World War I _1914 – 1918_

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					 World War I
(1914 – 1918)
USHC- 6.1 – 6.4
           NATIONALISM


•DEFINED AS THE BELIEF IN THE
SUPERIORITY OF ONE’S OWN NATION
OR COUNTRY.
•Focuses on goals of self-growth and
expansion
• often leads to hatred of other peoples
and nations.
                  ALLIES
Alliance
                US (1917)
Systems
               Great Britain
             RUSSIA (1917)
                  France


           NEUTRAL NATIONS
           SPAIN   SWITZERLAND
           NORWAY     SWEDEN
           BELGIUM   DENMARK

           CENTRAL POWERS
            AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
                GERMANY
                BULGARIA
                 TURKEY
Militarism (Arms Race)
A massive buildup in new high technology weapons:
1) Dreadnought battleship
2) Airplanes
                  June 28, 1914
Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo.

Serbian terrorist group committed the act.

The catalyst event leading to World War I.
                           Neutral Rights


•   President Wilson’s “He Kept us out of War!”
•   Military Preparedness campaign
•   Warned Germans after the Lusitania was
    sunk that he would hold them to
     “Strict Accountability” or one step short of
    breaking off U.S. diplomatic relations with
    Germany.
    American
    Neutrality
• War didn’t threaten
  America
• Millions followed the
  war due to
  hereditary ties to
  Germany, Austria-
  Hungary, and Great
  Britain
  – Many Americans did
    not want their
    children to
    experience war
  – There was sympathy
    for the Brits
1.   Trade and loans to British
2.   Unrestricted submarine warfare   Causes of
3.   Lusitania sunk                   World War I
4.   Sussex Pledge
5.   Zimmermann Note
6.   Germany resumes unrestricted
     submarine warfare
              • Men between 18 and 35
 Selective      picked in a lottery drawing.
Service Act   • 2 million were drafted and
                made it to Europe.
              • 400,000 African-
                Americans served in
                Europe
             Selling the War
• Federal government ran a coordinated WAR
  EFFORT.
• The United States spent about 33 billion on the
  war effort
• A steeper income tax was instituted on the
  wealthy.
• Faced new 20th century issues of censorship,
  news's manipulation, and the public’s right to
  know.
• Newspapers and billboards carried government
  advertisements for free
     Committee on Public Information
•    George Creel
1.   Four Liberty Bond drives
2.   “Four Minute Men” (75,000)
3.   Leaflets and posters
Propaganda Posters
The Committee of Public Information,
government agency ran the program.
                              Food Administration
•   Herbert Hoover
•   Voluntary Rationing program

US farmers fed our allies plus enough for internal consumption.
Food production went up 25%
                      Victory Gardens
• Wages in some industries went up as much as
  20%
• Homeowners planted “victory gardens” in their
  yards
• American food shipments to the allies tripled
     Liberty Loan
        Drives
1.   There were four
     major loan
     drives to fund
     the war effort.
2.   Used Hollywood
     icons like
     Charlie Chaplin
     to sell war
     bonds.
3.   Raised 21 billion
     dollars of the 33
     billion it cost.
•    Anti-German Hysteria:
German names were removed or changed.
Foods renamed
No German taught in schools


                         Anti-German
                           Hysteria
                                       Censorship
                                       Campaign
Magazines and Newspapers lost mailing privileges.
The International Workers of the World were targeted for two reasons:
         1. Socialist
         2. Led strikes during the war.
    First Amendment Restrictions
1798 Federalists Controlled Congress enacted:
1) Alien Acts
2) Sedition Act
 Jefferson and Madison issued the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions to
    protest the laws (nullification).
World War I
• In 1917 Congress passed the Espionage Act, and the Sedition Act
• Under the Espionage Act a person could be fined up to $100,000.00
   and/or sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the draft,
   obstructing the sale of government bonds, or using the mail to send
   items of dissent.

•   Sedition Act or saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the
    government or the war effort

•   Supreme Court has ruled that in times of WAR the government can
    suppress FREE SPEECH if it hinders the GOVERNMENT WAR EFFORT
• Schenck v. US (1919)
• Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes    Censorship
  coined the phrase “clear and
  present danger”
• He used the analogy of yelling
  fire in a theater.
African-Americans and the War



• African-Americans served a limited role in
  WWI
• The NAACP and W.E.B. Dubois backed
  the war
• Many African-Americans moved North as
  part of the Great Migration
           Mass Production
• Prefabrication
Ships built in standardized sections and then
  assembled within several days

• It allowed the U.S. to replace Allied
  shipping lost to German U-boats
            Women in the War




• Women moved into jobs that men vacated as they went
  to war
• They began driving cabs and delivery trucks, worked on
  the railroad, cooked, worked on the docks, and laid brick.
• Women’s Suffrage movement gained momentum leading
  to the 19Th Amendment
 “NO MAN’S
   LAND”
   THE AREA
 BETWEEN THE
TRENCHES WAS
   THE MOST
  DANGEROUS
  PLACE TO BE
         American Expeditionary Force
                   (AEF)
                             • American
                               soldiers were
•Led by General                known as
“Blackjack”
Pershing                      Doughboys.
                             Helped the Allies
                               Win the war.
             New Weapons
• Zeppelin – gas-filled airship that enabled the
  Germans to drop bombs
• Machine gun – 600 rounds a minute
• Poison gas – mustard and chlorine gasses killed
  the enemy and forced the use of gas masks.
• Tanks
• Airplanes
• U-boats
• Flamethrowers
• Strategic bombers
                      New Weapon:
                       Submarine
                     Convoy System
Germans used “unrestricted submarine warfare” in an attempt to break
the British naval blockade.
British and American navies created the convoy system to slow down the
amount of ships sunk by German U-boats in the Atlantic Ocean.
               New Weapons:
          The Airplane and Zeppelins
Fighter planes (interrupter gear)
Long-Range Bombers:
1) Zeppelins
2) Strategic bombers by 1917
            New Weapon:
          The Flamethrower
Germans introduced the flamethrower.
Goal: break the stalemate
Used against the AEF in the Argonne
 offensive.
            New Weapons:
              The Tank
• Designed to break the stalemate caused
  by trench warfare.
• New tactics develop to protect infantry.
       Collapse of Germany
• On the 11th hour, on the 11th day, in the
  11th month of 1918, Germany surrendered.
• Germany agreed to a ceasefire, known as
  an armistice.
• We would go on to celebrate the surrender
  on Armistice Day, which would later be
  called Veterans Day
              War in Total
• The war lasted 4 years
• 30 nations were involved
• It had been the bloodiest war in history to
  that point
• 26 million dead
• 20 million wounded
• 10 million refugees
• 350 billion dollars (cost of war)

				
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