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					                                                                     Final                                           Page 1 of 8




    Task 6, Step 2. Factors That Potentially Affect Landfill’s Impact on Public Health and
                                Safety and the Environment
                                Produced under contract by: ICF Consulting Services, LLC
                                                   October 1, 2007

                                                             for the
                                       California Integrated Waste Management Board

                              Financial Assurance and Corrective Action Contracted Study
   Potential Factors of Interest:
   1. Siting/climate
   2. Landfill design, construction, and maintenance
   3. Operational practice
   4. Potential for migration/distance to sensitive receptors
   5. Compliance record for releases/system upsets

Siting/Climate Factors
 Factor            Scoring Criteria               Controls/Mitigations       Quantitative Parameter(s)   Primary Resource
                                                                                                         Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                         Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                         relevant to model)




September 25, 2007
                                                                    Final                                              Page 2 of 8


 Factor            Scoring Criteria              Controls/Mitigations       Quantitative Parameter(s)     Primary Resource
                                                                                                          Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                          Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                          relevant to model)
 Seismic           Designed for:                 •   Engineering design     •   Ground acceleration,      • Slope failure
 Characteristics   • Max Credible                                               safety factors            • Leachate seeps
                      Earthquake; 1.5 or                                    •   Seismic zone maps         • Surface
                      above factor of safety                                                                  water/ground-
                      (low impact)                                                                            water impact
                   • Most Probable                                                                        • LFG migration
                      Earthquake; below 1.5                                                               • Cap failure –
                      factor of safety, but at                                                                vector control and
                      least 1.3 (medium                                                                       uncontrolled
                      impact)                                                                                 emissions
                   • No design (high impact)                                                              • Explosive
                                                                                                              concentration of
                                                                                                              gas
                                                                                                          • LF fire
                                                                                                          • Methane capture –
                                                                                                              greenhouse gases
 Rainfall          Designed for:                 •   Engineering design     •   Average annual rainfall   • Slope failure
 Intensity         • 1000 year/24 hour                                      •   Rainfall intensity        • Leachate seeps
                      storm (low impact)                                                                  • Surface water
                   • 100 year/24 hours                                                                        Impact
                      storm (medium impact)                                                               • Erosion or a
                   • Not designed for 100                                                                     drainage system
                      year/24 hour storm                                                                      failure
                      (high impact)                                                                       • LFG migration




September 25, 2007
                                                                        Final                                                   Page 3 of 8


 Factor            Scoring Criteria                Controls/Mitigations            Quantitative Parameter(s)       Primary Resource
                                                                                                                   Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                                   Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                                   relevant to model)
 Floodplain        •   Location (base of           •   Engineering design          •   Floodplain maps             • Groundwater
                       landfill) within 100 year   •   Flood control measures                                      • Surface water
                       floodplain (high)                                                                           • Waste release
                   •   Location (base of
                       landfill) within 500 feet
                       of 100 year floodplain
                       (medium)
                   •   Location (base of
                       landfill) not within 500
                       feet of 100 year
                       floodplain (low)
 Fire (intrusion   •   Adjacent land area with     •   Addition of buffer area     •   Fire hazard severity zone   •   Runoff
 from off site)        high fire hazard            •   Increased fire protection       maps                        •   Groundwater
                       potential (high)                at facility                                                 •   Surface water
                   •   Adjacent land area with                                                                     •   Explosive
                       moderate fire hazard                                                                            concentration of
                       potential (medium)                                                                              gas
                   •   Adjacent land area with                                                                     •   LF fire
                       low fire hazard (low)                                                                       •   Methane capture –
                                                                                                                       greenhouse gases




September 25, 2007
                                                                                   Final                                                    Page 4 of 8


Potential Factors - Landfill design, Construction, and Maintenance
    Factor              Scoring Criteria                  Controls/Mitigations                 Quantitative Parameter(s)       Primary Resource
                                                                                                                               Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                                               Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                                               relevant to model)
    Engineering         •   Combination of Subtitle       •   3rd party construction           •    Type/design of cover and   • Groundwater
    Controls                D equivalent and non-             QA/QC                                 bottom liner               • Surface water
                            Subtitle D equivalent                                              •    Type/design of LFG         • LFG migration
                            design, or no Subtitle D                                                control system             • Slope stability
                            design (high)                                                      •    Factor of safety           • Explosive
                        •   Subtitle D or equivalent                                                                               concentration of
                            design (medium)                                                                                        gas
                        •   Above Subtitle D                                                                                   • LF fire
                            design (low)                                                                                       • Methane capture –
                                                                                                                                   greenhouse gases
    Permitted           • Greater than 30,000,000         •   Engineering design               •    Permitted capacity         • Groundwater
    Capacity1             cubic yards (high)                                                                                   • Surface water
                        • Less than 500,000 cubic                                                                              • LFG migration
                          yards (low)                                                                                          • Slope stability
                        • Between 500,000 and                                                                                  • Air quality
                          30,000,000 cubic yard                                                                                • Explosive
                          (medium)                                                                                                 concentration of
                                                                                                                                   gas
                                                                                                                               • LF fire
                                                                                                                               • Methane capture –
                                                                                                                                   greenhouse gases




1
    Permitted capacity intervals used for scoring criteria are preliminary and may be modified after further analysis.


September 25, 2007
                                                                      Final                                                Page 5 of 8


Factor            Scoring Criteria             Controls/Mitigations           Quantitative Parameter(s)       Primary Resource
                                                                                                              Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                              Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                              relevant to model)
Type of Waste     •   Pre-Subtitle D, co-      •   Engineering design         •   Permitted types of waste    • Groundwater
in Place              disposal waste (high)    •   Waste screening            •   Operational protocol and    • Surface water
                  •   MSW (medium)                 procedures                     records                     • LFG migration
                  •   Monofill, C&D (low)                                                                     • Explosive
                                                                                                                  concentration of
                                                                                                                  gas
                                                                                                              • LF fire
                                                                                                              • Methane capture –
                                                                                                                  greenhouse gases
Slope Stability   •   Side slopes 2:1 or       •   Decrease slope             •   History of slope failures   • Groundwater
                      steeper, or history of   •   Improve drainage           •   Existing and planned        • Surface water
                      slope failure (high)     •   Improve landscaping            side slope angles           • LFG migration
                  •   Side slopes between                                                                     • Slope failure
                      2:1 and 4:1 (medium)                                                                    • Liner/cover failure
                  •   Side slope less steep
                      than 4:1 (low)




September 25, 2007
                                                                  Final                                             Page 6 of 8


Operational Practice

 Factor          Scoring Criteria              Controls/Mitigations       Quantitative Parameter(s)     Primary Resource
                                                                                                        Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                        Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                        relevant to model)
 Liquids         •   Permitted leachate        •   Engineering design     •   Efficiency of leachate    • Groundwater
 Management/         recirculation (medium)                                   collection system         • Surface water
 Landfill        •   Bioreactor permitted                                 •   Efficiency of LFG         • LFG migration
 Bioreactor          (low)                                                    collection                • Explosive
 Technology      •   Neither of the above                                 •   Leachate quality trends       concentration of
                     (high)                                                                                 gas
                                                                                                        • LF fire
                                                                                                        • Methane capture –
                                                                                                            greenhouse gases


Potential for Migration/Distance to Sensitive Receptors
 Factor          Scoring Criteria              Controls/Mitigations       Quantitative Parameter(s)     Primary Resource
                                                                                                        Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                        Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                        relevant to model)
 Hydrogeology    •   Depth to groundwater      •   Engineering design     •   Depth to groundwater of   • Groundwater
                     (measured from base of                                   uppermost aquifer         • Surface water
                     landfill)                                                                          • Gas migration
                 •   < 50 feet (high)
                 •   50 to 100 feet (medium)
                 •   >100 feet (low)




September 25, 2007
                                                                  Final                                               Page 7 of 8


 Factor          Scoring Criteria              Controls/Mitigations           Quantitative Parameter(s)   Primary Resource
                                                                                                          Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                          Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                          relevant to model)
 Proximity to    •   In urban (high)                                          •   Property maps           • Groundwater
 Urban Areas     •   Not in urban (low)                                       •   Development plans       • Surface water
                                                                                                          • LFG migration
                                                                                                          • Landslides
                                                                                                          • Air quality
                                                                                                          • Odors
                                                                                                          • Explosive
                                                                                                              concentration of
                                                                                                              gas
                                                                                                          • LF fire
                                                                                                          • Methane capture –
                                                                                                              greenhouse gases
 Proximity to    •   Sensitive species at      •   Engineering design         •   California natural      • Biota
 Sensitive           location (high)           •   Operations management          diversity database      • Explosive
 Habitat         •   No sensitive species at   •   Formally managed habitat                                   concentration of
                     location (low)                                                                           gas
                                                                                                          • LF fire
                                                                                                          • Methane capture –
                                                                                                              greenhouse gases




September 25, 2007
                                                                  Final                                            Page 8 of 8


Compliance Record for Release/System Upsets
 Factor          Scoring Criteria              Controls/Mitigations        Quantitative Parameter(s)   Primary Resource
                                                                                                       Potentially Impacted/
                                                                                                       Problem(s) (not
                                                                                                       relevant to model)
 Compliance      •   Current CA, cleanup or    •   Engineering design      •   Correspondence from     • Groundwater
 Status              abatement orders (high)   •   Operations management       regulatory agency       • Surface water
                 •   Past history of CA or                                 •   Monitoring data         • LFG migration
                     ongoing/ repeat                                                                   • Slope failure
                     violations (medium)                                                               • Explosive
                 •   Compliant (low)                                                                       concentration of
                                                                                                           gas
                                                                                                       • LF fire
                                                                                                       • Methane capture –
                                                                                                           greenhouse gases




September 25, 2007

				
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