World War I
(1914 – 1918)
USHC- 6.1 – 6.4
•DEFINED AS THE BELIEF IN THE
SUPERIORITY OF ONE’S OWN NATION
•Focuses on goals of self-growth and
• often leads to hatred of other peoples
Militarism (Arms Race)
A massive buildup in new high technology weapons:
1) Dreadnought battleship
June 28, 1914
Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo.
Serbian terrorist group committed the act.
The catalyst event leading to World War I.
• President Wilson’s “He Kept us out of War!”
• Military Preparedness campaign
• Warned Germans after the Lusitania was
sunk that he would hold them to
“Strict Accountability” or one step short of
breaking off U.S. diplomatic relations with
• War didn’t threaten
• Millions followed the
war due to
hereditary ties to
Hungary, and Great
– Many Americans did
not want their
– There was sympathy
for the Brits
1. Trade and loans to British
2. Unrestricted submarine warfare Causes of
3. Lusitania sunk World War I
4. Sussex Pledge
5. Zimmermann Note
6. Germany resumes unrestricted
• Men between 18 and 35
Selective picked in a lottery drawing.
Service Act • 2 million were drafted and
made it to Europe.
• 400,000 African-
Americans served in
Selling the War
• Federal government ran a coordinated WAR
• The United States spent about 33 billion on the
• A steeper income tax was instituted on the
• Faced new 20th century issues of censorship,
news's manipulation, and the public’s right to
• Newspapers and billboards carried government
advertisements for free
Committee on Public Information
• George Creel
1. Four Liberty Bond drives
2. “Four Minute Men” (75,000)
3. Leaflets and posters
The Committee of Public Information,
government agency ran the program.
• Herbert Hoover
• Voluntary Rationing program
US farmers fed our allies plus enough for internal consumption.
Food production went up 25%
• Wages in some industries went up as much as
• Homeowners planted “victory gardens” in their
• American food shipments to the allies tripled
1. There were four
drives to fund
the war effort.
2. Used Hollywood
to sell war
3. Raised 21 billion
dollars of the 33
billion it cost.
• Anti-German Hysteria:
German names were removed or changed.
No German taught in schools
Magazines and Newspapers lost mailing privileges.
The International Workers of the World were targeted for two reasons:
2. Led strikes during the war.
First Amendment Restrictions
1798 Federalists Controlled Congress enacted:
1) Alien Acts
2) Sedition Act
Jefferson and Madison issued the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions to
protest the laws (nullification).
World War I
• In 1917 Congress passed the Espionage Act, and the Sedition Act
• Under the Espionage Act a person could be fined up to $100,000.00
and/or sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the draft,
obstructing the sale of government bonds, or using the mail to send
items of dissent.
• Sedition Act or saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the
government or the war effort
• Supreme Court has ruled that in times of WAR the government can
suppress FREE SPEECH if it hinders the GOVERNMENT WAR EFFORT
• Schenck v. US (1919)
• Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Censorship
coined the phrase “clear and
• He used the analogy of yelling
fire in a theater.
African-Americans and the War
• African-Americans served a limited role in
• The NAACP and W.E.B. Dubois backed
• Many African-Americans moved North as
part of the Great Migration
Ships built in standardized sections and then
assembled within several days
• It allowed the U.S. to replace Allied
shipping lost to German U-boats
Women in the War
• Women moved into jobs that men vacated as they went
• They began driving cabs and delivery trucks, worked on
the railroad, cooked, worked on the docks, and laid brick.
• Women’s Suffrage movement gained momentum leading
to the 19Th Amendment
PLACE TO BE
American Expeditionary Force
•Led by General known as
Helped the Allies
Win the war.
• Zeppelin – gas-filled airship that enabled the
Germans to drop bombs
• Machine gun – 600 rounds a minute
• Poison gas – mustard and chlorine gasses killed
the enemy and forced the use of gas masks.
• Strategic bombers
Germans used “unrestricted submarine warfare” in an attempt to break
the British naval blockade.
British and American navies created the convoy system to slow down the
amount of ships sunk by German U-boats in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Airplane and Zeppelins
Fighter planes (interrupter gear)
2) Strategic bombers by 1917
Germans introduced the flamethrower.
Goal: break the stalemate
Used against the AEF in the Argonne
• Designed to break the stalemate caused
by trench warfare.
• New tactics develop to protect infantry.
Collapse of Germany
• On the 11th hour, on the 11th day, in the
11th month of 1918, Germany surrendered.
• Germany agreed to a ceasefire, known as
• We would go on to celebrate the surrender
on Armistice Day, which would later be
called Veterans Day
War in Total
• The war lasted 4 years
• 30 nations were involved
• It had been the bloodiest war in history to
• 26 million dead
• 20 million wounded
• 10 million refugees
• 350 billion dollars (cost of war)