Biometrics

					                                           Biometrics and its application



What is Biometrics


Biometrics refers to an automated system that can identify an
individual by measuring their physical and behavioral uniqueness or
patterns, and comparing it to those on record. In other words,
instead of requiring personal identification cards, magnetic cards,
keys or passwords, biometrics can identify fingerprints, face, iris,
palm prints, signature, DNA, or retinas of an individual for easy and
convenient verification. With the boom in Internet-based business and
the increased need for accurate verification when accessing accounts,
biometrics is the simplest and most convenient the solution. Its
universal, unique, permanent and measurable features ensures security
of information in E-commerce, such as on-line banking and shopping
malls. Biometrics can also provide you with convenience and security,
by enabling a machine to verify the individual by itself and to
respond to the individual’s requests.

Through the use of such physical controls as access control, and
punch card maintenance, user restrictions on certain apparatus can be
made possible with an automated verification system.

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Authentication: 3 Factors



                          Passwords                 “something we know”




                          Tokens and Cards –        “something we possess”

                          (e.g., ID cards, smart cards, digital certificates)

                          Biometrics                “something that is part of us”

                          (e.g., retina scan, fingerprints, facial recognition)



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Types of Biometrics


                          Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method
                          which has been successfully used in numerous applications. Everyone is known to have
      Fingerprint         unique, immutable fingerprints. A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on
                          the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern
                          of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. Minutiae points are local ridge
                          characteristics that occur at either a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending.




                          Iris scan biometrics employs the unique characteristics and features of the human iris
       Iris Scan           in order to verify the identity of an individual. The iris is the area of the eye where the
                          pigmented or colored circle, usually brown or blue, rings the dark pupil of the eye.




                          Facial recognition systems are built on computer programs that analyze images of human
                          faces for the purpose of identifying them. The programs take a facial image, measure
  Face Recognition        characteristics such as the distance between the eyes, the length of the nose, and the angle
                          of the jaw, and create a unique file called a "template." Using templates, the software then
                          compares that image with another image and produces a score that measures how similar
                           the images are to each other.


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Types of Biometrics

                          Voice recognition technology utilizes the distinctive aspects of the voice to verify the identity
                          of individuals. Voice recognition is occasionally confused with speech recognition, a
                          technology which translates what a user is saying (a process unrelated to authentication).
          Voice           Voice recognition technology, by contrast, verifies the identity of the individual who is speaking.
                          The two technologies are often bundled – speech recognition is used to translate the spoken
                          word into an account number, and voice recognition verifies the vocal characteristics against
                          those associated with this account.




                          This biometric approach uses the geometric form of the hand for confirming an individual’s
   Hand geometry          identity. Because human hands are not unique, specific features must be combined to assure
                          dynamic verification.




                          Signature verification is the process used to recognize an individual’s hand-written signature.
       Signature          Dynamic signature verification technology uses the behavioral biometrics of a hand written
                          signature to confirm the identity of a computer user. This is done by analyzing the shape,
                          speed, stroke, pen pressure and timing information during the act of signing. Natural and
                          intuitive, the technology is easy to explain and trust


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Why Fingerprints: Reasons



   Iris Scan
                    Iris can return the most accurate results. But since it
requires the system or device to come very close to the individual’s eyes,
it a less desirable method of verification. In addition, such devices or
systems tend to be expensive and bulky, putting limits on its practical
application.



      Voice
                    A typical voice recognition system is usually more
affordable, but it’s not always reliable because the human voice is subject
to changes due to illness, hoarseness, or other common throat problems. This
system is also subject to extraneous noises in the surrounding area, static
and communication conditions.




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Why Fingerprints: Reasons


      Face
                      Since faces have different dimensions and features
  depending on the angle, expression and age, a face recognition system is
  not likely to be of much practical use.



   Signature
                      The results with a signature recognition system, like
  the voice recognition system, are easily affected by various factors, and
  therefore it is not reliable at all.




Hand Geometry
                     The hand recognition system tends to take too much space and has a
high return rate of False Acceptance (FAR). Therefore, this system is rarely used in
highly security zones. There are also cost problems in its administration, as well as
concerns over access to confidential information.

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      Fingerprint :Acceptability

                        Fingerprint recognition has long been favored among many biometric
                        Identification technologies due to its uniqueness and permanence.
                        Nowadays, fingerprint recognition is considered to be the best
                        choice for most applications from network security systems to compact
                        devices, due to its accuracy, speed, reliability, non-intrusive
                        interfaces, and cost-effectiveness, resulting in acquiring 50% of
                        the shares in biometric markets




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Biometrics in Practice




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                                                                 Further Info

  For Further Info: Please contact




                               BioEnable Technologies Pvt. Ltd
                               C4/1,Rakshalekha,North Main Road, Koregaon Park, Pune,India
                               Call+91-20-26127374/26127181
                               Fax+91-20-26141659
                               Email: sales@bioenabletech.com
                               Web : www.bioenabletech.com




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posted:8/27/2012
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