Festivals

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					Festivals
Introduction:

During the whole year various holidays and feast days are celebrated in Britian, U.S.A. and our
country- Czech republic. Some holidays are celebrated in all these countries; some are national
holidays. One of the biggest holidays of the year is Christmas. It is day, when Christ was born.


Every part of Britain has its own holiday:
St.David's Day - March 1st (Wales)
St. Patrick's Day - March 17th (Ireland)
St. George's Day - April 23rd (England)
St. Andrew's Day - November 30th (Scotland)

In the USA there are eight main holidays:
Independence Day - 4th July, the birthday of the USA; The Americans have a holiday, each town
has its own parade. After parades people go home and have parties. These days commemorates the
signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
Thanksgiving Day - every fourth Thursday in November nearly everyone in the USA tries to get
home to spend the day with their families or friends and enjoy the traditional food (roast turkey,
apple or pumpkin pie etc.) It remembers the first settlers - Pilgrim Fathers who came in 1620 from
England in their ship called Mayflower. This is a day of gifts, charities and food for poor people.

Veteran's Day
Columbus Day
Memorial Day
President's Day
Martin Luther King Day
Labor Day

In the Czech Republic, Christmas is also the most popular family holiday. People buy Christmas
trees, hang various decorations and Christmas sweets on it. On 24th December we have the
traditional Christmas dinner on Christmas Eve. Some people follow the old tradition of fasting all
day before the meal. We have fish soup and the main meal is fried carp and potato salad. Children
expect the bell signal from the "Infant Jesus" after the Christmas dinner to unwrap their presents
under the Christmas tree., and Silesian University.


Many of festivals are connected with religions
Christianity: Christmas celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. Easter celebrate death and resurrection of
Jesus Christ, All Souls’ Day

History of each country
Independence day, 28th October, 1st May, Jan Hus Day, End of the WW II. – 8th May

Special events
The end of the Year, Birthday of the head of the state
People’s lives
Birthday – all family is together, the honoured person becomes presents and flowers, children often
give parties for friends
Name day – only small celebrations, small gifts or just congratulations
Wedding anniversary
International
Teachers’ day, Children’s day, Mothers’ day
Bank holiday (state)
1st May; 6th July; 28th October
Important days 17th November

Festivals in the Czech Republic
1st January - New Year’s Day
14th February - St. Valentine’s Day
28th March - Teacher’s Day
March/April – Easter
Boys have stock whips, water and some sprays and they goes from house to house and hit girls with
stock whips, pour water on them and they usually become painted eggs, sweets, chocolates
1st April - Fool’s Day
1st May - The Day of Work
The day of Work and workers, they do not go to work, they have holiday. In 1889 Communistic
International said that 1st May is the day of workers and since then it is still celebrated.
5th May - May’s rising of Czech nation
8th May - The end of WW II.
The forces of Alliance came in Prague and beat Germany in Czechoslovakia
The Second Sunday in May - Mother’s Day
1st June - Children’s Day
5th June - The Day of Constantine and Method
6th June - The Day of Jan Hus
Jan Hus had been burned in 1415.
28th October – The Independence of The State of Czechoslovakia
Austria-Hungary had been beaten on 27th October 1981.
17th November - Day of Students’ fight for freedom
24th December - Christmas
31st December – New Year’s Eve
Big celebrations, till the morning, at 24 o’clock New Year’s Toast, fireworks, with family or with
friends

How I celebrate Christmas
We dress a Christmas Tree one or two days before. Sometimes we have live tree, but sometimes we
have plastic one. We usually put glass baubles, silver chains (tinsel) and colour lights on it. We also
decorate our house with Christmas decorations and tree branches. On a Christmas Day we eat
breakfast together. This breakfast consist from a Christmas Cake and anything to drink. We have to
eat a lot because we don’t eat whole day, just fruits. Then we usually watch TV or just do nothing
while my mother is preparing dinner. When it gets dark we practise some Christmas traditions. We
for example cut an apple and when there is a star we will be happy. We make small ships from
walnuts and candles and sail with them in a bath and my sister throws a shoe over her head. Then
we have a dinner. Fried carps, potato salad, pea soup and anything to drink. Then we put all the
dishes into a dishwasher and go to living room to see presents. Than my sister plays the piano and
we sing carols. After that we go to see our grandma and stay there till night and drink and eat
biscuits. Next day we go to see our second grandma and there is usually whole our family and we
celebrate together.
Christmas

In Britian

Preparations for Christmas start long before in late October or early November. That is when British
housewives make their Christmas cakes. These cakes taste much better if made a month or two
before Christmas. Some weeks before Christmas the streets and shops are decorated. A lot of British
families have Christmas trees made of plastic. There are no candles on them but electric lights.
Socks are hung up. Children believe Father Christmas will fill them. He comes on his sledge-pulled
by reindeer-very early on the morning of Christmas Day. He enters the house through the chimney
and puts the children’s presents into their stockings. They get their presents on Christmas Day and
not on Christmas Eve. The dinner on Christmas Day is the „most important“ meal of the year. The
British usually have roast turkey and roast potatoes followed by Christmas pudding (also called
plum pudding). Christmas pudding is a special rich pudding made with lots of dried fruit, eggs, suet
and flour. It is made well ahead before Christmas, boiled for four hours and then heated again on
Christmas Day. It will keep for a long time. There is also an old custom of stirring into the pudding
a coin, a thimble and a ring to bring wealth, work and a wedding to those who find it. There are
plenty of carols on the radio and TV.

December 26 is called Boxing Day from the custom in earlier times of giving postmen, milkmen,
newspaper boys and the like small sums of money, which they collected in their Christmas boxes.

In our country

Preparations for Christmas begin four weeks before 24 December. This time is called Advent. The
housewives bake sweets. Kind of sweets, gingerbread taste much better when made a month before
Christmas. Gingerbread is decorated with white icing. Many people make Advent’s wreath with
four candles. One of candles is lighted on in every advent’s Sunday. On Christmas Sunday all
candles are lighted. During the preparation for Christmas there is a nice, friendly atmosphere. A lot
of people buy Christmas tree, but many people have tree made of plastic. The most important day of
Christmas is Christmas Eve. People eat only Christmas cake with tee or coffee for breakfast. They
haven’t to eat any meat all day, because according to customer, in the evening they will see the
Golden pig. Somebody, mostly mother, prepares the dinner and the tree is decorated with chocolate,
sweets, flasks and no candles, but electric lights. During waiting for evening people watch TV,
because there are many fairy tales (Cinderella, The very sad princess or The princess with gold star
on forehead). The children believe that Christ Child brings the presents and he puts them under the
tree. Around six o’clock in the evening a lot of families have Christmas dinner. It is the most
important meal of the year. The usually have fried carp with potatoes salad after the lentil or fish
soop. The carp taste much better, when it swim a few days in bath before Christmas, because then it
don’t smell of pound. Some people give some scales from carp in the purse and they believe
according to the custom that they will have much money in New Year. After the big meal the family
go to the room, where the tree stand. There are some presents. Children unpack them and they
always are happy.

25 Th December people often go visiting their relations and friends. They get presents friend and
friends’ get presents them.
One week after Christmas people celebrate the New Year’s Eve. People stay up till midnight to see
how the old year out and drink a toast to the New Year.
In Britian two months later people celebrate St. Valentine’s Day. It is on 14thFebruary. It is lovers’
day. On this day young people send Valentine cards to a person they love. The cards have funny,
loving or serious contents. This day is celebrated in U.S. and now in our country.
All Fool’s Day-On 1st April is day of all foot. It is named after the custom of playing practical jokes
and tricks on people and then you can shout “April fool”.




Festivals in Great Britain and in the USA

New Year’s Day – 1st January
• it is a day of new resolution
• in USA it is a day of shopping because there are New Year’s sales everywhere around

Valentine’s Day – 14th February
• the day of love and lovers
• people try to express their love for each other by sending Valentine’s cards
• cards usually have a lots of red hearts and pink flowers on the cover and a romantic message
inside


Mother’s Day - Second Sunday in March


St. Patrick’s Day – 17th March
Though St, Patrick’s Day on March 17, is not an official holiday in the U.S., it is celebrated all over
the country. Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, and Irish immigrants brought this holiday to
America. The facts of his life are largely obscured by legend. It is known that he was born about the
year 385. He became a monk in France. According to legend he had a vision that called him to
return to Ireland to Christianise it. By showing the Irish a shamrock he explained the doctrine of the
Trinity. Shamrock is a plant with leaves composed of three leaflets. It is now used as the emblem of
Ireland. An artificial or real shamrock leaf is usually worn on St Patrick’s Day. It is the anniversary
of his death though it is not certain in what year he died. People also celebrate this day by wearing
something green and getting together to party and sing Irish songs. They are usually a very happy
crowd. In many pubs they serve green beer and in most restaurants they offer an Irish menu on that
day. People wish each other “A happy St. Patrick’s day” and the Irish wear buttons that read “Kiss
me I’m Irish”. In most big cities colourful parades with marching bands mark the holiday to the
delight of many onlookers and passers-by. It is estimated that there are about 17 million Irish living
in the United States.
• this festival came to the USA from Ireland
• everything turns green on this day – green food, green clothes
• millions of three-leafed shamrocks (representing the Holy Trinity) are used for decorations
• in some places there are parades


Easter – March/April
The date of Easter is different every year. It’s celebrated after the first full moon in spring. It is a
Christian festival, marking the crucifixion and resurgence of Christ. Many people go to church. For
some people it is only a spring holiday.
In U.S.A.
Easter Sunday in U.S. is a special day for many people. Children enjoy the holiday very much.
They hunt for coloured eggs, eat chocolate bunnies and wear their best clothes. Legend says that
Easter rabbits bring Easter eggs: Once old woman dyed some eggs during a famine and hid them in
a nest as a present for her children. Just when her children found the nest a rabbit leaped away. The
rabbit brought the eggs, thought the children. On Sunday morning children start hunting for painted
eggs all over the house and garden. Some children have their baskets full of the eggs.
In England
In England Good Friday and Easter Monday are bank holidays (official holidays). On Good Friday
hot cross buns are eaten for breakfast. Children look forward to Easter Sunday called Easter Day,
which is day for chocolate and painted eggs, the symbol of new life. Easter Monday has no
particular customs and in spent in a variety of ways, but either at home or in a countryside the rule
is enjoys you.
In our country
In our country the most important day for children especially for boys is Easter Monday. For them
Easter Monday is full of fun. There are many groups of boys in the streets from early morning till
noon. They visit the girls. Boys have plaits willow cane and they carry small baskets. When they
come into a girl’s house they say a rhyme and whip the girl on her legs and bottom. The girl gives
them chocolate, Easter eggs or some cake or some money.
• recall the events leading to Jesus Christ’s death and resurrection
• Palm Sunday – first day of Holy Week
               - many churches spend this Sunday remembering and celebrating Jesus’ triumphal
               entry into
                 Jerusalem. He was greeted by crowds of people waving branches of palm trees and
               celebrating
                 his arrival.
               - today many churches are decorated by palm branches to remember this event
• Maunday Thursday – remember the Last Supper – the last meal of Jesus
                         - also on this day all decorations are removed from the alter in the church
• Good Friday – the most solem day of Holy Week
                 - commemorate the crucifiction of Jesus Christ by the leadres of Jerusalem
                 - the songs and mood of the service reflect the sadness believers feel for the death of
Jesus Christ
                 - many Christianist hold a lent (eat little or no food)
• Easter Monday – Americans celebrate only Easter Sunday, there is no Easter Monday
                    - this cheerful Monday is a sharp contrast to Good Friday
                    - it is a joyous celebration of Jesus’ resurrection from death
                    - churches are decorated with colorful banners and Eastr lilies
• eggs, rabbits and chicks are three symbols of new life, fertility and Spring
• the Easter version of Santa Claus is Easter Bunny – he brings colored eggs, candy and chocholate
eggs and rabbits to the children
• in our country boys go from house to house and whips girls with a willow canes, then boys get
some sweets.
If girl was whipped on Easter, she would be health all next year.

Independence Day – 4th July
• It commemorates the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, which was the
official founding of the United States of America
• people are dressed in national colours, houses are decorated by national flags
• in every town (even the smaller ones) there are parades. Sometimes the military join in, too.
• every town organizes the fireworks displays. People also set off their own fireworks.

Halloween – 31st October
October 31. Among the old Celts it was the last day of the year and the beginning of winter when
witches and ghosts were supposed to celebrate their rites. When the pagans were Christianised, the
holiday was converted to the Eve of All Saints Day when the Christian Church honours the memory
of the dead. In Britian it is celebrated only in the North of England and in Scotland, but it is
generally celebrated in the USA and Canada. Children celebrate it by dressing up in Halloween
costumes with masks over their faces. Carrying baskets or bags they go to their friends and
neighbours houses and they knock at the door or ring the bell. When people come to the door,
children say “Trick or treat” which means “Give us a treat or we will play a trick on you”. The
people treat the children with sweets, fruit or money. The most common trick is soaping the
windows of houses and cars (that is drawing pictures on the windows with soap). A favourite
custom is to make a jack-o-lantern from a pumpkin, which is scraped, out and in which eyes, a nose
and a mouth are cut and then a candle is lit inside. People sometimes give parties on Halloween.
The guests wear fancy costumes and masks and the rooms are decorated with paper moons, witches
and ghosts.
 In USA there are different holidays. One of them is Independence Day; July 4.Each city has its own
ceremony and parades, band concerts and firework displays in the evening. This day commemorates
the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, thus establishing USA.
• Halloween = Eve of all hallows
• Children go from house to house in costumes (often dressed as ghosts, skeletons, animals or fairy
tale heroes) and say “Trick or treat!”
          - If the neighbour says “Trick”, the children play a trick
          - But people usually says “Treat”- then gives the children sweets or some even money
• people decorates their houses with spiders webs, coffins, bats and pumpkins
• pumpkins have a cut out faces and people put the candles into them (pumpkins called “jack-o’-
lantern”)

Guy Fawkes Day – 5th November
• In 1606 in London a man called Sir Guy Fawkes plotted to blow up King James I. and the Houses
of Parliament. The plot called “The gunpowder Plot” was discovered on 4th November and Guy
Fawkws and his friends were executed on 5th November.
• Sience then every 5th November the British people let of fireworks, light bonfires and burn a
“guy”.
• Guy is a large doll, made of straw. Children put old clothes and funny masks on the doll. Then
they go into the streets and say “penny for the Guy, please”. When they have enough money, they
buy lots of fireworks.

Rememberamce Sunday – the nearest Sunday to 11th November
• it remembers the end of the 1. world war
• symbol is poppy – it symbolized a blood in a bettlefiled
• the money from poppys goes to war veterans
• people hold a 2-minutes silence to commemorate a victims of war
• the queen lays a wreath at the Cenotaph in Whitehall (London)

Thanksgiving Day – the last Thursday in November
Thanksgiving day is celebrated in the U.S. on 4thThursday in November. It remembers the first
settlers who came to America in 1620. In 1620 the ship named Mayflower brought one hundred and
two English men, women and children to America. They were puritans, members of a religions sect.
They called themselves the Pilgrim Fathers. The winter was cold and half of them died. In spring
they planted corn and other plants with helps and advice from the Indians. In autumn they
celebrated good harvest and had a feast with much food. They called this day their day of
Thanksgiving. It is family holiday the whole family gathers together and enjoys a traditional dinner
– roast turkey, bread stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie.
The turkey is the glorious centrepiece of the Thanksgiving Day. The turkey should be golden brown
on the outside and the inside should be moist and tender. The gravy is thickened juice from turkey
that we get during baking. The mashed potatoes can be cream or smooth. For best results, the
cranberry sauce should be made about three days in advance. You need water, sugar, cloves, allspice
and cinnamon sticks. Then you add cranberries. The pumpkin pie needs a good crust made from
dough. Dinnertime is between 3 to 5 PM. By that time there is a great smell in whole house. The
dinner table has special decorations – napkins with Thanksgiving ornaments, small decorative
pumpkins, decorative turkey made out of paper and flowers. Favourite colours are orange and
brown. The family speak about the thinks for which they are thankful. People give thanks for their
being well, for happiness of their families. Many families begin Thanksgiving dinner with a prayer.
• 1620 – the first pernament settlers in the USA – named Pilgrim Fathers were puritans and were
persecuted from England, came to the USA and started to built a new settlement, very hardworking
people
• The first winter was for them, terrible half of them died, but with helping of the Indians the
second year was better and they had got a very good harvest – big celebration, since 1621
Americans celebrate Thanksginving Day
• In modern times it is the day when whole families get together and enjoy themselves and enjoy
good food.


Christmas –25th December
Christmas is marked by fairy lights and brightly illuminated streets, carols and children awaiting the
arrival of Father Christmas and his reindeer stopping outside their chimney. They hang up their
stockings at the foot of beds and wait for the presents. They open them only on December 25th at
breakfast-time. At noon they have their traditional Christmas dinner - roast turkey and Christmas
pudding. December 26th is called Boxing Day.
• there is Christmas Eve on December 24 in the USA, but people get their presents on December 25
in the morning
• it’s day when Jesus Christ was born
• a lot of people decorete trees with colourful ornaments, cupping-glass, sweets, silver chains and
lights
• streets, shops and important buildings are also decorated, there are often carol singers of the
streets
• the tradicional food in Britain is roast turkey with stuffing, roast potatoes, vegetable and sauces
and Christmas pudding for desert
• in the Britain the presents give Father Christmas (live in Lapland), in the USA Santa Claus (live in
North pole)


New Year’s Eve – 31st December
New Year's Eve is the night of merry-making all over the land, especially in Scotland. They have
family parties and at twelve o'clock they sing "Auld Lang Syne". People gather in squares, link
arms and sing. In Scotland they call the last day of the year Hogmanay. Is more celebrated than
Christmas. They eat traditional dish haggis (minced heart, lungs and liver or a sheep boiled in a
sheep's stomach with oatmeal).
• this day everyone waiting fot the end of the old year
• there is a lot of fireworks in our country




            The System of education in GB and CZ
Introduction
I think that education is very important for everyone. Everybody should be at least basically
educated. If the people are good educated they can get a good, well-paid job. If someone has only
basic education, he or she usually can’t get as good job as more educated people but if he is clever
and has a little luck he could become a millionaire too. People with high school education mostly
think that they must have the best jobs and the most money. Situation is a little bit more
complicated. There are not enough jobs neither for less educated nor for highly educated. Those
highly educated also would like to earn a lot of money from the beginning, but it’s not possible.
People with low education usually work as cleaning women or workers. These jobs are also
important but they are not very well paid. There are some problems with illiterate people in some
countries – they can’t read and write and they don’t want to work. They become homeless or
criminals and they cause a lot of problems.



System in CZ
Pre-school education begins at the age of 3. Children can attend kindergartens. They play together
there, sing, draw and learn basic thinks like how to tie their bootlaces or that washing their hands
before lunch is very important, etc. Some children stay with mothers who are on maternity leave.
Primary education starts at basic schools, lasts 9 years and has 2 degrees (low and high). Children
start basic school at the age of 6 and leave at the age of 14 or 15. Basic schools are compulsory for
all children. They learn writing, reading, counting, Czech language, from 5 th class also biology,
geography, foreign language, physics, etc. Everyone can choose the secondary education, which
lasts usually 4 years. Children in 9th class can send their applications or admission to grammar
school (these schools don‘t have any specialisation, students learn everything), there can be
grammar schools for 6,7,8 or 9 years, to secondary special schools (like technical schools,
economical, agriculture, music, for health workers, languages...), or they can also choose vocational
schools = apprentice sch. which prepare young people for practical professions (shop assistant,
cook, waiter, carpenter, bricklayer, painter, locksmith...). Students finish their secondary education
after passing the school leaving exams. In our school we have to pass the exam in Czech and one
foreign language and we can choose two subjects more.
After passing the school leaving exams, students can attend universities or colleges. They can study
economics, art, medicine, computers, geography, languages, philosophy, law... This study lasts 5 or
6 years and each year has consists of two terms. They finish it with defence of their thesis
(diplomová práce). They can study more faculties together.



System in GB
Children in GB can attend nursery schools or kindergartens since they are 3 years old. They learn
basic things like in our country.
The education starts at the age of 5. This education is compulsory (they must attend the school, it’s
given by the law). They go to primary schools, which we can divide into two parts: infants (5 to 7)
and juniors (7 to 11). Children learn writing, reading, counting, they also learn how to get on with
friends and teachers, they must realize that they have to keep some rulers...
At the age of 11 they start to attend secondary schools, which are called comprehensive (všeobecná
střední škola) schools in GB. The children are divided into groups called streams according to their
abilities. They are allowed to study only the subjects they are interested in. At the age of 16 they
leave the school and do the O-level exams (they take it in 10 subjects, no subjects are compulsory)
Then they decide whether they want to continue or not. If so, they study 2 or 3 years and then, at the
age of 18, they sit for A-level exams. They take it in 3 or 4 subjects. Then they have open doors to
universities.
There are about 47 universities in GB. The most known are Oxford and Cambridge, where is a
typical tutorial system (each student has it’s own teacher, who helps him). University usually lasts 3
or 4 years (5 or 6 in medicine, dentistry and veterinary sciences). Students can get a degree of
bachelor and they could study to get a degree of master.




Types of British universities
   1)     Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest
   2)     Redbrick Universities – 19th century (London, Manchester) – provided technological
   training in industrial areas
   3)     New universities opened after 1960



Marking
In our country we are marked by numbers 1 to 5, where 5 is the worst (in Russia 5 is the best)
English students get letters from A to E
In Britain students are supposed to wear uniforms. We can find the main reason in the past. There
were students from different families, some were rich some poor and when they wore uniforms
teachers couldn’t recognize it.



Our school
There are about 13 classes in our school, with about 300 students. Upon on entering the school we
are in student’s cloakrooms. There is also school canteen and typing lab in this part of school. On
the ground floor we can find the classrooms, language lab, two computer labs, small shop, music
lab and teacher’s studies. There is one room more occupied by school servant. On the first floor
there are classrooms, English lab, German lab, biology lab headmaster’s office and teacher’s
studies. There is also one very interesting room with a copier. On the second floor we can, except
classrooms and teacher’s studies, find physics and chemistry lab, and school library. On the wall on
the first floor students have the notice board where they can find some important information. The
walls in the corridors are behung (ověšeny) with many pictures, photos, etc. The oldest students
have important information about universities on the ground floor. Our school has some new
equipment like videos, TV, cassette players, overhead projectors, In computer laboratories there are
about 20 computers. In every teacher’s study there is also one computer. Every computer is
connected into our local network. The school has entrance to Internet, but it’s just for teachers. The
school has also a gym. It’s very small, but it doesn’t matter because there is a big hall next to the
school. Behind the school there are two volleyball courts and a football field.

Lesson
The teacher comes to the classroom and all students stand up – it’s the greeting to the teacher. Then
the teacher says, “Sit down” and writes to the class register who is missing. Then he starts to teach.
Some teachers like to examine to found whether students study hard or not. I really don’t know why
they practice in. It’s unpleasant for both sides I think. Time to time students have to write a short
test not longer then 45 minutes. The ring reports the beginning and the end of the lesson. Brakes
have usually 10 minutes just two of them have 15 I thing.

Options at different ages
I thing it’s quite hard for children in our republic who are 14 or 15 to choose their secondary school.
Some of them know what they want to do as their job but the most of them don’t know it. The same
problem has students at secondary schools. They have to decide but they often say to themselves
that it was bad decision. I know it from my own experience.



                                        My own education
I didn’t attend creche but I used to attend kindergarten for two years. Then I visited the primary
school in Hlučín and at the age of 12 I passed an entrance exams to grammar school. Now I’ve
been studying here for 6 years. I used to do a lot of extra school activities. I attend extra English
lessons, computers, programming; we used to play florball last year. I still attend some of them:
basketball, volleyball. There are a lot of other clubs in this school like chorus or typing, but I am
not a member.
My favourite subject is PE. I used to like physics at primary school but I hate it now, but I am going
to do the entrance exams in it. I also like computers. I think this school is quite good, the quality is
also said to be high, I thing the equipment could be better – in the gym, there is equipment just for a
few sports, the computers are a little bit old, and there is not an entrance to Internet for students. It
is good that a new class is equipped nearly every year. I like that the school takes part in some
competitions in sport or education and that still keeps some traditions like NON-STOP etc.

Future plans
I would like to study at university. I’ll probably study geography or something technically bent. I
love traveling, planning ways, comparing different countries. I wanted to study computers but I
found that I’m not very good at it. I work a lot with computer at home and I also read a lot about it
but probably it’s not enough. I wanted to study languages, because everyone said to me that I would
need it, but I left this idea because nearly every young student can speak English and German
today. I would have to learn Chinese or Japanese but it would be too tough for me. But it could be
interesting. I am a little bit influenced by my father because he studied physics at VUT in Brno.
I also want to improve my foreign languages at university and I’d like to learn Russian. This
language fascinates me. The speaking sounds so fun that it’s great. Then I’d like to work somewhere
with people. I don’t want to work in an office and work with papers. Maybe I’ll try to travel
somewhere exploring new countries just to have holiday but I’ll have to save a lot of money before
I‘ll do that.



Qualities

Teacher – Good – clever, strict but not too much, strong personality, friendly, helpful, patient,
with strong nerves, Bad – not very clever, cruel, injust (nespravesdlivý), nervous, be unfair
(nadržovat), underestimate (podceňovat)

Student – Good – hardworking, polite, clever, gifted (vnímavý), talented, sensible,
enthusiastic, interested, independent, bright (bystrý), keep order (dodržovat řád), Bad – to
copy, slow, cheeky, to prompt, to play truant, to cheat, to bully




Vocabulary
lessons – start, be over
obligatory – povinný
optional subjects – volitelné př.
take an exam in – dělat zkoušku z
school leaving exams – oral, written
take, lasts – trvat
to crib – opisovat z taháku
to cram – šprtat
underestimate – ponižovat
fee – poplatek za studium v soukromé škole
public school = private school (Eton)
term – semestr
protractor –úhloměr
pair of compasses – kružítko




System of education in the UK
Education is equal in England and Wales. There are some education differences in
Scotland and Northern Ireland. Shool is compulsory for children and young people
between the ages 5 and 16. Some of them receive nursery education. The great majority
of parents send their children to state schools, where education and equipment are
completely free. Other children are sent into independent schools "public school". These
schools are usually boarding. The school year is divided into three terms. It starts in
September and students have some holidays during the year. The subjects taught at
schools are given by National Curriculum ( legislation passed in 1989 - gives greater
responsibility to schools and colleges and gives parents more posibilities to choose the
school ).
Primary and Secondary education
Primary school is for children from 5 to 11 and the teachers are mainly woman. Secondary
school is for young people between the age of 11 and 16. ( In some areas there are middle
schools (age 9-13 ))
There are several types of secondary schools. The most of pupils attend comprehesive
ones. Grammar schools offer a mainly academic education.
At the age of 16 students take the principal examinations GCSE - General Certificate of
Secondary Education. Those who don't want to study more take GCE. People who want to
continue study take GCSE at O level (ordinary) Later a new exam Advanced
Supplementary (AS) was introduced. Students can learn more subjects after passing this
exam. At 18 students take A-level exam ( Advanced level ) It's the standard examination
for entrance to higher education.
Higher education
Britain has 47 universities ( including the open universities ). The most famous and the
oldest ones in Britain are Oxford and Cambridge. They date from the 12th and 13th
centuries. The Scottish universities Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh date from 14th and
15th centuries.
University courses last usually over 3 to 4 years. Students have to pay for courses, food
and accomodation. They receive loans and they have to pay back when they start to work.
Undergraduates are the students who study for a degree of Bachelor. The title is put after
the name. Then students are gaduates and they can study further to get degree of Master
- they must work on thesis. The degree of Philosophy is given only for a thesis which
originally contributes to human knowledge. The head of university is
a vice-chancellor, but it is only honorary title. Each students goes to his tutor who directs
him during the studies.
Further education
It is for people over 16. They take courses up to GCE A level standard. This courses are
taught at colleges of further education. Most of them are vocational ( technical, commercial
). Many students attend schools in the evening or they are released from employment.


Vocabulary:
advanced - rozvinutý
introduce - zavést
attend - navštěvovat
release - uvolnit
compulsory - povinný
responsibility - odpovědnost
contribute - přispět
thesis - diplomová práce
equipment - vybavení
vocational - odborný
further - další


EDUCATION IN CZ – general facts
School attendance is compulsory from the age of 6 till 15. Schools are mainly state
schools but there are also some private and church schools. Attendance at state schools is
free of charge, and provides the same kind of education with the possibility of enrolling at
universities. Handicapped children are educated separately. School fees in private schools
range from 5,000 to 12,000 crowns a year.

Pre-school education begins at the age of 6 months when children may attend creches
until the age of three. From the age of 3 till the age of 6 children attend kindergartens. Still,
it is common for mothers to stay at home with them till children's school age.

Primary education starts at basic schools and lasts 9 years. Children receive an education
foundation: writing, counting and reading skills, Czech language and literature, basics in
physics, biology, civics etc.

Secondary education lasts usually 4 years - from the age of 15 or till the age of 19.
Secondary education may be divided among:
- secondary grammar schools
- secondary special schools (technical schools, schools of economics, agriculture schools,
music schools, schools for health workers etc.
- vocational schools which prepare young people for practical professions.

Tertiary education starts at the age of 19 and lasts usually from 4 to 6 years. Students may
attend various universities or colleges (Medical Faculty, School of Economics, Law Faculty
etc.). For those who do not want to enter the university there are various types of two-year
training courses for opticians, managers, social workers, au-pairs etc.
Students end their secondary education after passing their graduation exam, which
consists of two parts: written part (around April - students have to pass exam in Czech
language, accounting and computers) and oral part (around May) in Czech language and
literature, accounting, economics, and a foreign language or mathematics.

Subjects taught at Czech schools are as follows: Czech, foreign language (English,
German, French, Russian, Spanish), geography, mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry
music, fine arts, labs, civics, physical education. Additional subjects taught at special
secondary schools are e.g. economics, typing, lab work, workshop, accounting, electronics
etc.

Students are evaluated by marks from 1 to 5. 1 is the best and 5 is the worst. Each term a
student gets his school reports with marks from both compulsory and elective subjects.

"Business academy" is a secondary school, which prepares students for university studies
or job like an accountant, work in banks, etc. In our school there are about 19 classes with
around 500 students.

Our school is very modern one. It is in a new building. On the ground floor of this building
we can find student's cloakrooms, caretaker's flat and his workshop and some classrooms
and offices, on the first floor and on the second floor there are classrooms and teacher
offices. In our school we can find also two computer labs, language labs, and other
differently equipped labs.

The main subjects taught in our school are: Czech language and literature, foreign
languages, maths, computers, typing, economics, and accounting etc. Among after-school
activities belong: Volleyball Team, sport's games and Internet.

Foreign Languages
Studying foreign languages is important for everybody. We need them for travelling
abroad, for reading foreign materials (books, newspapers), for preparing to further studies,
for cultural reasons (watching films, visiting concerts, understanding song's lyrics etc.).
Besides schools there are various ways to study them, we can visit language courses.
There are also some TV courses, many textbooks and cassettes from abroad. In bigger
cities we can take lessons from a private teacher.




CLOTHES AND FASHION

People have different attitudes to fashion. Some are indifferent, they do not care what they wear,
others, especially women, are very choosy and particular about what to wear and like to spend a lot
of money on clothes.

Different factors which have influenced the styles of clothing, such as geography, climate, poverty
and wealth have played their role. Fashion concerns not only clothes, but also hair style, make-up
and accessories, such as shoes, handbags, gloves, belts, hats, scarfs or jewellery and glasses.
Styles, cuts, designs and particularly the length of clothes change very quickly because dressmaking
has become big business nowadays.

There is also a variety of materials the dress can be made of - traditional natural materials such as
cotton, wool, linen, silk and the vast collection of new fabrics based on man-made fibres. Their
design can be plain or patterned (flowered, geometric, striped, checked, dotted or spotted) and taken
from the whole spectrum of colours running from the brightest and most garish to the coolest and
most subdued.

The way we dress also depends on our taste, on the season and the proper occasion. In summer we
wear light summer dresses, loose blouses with a low neckline and with short sleeves or without
sleeves, skirts, cropped trousers, shorts or Bermuda shorts and various T-shirts, and on our feet we
pull on sandals, mules, slippers or plimsolls. When we go swimming we put on a swimsuit (bikini,
one-piece or two-piece) or trunks, sometimes a beach gown and a straw hat. In winter we need to
wear something warm - suits, trousers, jeans, woollies, cardigans, polo neck sweaters, jumpers,
anoraks and parkas, winter coats and jackets, sometimes even a fur coat, gloves and mittens, caps,
hoods, hats, scarfs and mufflers. And boots of course.

On special occasions we like to be dressed properly too. When we go to a concert or to the theatre
we prefer to be dressed up. We wear an evening dress, which consists of a dark suit, a light shirt and
a tie or a bowtie, sometimes a dinner jacket, an evening gown, court shoes and pumps. For sports
we put on sports wear, such as jeans shorts, T-shirts, blazers, parkas, track suit and to the mountains
a waterproof jacket or anorak and sports shoes (trainers, plimsolls, heavy boots or skishoes). At
home we like to feel comfortable, and so we prefer leisure wear - slacks, jeans and T-shirts and on
our feet slippers or mules. To school we wear something practical and plain. The most favourite
wear of teenagers include jeans or trousers, shirts and T-shirts of different colours, sweatshirts or
pullovers and trainers. For workshop or cleaning jobs we must put on an apron, overall or overalls.

Special kinds of clothes are uniforms and costumes. Uniforms are worn particularly by
professionals such as the police, the armed forces, health workers, sometimes workers of a certain
firm. It is still a tradition in some schools in Britain (mostly private ones) to wear a school uniform.
It usually consists of a white shirt and grey or dark trousers and a dark sweater or blazer with a
school badge on the breast pocket and perhaps a cap. A girl's uniform looks quite different from an
ordinary girl's dress since it consists of a plain coat, a blouse and a skirt in some dark colour, such
as grey, navy blue or brown.

Costumes on the other hand reflect the style of a past time. Apart from the theatre they are not seen
very often, only on special occasions. Scotsmen are well-known for their national costume which
consists of a kilt (a short skirt with many pressed pleats), knee-length woollen socks, a cap and a
sporran (a fur-covered bag worn as a purse). The kilt is made of tartan, a kind of woollen cloth
woven in stripes of various colours which cross at right angles so as to form a pattern. The
difference is in the colours and the with of the stripes. Most tartans have either green or red as the
dominant colour.

The fashion changes so fast. Worn-out clothes we can discard but what to do with unworn clothes
which you do not like any more? People in the west often arrange a jumble or garage sale but it is
not a custom in our country yet. Some people store them up in their wardrobe if they have enough
room, pass them down to somebody younger or give them to a charity organization. Women who
can do needlework (sew, knit, crochet or embroider) often remake an old dress and alter it into a
new stylish model which is admired by their colleagues as if it was bought in a boutique.
1. What attitudes do people have to fashion?
2. What factors have influenced the way of dressing?
3. What does fashion include?
4. What changes in fashion very quickly?
5. What kind of materials, patterns and colour can be used?
6. How does the season influence clothes?
7. What kind of clothes do we wear on various occasions?
8. What can we do with an old dress?



gentlemen´s wear pánské oděvy
ladies´ wear dámské oděvy
children’s wear dětské oděvy
baby wear kojenecké oblečení
underwear spodní prádlo
knitwear spetené zboží
footwear obuv
wear nosit
dress, have on oblékat se, mít na sobě
put on, take off obléci si, svléci si
fashion, style móda, styl
set the tone in fashion udávat tón v módě
out of fashion z módy
old-fashioned staromódní
the latest fashion poslední móda
conform to fashion řídit se podle módy
fashion show módní přehlídka
mannequin, model manekýn, modelka
it suits you to vám sluší
it doesn’t match to the to se nehodí k
elegant elegantní
quite becoming docela slušivý
smart, showy slušivý, nápadný
worn out, shabby obnošený, ošumělý
baggy, ragged vytlačený, roztrhaný
care for the clothes pečovat o šaty
brush the clothes kartáčovat šaty
replenish wardrobe doplnit garderobu
be well dressed být vkusně oblečena
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
natural fibres přírodní vlákna
artificial fibres umělá vlákna
pure wool čistá vlna
tweed tvíd
corduroy manšestr
plush plyš
velvet samet
satin, sateen, brocade atlas, satén, brokát
pure silk čisté hedvábí
cotton bavlna
knitted fabric pletenina


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
first-rate material prvotřídní materiál
shoddy laciná látka
durable trvanllivá
crease- resistant nemačkavá
wash well dobře se pere
water-repellent nepromokavý


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
scarlet tmavě červená
purple purpurová
claret vínová
navy blue tmavě modrá
shade odstín
decent nenápadný
loud křiklavý
pastel pastelový
plain jednobarevný
patterned vzorovaný
checked kostkovaný
striped proužkovaný
dotted puntíkovaný
flowered květovaný


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
suit oblek
jacket sako
breast pocket náprsní kapsa
hip pocket postranní kapsa
trousers kalhoty
back pocket zadní kapsa
waistcoat vesta
lounge suit společenský oblek
evening coat frak
shirt košile
collar límec
stud knoflík
sleeves rukávy
cuff manžeta
cuff stud manžetový knoflíček
tie kravata
pants spodky
socks ponožky
belt pásek
buckle spona
braces šle
pyjamas pyžamo
raincoat plášť do deště
hood kapuce
overcoat svrchník
winter jacket zimník
overall pracovní plášť
wind jacket větrovka
anorak zimní bunda
track suit lyžařský oblek
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
panties kalhotky
bra podprsenka
suspender belt podvazkový pás
tights punčochy
nightdress noční košile
pinafore župan
dress šaty
costume kostým
straight skirt úzká sukně
full skirt široká sukně
slacks pohodlné kalhoty
trouser suit kalhotový kostým
blouse halenka
T-shirt tričko
cardigan vesta s rukávy
crew-neck sweater polorolák
pullover svetr
cocktail dress koktejlové šaty
wedding dress svatební šaty
leather coat kožený kabát
shorts kraťasy
hanky kapesník


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
walking shoes polobotky
sports shoes sportovní boty
court shoes lodičky
low heels nízké podpadky
sandals sandály
slippers domácí boty
gym shoes cvičky
boots kozačky
shoelaces tkaničky
tie the laces zavázat tkaničky
barefooted bez bot
gloves rukavice
scarf šátek
purse peněženka
case kufr
umbrella deštník
handbag kabelka
jewellery šperky
ring prsten
chain řetízek
pearl perla
necklace náhrdelník
bracelet náramek
ear- rings náušnice
brooch brož




BANKS
WHAT IS A BANK?
A bank is an organization, usually a corporation, that accepts deposits, makes (grants) loans, issues
credit and debit cards, pays, cheques, and performs some other services.

HOW DOES A BANK ACT?
A bank acts as an intermediary between suppliers of funds (depositors) and users of funds
(borrowers).

WHY DID BANK COME INTO EXISTENCE?
Banks take over the major risks related to monetary transactions and provide the main element of
security for both depositors and borrowers.

WHAT MAIN TYPES OF BANKS EXIST?
Saving Banks - sometimes called thrift institutions are usually financial institutions that accept
consumer deposits and make primary consumer loans and residential mortgages.
Commercial Banks - gather funds from depositors and inter-bank markets and invest them
principally in both personal and commercial loans.
Investment Banks - manage dealing and investment securities for customers and for their own
trading account.

HOW DO BANKS EARN MONEY?
The principal component of bank earnings is interest. To determine the banks profitability we need
to know the differential between the interest paid and interest earned. Fees are another source of
bank income.
BANK STRUCTURE
The structure of the bank depends on its size. There is always a head office, sometimes called
headquarters. Each bank usually has a branch network. Branches are organized in a special way
because they serve as selling points (these are the places which serve customers and make the
principal profit of the banks).
The most important part of any branch is a front office with a lot of counters where customers open
or close their accounts, deposit or withdraw money, etc. Then there is a back office where
transactions are processed.

BANK ACCOUNTS
Current account - pays very low interest but on the other hand the bank usually does not charge any
fees for running it.
Deposit account - money deposited by a customer can earn much higher interest, but he cannot
withdraw his money at any time without losing interest. He has to give notice which depends on the
period of a time deposit account.
Giro account - a type of current accounts. The interest is not very high but is usually slightly higher
than in typical current accounts. In our country it is an account to which salaries are typically paid
(they are directly transferred from the companies for which the customers work). This is a simple
system allowing payments of rent, gas, water and electricity bills, TV and radio charges.

A BANK LOAN
...is an agreed sum of money lent by a bank to a customer to be repaid at a later date, usually with
interest (a contract between a buyer (a borrower) and a seller (a lender)).

Telephone banking
As the banking hours do not always match customers working hours, the banks have introduced
new services in order to help their customers to gain access to their accounts whenever it suits them
- day or night.
There are business lines for companies and private entrepreneurs and private lines for individuals.
These lines give customers access to their accounts 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, enabling them to:
- check their balances, both business and personal
- transfer money between accounts
- check particular payments
- pay bills or invoices from suppliers
- obtain a list of the scheduled and confirmed transactions
- order cheque books, pay-in books and statements

BANK SERVICES IN BRITAIN
One of the world's most important financial centers is the City. In the heart of the City stands the
Bank of England. It is the central bank for all the other banks and its main business is to act as the
bank to the government and to issue banknotes.
Commercial banks, such as National Westminster and Barclays bank, have about 12,000 branch
offices in all the large and small towns in England and Wales, but not in Scotland because Scotland
has its own banks. They offer a large number of services, for example they provide loans and help
exporters and importers transfer money, to and from other countries, introduce automatic teller
machines, hold current and deposit accounts etc.

CREDIT CARDS
Commercial banks will give credit cards to people who they think will be good customers. A credit
card allows you to buy goods or services in shops, hotels, at railway stations and so on without
paying cash or writing a cheque. You just show your card to the shopkeeper, he makes a copy of
your card number, sends the bill to the bank, and the bank pays.
Each month, the bank sends you a statement which shows how much you have "spent" with you
card and the minimum amount which you must pay back.

AT THE POST OFFICE
There are several counters at the post office. You can find the counters for "Stamps", "Telephone",
"Telegrams" and "Parcels". There are also counters where you can send money and hand in you
pools coupons. At the beginning of each month there are queues because people pay their rent, their
insurance and various other bills.
You must be careful of writing a complete address on the parcels as well as on the envelopes. &It is
necessary to add the post code, too. When sending a parcel you must go to the post office because
the clerk weighs it and tells you what charge you have to pay. Sending a letter (not a registered one)
you needn't to go to the post office. You must put the right stamp in the top right-hand corner of the
envelope and then put it into a letter box in the street.
If you want to make a telephone call you must know the phone number first. You can either look it
up in the telephone directory or to ask for the information at directory enquiries. If there is and
automatic connection you must dial direct and use the code number. If not you must dial the
operator at the telephone exchange and ask for making the connection. The price of your call
depends on the time of day and if the call is local or not.




                    Staying in a hotel, on a campsite
Introduction
Hotel is a very useful thing. Many people have to travel from home for a long time and they have to
stay over night. A lot of people travel for business trips, some people travel to visit friends, it could
be used when people have argument at home, if you are on holiday. Permanent staying at the hotel
is very expensive. Newlyweds usually stay at a hotel for their honeymoon. It’s a great business
today in the world of travelling and business. There are big companies, which have a lot of hotels
all over the world.

Kinds of accommodation
hotel - 2 stars, 3 stars, 4 stars, 5 stars hotel – the rule – more stars = better hotel
bed and breakfast – usually for one night, less comfortable, breakfast is included, usually not bad
furnished but nothing extra
motel - less comfortable, own breakfast, close to motorways, sometimes you can park next to your
room, usually equipped with a wardrobe and a telephone
INN - very old type of hotel, cheaper, old fashioned, it has long tradition
hostel – the cheapest type of acc. in GB, not very well furnished, for not very rich people, not
comfortable, a lot of beds together, up-bunker beds, no privacy, you have to do your own bedding,
you have to clean when you are leaving...
pension – cheaper, could be well or bad furnished, less comfortable, not very big
apartment – usually part of big hotel, more bedrooms together, one kitchen and toilet together
bungalow – cheaper, own kitchen, toilette, for more people together
tent – the cheapest, for hiking (trampovat), in nature, kind of adventure, not very comfortable but
nice experience

Description of a hotel
see the next paper, please

Advantages, disadvantages

Hotel – very expensive, only for rich people, you are supposed to give tips, it’s not polite if you
don’t give a tip, everything is done for you, everybody is ready to help you, you are served, you
have breakfast, lunch and dinner, in good hotel: very good furniture and equipment – TV, radio, a
lot of wardrobes, comfortable bed, self service mini bar, telephone, air condition, bathroom, toilet,
towels, soaps, they clean it every day, you don’t have to do anything, there can be swimming pool,
tennis or squash courts, sauna, fitness...

Camping – you sleep in a tent, it can be exiting, thrilling, nice experience, you are it the middle of
nature, you can go to the wood if you want, clear air, you can make a fire, it’s more familiar / it can
join people together, sometimes problems with mosquitoes, air condition would be very helpful in a
tent, very cheep, you don’t have to give tips, you also don’t have to clean because there it always
mess there, you can go to the toilet where you want...

Typical English breakfast
-     English = eggs, bacon, beans
-     continental = salami, cheese, jam, honey, sausages, spreads...
-     vegetarian = salads, cheese, no salami, no meat


You can reserve rooms by the phone, through internet or by post for instance.
Check in : ask whether they have vacant rooms
          say how long would you like to stay
          ask for a prize, what is included
          if they serve the breakfast for example
          if you decide to stay, they probably give you a key
book a room beforehand zamluvit pokoj pøedem
have a room reserved mít pokoj zamluven
make a room reservation at rezervovat si pokoj v
have you a room vacant máte volný pokoj
we are full up at present máme teď plno
take a reservation in the name pøijmout objednávku na jméno
arrange the stay at zaøídit si pobyt v
announce the arrival ohlásit pøíjezd
take a room najmout si pokoj
put up at hotel ubytovat se v hotelu
residential hotel hotel s možností delšího pobytu
accommodation ubytování
single room jednolùžkový pokoj
double room dvooulùžkový pokoj
extra bed pøistýlka
suite apartmá
front room pokoj do ulice
room with view pokoj s výhledem
with a private bathroom s vlastní koupelnou
air-condition klimatizace
will this room suit you bude vám ten pokooj vyhovovat
register pøihlásit se k pobytu
fill in vyplnit
show identity card ukázat obèanku
approximate length of the stay pøibližná doba pobytu
permanent residence trvalé bydlištì
full board plná penze
half board polopenze
manager øeditel
staff personál
receptionist recepèní
porter portýr
doorman vrátný
chamber-maid pokojská
cleaning ladies uklízeèky
bell boy
lift boy
tip spropitné
hotel rate hotelová sazba
settle the account vyrovnat úèet
it is included je to zapoèteno
sleep under the canvas spát pod stanem
pitch a tent postavit stan
select a site vybrat místo
sleeping bag spací pytel
live close to nature žít blízko k pøírodì
life in the open air život v pøírodì
put up with the inconveniences smíøit se s obtížemi
enjoy the country air mít rád krajinu
holiday area rekreaèní oblast
resort støedisko
go abroad jet do ciziny




Shopping
Introduction
Most of the people do the shopping because they have to. They have to buy food, clothes,
sometimes equipment. Or they just want to have something new. Some people, especially women
and girls, love shopping. They can’t live without it. It’s necessary for them to go through the shop
and look what new they have and what is cheaper and what is more expensive. It’s a form of
relaxation for them, which costs them a lot of money. Sometimes they buy stupid things just to have
them. Useless clothes etc. Some of us have to go to the shop to buy some presents. It’s a disaster
usually, especially with men. They go and go and don’t know what to buy.


When we go shopping, we can go either go to a big department store or to a shop which specializes
in some extra goods, e.g.:

* the greengrocer sells fruit and vegetables
* the butcher sells meat
* the baker sells bread, cakes, rolls or buns
* the tobacconist sells cigarettes and tobacco
* the confectioner or sweet shop sells sweet and icecream
* the fishmonger sells fish
* the florist sells flowers
* the newsagent sells newspapers und magazines
* the men´s wear and women´s wear sells clothes and dresses
* the lingerie sells underwear
* the draper sells clothes and bed clothes
* the wine-merchant sells alcoholic drinks of all kinds
* the ironmonger sells metal goods(tools, pots, pans, nails)
* the dairy sells milk products and eggs
* the stationary sells paper products and office suplies
* the jeweller sells jewellery
* the toyshop sells various toys for children(dolls, teddies)
* the delicatessen sells some exclusive and more expensive food
* the electrical applicances shop sells TV and radio sets, fridges etc.
The most common shop in Britain is the grocer´s. It sells food, such as tea, coffee, sugar, flour,
butter, cheese, eggs, jam, tinned food and kitchen needs such as dishsoap, detergents and polish.
Another common shop is the chemist´s. You can buy medicines and ointments, toothpaste, combs,
bath soap (US - drugstore - they sell many more things than the British chemist´s - they have a
counter        where      you      can   buy      something      to    drink     and     eat).
Food products are usually bought in a self service shop or a supermarket. The supermarket is bigger
and you can also buy goods from the chemist and ironmonger here. A hypermarket is very large and
sells all possible kinds of food and kitchen and house needs. Street markets sell various things at
stalls in the streets and squares.
In a self service store you go in, pick up a basket or a wheeled cart, walk around the shop and
choose what you want. At the exit there is a cash-desk or a cashier where you pay for all your
merchandise together, either with cash or with your credit card.
A typical feature of modern big cities (London - e.g. Marks and Spencer, Harrods etc.) are big
department stores. They are usually huge buildings equipped with speedy lifts and escalators, where
you can buy almost everything from food to furniture. Here are some departments: Boyswear,
Girlswear, Beds and bedding, Electronics, Carpets, China and glass, Furniture, Gifts, Households,
Lingerie, Toys, Stationary, TV and Radio, Tobacco, Bookshop, Shoes, Watches and Clocks.
When we pay we may use banknotes or coins if we want to pay cash, or a credit cards. Money you
can earn, inherit, win, lend, borrow, steal or win in a bet.
An average Czech family goes shopping every day to a local supermarket for necessary food. Once
a week they usually do one bigger purchase for the weekend and from time to time they have to buy
clothes, shoes, household utensils and equipment.
A foreigner visiting our country might buy a nice picture book about our country, a record or
compact disc, cut glass, china and dolls in national costumes.




Shopping in my family
My mother goes to the shop regularly every day after work. She buys bread or rolls or some sweets.
On Friday she does a big shopping for a weekend. Sometimes my father brings very big shopping
from Ostrava, usually some cartons of lasting milk, cartons of juice, a lot of fruit and a lot of things
which last long. From time to time we go shopping to big supermarkets like Makro or Kaufland and
there we buy things for a long time or we buy there some clothes and shoes.




Window shopping
• it has got a lot of advantages - you don‘t need money
       - you can see a lot of interesting things without entering to the shop ⇒you don‘t have to
       queue
       - you can have a nice survey about prices or new kinds or trends
• I do this when I have nothing to do, when I wait for the bus or for friends…
Buying presents
I don‘t like buying presents because I never know what to buy. I hate buying useful presents. I think
present should be something special, not ordinary things which you will use every day. But my
imagination usually doesn‘t work well that time. So I buy typical gifts like books, chocolates,
cosmetic etc. It makes me mad because it‘s still the same. And I‘m not able to find a new idea.

Shopping is pleasant when I have nothing to do, a lot of time and a lot of money. If you have money
you can choose, if don’t, you have to buy what there is. I know it from the time when I needed a lot
of sports equipment. It’s true that in some sort of things “the more expensive the better quality”.
Shopping is usually pleasant when I can choose but sometimes it’s unpleasant because I don’t know
what to buy, I can’t decide. And when I buy something I say to myself “I should had taken
something different, it would have been definitely better…”

Different kinds of shops:
• stalls - standing in the streets and squares or at the tube-stations (many of their keepers are
Vietnamese)
        - you can buy watches, jeans or shoes cheaper than anywhere else, but this goods often have
        terrible quality – lose colours, shape, …,
• self-service shops or supermarkets – bigger, you can buy also goods from chemist or ironmonger
here
• hypermarkets – very large, sell all possible kinds of food and kitchen and house needs
• department stores – usually huge buildings equipped with speedy lifts and escalators, where you
can buy almost everything from food to furniture
• big markets, which are sponsored from abroad, could be dangerous for small private shops,
because they can push off them
• TV shopping – adverts on TV, you can phone and they will post you the goods
• Internet shopping – you search an Internet page of some shop and you can find the prices and you
can order some goods or duties, you can send money from your bank account or pay with your
credit card to register in the system.
• Interactive shops – in isn’t ordinary yet, they just try it in some countries, you can order
something through your TV set – it si very comfortable

Shopping in department stores and small shops

Department stores
It‘s more comfortable, you can buy everything there, you are in one building, you don‘t have to
travel through the whole town, you can spend the whole day there. There is a big choice there.
There is a lot of space but sometimes there could be a big amount of people. There could be some
problems with service. If there is a lot of people you can‘t find staff, you can get lost – it‘s
dangerous for small children. The prices are higher.

Small shops, boutiques
There is not everything in one shop, you have to go to more shops, you have to queue in every shop,
there is less choice there, you are served, it’s cheaper, in the village it’s more familiar, it is often full
of people so there is lack of space, it’s not open the whole day or on weekends, old people can have
a chat.
I prefer department stores to ordinary shops. You have to visit a lot of shops and there are different
goods in every shop. I choose something but don’t buy it and I go to another shop then I have to go
back. You have better choice but it lasts very long. Department stores are the best if you want to buy
only food I think. You don’t have to go to bakery, butcher, fruit, etc.

Shopping in the town and in the village
• town - many kinds of shops, you can choose one which is the best one
       - there is bigger competition - lower prices.
• village - one shop dictates the prices, good relationships between customers and shop assistants
       - not enough chances for shopping
       - terrible duties, a little goods

How shops try to influence customers
Adverts, lower prices, competitions, special offers – summer or winter reductions (slevy) or sales,
customer can taste the food or try to drive a car, close-out-sales, special gifts for buying something.
They put the most expensive things in the height of your eyes and cheaper goods somewhere down
so you see the most expensive things first.

Shopping in our country and in the UK

Czech Republic
• in the Czech Republic there are more possibilities for private shops and services after the
revolution in 1989
• shops aren’t only Czech, but also foreign companies discovered our market for their business, we
can meet many foreign shops (Makro, Bauhaus, Kauflland, Salamander...)
• our businessmen have to count with a big competition from abroad. It could be good for
customers, because the Shopkeepers must keep the prices low.
• we can buy clothes in the boutiques, but there are all kinds of clothes very expensive, because
those are designer clothes

Great Britain
Big supermarkets; out of the city; people do big shopping; they pay with credit cards not in cash
Tesco – supermarkets for not very rich people, the goods aren’t arranged very well, lower prices
Harrod’s – for very rich people, you don’t see prizes, staff is very polite, dressed in special
costumes, it has got long tradition, you have to be well dressed to get in
Marks & Spencer – clothes shop, not very expensive for English
Body shop – small shops, very expensive, cosmetics, natural products, not tested on animals,
nothing artificial
Boots – chemist’s, cosmetic, detergents, in the USA also some refreshment
One pound shop – very popular in GB, bad quality
trade, trader        obchod, obchodník
wholesale            velkoobchod
retail                maloobchod
market                trh
exhibition gronds   výstaviště
on the stall         na stánku
department store    obchodní dům
shop                 obchod
counter              pult
self-service shop   samoobsluha
pawnshop            zastavárna
signboard            vývěsní štít
store                skladiště
supply, supplier    dodávat, dodavatel
shop-keeper          majitel obchodu
shop window          výkladní skříň
buyer                kupující
shop assistant      prodavač
customer             zákazník
consumer goods      spotřební zboží
articles             druhy zboží
first class goods   prvotřídní zboží
quality goods       kvalitní zboží
deal in st.          obchodovat s něčím
large assortment    velký sortiment
keep a shop         mít obchod
in stock             na skladě
out of stock        vyprodáno
for sale             na prodej
purchase            koupě
do the shopping     dělat nákupy
enter the shop      vejít do obchodu
queue up for        postavit se do fronty
attend               obsluhovat
great demand         velká poptávka
keep it for you      schovat to pro vás
to sell quickly      jít rychle na odbyt
consignment            zásilka
clearance sale         výprodej
bargain                výhodná koupě
cash-desk              pokladna
cashier                pokladní
wrap up the parcel    zabalit balíček
wrapper                obal
offer                  nabízet
deliver                 dodat
order                  objednávka
deposit                záloha
fixed price             pevná cena
prices range from to ceny se pohybují od do
reduced/cut prices    snížené cena
make out a bill for    vystavit účet pro
pay the bill           platit účet
prices are going up   ceny stoupají
guarantee certificate záruční list
competition            konkurence
push off               vytlačit
shopping list         nákupní lístek

				
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