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Pest Management Update

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					Pest Management Update

       Anita Neal
       UF/IFAS SLC Extension
A New Exotic Soft Scale Insect on Croton in South Florida
           (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:Coccidae)
             • This is an undescribed species in an
               undescribed genus of unknown origin.
               Currently, efforts are being made to
               describe this new scale insect.




                         Adult and immatures of this new
                              scale insect on croton
                Croton Scale
FLORIDA
DISTRIBUTION:
Broward, Duval,
Indian River, Lee,
Miami-Dade,
Monroe, Orange,                              Male
Palm Beach,
Pinellas, Putnam,
and St. Lucie
counties.




          Adult female, adult male and immatures of this new scale insect on croton
Homeowner Controls
• Bayer Advanced Garden Power Force
  Multi-Insect Killer – Cyfluthrin
• Bayer Advanced Garden 2-in-1 Systemic
  Azalea, Camellia & Rhododendon Care –
  Dysulfoton
• Bayer Advanced Garden Tree & Shrub
  Insect Control – Imidacloprid
• M-pede & Safer’s Soap – Potassium Salts
• Spectracide Rose & Flower Insect Spray -
  Pyrethroid
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus
Eichhoff (Scolytinae:Curculionidae)
                • The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus
                  glabratus Eichhoff, was first detected in
                  Georgia 2002 and in Florida in 2005.
                • This ambrosia beetle introduces an
                  unspecified vascular fungus (Ophiostoma
 Lateral view     sp.) into its host causing infected redbays
                  to wilt and die within a few weeks or
                  months.


                     String of compacted
                     ambrosia beetle
                     sawdust on redbay

Dorsal view
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle
• As the female redbay ambrosia beetle
  bores tunnels into the wood, she lays her
  eggs in galleries. These eggs hatch and
  the larvae feed on the fungus, pupate and
  change into adults.
• Only one female beetle is needed to
  establish a new population. Unmated
  females lay eggs that hatch as males,
  while mated females lay eggs that hatch
  as females. Multiple generations are
  produced per year.
• Only the female beetles are able to fly and
  initiate attacks on a new host of trees
• Do Not transport Firewood from Infested
  areas
Detected in
Vero Beach
on an
Avocado tree
   Redbay Ambrosia Beetle
   Laurel Wilt Fungus
       • Potential problem for avocados
       • Most ambrosia beetles attack trees and shrubs
         that are stressed, dying, or dead. Plant stress
         may be the result of drought, flooding, freezing
         temperature damage, wind damage, or very poor
         cultural practices. In contrast, some ambrosia
         beetles, the redbay ambrosia beetle included,
         attack healthy trees. More importantly, the laurel
         wilt fungus that accompanies this beetle often
         causes tree death.
A bore-hole from a redbay ambrosia beetle
surrounded by dried sap (white-crystal-like)
from an avocado stem and wilted leaves of
laurel-wilt-infected avocado tree
Laurel Wilt
• Laurel wilt causes the leaves of affected trees to
  droop and take on a reddish or purplish
  discoloration. Wilted foliage may occur in only part
  of the crown at first, but typically the entire crown
  eventually wilts and reddens.
• In redbay, the leaves eventually turn brown and
  remain on the tree for up to a year or more.
• Limited experience with laurel wilt in avocado
  suggests that this host may drop its leaves relatively
  soon after wilting.
• Removal of bark from wilted trees reveals a black to
  brown discoloration in the sapwood. This is the best
  diagnostic feature of laurel wilt in the field. The
  extent of this discoloration, which runs in streaks
  parallel to the grain of the wood, will vary depending
  on how long the tree has been infected
 What You Can Do
• Avoid long distance transport of firewood in
  general. A county-level distribution map is
  periodically updated on the following website:
  http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/laurelwilt/dist_m
  ap.shtml
• Whenever possible, leave dead and dying redbay
  wood (and wood from other laurel family hosts) on
  site instead of transporting it. If the wood must be
  transported, dispose of it as close to the source as
  possible
• Urban and rural residents and commercial growers
  should be on the look-out for redbay and other host
  trees (including avocado) showing signs of rapid
  wilting and dark sapwood discoloration. Report new
  finds to the Florida Division of Plant Industry
  (http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/) or Division of
  Forestry
• Treat at the root flare with propiconazole (Alamo) &
  Thiabendazole (Arbotect) as macroinfusion
  (innoculated)
  http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/laurelwilt/index.
  shtml
Emerald Ash Borer
• Emerald Ash borer is an exotic beetle that
  was discovered in southeastern Michigan
  near Detroit in the summer of 2002. The
  adult beetles nibble on ash foliage but
  cause little damage. The larvae (the
  immature stage) feed on the inner bark of
  ash trees, disrupting the tree's ability to
  transport water and nutrients.
• It only attacks Ash trees, Fraxinus sp.
Emerald Ash Borer
• The adult beetles are metallic green and
  about 1/2-inch long.
• Adults leave a D-shaped exit hole in the
  back when they emerge in spring.
• Woodpeckers like EAB larvae; heavy
  woodpecker damage on ash trees may
  be a sign of infestation.
• Firewood cannot be moved in many
  areas of Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana,
  Pennsylvania, West Virginia and
  Maryland because of the EAB quarantine
• It probably came from Asia in wood
  packing material
• More information:
  http://www.emeraldashborer.info/
Potato Cyst Nematodes
• Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN) is a serious pest of
  potatoes world-wide and is subject to stringent
  quarantine and/or regulatory procedures wherever
  it occurs. PCN can be a devastating pest of
  potatoes in temperate regions if not controlled.

• It is in 65 countries, intro into US from WWI
  equipment returning from the war (NY).
• Spread by tubers and soil residue
• Potential into Florida through potato seeds (Minn.,
  Maine and South Dakota)
• Above ground symptoms
    • Chlorosis
    • Stunting of growth
    • Incipient wilting
Sabal Palm Decline
• Texas Phoenix Palm Decline (TPPD)
• Disease is caused by a phytoplasm
• Noticed winter/spring 2008 – Manatee Co.
• The earliest symptom is a discoloration of
  the lower (oldest) leaves of the palms.
• Discoloration begins at the tips of the
  leaflets.
• Then reproductive parts of the plant will
  die, resulting in dropping of fruits and
  flowers
• In Phoenix palms the spear leaf dies, in
  Sabals it may not.
Sabal Palm Decline
• Red coloration on dead leaves
• The bud will be loose
• The insect vector, probably a planthopper
  or leafhopper is unknown. It could be the
  same leafhopper that vectors lethal yellow.
• Homeowners who suspect TPPD should
  contact their local UF/IFAS County
  Extension Office.
• The sampling process is at
  http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/LY-TPPD-
  Trunk-Sampling.pdf
• Samples can be sent to the Fort
  Lauderdale Research and Education
  Center
The Unlucky Side of Lucky Bamboo
 • Aka ‘Belgian evergreen’; Host name :
   Dracaena sanderiana
 • Extremely popular in Asian theme
   interior decorating
 • Plant is very hardy for interiorscaping
   applications
 • Large volume imported from China
   over last several years
 • Pathogen probably introduced in this
   time frame
         Unlucky Bamboo
• Fungal pathogen – Colletotrichum dracaenophilum
• Water-splashed conidial inoculum
• Geographic range – China, Bulgaria-2007 (PD
  92:173), Dominican Republic and Florida-2008
• Symptoms are relatively mild at first and apparently
  can remain static for some time. Look for slightly
  raised brown patches on the stem, surrounded by a
  maroon-colored border
Advanced Symptoms of C.
    dracaenophilum
Consequences - Significance
• Another example of the international
  phytosanitary system being overwhelmed
  by volume
• Commodity is treated much like a product
  for consumption; a potted plant, not
  outplanted into environment much
• What is host range of C. dracaenophilum?
• Probably much too late for any meaningful
  regulatory response
• Maintain vigilance to avoid any more
  introductions, stop further spread
Recent Thrips Records of Interest
Submitted to the Division of Plant Industry
          • Common name, the weeping fig thrips.

          • Primary host, Ficus benjamina.

          • Heavy infestations frequently reported.
            Rolls leaf edges into ‘galls’ followed by leaf
            drop.

          • Predators: Androthrips ramachandrai
            (Phlaeothripidae), Montandoniola
            moraguesi (Anthocoridae).
Holopothrips tabebuia Cabrera & Segarra
         • Recently described, formerly referred to as
           Holopothrips cf. inquilinus (Bournier).
         • Primary host, Tabebuia spp.
         • Also makes leaf roll galls similar to
           Gynaikothrips spp.
         • Has same predators as Gynaikothrips spp.
Tabebuia Damage




       Notice the severe leaflet
      curling and galling caused
       by Holopothrips tabebuia
Holopothrips tabebuia




  These make protective galls in
  which they lay eggs where the
      larvae live and feed.
 Liothrips spp.
  • Liothrips varicornis Hood
     • Hibiscus thrips
  • Liothrips floridensis (Watson)
     • Found on camphor
  • Large thrips with bright red larvae.

Echinothrips americanus Morgan
  • Seems more abundant than
    usual this year.
  • On a number of ornamentals
    including Dieffenbachia,
    Poinsettia, Spathoglottis, and
    Syngonium.
Selenothrips rubrocinctus
      (Giard)
• Always one of the most frequently
  submitted thrips. Red-Banded Thrip
• Has wide host range, including native
  plants.
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

• Most frequently submitted thrips overall.
• Distribution (27 counties) and host range
  continue to expand.
• Significant new agricultural hosts:
   • Strawberries (Jim Price)
   • Blueberries (Lance Osborne)
Frankliniella spp.
• F. bispinosa (Morgan) continues to be the
  most frequently submitted flower thrips
  from a wide variety of hosts.
• F. occidentalis (Pergande) is submitted
  about as frequently as F. bispinosa, also
  from a wide variety of hosts.

				
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