State Industrial School. • The case was taken to the Supreme Court. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • The Supreme Court ruled the ________________ of the Juvenile Court was unconstitutional. • Criminal cases for ______________must obey the _____________________. • Minors have the same ____________as adults. Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1968) • John Tinker, his sister Mary Beth Tinker, and other students decided to wear __________ _______________to school in protest of the Vietnam War. • The school adopted a policy prohibiting armbands. • When the students arrived to school, they refused to remove their armbands and were _______________. • They claimed the school officials violated their First (1st) Amendment rights. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • The students were ______________ to wear armbands because it is protected by the ____________________________. United States v. Nixon (1974) • In 1972, the offices of the ________________ ______________ in Washington D.C. was broken into. • During the criminal investigation, a federal judge ordered President Nixon to turn over _________ ____________ of conversations recorded by Nixon about the break-in. • Nixon refused and claimed ________________ _______________allowed him to withhold the conversation tapes from the other government branches and preserve confidentiality. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the ___________________. • The decision in this case made it clear that the ________________ is NOT above the law. • Nixon was required to turn in the tapes which revealed ________________ linking the President to the conspiracy to obstruct justice. • Nixon________________ the presidency shortly after. Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1987) • Students of Hazelwood East High School wrote and edited the school-sponsored newspaper. • The school principal _________________two articles from the issue and claimed they were inappropriate. • Cathy Kuhlmeier and two other students brought the case to court because they believed the principal violated their _______________________________. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • The Supreme Court ruled that ____________ ______________have the right to censor articles in the student newspaper or limit speech that interferes with the ____________________________________________________. Bush v. Gore (2000) • During the 2000 presidential election, Al Gore and George W. Bush were so close in their number of votes, the state of Florida was required to manually______________ the disputed votes. • These votes determined which candidate won Florida’s ______________ __________ and would ultimately win the ______________. • Bush requested to _________the recount and claimed it violated the Fourteenth (14th ) Amendment. • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of ___________________. • The Supreme Court ruled the recount must be stopped because the manual recount had no uniform way to judge each disputed vote equally, which violated the ________________________. • _______________________ won the presidential election.
Pages to are hidden for
"Landmark Cases Outline Packet"Please download to view full document