SITUATIONAL AWARENESS MATTHEW DOHNER QUALITY ASSURANCE SPECIALIST PA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD ARMY AVIATION SUPPORT FACILITY FT. INDIANTOWN GAP, PA Muir AAF Fort Indiantown Gap, PA Muir AAF UAS Launch/Recovery Mission • Maintain aircraft for Aviation Brigade, Eastern Army Aviation Training Site (EAATS), other tenants, and transient aircraft from other facilities around the nation • Train and prepare units to deploy • Respond to State and regional emergencies. i.e. floods, wild fires, and law enforcement support Who We Are • Busiest National Guard Airfield – Second largest helicopter training base in world • Over 13,000 flying hours per year • Over 70,000 takeoff and landings – All aircraft types, except the Lakota have deployed since 9/11 – Approx. 45 rotary wing, 2 fixed wing aircraft, and 4 unmanned aerial systems – and growing Who We Are - cont • AASF is an Aviation Maintenance and Training facility – Over 200 people – highly experienced work force – 8 aircraft types • Long history of deploying, responding to state and federal emergencies and safely maintaining the highest OPTEMPO aviation fleet • 4 AH-64D Apaches – 2 crew aircraft: pilot and copilot/gunner – Weapons include a 30mm chain gun with a firing rate of 625 rounds per minute. – Hellfire air to surface missile. – 70mm rockets. • 20 UH-60 Blackhawks – Air assault – General support – Aero-medical evacuation, – Command and control – Special operations • 10 CH-47 Chinooks, getting 8 more over the next year – Transportation of troops, artillery, supplies, and equipment to the battlefield. – Medevac – Aircraft recovery – Parachute drop – Disaster relief – Fire-fighting • 2 OH-58A Kiowa – Can be flown by one pilot. – PA ARNG currently employs the OH-58 for RAID and service support missions. RAID- • 8 UH-72 Lakota – military multi-mission helicopter. – Law enforcement – Medevac – Search and rescue – Personnel transport. • Shadow UAS • Used for aerial recon SITUATIONAL AWARENESS What is going on around me???? LEARNING OBJECTIVES What is Situational Awareness? When should I use Situational Awareness? How can I use Situational Awareness? What is Situational Awareness? Situational Awareness is the ability to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information about what is happening in your environment. More simply, it’s knowing what is going on around you. Situational awareness is dynamic, hard to maintain, and easy to lose. Knowing what is going on at all times is very difficult for any one person, especially during complex high stress operations. Therefore, it is important that we know what behavior is effective in keeping situational awareness. The following actions can help us retain or regain situational awareness: • Be alert for deviations from standard procedures. • Watch for changes in the performance of others around you. • Be proactive, provide information in advance. • Identify problems in a timely manner. • Show you are aware of what’s going on around you. • Communicate effectively. • Keep abreast of the mission or task status. • Continually assess and reassess the situation. • Ensure that all expectations are shared for complete awareness by everyone involved. Inadequate situational awareness has been identified as a primary factor in accidents attributed to human error. Complete and accurate situational awareness is essential not only at work, but also at home. In order to understand how to use situational awareness, it is better to first learn how situational awareness is lost. 8 CLUES THAT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS HAS BEEN LOST 1. Confusion: Disorder within the team or a gut feeling that things are not right. This clue is one of the most reliable because the body is able to detect stimulus long before we have consciously put it all together. Trust your feelings! 2. No one Watching or Looking for Hazards: Operations require more than just focusing on your task (tunnel vision). The proper assignment and performance of tasks, particularly supervisory and lookout, is essential to safe operations. 3. Use of Improper Procedures: This puts the individual or team in a gray area where no one may be able to predict outcomes with any certainty. 4. Departure from Regulations: In addition to violating procedures, we are operating in an unknown area where the consequences of our actions cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty. This makes it nearly impossible to plan for future outcomes of actions being performed. 8 CLUES THAT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS HAS BEEN LOST (CONT.) 5. Failure to Meet Planned Targets or Objective Goals: During every task in life, we set certain goals or targets to meet, such as completion times, midway benchmarks, and ending results. When they are not met, we must question why and systematically begin to evaluate our situation. 6. Unresolved Discrepancies: When two or more pieces of information do not agree, we must continue to search for information until the discrepancy is resolved. Do not continue “driving on” when we have not resolved all issues along the way. The end result could lead to disaster. 7. Ambiguity: When information we need is confusing or unclear, we must clarify or fill in the missing pieces before proceeding. 8. Fixation or Preoccupation: When someone fixates on one task or becomes preoccupied with work or personal matters, they lose the ability to detect other important information. Early detection of both fixation and preoccupation is essential to safe operations. The best way to identify these clues is by knowing the behavior of your team members and being alert to change. Preoccupation with personal matters can often lead to subtle changes in performance. Best way to recognize this clue is to use the “buddy system”, keep an eye on each other and NEVER WORK ALONE!!!!!! What happened April 15, 1912??? RMS TITANIC RMS Titanic was a passenger liner that struck an iceberg on her maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City, and sank on 15 April 1912. In 1912 the sinking of the Titanic began late on the night of April 14th. Information on the sinking Titanic indicates that the ship approached a massive iceberg, and although efforts were made to steer clear of the large frozen mass, all efforts were to no avail. Sadly, further records of the Titanic accident history indicate that the Titanic disaster may very well have been able to have been completely avoided had officers on ship paid heed to reports received earlier regarding the frozen waters they were approaching. Consequently, neighboring ships in the area had reported earlier in the evening that the waters ahead contained numerous masses of solid ice and that approaching ships should proceed with caution. The Titanic, however, thought to be unsinkable, plowed full speed ahead. This proved to be a fatal mistake and is certainly one of the factors that led to the disaster. FAILURES IN SITUATIONAL AWARENESS: April 14, 1912 13:45-Iceberg warning issued for Titanic's location and route…Titanic continues on same course and does not reduce speed as per normal practices. 23:40-Titanic collides with an iceberg. April 15, 1912 00:05-Order is given to uncover lifeboats. 00:25-Order is given to load women and children into lifeboats. 00:30-Titanic transmits first distress call. (50 minutes after impact) 00:45-First lifeboats are lowered. 00:50-First white distress rocket fired. (70 minutes after impact) 02:20-Titanic slips beneath the surface to its final watery grave killing 1,589 people, more than 2/3 of its 2,222 people onboard. (2 hours and 40 minutes after impact) HOW USING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WOULD HAVE SAVED THE SHIP AND LIVES After receiving the iceberg warning, the Titanic should have slowed its speed and proceeded with caution, or the Titanic could have followed the lead of the SS California which had stopped for the night due to iceberg warnings. The Titanic’s captain saw now reason to slow down or alter course due to ice warnings because of the belief that it was unsinkable. Though crewmembers were posted in the crow’s nest on iceberg watch, they were not equipped with binoculars; thus, proving ineffective. Knowing and understanding the situation at hand and understanding the dangers, we must use rational and common sense decision making to mitigate dangerous situations for the most desirable outcome. HOW USING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WOULD HAVE SAVED THE SHIP AND LIVES (CONT) Given the initial assessments of water flooding the ship, and the rate of the ship’s pumps not being adequate to keep the ship afloat, the order should have been given immediately to abandon ship. Given the potential for disaster, the radio operator should have been at his station throughout the evening monitoring icing in the area and at the ready to broadcast arising situations. With these failures in proper situational awareness, distress calls were not received for 50 minutes after impact, and the first lifeboat was not lowered until 65 minutes after impact. Applying Situational Awareness Scenario #1 You have just started a new job. Using situational awareness, what are some of the first things you should do? 1. Identify emergency exits and familiarize yourself with emergency evacuation procedures 2. Use your first few days to familiarize yourself with what is normal, so that you can identify when something is out of place. If something looks out of place it probably is 3. Review company and building SOPs. SOPs are your biggest aid in learning about your surroundings, and they will better prepare you if an emergency arises Scenario #2 You are traveling by airplane. Once you have found your seat, what should you familiarize yourself with? 1. Identify the closest emergency exit to where you are seated, but remember the closest exit is not always the one you will be able to use 2. Review emergency procedures in the pamphlet provided by the airline for that particular aircraft 3. Ensure your seatbelt works properly 4. Identify elderly passengers, as well as, small children. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT DONE SO YOU KNOW WHO TO PUSH OUT OF YOUR WAY IN AN EMERGENCY) This is done so that you know who may need assistance in case of an emergency As you can see, situational awareness is nothing more than using common sense in all aspects of life. At work or at home, using situational awareness can help you identify hazards and mitigate unnecessary risks. QUESTIONS??????
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