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					Kinetic Particle
    Theory
Student Notes
                   Recap
• Physical Properties of Ionic and Covalent
   compounds
  -Melting and Boiling Point
  -Electrical Conductivity
  -Solubility in water
            Mp and bp        Electrical        Solubility in
                             conductivity      water
Ionic       ____________     Yes. Only in      ________
Compound                     ______ and
                             ________ state.
Covalent    ____________     NO Not for all    _________
Compound                     states.
                 Recap
• Questions:
• What is/are the states that ionic compounds
  usually exist as at r.t.p (room temperature and
  pressure)? _____________________
What about covalent molecules?___________
• Can ionic compound exist as other states?
  __________________
• What do you need to do to change state? How
  does it happen?________________________
      Lesson Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:




 Describe the solid, liquid and
  gaseous states of matter
 WHAT IS A MATTER?
(a)Matter is anything that has ______ and
    ___________________________.

(b)All matter is
_______________________________(atoms,
    molecules or ions).
   Use of the general term 'particle' means the precise nature of
   the particles does not have to be specified.


(c)Matters can exist in 3 states: ________,
    __________________and ______________.
• These three forms of matter are called the
  ______________________________.

• As shown here, ___________ (liquid) can exist
  as ice (____________) or water vapour (_____).
 KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
The kinetic particle theory is a model
used to explain the _____________of
matter.
Kinetic Theory of Matter states that:

(i) All matter is made up of _______
    particles and they exist as atoms,
    molecules or ions. (The particles are
    attracted to each other by
    attractive forces)
KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
(ii) The particles are always in
   _______________________________ and
   hence possess ___________ energy.
   **(The _____________ energy of a particle
   increases with _______________and
   __________________, the higher the
   temperature and pressure, the
   _____________the particles move. At
   fixed temperature, _____________
   particles move ____________________
   than heavier particles.)
KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
The particles in a substance are of the same
type, in solid, liquid or gaseous state. The
differ only in
•   their _____________________
•   how __________________the particles are
    held together and
•   the amount of
    _____________________energies that they
    possess.

_______________ can be used to explain how
solids, liquids and gases differ in
__________anD __________________.
   3 states of matter (Difference)
   Property       Solid   Liquid   Gas

    Volume
    Shape

Compressibility

Density
 Packing and
 arrangement
   between
   particles
   3 states of matter (Difference)
 Property       Solid          Liquid              Gas
           _____________
                             ____________    ______________f
Forces of _____________
                              forces of         orces of
Attraction forces of
                              attraction       attraction
 between attraction
                               between          between
 particles between
                               particles        particles
           particles
                                            Move about
                          _______________
            _____________                   ___________
Motion of                 ______________
            about a fixed                        at
particles                    pass each
               position                   _______________
                               other
                                               speed

Energy of
             ______ energy                  ________ energy
   3 states of matter (Difference)
   Property      Solid   Liquid   Gas




Diagrammatic
Representation
The Solid State
  Arrangement of particles
        (In a solid)
Arrangement and movement      Properties of solids
  of particles
The particles are             Solids have _______________
  ________________________,
  with ______________space
  between them.
The particles are in an       Solid crystals have flat faces,
  ____________ arrangement.   straight edges and sharp
                                points
Arrangement of particles
      (In a solid)
Arrangement and            Properties of solids
movement of particles
The particles are held
together by
_______________forces of
attraction between them,
in ______________positions. Solids __________________
The particles can only
vibrate about their fixed
positions.
The Liquid State
   Arrangement of particles
         (In a Liquid)
Arrangement and movement         Properties of Liquids
of particles
The particles are closely        Liquids have moderately ____
______________(but slightly      densities and ________ be
further apart than those in      compressed.
solid), with ___________ empty
space between them.
The particles are in a       Liquids have ___ fixed
________________arrangement. shapes.
 Arrangement of particles
       (In a Liquid)
Arrangement and               Properties of Liquids
  movement of particles
The particles are held
together by
___________________forces     Liquids            be
of attraction between         compressed.
                                      ________
them (but slightly weaker
than the forces in a solid)
The particles                 LiquidS
can________past one
another and throughout
the liquid.
The Gaseous State
Arrangement of particles
       (In a Gas)
Arrangement and            Properties of Gas
movement of particles
The particles are ______   Gases have low densities
                                       ____
apart, with a ______of     and can be ________
empty space between        compressed.
them.
The particles are in a     Gases have _____
____________arrangement.   shapes.
Arrangement of particles
       (In a Gas)
Arrangement and             Properties of Gas
  movement of particles
There are no ____________   Gases can be ________
  forces of attraction      compressed, hence
  between the particles.     _____definite volume.
The particles are free to   Gases have ____ definite
  move randomly in ____     shapes and _____the shape
  directions, at _____      of their containers.
  speed.
        What we covered for today:
         Kinetic Particle Theory
• Says that all __________consists of
  many, very _______ particles.
• The particles are _________ moving or in
  a continual state of motion.
• The particles might be _______,
  ________ or _____________.
Solids…




      • Particles __________
        together
      • In an orderly arrangement
                    Solids….




• Particles ________ only about ___________ positions.
• These vibrations ____________ as temperature ___________.
• The degree to which the particles move is determined by the
  amount of _____________ they have and their relationship to
  other particles.
• The particles have _______ energy than particles in liquids and
  gases.
• _______________forces between particles.
Liquids….




       • Particles close together
       • In a disorderly arrangement
             Liquids…




• Particles _____________ and move throughout the liquid.
• Particles in liquids have more ___________ than solids but
  less energy than _____________.
• _______________ forces between particles.
                           Gas….




• Particles are arranged ____________ apart and in random
  movement.
• Particles vibrate and move anywhere.
• Particles in gases have____________energy than solids and
  liquids.
• _____________ forces between particles.
          Solids… Liquids… Gas…
               SOLID    LIQUID                         GAS




            • Particles close • Particles close   • Particles far
  Particles   together                              apart
arrangement                     together
            • In an orderly   • In a disorderly   • In a random
              arrangement       arrangement         arrangement


               About fixed       Vibrate about     Vibrate about
Particles                          and move          and move
vibration       positions
                                through liquid       anywhere
        Solids… Liquids… Gas…
            SOLID    LIQUID     GAS




Energy in
particles



 Forces
between
particles
        Solid? Liquid? Gas?
          SOLID     LIQUID      GAS




What determines the state of matter?
       Solid? Liquid? Gas?

         SOLID      LIQUID       GAS




States of the matter can be inter-
converted without changing its
composition.
 Change of State
           condensation




________                  _________



_______              ___________




            _____________

				
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