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					United States   In cooperation with
Department of
Agriculture
                The Pennsylvania State
                University, College of
                                            Soil Survey of
                Agricultural Sciences;
Natural
Resources
                the Pennsylvania
                Department of
                                            Adams County,
Conservation
Service
                Environmental Protection;
                and the Pennsylvania
                Department of Agriculture
                                            Pennsylvania
                                                                                                               3




How to Use This Soil Survey
General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area divided
into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the use and
management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map,
identify the name of the map unit in the area on the color-coded map
legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units for a
general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the
general soil map. These maps
can be useful in planning the use
and management of small areas.

To find information about your
area of interest, locate that area
on the Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil maps.
Note the number of the map
sheet and turn to that sheet.

Locate your area of interest on
the map sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that area. Turn
to the Contents, which lists the
map units by symbol and name
and shows the page where each
map unit is described.

The Contents shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map unit. Also see the
Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.
4




        This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
    of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
    agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The Natural
    Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
    leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
        Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1988. Soil names and
    descriptions were approved in 1991. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
    publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1988. This survey was made
    cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and The Pennsylvania
    State University, College of Agricultural Sciences; the Pennsylvania Department of
    Environmental Protection; and the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. The survey
    is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Adams County Conservation District.
        Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
    maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
    maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a
    larger scale.
        The first soil survey for Adams County, Pennsylvania, was published by the United
    States Department of Agriculture in 1904. The next soil survey, also published by the
    United States Department of Agriculture, was issued in 1967 (USDA, 1967). The present
    soil survey updates the previous soil survey. It provides additional information, such as
    updated soil delineations on orthophotographs, more detailed map unit descriptions, and
    interpretive information.
        The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all of
    its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability,
    political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases
    apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for
    communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should
    contact the USDA’s TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice or TDD).
        To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
    Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC
    20250-9410, or call 202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider
    and employer.


      Cover: Apple trees in blossom on Arendtsville gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes.




        Additional information about the Nation’s natural resources is available on the
      Natural Resources Conservation Service homepage on the World Wide Web. The
      address is http://www.nrcs.usda.gov.
                                                                                                                                                   5




Contents
Cover ....................................................................... 1   BgA—Birdsboro silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
How to Use This Soil Survey .................................. 3                      slopes .................................................... 34
Contents .................................................................. 5     BgB—Birdsboro silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
Foreword ................................................................. 9          slopes .................................................... 35
General Nature of the County .................................. 11                BgC—Birdsboro silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
  History and Development .................................... 11                     slopes .................................................... 35
  Agriculture and Industry ...................................... 12              Bo—Bowmansville silt loam ........................... 36
  Physiography ...................................................... 13          BrB—Brecknock channery silt loam, 3 to 8
  Mineral Resources .............................................. 14                 percent slopes ....................................... 37
  Climate ............................................................... 14      BrC—Brecknock channery silt loam, 8 to 15
How This Survey Was Made .................................... 14                      percent slopes ....................................... 37
Map Unit Composition ............................................. 15             BrD—Brecknock channery silt loam, 15 to 25
General Soil Map Units ......................................... 17                   percent slopes ....................................... 38
  Soil Descriptions ................................................. 17          BuB—Buchanan channery loam, 3 to 8
     1. Penn-Klinesville-Croton ............................ 17                       percent slopes ....................................... 39
     2. Lehigh-Neshaminy ................................... 17                   BvB—Buchanan channery loam, 0 to 8
     3. Edgemont-Highfield-Catoctin .................... 19                           percent slopes, extremely stony ............ 39
     4. Highfield-Arendtsville-Rohrersville ............ 19                       CcB—Catoctin channery silt loam, 3 to 8
     5. Penn-Abbottstown-Readington .................. 20                             percent slopes ....................................... 40
     6. Conestoga-Clarksburg-Penlaw .................. 21                         CcC—Catoctin channery silt loam, 8 to 15
     7. Glenelg-Mt. Airy ....................................... 22                   percent slopes ....................................... 41
     8. Athol-Penlaw-Clarksburg .......................... 23                     CcE—Catoctin channery silt loam, 25 to 35
Detailed Soil Map Units ........................................ 25                   percent slopes ....................................... 41
  Soil Descriptions ................................................. 26          CkA—Clarksburg silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
     AbA—Abbottstown silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                                        slopes .................................................... 42
            slopes .................................................... 26        CkB—Clarksburg silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
     AbB—Abbottstown silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                                        slopes .................................................... 43
            slopes .................................................... 27        Cm—Codorus silt loam ................................... 43
     ArB—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 3 to 8                                       CnA—Conestoga silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
            percent slopes ....................................... 28                 slopes .................................................... 44
     ArC—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 8 to 15                                      CnB—Conestoga silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
            percent slopes ....................................... 28                 slopes .................................................... 45
     ArD—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 15 to 25                                     CnC—Conestoga silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
            percent slopes ....................................... 29                 slopes .................................................... 45
     ArE—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 25 to 40                                     CrA—Croton silt loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes... 46
            percent slopes ....................................... 30             CrB—Croton silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
     AtA—Athol gravelly silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                                     slopes .................................................... 47
            slopes .................................................... 31        DAM—Dams .................................................. 48
     AtB—Athol gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                                 Dx—Dumps, refuse ........................................ 48
            slopes .................................................... 31        Dy—Dunning silty clay loam ........................... 48
     AtC—Athol gravelly silt loam, 8 to 15                                        EdB—Edgemont channery loam, 3 to 8
            percent slopes ....................................... 32                 percent slopes ....................................... 49
     Ba—Baile silt loam ......................................... 33              EdC—Edgemont channery loam, 8 to 15
     Be—Bermudian silt loam ................................ 34                       percent slopes ....................................... 49
6




EdD—Edgemont channery loam, 15 to 25                                        LgD—Legore channery silt loam, 15 to 25
   percent slopes .................................................... 50     percent slopes .................................................... 69
EeB—Edgemont channery loam, 0 to 8                                          LhA—Lehigh channery silt loam, 0 to 3
   percent slopes, very stony .................................. 51           percent slopes .................................................... 69
EeD—Edgemont channery loam, 8 to 25                                         LhB—Lehigh channery silt loam, 3 to 8
   percent slopes, very stony .................................. 51           percent slopes .................................................... 70
EeF—Edgemont channery loam, 25 to 70                                        LhC—Lehigh channery silt loam, 8 to 15
   percent slopes, very stony .................................. 52           percent slopes .................................................... 71
GbB—Glenelg channery silt loam, 3 to 8                                      LkB—Lehigh channery silt loam, 0 to 8
   percent slopes .................................................... 52     percent slopes, very stony .................................. 72
GbC—Glenelg channery silt loam, 8 to 15                                     Lw—Lindside silt loam ............................................ 73
   percent slopes .................................................... 53   MdA—Mount Lucas silt loam, 0 to 3
GbD—Glenelg channery silt loam, 15 to 25                                      percent slopes .................................................... 73
   percent slopes .................................................... 53   MdB—Mount Lucas silt loam, 3 to 8
GdA—Glenville silt loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes ...... 54                      percent slopes .................................................... 74
GdB—Glenville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes ...... 55                    MeB—Mount Lucas silt loam, 0 to 8
Hc—Hatboro silt loam ............................................. 56         percent slopes, very bouldery ............................. 75
HgB—Highfield channery silt loam, 3 to 8                                    MOB—Mt. Airy and Manor channery loams,
   percent slopes .................................................... 56     3 to 8 percent slopes .......................................... 75
HgC—Highfield channery silt loam, 8 to 15                                   MOC—Mt. Airy and Manor channery loams,
   percent slopes .................................................... 57     8 to 15 percent slopes ........................................ 76
HHD—Highfield and Catoctin channery silt                                    MOD—Mt. Airy and Manor channery loams,
   loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes ........................... 58              15 to 25 percent slopes ...................................... 77
HKB—Highfield, Catoctin, and Myersville                                     MtB—Mt. Zion gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8
   soils, 0 to 8 percent slopes, very stony .............. 59                 percent slopes .................................................... 79
HKD—Highfield, Catoctin, and Myersville                                     MtC—Mt. Zion gravelly silty loam, 8 to 15
   soils, 8 to 25 percent slopes, very stony ............ 60                  percent slopes .................................................... 79
HMF—Highfield and Catoctin channery silt                                    MtD—Mt. Zion gravelly silt loam, 15 to 25
   loams, 25 to 70 percent slopes, very stony ........ 61                     percent slopes .................................................... 80
KnB—Klinesville channery silt loam, 3 to 8                                  MyB—Myersville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes .... 81
   percent slopes .................................................... 62   MyC—Myersville silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
KnC—Klinesville channery silt loam, 8 to 15                                   slopes ................................................................. 81
   percent slopes .................................................... 63   MyD—Myersville silt loam, 15 to 25 percent
KnD—Klinesville channery silt loam, 15 to 25                                  slopes ................................................................. 82
   percent slopes .................................................... 64   NaB—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 3 to 8
KnE—Klinesville channery silt loam, 25 to 40                                  percent slopes .................................................... 83
   percent slopes .................................................... 64   NaC—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 8 to 15
Lc—Lamington silt loam .......................................... 65          percent slopes .................................................... 83
LeB—Lansdale loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes ............ 66                    NdB—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 0 to 8
LfC—Lansdale channery loam, 8 to 15                                           percent slopes, extremely bouldery .................... 84
   percent slopes .................................................... 66   NdD—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 8 to 25
LgB—Legore channery silt loam, 3 to 8                                         percent slopes, extremely bouldery .................... 85
   percent slopes .................................................... 67   NdE—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 25 to 45
LgC—Legore channery silt loam, 8 to 15                                        percent slopes, extremely bouldery .................... 85
   percent slopes .................................................... 68   Pa—Penlaw silt loam .............................................. 86
                                                                                                                                                           7




PbD—Penn loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes,                                          UgB—Urban land-Penn complex, 0 to 8
  very stony ........................................................... 87       percent slopes .................................................. 107
PcB—Penn silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes ............ 88                       WaA—Watchung silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
PcC—Penn silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes .......... 89                          slopes ............................................................... 108
PoB—Penn-Klinesville channery silt loams,                                       WaB—Watchung silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
  3 to 8 percent slopes .......................................... 89             slopes ............................................................... 109
PoC—Penn-Klinesville channery silt loams,                                       WbB—Watchung silt loam, 0 to 8 percent
  8 to 15 percent slopes ........................................ 90              slopes, extremely bouldery ............................... 110
PsD—Pequea silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes ..... 92                          Use and Management of the Soils ..................... 113
Pt—Pits, quarries .................................................... 93         Interpretive Ratings ........................................... 113
RaA—Raritan silt loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes ......... 93                             Rating Class Terms ....................................... 113
RaB—Raritan silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes ......... 94                             Numerical Ratings ........................................ 113
RcC—Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop                                              Crops and Pasture ............................................ 113
  complex, 8 to 15 percent slopes ......................... 95                        Yields per Acre ............................................. 115
RcD—Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop                                                  Land Capability Classification ....................... 115
  complex, 15 to 25 percent slopes ....................... 95                         Prime Farmland ............................................ 116
RcF—Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop                                              Agricultural Waste Management ........................ 117
  complex, 25 to 65 percent slopes ....................... 96                     Forest Productivity and Management ................ 119
RdC—Ravenrock-Rohrersville complex, 3 to 15                                           Forest Productivity ....................................... 119
  percent slopes, extremely stony ......................... 97                        Forestland Management ............................... 119
ReA—Readington silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                                          Recreation ........................................................ 121
  slopes ................................................................. 98     Wildlife Habitat .................................................. 123
ReB—Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                                          Hydric Soils ...................................................... 124
  slopes ................................................................. 99     Engineering ....................................................... 125
RfA—Reaville channery silt loam, 0 to 3                                               Building Site Development ............................ 125
  percent slopes .................................................... 99              Sanitary Facilities ......................................... 126
RfB—Reaville channery silt loam, 3 to 8                                               Construction Materials .................................. 128
  percent slopes .................................................. 100               Water Management ....................................... 129
RfC—Reaville channery silt loam, 8 to 15                                        Soil Properties .................................................... 131
  percent slopes .................................................. 101           Engineering Index Properties ............................ 131
RoB—Rohrersville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                                        Physical Properties .......................................... 132
  slopes ............................................................... 102      Chemical Properties ......................................... 133
RsB—Rohrersville silt loam, 0 to 15                                               Soil Features .................................................... 134
  percent slopes, very stony ................................ 103                 Water Features ................................................. 135
Rw—Rowland silt loam .......................................... 103             Classification of the Soils ................................... 137
StB—Steinsburg channery sandy loam, 3 to 8                                      Soil Series and Their Morphology .......................... 137
  percent slopes .................................................. 104           Abbottstown Series ........................................... 137
StC—Steinsburg channery sandy loam, 8 to 15                                       Arendtsville Series ............................................ 138
  percent slopes .................................................. 105           Athol Series ...................................................... 139
StD—Steinsburg channery sandy loam, 15 to 25                                      Baile Series ...................................................... 140
  percent slopes .................................................. 105           Bermudian Series ............................................. 141
Uc—Urban land ..................................................... 106           Birdsboro Series ............................................... 141
UeB—Urban land-Conestoga complex, 0 to 8                                          Bowmansville Series ........................................ 142
  percent slopes .................................................. 106           Brecknock Series ............................................. 143
8




  Buchanan Series .............................................. 143              Table 1.—Temperature and Precipitation ........... 188
  Catoctin Series ................................................. 145           Table 2.—Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall ......... 189
  Clarksburg Series ............................................. 145             Table 3.—Growing Season ................................ 189
  Codorus Series ................................................. 146            Table 4.—Acreage and Proportionate Extent
  Conestoga Series ............................................. 147                  of the Soils ................................................. 190
  Croton Series .................................................... 148          Table 5.—Land Capability and Yields per
  Dunning Series ................................................. 148                Acre of Crops and Pasture ......................... 192
  Edgemont Series .............................................. 149              Table 6.—Acreage by Capability Class and
  Glenelg Series .................................................. 150             Subclass ...................................................... 199
  Glenville Series ................................................ 151           Table 7.—Prime Farmland ................................. 200
  Hatboro Series .................................................. 152           Table 8a.—Agricultural Waste Management ...... 201
  Highfield Series ................................................ 153           Table 8b.—Agricultural Waste Management ....... 226
  Klinesville Series .............................................. 153           Table 9.—Forest Productivity ............................ 250
  Lamington Series .............................................. 154             Table 10a.—Forestland Management ................ 265
  Lansdale Series ................................................ 155            Table 10b.—Forestland Management ................ 277
  Legore Series ................................................... 156           Table 10c.—Forestland Management ................ 289
  Lehigh Series .................................................... 157          Table 10d.—Forestland Management ................ 300
  Lindside Series ................................................. 157           Table 10e.—Forestland Management ................ 308
  Manor Series .................................................... 159           Table 11a.—Recreational Development ............. 319
  Mount Lucas Series .......................................... 159               Table 11b.—Recreational Development ............. 337
  Mt. Airy Series .................................................. 160          Table 12.—Wildlife Habitat ................................ 352
  Mt. Zion Series ................................................. 161           Table 13.—Map Units with Hydric
  Myersville Series .............................................. 162                Components ............................................... 361
  Neshaminy Series ............................................ 162               Table 14.—Map Units with Hydric Inclusions ..... 363
  Penlaw Series ................................................... 163           Table 15a.—Building Site Development ............. 369
  Penn Series ...................................................... 164          Table 15b.—Building Site Development ............. 382
  Pequea Series .................................................. 165            Table 16a.—Sanitary Facilities .......................... 399
  Raritan Series ................................................... 165          Table 16b.—Sanitary Facilities .......................... 416
  Ravenrock Series ............................................. 167              Table 17a.—Construction Materials ................... 431
  Readington Series ............................................ 167              Table 17b.—Construction Materials ................... 443
  Reaville Series .................................................. 168          Table 18.—Water Management ......................... 460
  Rohrersville Series ............................................ 169            Table 19.—Engineering Index Properties .......... 473
  Rowland Series ................................................. 170            Table 20.—Physical Properties of the Soils ...... 549
  Steinsburg Series ............................................. 171             Table 21.—Chemical Properties of the Soils ..... 570
  Watchung Series ............................................... 171             Table 22.—Soil Features ................................... 586
References ........................................................... 173        Table 23.—Water Features ................................ 594
Glossary .............................................................. 175       Table 24.—Classification of the Soils ................ 605
Tables .................................................................. 187

                                                                        Issued 2005
                                                                                                 9




Foreword
       This soil survey presents information that affects land use planning in this survey
    area. It makes predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also
    highlights soil limitations, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
    impact of selected land uses on the environment.
       This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
    agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management needed
    for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials, engineers,
    developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land use, select sites
    for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure proper performance.
    Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
    management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the survey to help them
    understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
       Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
    special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
    intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
    treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land users
    identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations on various land uses. The landowner or
    user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and regulations.
       Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are
    seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
    unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly
    suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
    suited to basements or underground installations.
       These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
    survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each soil
    is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described.
    Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and
    additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources
    Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.




    Robin Heard
    State Conservationist
    Natural Resources Conservation Service
                                                                                                                11




Soil Survey of
Adams County, Pennsylvania
              By Robert V. Smith, Natural Resources Conservation Service

              Fieldwork by Robert V. Smith, Natural Resources Conservation Service

              United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
              in cooperation with
              The Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Sciences;
              Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection;
              and Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture



   ADAMS COUNTY is located in the south-central part of    45 percent; woodland, 30 percent; pasture, 10 percent;
Pennsylvania (fig. 1). The county has an area of           and urban, industrial, commercial, and other land, 15
333,894 acres, or about 522 square miles. Adams            percent.
County is bordered on the east by York County, on the
north by Cumberland County, and on the west by             General Nature of the County
Franklin County. The southern boundary is the Mason-
Dixon line, separating Adams County from Carroll and          This section provides general information about
Frederick Counties, Maryland.                              history and development; agriculture and industry;
   Adams County lies mostly in the Piedmont province       physiography; mineral resources; and climate of
of Pennsylvania. Most of the county is dominantly          Adams County.
undulating to rolling, and is dissected by many
drainageways and streams. Some of the county is            History and Development
nearly level. Hills are scattered throughout much of the
Piedmont area. South Mountain, in the western and             In 1681, William Penn received the royal charter of
northern parts of the county, is in the Blue Ridge         the “Penn’s Woods” province from the Duke of York,
province, which has hills, ridges, and narrow valleys.     who later became King Charles II of England. The first
Of the county’s two main watersheds, the northern half     divisions of the province were Philadelphia, Bucks, and
drains into the Susquehanna River largely by way of        Chester Counties. In 1727, Lancaster County was
the Conewago Creek and its many tributaries. Most of       formed from Chester County, and in 1736 Lancaster
the southern half drains into the Potomac River through    County was extended to include a wide area west of
Toms, Middle, Marsh, Rock, and Alloway Creeks and          the Susquehanna River. In 1749, the area west of the
their tributaries.                                         river was separated from Lancaster County and was
   More than 100 different kinds of soil are in Adams      named for the Duke of York. The Calverts of Maryland
County. These soils range widely in texture, natural       claimed the southern part of York County until the
drainage, depth, slope, and other characteristics. The     Mason-Dixon line was first surveyed, between 1763
soils in the South Mountain area are dominantly deep,      and 1767. On January 22, 1800, Adams County,
well drained, and commonly very stony. In this area        separated from York County and named for President
slope and stones are major limitations to use of the       John Adams, was organized as the 27th county in
soils. In the rest of the county the soils have more       Pennsylvania.
variable characteristics, including wetness, depth to         The early settlers of the area now called Adams
bedrock, and slope, which are major limitations to their   County came to America seeking religious liberty.
use.                                                       Among those in the settlement were German
   The land area is divided as follows: cropland, about    Mennonites, Moravians, Dunkards, Scotch-Irish family
12                                                                                                     Soil Survey




                                                           crop without the use of manure or fertilizer. As
                                                           productivity decreased the fields were abandoned. New
                                                           fields were cleared and cultivated. By 1750, farmers
                                                           recognized the importance of lime, and most farms
                                                           had kilns for burning limestone. The commercial lime
                                                           industry began about 1840. Crop rotation began about
                                                           the same time, along with extensive use of fertilizer
                                                           and lime. In the late 1800’s, agriculture became
                                                           specialized, particularly in the growing of fruit. The
                                                           first large commercial orchard, with some 2,000
                                                           apple trees, was planted near Cashtown in 1878.
                                                           The first carlot of apples shipped from this orchard in
                                                           1893.
                                                               Agriculture has remained an important part of the
     Figure 1.—Location of Adams County in Pennsylvania.
                                                           economy of the county. According to the 1982 Census
                                                           of Agriculture (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1984)
Presbyterians, English, Irish Quakers, and Catholic        about 1,199 farms occupied nearly 60 percent of the
members of the Church of England. Farms and towns          county. The average size was about 164 acres.
were built in the rapidly cleared wilderness. Roads        Orchards took in 21,435 acres. The principal
reached into all parts of the county.                      agricultural crops were corn, hay, wheat, soybeans,
    In 1786, Gettysburg was laid out and named for the     oats, and barley. The main fruit crops were apples,
of General James Gettys. It is the county seat and the     peaches, cherries, and grapes.
largest borough in Adams County.                               In 1987, Adams County was the leading producer in
    Gettysburg had a population of 1,473 in 1830, 2,200    Pennsylvania of apples and was second in peaches,
in 1860, and 7,194 in 1980. For 3 days in 1863,            eggs, and chickens, excluding broilers (Pennsylvania
Gettysburg was the site of one of the decisive battles     Department of Agriculture, 1988). It was fifth in
of the Civil War. In 1895 Congress created Gettysburg      Pennsylvania in agricultural receipts and sixth in wheat
National Military Park, encompassing 3,865 acres           production. The Hanover Shoe Farms, founded in 1926,
surrounding the borough (fig. 2). The 690-acre farm that   was the world’s largest breeder of standard breed
President Dwight D. Eisenhower owned southwest of          horses.
Gettysburg is now the Eisenhower National Historical           Early industries included grist mills, sawmills,
Park.                                                      woolen mills, tanneries, shoe making, ceramics,
    The population of Adams County was 13,172 in           bricks, and iron works. The iron industry began in the
1800 and 68,292 in 1980 (Commonwealth of                   early 1800’s, flourished until the Civil War, and
Pennsylvania, 1987). It is about 19 percent urban and      continued on a less important scale until abandonment
81 percent rural. Every year, however, farmland is lost    in the early 1870’s. During this period nearly all trees
to urbanization as homes, factories, and commercial        were cut in the vast woodlands that covered the South
developments trend into many parts of the                  Mountain area (Stose, 1932). The trees were used
county.                                                    primarily to make charcoal for the iron industry. Since
                                                           that time trees in the area have reached marketable
Agriculture and Industry                                   size. Commercial forestland takes in about 104,000
                                                           acres. Limestone was quarried largely for agricultural
   After the settlement of Adams County, subsistence       use and as flux for the iron works. The limestone
farming prevailed. Transportation of necessities from      industry is still very active. Following development of
the East was slow, expensive, and irregular, but the       the county as an important fruit growing area, the fruit
forests provided fuel, lumber, tannin, and charcoal.       processing industry became the leading single industry
Natural deposits of limestone, clay, sand, iron, and       in the county.
stone were raw materials. The soils and climate were           Today, manufacturing is the largest industry in the
suitable for growing corn, wheat, rye, buckwheat, and      county. In 1982, 108 manufacturing companies had
grass. Livestock provided food, leather, and wool. The     total sales of more than $535 million (Commonwealth
larger streams powered grist mills and sawmills and        of Pennsylvania, 1987). Prominent among them are
eased transportation.                                      producers of processed foods. Other important
   The county from its earliest settlement was primarily   industries are book printing and publishing, elevators
agricultural. Fields were cultivated continuously in one   and moving stairways, ceramic wall and floor tile,
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                                  13




          Figure 2.—Gettysburg National Military Park. Little Round Top is on the far left and Round Top is on the right.


poultry and poultry products, footwear, fiber boxes,               Conewago Creek is the major stream. Limestone
wood kitchen cabinets, and petroleum products.                     bedrock dominantly underlies this section. The
                                                                   Conestoga-Clarksburg-Penlaw general soil map unit is
Physiography                                                       in this section.
                                                                       The Triassic Lowland section of the Piedmont
    Adams County lies in two physiographic provinces,              province, which takes in about 67 percent of the
the Piedmont province, and the Southern section of the             county, occupies all the county south and east of
Blue Ridge province (Patrick and others, 1924). The                South Mountain and west and north of the Conestoga
Piedmont province is divided into the Piedmont                     Valley section. This section consists of undulating and
Uplands section, Conestoga Valley section, and                     rolling lowlands and many higher hills and ridges. The
Triassic Lowland section.                                          elevation is dominantly 500 to 600 feet, but ridges and
    The Piedmont Upland section, which takes in about              hills crest at 700 to 1,000 feet. The area is drained by
3 percent of the county, is in the southeastern corner             the Conewago, South Branch Conewago, Rock, Plum,
of the county and in the Pigeon Hills south of                     Bermudian, and Marsh Creeks and their tributaries. The
Abbottstown. It consists of rolling to hilly uplands with          low uplands are underlain dominantly by red shale,
broad ridgetops at an elevation of 700 to 800 feet. It is          sandstone, and conglomerate bedrock. The Penn-
drained dominantly by the South Branch Conewago                    Klinesville-Croton and Penn-Abbottstown-Readington
Creek and its tributaries. Schist and phyllite bedrock             general soil map units are in this section. The hills and
underlie most of this section. The Glenelg-Mt. Airy                ridges are underlain dominantly by diabase,
general soil map unit is in this section. The Pigeon Hills         metamorphosed shale and sandstone, and
crest at about 900 feet, and the highest peak is 1,021             conglomerate bedrock. The Lehigh-Neshaminy and the
feet. Metabasalt, quartzite, and phyllite bedrock                  Highfield-Arendtsville-Rohrersville general soil map
underlie the Pigeon Hills. The Edgemont-Highfield-                 units are in this section.
Catoctin general soil map unit is in the Pigeon Hills.                 The South Mountain section of the Blue Ridge
    The Conestoga Valley section of the Piedmont                   province takes in about 26 percent of the county. A
province, which takes in about 4 percent of the county,            highly dissected area that is 1 to 7 miles wide
is in the southeastern part of the county, north of the            extending along the western and northern boundaries
Piedmont Upland section. It extends from Hanover and               of the county, it is on hilly uplands. The ridges and hills
Midway at the York and Adams County line westward                  crest at an elevation of 1,200 to 2,000 feet. Among the
to Littletown. This section has undulating, low uplands            many streams that drain the area are Middle, Toms,
at an elevation of 500 to 600 feet. The South Branch               Bermudian, Latimore, Birch, Carbaugh, and Antietam
14                                                                                                                  Soil Survey




Creeks. The South Mountain section is underlain by                    Pennsylvania, in the period 1951-88. Table 2 shows
quartzite, metabasalt, and metarhyolite bedrock. The                  probable dates of the first freeze in fall and the last
Edgemont-Highfield-Catoctin and Highfield-Arendtsville-               freeze in spring. Table 3 provides data on length of the
Rohrersville general soil map units are in this section.              growing season.
                                                                          In winter, the average temperature is 23 degrees.
Mineral Resources                                                     The lowest temperature on record, which occurred at
                                                                      Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, on January 17, 1985, is -11
   Mineral resources have greatly influenced the                      degrees. In summer, the average temperature is 73
development of Adams County. The dominant materials                   degrees, and the average daily maximum temperature
are limestone, slate, iron, clay, sand, and stone.                    is 84 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
Currently, quarrying of limestone, metabasalt                         occurred at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, on July 4, 1966,
(greenstone), and shale is the major industry.                        is 102 degrees.
   Limestone was first used for building purposes,                        Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They are
burned for lime, and used as flux for the local iron                  equivalent to “heat units.” During the month, growing
furnaces. Small, abandoned quarries dug for lime                      degree days accumulate by the amount that the
burning and building stone are scattered throughout the               average temperature each day exceeds a base
limestone areas. Large quarries were opened between                   temperature (40 degrees F). The normal monthly
Hanover and New Oxford, between Orrtanna and                          accumulation is used to schedule single or successive
Fairfield, between Yellow Ridge and Wolf Hill, and at                 plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring
York Springs (Stose, 1932). At this time, quarrying is                and the first freeze in fall.
dominantly at Bittinger and near Fairfield. Most of the                   Of the total annual precipitation, about 22 inches, or
limestone is used as flux for the iron industry or it is              50 percent, usually falls in April through September.
crushed, screened, and sized for road building.                       The growing season for most crops falls within this
   The few slate quarries are all now abandoned. Slate                period. In 2 years out of 10, the rainfall in April through
quarried on the south slope of Piney Mountain near                    September is less than 18 inches. The heaviest 1-day
Wenksville was used to line the furnace at Pine Grove.                rainfall during the period of record was 5.75 inches at
Some slate was also quarried near Virginia Mills,                     Gettysburg on June 22, 1972. Thunderstorms occur on
Mount Hope, and Bridgeport.                                           about 32 days each year, and most occur in summer.
   Iron mining to supply the local iron industry during                   The average seasonal snowfall is 28 inches. The
the early 1800’s was abandoned in 1870. For a short                   greatest snow depth at any one time during the period
time copper was mined near Hunterstown and Stone                      of record was 23 inches. On the average, 14 days of
Jug.                                                                  the year have at least 1 inch of snow on the ground.
   Clay and clay shale used in making bricks and tile                 The number of such days varies greatly from year to
are extracted southeast of New Oxford. White paper                    year.
clay was mined near South Mountain for use as filler in                   The average relative humidity in midafternoon is
paper and paint.                                                      about 50 percent. Humidity is higher at night and the
   Greenstone, often called “ironstone” or “Gettysburg                average at dawn is about 70 percent. The sun shines
granite,” metarhyolite, and metabasalt, are quarried                  60 percent of the time possible in summer and 50
near Gladhill. There it is crushed and used as roofing                percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the west-
granules and as filler in composition stone and flooring.             northwest. The average highest wind speed is 10 miles
                                                                      per hour, in summer.
Climate
    The National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina, helped   How This Survey Was Made
to prepare this section.
                                                                         This survey was made to provide information about
   Adams County is rather cold in the winter and hot in               the soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area.
summer. Winter precipitation frequently occurs on most                The information includes a description of the soils and
soils, results in a good accumulation of soil moisture                miscellaneous areas and their location and a
by spring, and minimizes drought in summer. Normal                    discussion of their suitability, limitations, and
annual precipitation is adequate for all crops that are               management for specified uses. Soil scientists
adapted to the temperature and length of growing                      observed the steepness, length, and shape of the
season in the area.                                                   slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
   Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation                crops and native plants; and the kinds of bedrock. They
for the survey area as recorded at Harrisburg,                        dug many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         15




sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The     scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
profile extends from the surface down into the              tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The       the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other        of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all
living organisms and has not been changed by other          of the soils are field tested through observation of the
biological activity.                                        soils in different uses and under different levels of
    The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey         management. Some interpretations are modified to fit
area are in an orderly pattern that is related to the       local conditions, and some new interpretations are
geology, landforms, relief, climate, and natural            developed to meet local needs. Data are assembled
vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil and               from other sources, such as research information,
miscellaneous area is associated with a particular kind     production records, and field experience of specialists.
of landform or with a segment of the landform. By           For example, data on crop yields under defined levels
observing the soils and miscellaneous areas in the          of management are assembled from farm records and
survey area and relating their position to specific         from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of
segments of the landform, a soil scientist develops a       soil.
concept or model of how they were formed. Thus,                Predictions about soil behavior are based not only
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to    on soil properties but also on such variables as climate
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind     and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
of soil or miscellaneous area at a specific location on     over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
the landscape.                                              from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
    Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge       predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a
into one another as their characteristics gradually         given soil will have a high water table within certain
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,         depths in most years, but they cannot predict that a
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between       high water table will always be at a specific level in the
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of        soil on a specific date.
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,               After soil scientists located and identified the
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-               significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area,
vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to        they drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to   photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
determine the boundaries.                                   Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
    Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the     and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
soil profiles that they studied. They noted soil color,     accurately.
texture, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and
amount of rock fragments, distribution of plant roots,      Map Unit Composition
reaction, and other features that enable them to
identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey       A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area and determining their properties, the soil             area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
scientists assigned the soils to taxonomic classes          dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
(units). Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each               identified and named according to the taxonomic
taxonomic class has a set of soil characteristics with      classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
precisely defined limits. The classes are used as a         taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
basis for comparison to classify soils systematically.      the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
Soil taxonomy, the system of taxonomic classification       the soils are natural objects. In common with other
used in the United States, is based mainly on the kind      natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of     their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists      properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they     taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the     class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they            areas of soil of other taxonomic classes.
could confirm data and assemble additional data based       Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
on experience and research.                                 soils for which it is named and some soils that belong
    While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some     to other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are
of the soils in the area generally are collected for        called inclusions or included soils.
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil            Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
16                                                                                                       Soil Survey




patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in   descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and            complex that it was impractical to make enough
management. These are called non-contrasting (similar)       observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the          landscape.
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have          The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use       diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
or require different management. These are contrasting       The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small         taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil             landscape into segments that have similar use and
maps because of the scale used in mapping. The               management requirements. The delineation of such
inclusions of contrasting soils are named and                landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
mentioned in the map unit descriptions. A few                information for the development of resource plans, but
inclusions may not have been observed and                    onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive
consequently are not mentioned in the map unit               uses in small areas.
                                                                                                                     17




General Soil Map Units
    The general soil map in this publication shows the         shale, siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone at a depth
soil associations in this survey area. Each association        of 10 to 20 inches. They are shallow and somewhat
has a distinctive pattern of soils, relief, and drainage.      excessively drained.
Each map unit on the general soil map is a unique                  Croton soils are nearly level and gently sloping.
natural landscape. Typically, an association consists of       They are in depressions on lowlands and in
one or more major soils or miscellaneous areas and             drainageways. These soils are underlain by dominantly
some minor soils or miscellaneous areas. It is named           red shale, siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone at a
for the major soils or miscellaneous areas. The                depth of 40 to 60 inches. They are deep and poorly
components of one unit can occur in another but in a           drained.
different pattern.                                                 Minor soils in the map unit are moderately well
    The general soil map can be used to compare the            drained Readington and Reaville soils in shallow
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of     depressions and along drainageways and somewhat
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,         poorly drained Abbottstown soils on slight rises of
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.      uplands. Moderately well drained Rowland soils are on
    Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable        bottom lands. A few small areas of Urban land are
for planning the management of a farm or field or for          scattered throughout.
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.        Most areas of this map unit are used as cropland or
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place       woodland. Some areas are used for urban
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that      development. A few areas are idle. The major crops are
affect management.                                             corn, soybeans, small grain, hay, and pasture. Erosion
                                                               is the main hazard if cultivated crops are grown.
Soil Descriptions                                                  The soils of this map unit are well suited to poorly
                                                               suited to cultivated crops and specialty crops. They are
1. Penn-Klinesville-Croton                                     well suited to hayland, pasture, and woodland. On Penn
                                                               soils, depth to bedrock and slope are severe limitations
Nearly level to very steep, shallow to deep, well
                                                               for onsite waste disposal. Slope is a moderate
drained, somewhat excessively drained and poorly
                                                               limitation to use of the soils in this map unit for urban
drained soils that formed in residuum derived from red
                                                               development. On Klinesville soils, depth to bedrock
shale, siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone; on short,
                                                               and slope are severe limitations for onsite waste
steep ridges, hills, and nearly level lowlands
                                                               disposal and most urban development. On Croton
    These soils are on highly dissected uplands and            soils, wetness and very slow and slow permeability are
associated drainageways. The landscape is dominantly           severe limitations for onsite waste disposal and urban
undulating to rolling and has some short, steep ridges;        development. Penn and Klinesville soils are well suited
hills; and nearly level to gently rolling lowlands (fig. 3).   and Croton soils are poorly suited to the more intensive
    This map unit makes up about 26 percent of the             types of recreational development.
county. It is about 35 percent Penn soils, 25 percent
Klinesville soils, 20 percent Croton soils, and 20
percent minor soils.                                           2. Lehigh-Neshaminy
    Penn soils are gently sloping and strongly sloping.
                                                               Nearly level to very steep, deep and very deep,
They are on broad to narrow ridgetops and on the sides
                                                               somewhat poorly drained and well drained soils that
of ridges. They are underlain by red shale, siltstone,
                                                               formed in residuum derived from porcelanite and
and fine-grained sandstone at a depth of 20 to 40
                                                               diabase; on undulating to rolling ridges and hills
inches. They are moderately deep and well drained.
    Klinesville soils are gently sloping to very steep.           These soils are dominantly in elongated or rounded
They are on ridges and hills. They are underlain by red        areas adjacent to lowlands (fig. 4).
18                                                                                                                Soil Survey




         Figure 3.—Typical pattern of soils and parent material on the Penn-Klinesville-Croton general soil map unit.



   This map unit makes up about 20 percent of the                 some areas are in urban use. The Gettysburg National
county. It is about 55 percent Lehigh soils, 30 percent           Battlefield is dominantly in this map unit. The major
Neshaminy soils, and 15 percent minor soils.                      crops are corn, soybeans, small grain, fruit, hay, and
   Lehigh soils are nearly level to strongly sloping.             pasture. Slope is the major limitation, and erosion is
They are on ridgetops and side slopes. They are                   the major hazard.
channery throughout. They are underlain by porcelanite               The soils of this map unit are well suited to
bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. They are deep              generally unsuited to cultivated crops and specialty
and somewhat poorly drained.                                      crops. They are fairly well suited to improved pasture.
   Neshaminy soils are gently sloping to very steep.              Erosion is a severe hazard; thus, growing hay crops on
They are on ridges and hills. They are underlain by               the steeper slopes is impractical. These soils are
diabase bedrock at a depth of 5 feet or more. They are            suited to use as woodland. The steeper slopes,
very deep and well drained.                                       however, restrict the use of logging roads and skid
   Minor soils in this map unit are well drained                  trails.
Brecknock and Penn soils on broad ridgetops and                      Neshaminy soils are generally unsuited to urban
somewhat poorly drained Mount Lucas soils and                     uses because slope is a severe limitation. On Lehigh
poorly drained Croton and Watchung soils in                       soils, depth to bedrock and wetness are severe
depressions and in drainageways on lowlands. A few                limitations to urban development and onsite waste
small areas of Urban land are scattered around                    disposal. Neshaminy and Lehigh soils are poorly suited
Gettysburg.                                                       to the more intensive types of recreational
   Most areas of this map unit are used as cropland,              development because of slope and wetness,
pasture, orchards, woodland, or recreation areas, but             respectively.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                             19




3. Edgemont-Highfield-Catoctin                                       Most areas of this map unit are woodland. Some
                                                                 areas on some footslopes are used as cropland or
Gently sloping to very steep, very deep to moderately
                                                                 orchards. Part of South Mountain is in Michaux State
deep, well drained and somewhat excessively drained
                                                                 Forest. A few urban developments and towns are
soils that formed in residuum derived from quartzite,
                                                                 scattered along major roads and on some ridgetops
metabasalt, and metarhyolite; on ridges and hills of
                                                                 and footslopes in this unit. Trees for pulpwood and
South Mountain
                                                                 lumber are the major crop. Fruit, corn, soybeans,
                                                                 small grain, hay, and pasture are grown in a few
    The landscape is dominantly rolling and hilly, and,
                                                                 areas.
on South Mountain, has narrow, undulating ridgetops
                                                                     The soils of this map unit are either well suited or
(fig. 5).
                                                                 generally suited or they are unsuited to cultivated
    This map unit makes up about 19 percent of the
                                                                 crops and specialty crops. They are fairly well suited to
county. It is about 40 percent Edgemont soils, 30
                                                                 improved pasture. Growing hay crops is impractical on
percent Highfield soils, 20 percent Catoctin soils, and
                                                                 the steeper slopes because erosion is a severe hazard.
10 percent minor soils.
                                                                 These soils are suited to use as woodland and wildlife
    Edgemont soils are channery and generally very
                                                                 habitat. The steeper slopes, however, restrict the use
stony. They are underlain by quartzite and
                                                                 of logging roads and skid trails. These soils generally
conglomerate at a depth of 5 feet or more. These soils
                                                                 are unsuited to urban uses because slope, rock
are very deep and well drained.
                                                                 fragments in the soil, and depth to bedrock are severe
    Highfield soils are channery. They are underlain by
                                                                 limitations, and are difficult to overcome. They are
metabasalt and metarhyolite at a depth of 40 to 60
                                                                 poorly suited to the more intensive types of
inches. They are deep and well drained.
                                                                 recreational development because of slope.
    Catoctin soils are channery. Generally, they are
extremely stony. They are underlain by metabasalt and            4. Highfield-Arendtsville-Rohrersville
metarhyolite at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. These soils
                                                                 Gently sloping to moderately steep, deep and very
are moderately deep and somewhat excessively
                                                                 deep, well drained soils that formed in residuum
drained.
                                                                 derived from metabasalt, metarhyolite, and
    The minor soils in the map unit are well drained
                                                                 conglomerate; on footslopes of South Mountain
Myersville, Ravenrock, and Mt. Zion soils on ridges
below Edgemont, Highfield, and Catoctin soils,                     These soils are on footslopes of South Mountain.
somewhat poorly drained Rohrersville and Buchanan                The landscape is dominantly undulating and rolling, but
soils on footslopes and in depressions and                       some parts are hilly (fig. 6).
drainageways, and moderately well drained Codorus                  This map unit makes up about 12 percent of the
soils on bottom lands.                                           county. It is about 55 percent Highfield soils, 25




             Figure 4.—Typical pattern of soils and parent material on the Lehigh-Neshaminy general soil map unit.
20                                                                                                                 Soil Survey




         Figure 5.—Typical pattern of soils and parent material on the Edgemont-Highfield-Catoctin general soil map unit.



percent Arendtsville soils, 10 percent Rohrersville                  These soils generally are unsuited to urban uses
soils, and 10 percent minor soils.                                because slope, rock fragments in the soils, and depth
   Highfield soils are channery. They are underlain by            to bedrock are severe limitations, and are difficult to
metabasalt and metarhyolite at a depth of 40 to 60                overcome. Suitability of these soils for the more
inches.                                                           intensive types of recreational development is poor
   Arendtsville soils are gravelly and generally very             because of slope.
stony. They are underlain by quartzite, metabasalt, and
metarhyolite at a depth of 5 feet or more.
   Rohrersville soils are silty and in wooded areas are           5. Penn-Abbottstown-Readington
very stony. They are underlain by metabasalt and
                                                                  Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately deep and
metaandesite at a depth of more than 6 feet.
                                                                  deep, well drained to somewhat poorly drained soils
   Minor soils in the map unit are somewhat
                                                                  that formed in residuum derived from shale, siltstone,
excessively drained Catoctin soils on sides of ridges
                                                                  and sandstone; on broad, dissected uplands
and hills above Arendtsville soils; well drained Legore
and Penn soils on broader ridgetops below Highfield                   These soils are on broad, dissected uplands. The
soils; moderately well drained Readington soils,                  landscape is dominantly nearly level to rolling but has
somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown soils, and poorly             many depressions and drainageways and some low
drained Croton soils in depressions and drainageways              ridges that have steep side slopes.
on lowlands. Moderately well drained Codorus and                      This map unit makes up about 14 percent of the
Rowland soils, somewhat poorly drained Bowmansville               county. It is about 40 percent Penn soils, 25 percent
soils, and poorly drained Hatboro soils are on bottom             Abbottstown soils, 20 percent Readington soils, and 15
lands.                                                            percent minor soils.
   Most areas of this map unit are used as orchards,                  Penn soils are gently sloping and strongly sloping.
cropland, or woodland. The major cash crops are                   They are on broad to narrow ridgetops and on the sides
timber, apples, cherries, peaches, corn, soybeans,                of ridges. They are underlain by red shale, siltstone,
small grain, hay, and pasture. Urban developments are             and sandstone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. They are
scattered along the major roads in the area.                      moderately deep and well drained.
   The soils of this map unit, depending on slope, are                Abbottstown soils are nearly level and gently
well suited or generally unsuited to cultivated crops             sloping. They are on broad ridgetops, depressions, and
and specialty crops. They are fairly well suited to               drainageways. They are underlain by red shale,
improved pasture. On the steeper slopes erosion is a              siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone at a depth of 40
severe hazard and growing hay crops is impractical.               to 60 inches. They are deep and somewhat poorly
The soils are suited to use as woodland. The steeper              drained.
slopes, however, restrict use of logging roads and skid               Readington soils are nearly level and gently sloping.
trails. The soils are suited to use as wildlife habitat.          They are on broad ridgetops, in depressions, and along
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                                   21




drainageways. They are underlain by dominantly red                 well suited to the more intensive types of recreational
shale, siltstone, and sandstone at a depth of 40 to 60             development.
inches. They are deep and moderately well drained.
   Minor soils in the map unit are somewhat                        6. Conestoga-Clarksburg-Penlaw
excessively drained Klinesville soils and well drained
                                                                   Nearly level to strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
Lansdale and Steinsburg soils on highly dissected
                                                                   to somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
ridges and hills and moderately well drained Reaville
                                                                   residuum derived from limestone and calcareous
soils and poorly drained Croton soils in depressions
                                                                   schist; on valley ridges
and drainageways on lowlands. Well drained Bermudian
soils, moderately well drained Rowland soils, and                     These soils are on nearly level to rolling uplands, on
somewhat poorly drained Bowmansville soils are on                  lowlands, and in drainageways. The landscape is
bottom lands.                                                      undulating and has a few low ridges.
   Most areas of this map unit are used for crops, hay,               This map unit makes up about 5 percent of the
and pasture; some areas are used for urban                         county. It is about 45 percent Conestoga soils, 20
development; and a few areas remain in woodland use.               percent Clarksburg soils, 20 percent Penlaw soils, and
A few small areas of urban land are scattered                      15 percent minor soils.
throughout. The major crops are corn, soybeans, small                 Conestoga soils are nearly level to strongly sloping.
grain, hay, and pasture. Erosion is the main hazard in             They are on smooth and undulating uplands. These
areas where cultivated crops are grown.                            soils are underlain by limestone and calcareous schist
   The soils of this map unit are well suited to poorly            bedrock at a depth of 5 feet or more. They are very
suited to cultivated crops and specialty crops. They are           deep and well drained.
well suited to hay, pasture, and woodland. On Penn                    Clarksburg soils are nearly level to gently sloping.
soils, depth to bedrock is a severe limitation for onsite          They are in depressions on lowlands. These soils
waste disposal. These soils are fairly well suited to              are underlain by limestone bedrock at a depth of
most urban developments, but depth to bedrock and                  5 feet or more. They are very deep and moderately
slope are limitations. On Abbottstown and Readington               well drained.
soils, wetness is a severe limitation for onsite waste                Penlaw soils are nearly level. They are in
disposal and urban development. Penn soils are fairly              depressions and drainageways on lowlands.




Figure 6.—Typical landscape of the Highfield-Arendtsville-Rohrersville general soil map unit. Arendtsville soils extend from the
    foreground to Highfield soils on hills in the background. Croton soils are in drainageways.
22                                                                                                                                                Soil Survey




                                                                 Mt. Airy and Manor

                                      Mt. Airy
                                     and
                                    Manor                                                                                   Glenelg

                                                           Mt. Airy
                                                            and                                                                        Mt. Airy
                                                           Manor                                                                        and
                                                                                                    Mt. Airy                           Manor
                                                                             Glenelg                 and
                                                                                                    Manor
         Glenelg
                                           Glenelg


                   Glenville
                                                                                                    Codorus


                                                                                    Glenville           Baile
                               Coll                                                                                          Glenelg
                                   uviu                                                                                                     t
                                       m                                                                                                  is
                                                                                                                                        ch
                                                                                                                Glenville              S
                                               Sch            Coll
                                                     ist          uviu
                                                                      m

                                                                      Allu
                                                                             vium
                                                                                                Coll
                                                                                                     uviu
                                                                                                            m




               Figure 7.—Typical pattern of soils and parent material on the Glenelg-Mt. Airy general soil map unit.



They are underlain by limestone, schist, shale,                                          development. Suitability is good for the more
and sandstone at a depth of 5 feet or more.                                              intensive type of recreational development
They are very deep and somewhat poorly                                                   on Conestoga soils and, because of wetness,
drained.                                                                                 fair on Clarksburg soils and very limited on Penlaw
   Minor soils in the map unit are moderately well                                       soils.
drained Glenelg and Penn soils on ridges and hills
similar to those of Clarksburg soils and moderately                                      7. Glenelg-Mt. Airy
well drained Readington and Abbottstown soils
                                                                                         Gently sloping to moderately steep, moderately
on broad ridgetops and in depressions and
                                                                                         deep and deep, well drained and somewhat
drainageways on lowlands. Lindside and
                                                                                         excessively drained soils that formed in
Dunning soils are on bottom lands. A large
                                                                                         residuum derived from schist and phyllite;
area of Pits, quarries, is near Bittinger. Urban
                                                                                         on ridges and hills
land is in the vicinity of Littlestown and
McSherrystown.                                                                              These soils are on dissected uplands and in
   Most areas of soils in the map unit are cropland or                                   depressions and drainageways. The landscape is
pasture. Pasture for race horses is an important use. A                                  undulating to rolling, but some areas are hilly and
few ridges are used as woodland. The major cash                                          moderately steep (fig. 7).
crops are corn, soybeans, small grain, hay, and                                             This map unit makes up about 3 percent of
pasture. Conestoga soils are fairly well suited to onsite                                the county. It is about 55 percent Glenelg soils,
waste disposal and most urban developments;                                              35 percent Mt. Airy soils, and 10 percent minor
moderate permeability and slope are limitations. On                                      soils.
Clarksburg and Penlaw soils, wetness is a severe                                            Glenelg soils are gently sloping to moderately steep.
limitation to onsite waste disposal and urban                                            They are on narrow ridgetops and on side slopes. They
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        23




are underlain by schist and phyllite bedrock at a depth      county. It is about 45 percent Athol soils, 25 percent
of 40 to 60 inches. They are deep and well drained.          Penlaw soils, 20 percent Clarksburg soils, and 10
    Mt. Airy soils are gently sloping to moderately steep.   percent minor soils.
They are on ridges and hills and on narrow side slopes.         Athol soils are nearly level to strongly sloping.
They are channery throughout. They are underlain by          They are on dissected uplands. They are underlain
schist and phyllite bedrock at a depth 20 to 40 inches.      by quartz, sandstone, and shale bedrock at a depth
They are moderately deep and somewhat excessively            of 5 feet or more. They are very deep and well
drained.                                                     drained.
    Minor soils in the map unit are somewhat                    Penlaw soils are nearly level. They are on lowlands
excessively drained Manor soils on narrow ridges and         and in depressions and drainageways. They are
hills and moderately well drained Glenville soils and        underlain by limestone, schist, shale, and sandstone at
poorly drained Baile soils on lowlands. Moderately well      a depth of 5 feet or more. They are very deep and
drained Codorus soils are on bottom lands.                   somewhat poorly drained.
    Most areas of this map unit are cropland,                   Clarksburg soils are nearly level and gently sloping.
pasture, or woodland, but some areas are used                They are on lowlands and in depressions. They are
for urban development or recreation. The major crops         underlain by limestone bedrock at a depth of 5 feet
are corn, soybeans, small grain, hay, and pasture.           or more. They are very deep and moderately well
Slope is the major limitation; erosion is the major          drained.
hazard.                                                         Minor soils in the map unit are well drained
    The soils of this map unit are either well suited or     Highfield, Myersville, and Penn soils on highly
generally suited or they are unsuited to cultivated          dissected ridges and hills and moderately well
crops and specialty crops. They are fairly well suited       drained Readington and Buchanan soils on
to improved pasture. Erosion is a severe hazard              lowlands. Moderately well drained Lindside soils
on the steeper slopes, and growing hay crops is              and very poorly drained Dunning soils are on
impractical. This soil is suited to use as woodland.         bottom lands.
The steeper slopes, however, restrict use of logging            Most areas of this map unit are used as cropland,
roads and skid trails. The soils generally are unsuited      pasture, or orchards. The major crops are corn,
to urban uses because slope and depth to bedrock             soybeans, small grain, apples, peaches, and pasture.
are severe limitations and are difficult to                  Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
overcome. The soils are poorly suited to the more            grown.
intensive types of recreational development because of          The soils of this map unit are well suited to
slope.                                                       poorly suited to cultivated crops and specialty
                                                             crops. They are well suited to hay, pasture, and
                                                             woodland. Many dairy farms in the county are on
8. Athol-Penlaw-Clarksburg                                   these soils. On Athol soils, suitability for onsite
                                                             waste disposal and most urban development is fair,
Nearly level to strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
                                                             because moderate permeability and slope are
to somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
                                                             limitations.
residuum derived from limestone and limestone
                                                                On Clarksburg and Penlaw soils, wetness is a
conglomerate; on uplands
                                                             severe limitation for onsite waste disposal and
   These soils are on dissected uplands, on                  urban development. Suitability is good for the
lowlands, and in drainageways. The landscape                 more intensive type of recreational development
is dominantly nearly level to rolling.                       on Athol soils and fair on Clarksburg and Penlaw
   This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the             soils.
                                                                                                                   25




Detailed Soil Map Units
    The map units delineated on the detailed soil maps          The presence of minor components in a map unit in
in this survey represent the soils or miscellaneous         no way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the
areas in the survey area. The map unit descriptions in      data. The objective of mapping is not to delineate pure
this section, along with the maps, can be used to           taxonomic classes but rather to separate the
determine the suitability and potential of a unit for       landscape into landforms or landform segments that
specific uses. They also can be used to plan the            have similar use and management requirements. The
management needed for those uses.                           delineation of such segments on the map provides
    A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an      sufficient information for the development of resource
area dominated by one or more major kinds of soil or        plans. If intensive use of small areas is planned,
miscellaneous areas. A map unit is identified and           however, onsite investigation is needed to define and
named according to the taxonomic classification of the      locate the soils and miscellaneous areas.
dominant soils. Within a taxonomic class there are              An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name
precisely defined limits for the properties of the soils.   in the map unit descriptions. Each description includes
On the landscape, however, the soils are natural            general facts about the unit and gives the principal
phenomena, and they have the characteristic variability     hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
of all natural phenomena. Thus, the range of some           specific uses.
observed properties may extend beyond the limits                Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a          up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
single taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped       surface layer, all the soils of a series have major
without including areas of other taxonomic classes.         horizons that are similar in composition, thickness, and
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soils        arrangement.
or miscellaneous areas for which it is named and some           Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
minor components that belong to taxonomic classes           surface layer, slope, stoniness, salinity, degree of
other than those of the major soils.                        erosion, and other characteristics that affect their use.
    Most minor soils have properties similar to those of    On the basis of such differences, a soil series is
the dominant soil or soils in the map unit, and thus        divided into soil phases. Most of the areas shown on
they do not affect use and management. These are            the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The
called noncontrasting, or similar, components. They         name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature
may or may not be mentioned in a particular map unit        that affects use or management. For example,
description. Other minor components, however, have          Conestoga silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, is a phase
properties and behavioral characteristics divergent         of the Conestoga series.
enough to affect use or to require different                    Some map units are made up of two or more major
management. These are called contrasting, or                soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are
dissimilar, components. They generally are in small         complexes or undifferentiated groups.
areas and could not be mapped separately because of             A complex consists of two or more soils or
the scale used. Some small areas of strongly                miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern or in
contrasting soils or miscellaneous areas are identified     such small areas that they cannot be shown separately
by a special symbol on the maps. The contrasting            on the maps. The pattern and proportion of the soils or
components are mentioned in the map unit                    miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar in all areas.
descriptions. A few areas of minor components may           Penn-Klinesville channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent
not have been observed, and consequently they are           slopes, is an example.
not mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the         An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make      soils or miscellaneous areas that could be mapped
enough observations to identify all the soils and           individually but are mapped as one unit because
miscellaneous areas on the landscape.                       similar interpretations can be made for use and
26                                                                                                         Soil Survey




management. The pattern and proportion of the soils or        loam. In the next 5 inches it is weak red, mottled, very
miscellaneous areas in a mapped area are not uniform.         firm silty clay loam. In the lower 15 inches it is weak
An area can be made up of only one of the major soils         red, mottled, very firm and brittle silt loam and
or miscellaneous areas, or it can be made up of all of        channery silt loam. The substratum, to a depth of 45
them. Highfield, Catoctin, and Myersville soils, 8 to 25      inches, is weak red, firm extremely channery silt loam.
percent slopes, very stony, is an undifferentiated group      Weak red sandstone bedrock is at a depth of 45
in this survey area.                                          inches. In some areas this soil is gently sloping. In
     Most map units include small scattered areas of          some areas it does not have a fragipan, and in other
soils other than those for which the map unit is named.       areas it is not as red throughout.
Some of these included soils have properties that                 Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
differ substantially from those of the major soil or soils.   scattered areas of shallow, excessively drained
Such differences could significantly affect use and           Klinesville soils on narrow, elongated ridges and on
management of the soils in the map unit. These                sides of ridges and well drained Penn soils on broad
dissimilar soils are described in each map unit. Also,        ridges and hills above the Abbottstown soil. Also
some of the more unusual or strongly contrasting soils        included are a few areas of moderately well drained,
are identified by a special symbol on the soil maps.          deep Readington soils and moderately deep Reaville
     This survey includes some miscellaneous areas.           soils in positions on the landscape similar to those of
Such areas have little or no soil material and support        the Abbottstown soil. Also included are some small
little or no vegetation. Pits, quarries, is an example.       areas of poorly drained Croton soils on low-lying rises
Some miscellaneous areas are large enough to be               slightly above bottom lands. Included soils make up
delineated on the soil map. Some that are too small to        about 15 percent of the map unit.
be delineated are identified by a special symbol on the           Permeability is moderate in the solum above the
soil maps.                                                    fragipan, slow in the fragipan, and moderately slow or
     The name, descriptions, and delineations of soils on     slow in the substratum. The available water capacity is
the detailed soil maps of Adams County do not always          moderate, and surface runoff is very high. The
agree or join fully with those of the soils identified on     seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
the maps of adjoining counties published at an earlier        inches. The fragipan is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches. In
date. Some differences are the result of changes in           unlimed areas this soil is extremely acid to strongly
concepts of soil series. Other differences result from        acid in the upper part of the solum and strongly acid to
variations in the extent of the soils. Others are the         slightly acid in the lower part and in the substratum.
result of variations in the slope range allowed in the        The seasonal high water table and fragipan restrict root
map units of adjoining counties.                              penetration.
     Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent           Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
of each map unit. Other tables give properties of the         pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or are idle
soils and the limitations, capabilities, and potentials for   land. A few areas are in urban development.
many uses. The Glossary defines many of the terms                 This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans,
used in describing the soils or miscellaneous areas.          small grain, and most specialty crops. The main
                                                              limitation is the seasonal high water table, which
Soil Descriptions                                             interferes with seeding and harvesting of some crops.
                                                              Existing subsurface drains allow timely tillage. Leaving
                                                              stubble on the surface and adding other organic
AbA—Abbottstown silt loam, 0 to 3                             material help to conserve moisture. Crop residue
  percent slopes                                              management, cover crops, and green manure crops
                                                              help to maintain organic matter content and to improve
    This is a nearly level, deep, somewhat poorly             soil tilth.
drained soil on broad uplands and in depressions and              This soil is well suited to pasture. Fall-sown grasses
drainageways. Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of          and legumes are subject to losses over winter because
this soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape, and      of frost heaving and wetness. Overgrazing or grazing
range from 5 to 100 acres in size.                            when the soil is wet, however, can damage the sod,
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish gray,        reduces plant density and forage yields, and causes
friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is       surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased surface
about 30 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is            runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key plant
reddish brown, mottled, friable silty clay loam. In the       species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of grazing,
next 5 inches it is reddish gray, mottled, firm silty clay    application of fertilizers, and restricted use during wet
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           27




periods, help to keep the pasture and the soil in good       lands. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the
condition.                                                   map unit.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is              Permeability of the Abbotstown soil is moderate in
moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in       the solum above the fragipan, slow in the fragipan, and
timber stands. The equipment limitation is the main          moderately slow or slow in the substratum. Available
management concern. The high water table restricts           water capacity is moderate, and surface runoff is very
use of equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry,         high. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
or to midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an           18 inches. The fragipan is at a depth of 15 to 30
adequate snow cover. Machine planting of trees is            inches. In unlimed areas this soil is extremely acid to
practical in large areas.                                    strongly acid in the upper part of the solum and
   Wetness and slow or moderately slow permeability          strongly acid to slightly acid in the lower part and in the
are the main limitations of the soil for urban uses,         substratum. The seasonal high water table and the
especially as a site for septic tank absorption fields or    fragipan restrict root penetration.
buildings. If buildings are constructed on this soil,            Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
installing foundation drains with proper outlets will        pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban
prevent water from seeping into basements. The soil is       development.
severely limited as a site for local roads and streets.          This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans,
Providing adequate side ditches and culverts helps to        small grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the
prevent the damage of wetness and frost action.              main hazard and the seasonal high water table is the
   The land capability classification is 3w. The             main limitation if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                            sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
                                                             conservation tillage system that leaves protective
AbB—Abbottstown silt loam, 3 to 8                            amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
  percent slopes                                             contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
                                                             surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
    This is a gently sloping, deep, somewhat poorly          crop residue management also help to control erosion,
drained soil on broad uplands and in depressions and         to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
drainageways. Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of         tilth. The seasonal high water table interferes with
this soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape and      seeding and harvesting of some crops; however,
range from 5 to 100 acres in size.                           existing subsurface drains allow timely tillage.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish gray,           This soil is well suited to pasture. Fall-sown grasses
friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is      and legumes are subject to losses over winter because
about 30 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is           of frost heaving and wetness. Growing grasses and
reddish brown, mottled, friable silty clay loam. In the      legumes is effective in controlling erosion. Overgrazing
next 5 inches it is reddish gray, mottled, firm silty clay   or grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage
loam. In the next 5 inches it is weak red, mottled, very     the sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
firm silty clay loam. In the lower 15 inches it is weak      causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
red, mottled, firm and brittle silt loam and channery silt   surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 45 inches, is weak       plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
red, very firm extremely channery silt loam. Weak red        grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use
sandstone bedrock is at a depth of 45 inches. In some        during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil
areas this soil is nearly level. In some areas it does not   in good condition.
have a fragipan, and in other areas it is not as red             Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
throughout.                                                  moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small       timber stands. The equipment limitation is the main
areas of shallow, excessively drained Klinesville soils      management concern. The high water table restricts
on narrow, elongated ridges and on sides of ridges and       use of equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry,
well drained Penn soils on broad ridges and hills above      or to midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an
the Abbottstown soil. Also included are a few areas of       adequate snow cover. Machine planting of trees is
moderately well drained, deep Readington soils and           practical in large areas.
moderately deep Reaville soils in positions on the               Wetness and slow or moderately slow permeability
landscape similar to those of the Abbottstown soil.          are the main limitations of the soil for urban uses,
Also included are some small areas of poorly drained         especially as a site for septic tank absorption fields or
Croton soils on low-lying rises slightly above bottom        buildings. If buildings are constructed on this soil,
28                                                                                                        Soil Survey




installing foundation drains with proper outlets will        to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
prevent seepage into basements. The soil is severely         tilth.
limited as a site for local roads and streets. Providing         This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
adequate side ditches and culverts helps to prevent          and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
the damage of wetness and frost action.                      Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
   The land capability classification is 3w. The             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                            yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
                                                             increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
                                                             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
ArB—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 3 to 8                       deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
   percent slopes                                            and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
                                                             pasture and the soil in good condition.
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
                                                                 Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
on ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas are
                                                             moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in
                                                             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
size.
                                                             in large areas.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
                                                                 The soil is not limited as a site for septic tank
friable gravelly loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil
                                                             absorption fields. It is suitable for use as a site for
is about 44 inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is
                                                             buildings and most other urban uses. Frost action limits
reddish brown, friable gravelly loam. In the next 24
                                                             the soil as a site for local roads and streets. Providing
inches it is dark reddish brown and dark red, friable
                                                             a coarse textured subgrade or base material helps to
gravelly sandy clay loam. In the lower 13 inches it is
                                                             prevent the damage of frost action.
dark red, friable gravelly sandy loam. The substratum
                                                                 The land capability classification is 2e. The
to a depth of 72 inches is reddish brown and weak red,
                                                             woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
friable gravelly sandy loam. In some areas the soil is
nearly level and strongly sloping. In some areas it
contains more silt and clay. In some areas the subsoil       ArC—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 8 to 15
is yellowish brown and brown. In other areas bedrock is         percent slopes
at a depth of less than 60 inches.
    Included with this soil in mapping, in depressions on        This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
broad uplands, are a few scattered areas of deep,            soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth
moderately well drained Readington soils that have           or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or long and
gray mottles in the middle and lower parts of the            narrow in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
subsoil. Also included are a few gullied areas and               Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
areas where a few large sandstone fragments are on           friable gravelly loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil
the surface and in the soil. Included soils make up          is about 44 inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is
about 15 percent of the map unit.                            reddish brown, friable gravelly loam. In the next 24
    Permeability of the Arentsville soil is moderate or      inches it is dark reddish brown and dark red, friable
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is moderate.      gravelly sandy clay loam. In the lower 13 inches it is
Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is         dark red, friable gravelly sandy loam. The substratum,
extremely acid to moderately acid in the upper part of       to a depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown and weak red,
the solum and extremely acid to strongly acid in the         friable very gravelly sandy loam. In some areas this
lower part and in the substratum.                            soil is nearly level and moderately steep. In some
    Most areas of this soil are used as orchards or          areas it contains more silt and clay. In some areas it is
woodland. A few areas are used as cropland or pasture        yellowish brown and brown in the subsoil. In other
or are idle.                                                 areas bedrock is at a depth of less than 60 inches.
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small            Included with this soil in mapping are a few
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main         scattered areas of deep, moderately well drained
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping             Readington soils that have gray mottles in the middle
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                and lower parts of the subsoil and that are in
conservation tillage system that leaves protective           depressions on broad uplands. Also included are a few
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,          gullied areas and areas where a few large sandstone
contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce        fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and       soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
crop residue management also help to control erosion,            Permeability of this Arendtsville soil is moderate or
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                                29




moderately rapid. Available water capacity is moderate.         reddish brown, friable gravelly loam. In the next 24
Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is            inches it is dark reddish brown and dark red, friable
extremely acid to moderately acid in the upper part of          gravelly sandy clay loam. In the lower 13 inches it is
the solum and extremely acid to strongly acid in the            dark red, friable gravelly sandy loam. The substratum,
lower part and in the substratum.                               to a depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown and weak red,
    Most areas of this soil are used as orchards (fig. 8).      friable very gravelly sandy loam. In some areas the soil
Some areas are used as cropland, pasture, or                    is strongly sloping and steep. In some areas the solum
woodland.                                                       has more silt and clay. In some areas the subsoil is
    This soil is well suited to specialty crops. It is fairly   yellowish brown and brown. In other areas bedrock is at
well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain. Erosion         a depth of less than 60 inches.
is the main hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A                 Included with this soil in mapping are a few
cropping system that includes grasses and legumes, a            scattered areas of deep, moderately well drained
conservation tillage system that leaves protective              Readington soils that have gray mottles in the middle
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,             and lower parts of the subsoil and that are in
stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to reduce             depressions on broad uplands. Also included are a few
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and          gullied areas and areas where a few large sandstone
crop residue management also help to control erosion,           fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil         soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
tilth.                                                              Permeability of the Arendtsville soil is moderate or
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses        moderately rapid. Available water capacity is moderate.
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.                Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,           ranges from extremely acid to moderately acid in the
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage            upper part of the solum and from extremely acid to
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and          strongly acid in the lower part and in the substratum.
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to                  Most areas of this soil are used as orchards or
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely            woodland. Some areas are used as cropland or
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,      pasture.
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the              This soil is well suited to specialty crops. It is poorly
pasture and the soil in good condition.                         suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain. Erosion is
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is            the main hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use           cropping sequence that includes grasses and legumes,
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical          a conservation tillage system that leaves protective
in large areas.                                                 amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
    Slope is the main limitation of the soil for use as a       contour stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to
site for septic tank absorption fields, buildings, and          reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover
most other urban uses. Land shaping is necessary in             crops and crop residue management also help to
some areas. Frost action and slope limit the soil as a          control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
site for local roads and streets. Providing a coarse            to improve soil tilth.
textured subgrade or base material helps to prevent the             This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
damage of frost action. Land shaping and building on            and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
the contour help to overcome slope.                             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
    The land capability classification is 3e. The               can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                               yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
                                                                increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
ArD—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 15 to 25                        maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
   percent slopes                                               deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
                                                                and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
    This is a moderately steep, very deep, well drained         pasture and the soil in good condition.
soil on ridges and hillsides. Slopes are smooth or                  Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
convex. Areas are irregular or long and narrow in shape         moderately high. The erosion hazard, equipment
and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.                           limitation, and seedling mortality are the main
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,         management concerns. Thinning or removing
friable gravelly loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil         undesirable species and constructing roads on the
is about 44 inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is           contour to reduce slope are suitable management
30                                                                                                                   Soil Survey




Figure 8.—Peach orchard on Arendtsville gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. Highfield soils are on the hills in the
    background.


practices. Slope restricts use of equipment. Machine                   Included with this soil in mapping are a few
planting of trees is practical in large areas.                      scattered areas of deep, moderately well drained
   Slope is the main limitation of the soil for most                Readington soils that have gray mottles in the middle
urban uses, especially as a site for septic tank                    and lower parts of the subsoil and that are in
absorption fields, buildings, or local roads and streets.           depressions on broad uplands. Also included are a few
Buildings or roads should be designed to conform to                 gullied areas and areas where a few large sandstone
the natural slope of the land. Land shaping is needed.              fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
   The land capability classification is 4e. The                    soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                                      Permeability of this Arendtsville soil is moderate or
                                                                    moderately rapid. Available water capacity is moderate.
ArE—Arendtsville gravelly loam, 25 to 40                            Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil
   percent slopes                                                   ranges from extremely acid to moderately acid in
                                                                    the upper part of the solum and from extremely acid
    This is a steep, very deep, well drained soil on                to strongly acid in the lower part and in the
ridges and hills. Slopes are convex. Areas are long and             substratum.
narrow in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.                  Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,             brushland. Some areas are used as orchards or
friable gravelly loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil             pasture.
is about 44 inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is                  This soil is fairly well suited to pasture and poorly
reddish brown, friable gravelly loam. In the next 24                suited to specialty crops. It generally is unsuited to
inches it is dark reddish brown and dark red, friable               corn, soybeans, and small grain. Slope is a limitation,
gravelly sandy clay loam. In the lower 13 inches it is              and erosion is the main hazard. Growing grasses and
dark red, friable gravelly sandy loam. The substratum,              legumes is effective in controlling erosion. Overgrazing
to a depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown and weak red,             or grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage
friable very gravelly sandy loam. In some areas this                the sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
soil is moderately steep and very steep. In some areas              causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
the solum has more silt and clay. In some areas the                 surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
subsoil is yellowish brown and brown. In other areas                plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
bedrock is at a depth of less than 60 inches.                       grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           31




restricted use during wet periods help to keep the            tillage system that leaves protective amounts of crop
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       residue on the surface, cover crops, green manure,
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is           and crop residue help to maintain organic matter
moderately high. The erosion hazard, the equipment            content and to improve soil tilth.
limitation, and seedling mortality are the main                   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
management concerns. Thinning or removing                     grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
undesirable species and constructing roads on the             sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
contour to reduce slope are suitable management               causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
practices. Slope restricts use of equipment. Machine          surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
planting of trees is practical in large areas.                plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
   Because of seepage and slope, this soil is severely        grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
limited as a site for septic tank absorption fields. The      restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings and most     pasture and the soil in good condition.
other urban uses, including local roads and streets,              Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
because of slope.                                             moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
   The land capability classification is 6e. The              and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                             in large areas.
                                                                  Because of moderate permeability, this soil is
                                                              moderately limited as a site for septic tank absorption
AtA—Athol gravelly silt loam, 0 to 3                          fields. It is suitable as a site for dwellings and most
   percent slopes                                             other urban uses. It is moderately limited as a site for
                                                              local roads and streets because of frost action.
    This is a nearly level, very deep, well drained soil on
                                                                  The land capability classification is 1. The woodland
broad upland flats. Areas are irregular in shape and
                                                              ordination symbol is 4A.
range from 5 to 75 acres in size.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
friable gravelly silt loam about 10 inches thick. The         AtB—Athol gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8
subsoil is about 42 inches thick. In the upper 14 inches         percent slopes
it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower 28
inches it is reddish brown, friable silty clay loam. The          This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown,        on undulating, broad uplands and benches. Areas are
firm gravelly silt loam. In some areas the soil is gently     irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
sloping. In some areas it contains more sand. In some             Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
areas the subsoil is yellowish brown and brown. In            friable gravelly silt loam about 10 inches thick. The
some areas depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.           subsoil is about 42 inches thick. In the upper 14 inches
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few              it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower 28
scattered areas of nearly level, somewhat poorly              inches it is reddish brown, friable silty clay loam. The
drained Penlaw soils on broad uplands and in                  substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown,
depressions on lowlands and moderately well drained           firm gravelly silt loam. In some areas the soil is nearly
Clarksburg soils at the base of ridges and hills. Also        level and strongly sloping. In some areas the soil
included are a few, narrow, elongated areas of                contains more sand. In some areas the subsoil is
moderately well drained Readington soils and                  yellowish brown and brown. In some areas depth to
somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown soils in shallow          bedrock is less than 60 inches. In some areas the
depressions on broad uplands. Included soils make up          surface layer is silt loam, loam, gravelly loam, or
about 15 percent of the map unit.                             gravelly sandy loam.
    Permeability of this Athol soil is moderate. Available        Included with this soil in mapping are a few
water capacity is moderate or high. Surface runoff is         scattered areas of nearly level, somewhat poorly
low. In unlimed areas, this soil is strongly acid to          drained Penlaw soils on broad uplands and in
slightly acid in the upper part of the solum, very            depressions on lowlands and moderately well drained
strongly acid or moderately acid in the lower part, and       Clarksburg soils at the base of ridges and hills. Also
strongly acid to slightly acid in the substratum.             included are a few narrow, elongated areas of
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland. A few       moderately well drained Readington soils and
areas are used as orchards, as pasture, or for urban          somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown soils in shallow
development. This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans,      depressions on broad uplands. Included soils make up
small grain, and most specialty crops. A conservation         about 15 percent of the map unit.
32                                                                                                         Soil Survey




    Permeability is moderate and available water             it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower 28
capacity is moderate or high. Surface runoff is medium.      inches it is reddish brown, friable silty clay loam. The
In unlimed areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly      substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown,
acid in the upper part of the solum, strongly acid or        firm gravelly silt loam. In some areas this soil is gently
moderately acid in the lower part, and strongly acid to      sloping and moderately steep. In some areas it has
slightly acid in the substratum.                             more sand. In some areas the subsoil is yellowish
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland. A few      brown and brown. In some areas depth to bedrock is
areas are used as orchards, as pasture, or for urban         less than 60 inches. In some areas the surface layer is
development.                                                 channery silt loam, channery loam, or gravelly loam.
    This soil is well suited to corn (fig. 9), soybeans,         Included with this soil in mapping are a few
small grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the        scattered areas of nearly level, somewhat poorly
main hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping        drained Penlaw soils on broad uplands and in
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                depressions on lowlands. Also included are a few,
system of conservation tillage that leaves protective        narrow, elongated areas of moderately well drained
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,          Readington soils in shallow depressions on broad
contour stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to         uplands. Included soils make up about 15 percent of
reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover          the map unit.
crops and crop residue management also help to                   Permeability of the Athol soil is moderate. Available
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and     water capacity is moderate or high. Surface runoff is
to improve soil tilth.                                       medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses     to slightly acid in the upper part of the solum, strongly
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.             acid or moderately acid in the lower part, and strongly
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        acid to slightly acid in the substratum.
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage             Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       pasture. A few areas are used as orchards or
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           woodland, or for urban development.
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely             This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,   fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the       Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use        protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical       diversions, contour stripcropping, and grassed
in large areas.                                              waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control
    This soil is moderately limited as a site for septic     erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management
tank absorption fields because of moderate                   also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
permeability. It is suitable as a site for dwellings         content, and to improve soil tilth.
without basements, dwellings with basements, and                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
most other urban uses. The soil is moderately limited        and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
as a site for local roads and streets because of frost       Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
action.                                                      can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
    The land capability classification is 2e. The            yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                            increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
                                                             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
AtC—Athol gravelly silt loam, 8 to 15                        grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
   percent slopes                                            restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
                                                             pasture and the soil in good condition.
    This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained          Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
soil on footslopes, benches, and side slopes. Areas          moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
are irregular or long and narrow in shape and range          and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
from 5 to 100 acres in size.                                 in large areas.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,          This soil is moderately limited as a site for septic
friable gravelly silt loam about 10 inches thick. The        tank absorption fields, for dwellings, and for most other
subsoil is about 42 inches thick. In the upper 14 inches     urban uses because of slope. The soil is moderately
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                                  33




Figure 9.—An area of Athol gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, planted to corn. Edgemont channery loam, 25 to 70 percent
    slopes, very stony, is on Jacks Mountain in the background.




limited as a site for local roads and streets because of             Permeability of the Baile soil is moderately slow in
slope and frost action.                                           the surface layer, slow in the subsoil, and slow or
   The land capability classification is 3e. The                  moderately slow in the substratum. Available water
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                                 capacity is high, but the high water table restricts
                                                                  rooting depth. The seasonal high water table is within 6
Ba—Baile silt loam                                                inches of the surface for most of the year. Surface
                                                                  runoff is negligible. In unlimed areas this soil is
    This is a nearly level, very deep, poorly drained soil        extremely acid to strongly acid.
on lowlands and in depressions. Slopes are smooth or                 Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or
concave and range from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this              woodland or are idle land.
soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres             This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and
in size.                                                          permanent pasture because of wetness and ponding.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,              Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
mottled, friable silt loam about 4 inches thick. The              moderate. Water-tolerant species are favored in timber
subsurface layer is light brownish gray, mottled, friable         stands. The equipment limitation and seedling mortality
silt loam 8 inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown,           are the main management concerns. The high water
mottled, friable silt loam 28 inches thick. The                   table restricts use of equipment to midsummer, when
substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is grayish brown,            the soil is dry, or to midwinter, when the soil is frozen
mottled, friable channery silt loam. In some areas the            or has an adequate snow cover. Special site
soil is gently sloping. In some areas the subsoil is              preparation, such as bedding before planting, can
brown. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 60             reduce the seedling mortality rate. Seedlings survive
inches.                                                           and grow well if competing vegetation is controlled,
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small            especially during the first few years, and if livestock is
areas of very deep, moderately well drained Codorus               excluded from wooded areas. Machine planting of trees
soils and poorly drained Hatboro soils that are in the            is practical in large areas.
lower, nearly level or slightly depressional areas on                This soil is unsuited as a site for septic tank
bottom lands. Also included, where slope is more than             absorption fields and dwellings because wetness and
3 percent, are a few small areas of moderately well               ponding are severe limitations. It is severely limited as
drained Glenville soils. Also included are some areas             a site for local roads and streets because of wetness
where a few large sandstone fragments are on the                  and frost action.
surface and in the soil. Included soils make up about                The land capability classification is 5w. The
15 percent of the map unit.                                       woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
34                                                                                                           Soil Survey




Be—Bermudian silt loam                                        dwellings. It is severely limited as a site for local roads
                                                              and streets because of flooding and frost action.
    This is a nearly level, very deep, well drained soil on      The land capability classification is 1. The woodland
flood plains. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 3         ordination symbol is 4A.
percent. Areas are long and narrow in shape and range
from 5 to 100 acres in size.                                  BgA—Birdsboro silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,         slopes
friable silt loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is
about 42 inches thick. In the upper 22 inches it is dark          This is a nearly level, very deep, well drained soil on
reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower 20 inches      terraces and benches above flood plains of large
it is reddish brown, friable silty clay loam. The             streams. Slopes are smooth. Areas of this soil are oval
substratum, to a depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown,        or elongated in shape and range from 5 to 25 acres in
loose, stratified sand and gravel. In some areas the          size.
solum is loam or sandy loam. In some areas the soil               Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
has more sand, and in other areas depth to stratified         friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is
sand and gravel is less than 40 inches.                       about 40 inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small        reddish brown, friable gravelly silt loam. In the next 12
areas of Birdsboro soils on narrow stream terraces and        inches it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower
along tops of breaks to bottom lands. Also included are       20 inches it is yellowish red, firm silty clay loam. In the
some areas that are subject to rare flooding. Included        lower 10 inches it has mottles. The substratum, to a
soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.               depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown, very firm silt
    Permeability of the Bermudian soil is moderate or         loam. In some areas the soil is gently sloping or has
moderately rapid in the solum and rapid in the                more sand. In some areas the solum is loam or sandy
substratum. Available water capacity is moderate.             loam. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 60
Potential surface runoff is very low. This soil is subject    inches.
to occasional flooding for brief periods, mainly late in          Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
winter and early in spring. In unlimed areas it is very       areas of Bermudian soils, poorly drained Lamington
strongly acid to moderately acid.                             soils, and moderately well drained Raritan soils.
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland. Some        Bermudian soils are in narrow drainageways and on
small areas are used as pasture or woodland or are idle       small flats on bottom lands. Lamington and Raritan
land.                                                         soils are on low terraces. Also included are areas that
    This soil is well suited to corn and soybeans. It is      are ponded during periods of heavy rainfall. Included
not as well suited to small grain, however, because           soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
floodwater can cause severe crop damage. The main                 Permeability of this Birdsboro soil is moderate.
hazard is occasional flooding. Already established            Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface
dikes and levees in large areas help to reduce flooding.      runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is extremely
Crop residue management, cover crops, and green               acid to strongly acid.
manure crops help to maintain organic matter content              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
and to improve soil tilth.                                    pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.
    This soil is suited to pasture. Overgrazing or grazing        This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
when the soil is wet, however, can damage the sod,            grain, and most specialty crops. A conservation tillage
reduces plant density and forage yields, and causes           system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased surface         on the surface, cover crops, and green manure crops
runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key plant           help to maintain organic matter content and to improve
species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of grazing,       soil tilth.
applications of lime and fertilizer, and restricted use           This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and soil in       grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
good condition.                                               sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use         surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical        plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
in large areas.                                               grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
    Flooding is a severe limitation. This soil is unsuited    restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
as a site for septic tank absorption fields and               pasture and the soil in good condition.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            35




    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          contour stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use         reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical        crops and crop residue management also help to
in large areas.                                               control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
    This soil is somewhat iimited as a site for septic        to improve soil tilth.
tank absorption fields because of slow permeability               This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
and the seasonal high water table. It is suited as a          grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
site for dwellings. The soil is moderately limited as         sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
a site for local roads and streets because of frost           causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
action.                                                       surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
    The land capability classification is 1. The woodland     plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
ordination symbol is 4A.                                      grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
                                                              restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
                                                              pasture and the soil in good condition.
BgB—Birdsboro silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                           Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
  slopes                                                      moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
                                                              and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
                                                              in large areas.
on terraces and benches above flood plains of large
                                                                  This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
streams. Slopes are smooth and convex. Areas of the
                                                              tank absorption fields because of restricted
soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100
                                                              permeability and the seasonal high water table. It is not
acres in size.
                                                              limited as a site for dwellings without basements. It is
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
                                                              somewhat limited for as a site for dwellings with
friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is
                                                              basements because of wetness. It is moderately
about 40 inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is
                                                              limited as a site for local roads and streets because of
reddish brown, friable gravelly silt loam. In the next 12
                                                              frost action.
inches it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower
                                                                  The land capability classification is 2e. The
20 inches it is yellowish red, firm silty clay loam. In the
                                                              woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
lower 10 inches it has mottles. The substratum, to a
depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown, very firm silt
loam. In some areas the soil is nearly level. In some         BgC—Birdsboro silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
areas the subsoil is brown or yellowish brown. In some          slopes
areas the soil has more sand. In some areas the solum
is loam or sandy loam. In some areas depth to bedrock             This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
is less than 60 inches.                                       soil on side slopes of terraces and benches above
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small        flood plains of large streams. Slopes are convex. Areas
areas of Bermudian soils, poorly drained Lamington            are long and narrow in shape and range from 5 to 15
soils, and moderately well drained Raritan soils.             acres in size.
Bermudian soils are in narrow drainageways and on                 Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
small flats of bottom lands. Lamington and Raritan            friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is
soils are on low terraces. Also included are areas that       about 40 inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is
are ponded during periods of heavy rainfall. Included         reddish brown, friable gravelly silt loam. In the next 12
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.               inches it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower
    Permeability of the Birdsboro soil is moderate.           20 inches it is yellowish red, firm silty clay loam. In the
Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface         lower 10 inches it has mottles. The substratum, to a
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is               depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown, very firm silt
extremely acid to strongly acid.                              loam. In some areas it is gently sloping or moderately
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or           steep or the subsoil is brown and yellowish brown. In
pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.           some areas the soil contains more sand or the solum
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small         is loam or sandy loam. In some areas depth to bedrock
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main          is less than 60 inches.
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping                  Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                 areas of Bermudian soils, poorly drained Lamington
conservation tillage system that leaves protective            soils, and moderately well drained Raritan soils.
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,           Bermudian soils are in narrow drainageways and on
36                                                                                                        Soil Survey




small flats on bottom lands. Lamington and Raritan               Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
soils are on low terraces. Also included are small areas     friable silt loam about 11 inches thick. The subsoil is
where large sandstone fragments are on the surface           about 23 inches thick. In the upper 3 inches it is
and in the soil. Included soils make up about 15             reddish brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower 20
percent of the map unit.                                     inches it is reddish gray, mottled, friable silt loam. The
   Permeability of the Birdsboro soil is moderate.           substratum extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. In
Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface        the upper 21 inches it is pinkish gray, mottled, firm
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is              stratified silt loam and silty clay loam. In the lower 17
extremely acid to strongly acid.                             inches it is dark reddish gray, mottled, firm gravelly
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or           sandy loam. In some areas the solum has more sand.
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or are idle         In some areas the subsoil is brown. In some areas
land.                                                        depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches. In some areas
   This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is   stratified sand and gravel is at a depth of less than 40
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.       inches.
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are               Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
grown. A cropping system that includes grasses and           areas of poorly drained Croton and Lamington soils on
legumes, a system of conservation tillage that leaves        lowlands and broad flats on uplands. These soils are
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,           grayish throughout. Also included are moderately well
diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed      drained Rowland soils on slightly higher parts of
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control       bottom lands that are subject to rare flooding. Included
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management             soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter         Permeability of this Bowmansville soil is moderate
content, and to improve soil tilth.                          in the surface layer, moderately slow in the subsoil,
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      and moderately rapid in the substratum. Available water
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.             capacity is high, but the high water table restricts
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        rooting depth. The seasonal high water is a depth of 6
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         to 18 inches for most of the year. Surface runoff is very
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       high. This soil is subject to frequent flooding for brief
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           periods, mainly in late winter or early spring. In unlimed
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid in the
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,   solum and strongly acid to neutral in the substratum.
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      woodland or are idle land.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.        This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and
No major hazards or limitations affect use and               most specialty crops. It is unsuited to small grain
management. Machine planting of trees is practical in        because floodwater causes severe crop damage.
large areas.                                                 Wetness is the major limitation, and flooding is the
   This soil is moderately limited as a site for septic      major hazard. Existing, well maintained drainage
tank absorption fields because of slope, restricted          systems will help to overcome wetness. Established
permeability, and wetness. It is moderately limited as a     dikes and levees will help to overcome flooding. A
site for dwellings and most other urban uses because         conservation tillage system that leaves protective
of slope. The soil is moderately limited as a site for       amounts of crop residue on the surface, cover crops,
local roads and streets because of slope and frost           and green manure crops help to maintain organic
action.                                                      matter content and to improve soil tilth.
   The land capability classification is 3e. The                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                            grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
                                                             sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
Bo—Bowmansville silt loam                                    causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
                                                             surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
   This is a nearly level, very deep, somewhat poorly        plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
drained soil on flood plains. Slopes are smooth and          grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
range from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this soil are long       restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
and narrow in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in         pasture and the soil in good condition.
size.                                                            Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            37




moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in        hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
timber stands. The equipment limitation, seedling             sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management          conservation tillage system that leaves protective
concerns. The high water table restricts use of               amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry, or to           contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an adequate         surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
snow cover. Special site preparation, such as bedding         crop residue management also help to control erosion,
before planting, can reduce the seedling mortality rate.      to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
Harvest methods that do not isolate the remaining             tilth.
trees or leave them widely spaced help to prevent                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
windthrow. Machine planting of trees is practical in          and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
large areas.                                                  Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
   Flooding and wetness are severe limitations for            can damage the sod, reduces plant density and
urban uses. This soil is unsuited as a site for septic        forage yields, and causes surface compaction,
tank absorption fields and dwellings. The soil is             poor tilth, and increased surface runoff. Proper
severely limited as a site for local roads and streets        stocking rates to maintain key plant species, pasture
because of wetness, flooding, and frost action.               rotation, timely deferment of grazing, applications of
   The land capability classification is 3w. The              lime and fertilizer, and restricted use during wet
woodland ordination symbol is 5W.                             periods help to keep the pasture and the soil in good
                                                              condition.
                                                                  Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
BrB—Brecknock channery silt loam, 3 to 8                      moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
   percent slopes                                             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
                                                              in large areas.
    This is a gently sloping, deep, well drained soil on
                                                                  This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of this
                                                              tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock and
soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape and range
                                                              moderate permeability. The soil is suitable as a site for
from 5 to 200 acres in size.
                                                              dwellings without basements. It is moderately limited
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
                                                              as a site for dwellings with basements and most other
friable channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The
                                                              urban uses because of depth to bedrock. It is
subsurface layer is dark grayish brown, friable
                                                              moderately limited as a site for local roads and streets
channery silt loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is
                                                              because of frost action.
about 23 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is brown,
                                                                  The land capability classification is 2e. The
friable channery silt loam. In the next 12 inches it is
                                                              woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower 6 inches it
is brown, mottled, firm silt loam. The substratum, to a
depth of 42 inches, is brown, very firm very channery         BrC—Brecknock channery silt loam, 8 to
silt loam. Fractured porcelanite bedrock is at a depth of        15 percent slopes
about 42 inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level.
In some areas the solum is less than 24 inches. In                This is a strongly sloping, deep, well drained soil
some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.           on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few              and convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or long
scattered areas of nearly level, somewhat poorly              and narrow in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in
drained Lehigh soils on broad ridgetops. Also included        size.
are some small areas where many large sandstone                   Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included        friable channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The
soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.               subsurface layer is dark grayish brown, friable
    Permeability of this Brecknock soil is moderate.          channery silt loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is
Available water capacity is low. Surface runoff is            about 23 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is brown,
medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid      friable channery silt loam. In the next 12 inches it is
to slightly acid.                                             brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower 6 inches it
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,             is brown, mottled, firm silt loam. The substratum, to a
pasture, or woodland.                                         depth of 42 inches, is brown, very firm very channery
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small         silt loam. Fractured porcelanite bedrock is at a depth of
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main          about 42 inches. In some areas this soil is nearly level.
38                                                                                                           Soil Survey




In some areas the solum is less than 24 inches.               BrD—Brecknock channery silt loam, 15 to
In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40                   25 percent slopes
inches.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few                  This is a moderately steep, deep, well drained soil
scattered areas of gently sloping, somewhat                   on ridges and hills. Slopes are smooth and convex.
excessively drained Klinesville soils on narrow ridges        Areas of this soil are long and narrow in shape and
and hills. Also included are some small areas where           range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
many large sandstone fragments are on the surface                 Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
and in the soil. Included soils make up about 10              friable channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The
percent of the map unit.                                      subsurface layer is dark grayish brown, friable
    Permeability of this Brecknock soil is moderate.          channery silt loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is
Available water capacity is low. Surface runoff is            about 23 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is brown,
medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid      friable channery silt loam. In the next 12 inches it is
to slightly acid.                                             brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower 6 inches it
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,             is brown, mottled, firm silt loam. The substratum, to a
pasture, or woodland. Some areas are used for urban           depth of 42 inches, is brown, very firm very channery
development.                                                  silt loam. Fractured porcelanite bedrock is at a depth of
    This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is   about 42 inches. In some areas this soil is strongly
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.        sloping and steep. In some areas the solum is less
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are            than 24 inches. In some areas depth to bedrock is less
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and          than 40 inches.
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves                Included with this soil in mapping are a few
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,            scattered areas of strongly sloping, somewhat
contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways         excessively drained Klinesville soils on narrow ridges
help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.         and hills. Also included are some small areas where
Cover crops and crop residue management also help to          many large sandstone fragments are on the surface
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and      and in the soil. Also included are areas where
to improve soil tilth.                                        sandstone and shale bedrock is exposed in the lower
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      part of some draws. Included soils make up about 10
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.              percent of the map unit.
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,             Permeability of this Brecknock soil is moderate.
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage          Available water capacity is low. Surface runoff is high.
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and        In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid to
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to            slightly acid.
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely              Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,    woodland or are idle land.
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the            This soil is fairly well suited to most specialty crops.
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       It is poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain in
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          areas where the slope is less than 18 percent. This soil
moderately high. No hazards and limitations affect use        is unsuited to cultivated crops in areas where slope is
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical        more than 18 percent. Erosion is the main hazard if
in large areas.                                               cultivated crops are grown. A cropping sequence that
    This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic        includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage
tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock,           system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
slope, and moderate permeability. The soil is                 on the surface, contour farming, stripcropping, and
moderately limited as a site for dwellings without            grassed waterways help to reduce surface runoff and
basements because of slope. It is moderately                  to control erosion. Cover crops and crop residue
limited as a site for dwellings with basements and            management also help to control erosion, to maintain
most other urban uses because of depth to bedrock             organic matter content, and to improve soil tilth.
and slope. The soil is moderately limited as a site for           This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
local roads and streets because of frost action and           and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
slope.                                                        Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
    The land capability classification is 3e. The             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                             yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        39




increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           of 18 to 36 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         extremely acid to strongly acid. The seasonal high
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,   water table and the fragipan restrict root penetration.
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      pasture, or woodland. Some areas are used for urban
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          development or are idle land.
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main            This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
management concern. When the soil is wet, logging            grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the major
roads tend to be slippery and ruts form quickly. Use of      hazard, and the seasonal high water table is the major
planting or logging equipment is limited during wet          limitation. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping
periods. Thinning or removing undesirable species are        sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
suitable management practices. Machine planting of           conservation tillage system that leaves protective
trees is generally practical in large areas.                 amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
   This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank   contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and            surface runoff and to control erosion. Existing, well
streets because of slope.                                    maintained drainage systems help to overcome
   The land capability classification is 4e. The             wetness. Cover crops and crop residue management
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                            also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
                                                             content, and to improve soil tilth. Subsurface tile is
                                                             needed in seepy areas in some drainageways.
BuB—Buchanan channery loam, 3 to 8                               This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
  percent slopes                                             and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
                                                             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, moderately well
                                                             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
drained soil on benches, on footslopes, and in
                                                             yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
depressions. Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of
                                                             increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
this soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape and
                                                             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
                                                             deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
    Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,
                                                             restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
very friable channery loam about 10 inches thick. The
                                                             pasture and the soil in good condition.
subsoil is about 44 inches thick. In the upper 8 inches
                                                                 Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
it is brownish yellow, mottled, friable channery loam. In
                                                             moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
the next 7 inches it is pale brown, mottled, firm
                                                             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
channery loam. In the lower 29 inches it is yellowish
                                                             in large areas.
brown, mottled, very firm and brittle channery loam.
                                                                 This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is yellowish
                                                             absorption fields because of wetness and slow
brown, mottled, firm channery sandy loam. In some
                                                             permeability. It is somewhat limited as a site for
areas the soil is nearly level and strongly sloping. In a
                                                             dwellings without basements because of wetness. It is
few areas the fragipan is at a depth of more than 36
                                                             very limited as a site for dwellings with basements and
inches. In other areas the soil does not have a
                                                             most other urban uses because of wetness. The soil is
fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than
                                                             somewhat limited as a site for local roads and streets
60 inches.
                                                             because of wetness and frost action.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
                                                                 The land capability classification is 2e. The
scattered areas of well drained Edgemont, Highfield,
                                                             woodland ordination symbol is 3A.
and Myersville soils on steeper side slopes. These
soils are browner or redder throughout. Also included
are some small areas of poorly drained Hatboro soils         BvB—Buchanan channery loam, 0 to 8
on bottom lands. Hatboro soils are grayish throughout.         percent slopes, extremely stony
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
unit.                                                          This is a nearly level and gently sloping, deep,
    Permeability of this Buchanan soil is moderate           moderately well drained soil on benches and footslopes
above the fragipan and slow in the fragipan and in the       and in depressions. Slopes are smooth or concave.
substratum. Available water capacity is low, and             Areas of this soil are irregular or long and narrow in
surface runoff is high. The fragipan is at depth of 20 to    shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in size. Stones
36 inches. The seasonal high water table is at a depth       and boulders cover about 3 to 15 percent of the
40                                                                                                      Soil Survey




surface. They range from 1 foot to more than 4 feet in     CcB—Catoctin channery silt loam, 3 to 8
diameter.                                                    percent slopes
    Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown, friable channery loam about 7 inches thick. The         This is a gently sloping, moderately deep,
subsurface layer is brownish yellow, friable channery      somewhat excessively drained soil on ridgetops.
loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is about 44         Slopes are smooth and convex. Areas are oval in
inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is brownish         shape and range from 5 to 10 acres in size.
yellow, mottled, friable channery loam. In the next 7          Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable
inches it is pale brown, mottled, firm channery loam. In   channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil
the lower 29 inches it is yellowish brown, mottled, very   is yellowish brown, friable very channery silt loam
firm and brittle channery loam. The substratum, to a       about 7 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth
depth of 60 inches, is yellowish brown, mottled, firm      of 24 inches, is brown, friable extremely channery
channery sandy loam. In some areas the soil is             silt loam. Bedrock is at a depth of 24 inches. In
strongly sloping. In a few areas the fragipan is at a      some areas the soil is strongly sloping or moderately
depth more than 36 inches. In other areas the soil does    steep. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 20
not have a fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is     inches.
less than 60 inches. In a few areas the surface is             Included with this soil in mapping are a few
channery silt loam. In other areas the surface layer is    scattered areas of very deep, well drained Edgemont
silt loam or loam.                                         soils and deep Myersville soils at the edge of broad
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,   ridgetops. These soils contain more clay and less sand
scattered areas of well drained Edgemont, Highfield,       and have fewer rock fragments throughout than the
and Myersville soils on steeper side slopes. These         Catoctin soil. Also included are small areas of
soils are browner or redder throughout. Also included      moderately well drained Buchanan soils in depressions
are some small areas of poorly drained Hatboro soils       and on footslopes. Included soils make up about 15
on bottom lands. Hatboro soils are grayish throughout.     percent of the map unit.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map             Permeability of the Catoctin soil is moderately rapid.
unit.                                                      Available water capacity is low or very low. Surface
    Permeability of the Buchanan soil is moderate          runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is strongly acid
above the fragipan and slow in the fragipan and in the     to slightly acid in the solum and moderately acid to
substratum. Available water capacity is low and            neutral in the substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts
surface runoff is medium. The fragipan is at depth of 20   root penetration.
to 36 inches. The seasonal high water table is at a            Most areas of this soil are used as orchards. Some
depth of 18 to 36 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is    areas are used as cropland, pasture, or woodland or
extremely acid to strongly acid. The seasonal high         are idle land.
water table and the fragipan restrict root penetration.        This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
    Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or are    grain, and specialty crops. Erosion is the main hazard
idle land. This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and   and low or very low available water capacity is the
poorly suited to permanent pasture because of the          main limitation if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
amount of stones and boulders on and beneath the           sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
surface.                                                   conservation tillage system that leaves protective
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is       amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use      contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical     help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.
in large areas.                                            Cover crops and crop residue management also help to
    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank    control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
absorption fields because of wetness and slow              to improve soil tilth.
permeability. It is very limited as a site for dwellings       This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
with basements because of wetness. It is somewhat          and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
limited as a site for dwellings without basements          Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
because of wetness. It is somewhat limited as a site       can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
for local roads and streets because of wetness and         yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
frost action.                                              increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
    The land capability classification is 7s. The          maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
woodland ordination symbol is 3X.                          deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          41




and restricted use during wet periods help to keep           available water capacity is the main limitation. If
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      cultivated crops are grown, a cropping sequence that
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage
moderate. Seedling mortality and windthrow hazard are        system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
major management concerns. Selecting proper planting         on the surface, diversions, contour farming,
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome              stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to reduce
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate      surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help         crop residue management also help to control erosion,
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is           to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
practical in large areas.                                    tilth.
   This soil very limited as a site for septic tank              This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
absorption fields and dwellings with basements               and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
because of depth to bedrock. It is somewhat limited as       Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
a site for dwellings without basements and most other        can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
urban uses, including local roads and streets, because       yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
of depth to bedrock.                                         increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
   The land capability classification is 2e. The             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
woodland ordination symbol is 3F.                            deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
                                                             and restricted use during wet periods help to keep
                                                             pasture and the soil in good condition.
CcC—Catoctin channery silt loam, 8 to 15                         Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
  percent slopes                                             moderate. Seedling mortality and windthrow hazard are
                                                             major management concerns. Selecting proper planting
   This is a strongly sloping, moderately deep,
                                                             stock and limited overstocking help to overcome
somewhat excessively drained soil on ridgetops and
                                                             seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate
side slopes. Slopes are smooth and convex. Areas of
                                                             the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help
this soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape and
                                                             to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is
range from 5 to 25 acres in size.
                                                             practical in large areas.
   Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable
                                                                 This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
                                                             absorption fields and dwellings with basements
yellowish brown, friable very channery silt loam about 7
                                                             because of depth to bedrock. It is somewhat limited as
inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 24 inches,
                                                             a site for dwellings without basements and most other
is brown, friable extremely channery silt loam. Bedrock
                                                             urban uses, including local roads and streets, because
is at a depth of 24 inches. In some areas the soil is
                                                             of depth to bedrock and slope.
gently sloping to moderately steep. In some areas
                                                                 The land capability classification is 3e. The
depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches.
                                                             woodland ordination symbol is 3F.
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Edgemont
soils and deep Myersville soils at the edge of broad         CcE—Catoctin channery silt loam, 25 to
ridgetops. These soils have more clay, less sand, and          35 percent slopes
fewer rock fragments throughout than the Catoctin soil.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map              This is a steep, moderately deep, somewhat
unit.                                                        excessively drained soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are
   Permeability of the Catoctin soil is moderately rapid.    convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and
Available water capacity is low or very low. Surface         narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 15 acres in size.
runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is strongly acid      Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable
to slightly acid in the solum and moderately acid to         channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
neutral in the substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts        yellowish brown, friable very channery silt loam about 7
root penetration.                                            inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 24 inches,
   Most areas of this soil are used as orchards. Some        is brown, friable extremely channery silt loam. Bedrock
areas are used as cropland, pasture, or woodland or          is at a depth of 24 inches. In some areas the soil is
are idle land.                                               strongly sloping and moderately steep. In some areas
   This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is   depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches.
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.          Included with this soil in mapping are a few
Erosion is the main hazard and low or very low               scattered areas of very deep, well drained Edgemont
42                                                                                                           Soil Survey




soils and deep Myersville soils on the edge of broad           areas of very deep, well drained Athol and
ridgetops. These soils have more clay, less sand, and          Conestoga soils on broad ridgetops and somewhat
fewer rock fragments throughout than the Catoctin soil.        poorly drained Penlaw soils in broad depressions
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map             and on lowlands. Athol and Conestoga soils do not
unit.                                                          have a fragipan. Penlaw soils have gray mottles in the
   Permeability of this Catoctin soil is moderately rapid.     upper part of the subsoil. Also included are areas
Available water capacity is low or very low. Surface           where a few large sandstone, schist, and other
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is strongly       crystalline rock fragments are on the surface and in the
acid to slightly acid in the solum and moderately acid         soil. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the
to neutral in the substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts       map unit.
root penetration.                                                  Permeability of the Clarksburg soil is moderate
   Most areas of this soil are used as orchards or             above the fragipan and slow or moderately slow in the
woodland or are idle land.                                     fragipan and in the substratum. Available water
   This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and poorly        capacity is moderate or high. Surface runoff is low. The
suited to permanent pasture because of slope.                  fragipan is at a depth of 20 to 36 inches. The seasonal
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is            high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches. In
moderate. Seedling mortality and windthrow hazard are          unlimed areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid.
major management concerns. Selecting proper planting           The fragipan and the seasonal high water table restrict
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome                root penetration.
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate            Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help           pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is not         A few small areas are used as woodland.
practical in large areas because of steepness of slope.            This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
   This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank     grain, and most specialty crops. The main limitation is
absorption fields, dwellings with basements, dwellings         the seasonal high water table. Moderately slow and
without basements, and most other urban uses,                  slow permeability in the fragipan is also a limitation.
including local roads and streets because of depth to          During periods when rainfall is below normal or is
bedrock and slope.                                             poorly distributed, drought can damage crops. Existing,
   The land capability classification is 7e. The               well maintained drainage systems help to overcome
woodland ordination symbol is 3F.                              wetness. Leaving stubble on the surface and adding
                                                               other organic material to the soil conserve soil
CkA—Clarksburg silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                       moisture. Crop residue management, cover crops, and
  slopes                                                       green manure crops help to maintain organic matter
                                                               content and to improve soil tilth.
    This is a nearly level, very deep, moderately well             This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
drained soil on broad uplands and in depressions.              grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of this soil are           sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
irregular or long and narrow in shape and range from 5         causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
to 100 acres in size.                                          surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt   plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is about 46             grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is yellowish            restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
brown, friable silt loam. In the next 16 inches it is          pasture and the soil in good condition.
yellowish brown, mottled, friable and firm silt loam. In           Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
the next 8 inches it is yellowish brown, mottled, firm         moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
and brittle silty clay loam. In the lower 14 inches it is      and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
brown and yellowish brown, mottled, firm and brittle           in large areas.
clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is             This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
yellowish brown, mottled, friable very channery clay           absorption fields because of wetness and depth to a
loam. In some areas the soil is gently sloping or the          restrictive layer. The soil is somewhat limited as a site
solum is loam less than 20 inches thick. In some areas         for dwellings without basements because of wetness
the soil does not have a fragipan or depth to bedrock is       and shrinking and swelling. It is severely limited as a
less than 60 inches.                                           site for dwellings with basements and most other urban
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small         uses because of wetness. The soil is moderately
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                              43




limited as a site for local roads and streets because of       protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
wetness, low strength, and frost action.                       contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
   The land capability classification is 2w. The               surface runoff and to control erosion. Existing, well
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                              maintained drainage systems help to overcome
                                                               wetness. Cover crops and crop residue management
                                                               help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
CkB—Clarksburg silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                       content, and to improve soil tilth.
  slopes                                                           This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
                                                               and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, moderately well
                                                               Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
drained soil on broad uplands and in depressions.
                                                               can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
Slopes are smooth and concave. Areas of this soil are
                                                               yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
oval or long and narrow in shape and range from 5 to
                                                               increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
25 acres in size.
                                                               maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
                                                               deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is about 46
                                                               and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is yellowish
                                                               pasture and the soil in good condition.
brown, friable silt loam. In the next 16 inches it is
                                                                   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
yellowish brown mottled, friable and firm silt loam. In
                                                               moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
the next 8 inches it is yellowish brown, firm and brittle
                                                               and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
silty clay loam. In the lower 14 inches it is brown and
                                                               in large areas.
yellowish brown, mottled, firm and brittle clay loam.
                                                                   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
The substratum, to a depth of 64 inches, is yellowish
                                                               absorption fields because of wetness and depth to a
brown, mottled, friable very channery clay loam. In
                                                               cemented pan. It is somewhat limited as a site for
some areas the soil is nearly level. In some areas the
                                                               dwellings without basements because of wetness and
solum is less than 20 inches thick. In some areas the
                                                               shrinking and swelling. It is very limited as a site for
soil does not have a fragipan or depth to bedrock is
                                                               dwellings with basements because of wetness. It is
less than 60 inches.
                                                               moderately limited as a site for local roads and streets
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
                                                               because of shrinking and swelling, low strength, and
areas of very deep, well drained Athol and Conestoga
                                                               frost action.
soils on broad ridgetops and somewhat poorly drained
                                                                   The land capability classification is 2e. The
Penlaw soils in broad depressions and on lowlands.
                                                               woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
Athol and Conestoga soils do not have a fragipan.
Penlaw soils have gray mottles in the upper part of the
subsoil. Also included are areas where a few large             Cm—Codorus silt loam
sandstone, schist, and other crystalline rock fragments
are on the surface and in the soil. Included soils make            This is a nearly level, very deep, moderately well
up about 15 percent of the map unit.                           drained soil on flood plains. Slopes are smooth and
    Permeability of the Clarksburg soil is moderate            range from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this soil are long
above the fragipan and slow or moderately slow in the          and narrow in shape and range from 5 to 300 acres in
fragipan and substratum. Available water capacity is           size.
moderate or high. Surface runoff is medium. The                    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
fragipan is at a depth of 20 to 36 inches. The seasonal        loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is about 40
high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches. In          inches thick. In the upper 4 inches it is brown, friable
unlimed areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid.     silt loam. In the next 8 inches it is dark yellowish
The fragipan and the seasonal high water table restrict        brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower 28 inches
root penetration.                                              it is brown and yellowish brown, friable silt loam. The
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or            substratum extends to a depth of 60 inches. In the
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban          upper part it is stratified olive brown and dark grayish
development.                                                   brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower part it is
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small          dark grayish brown, friable silt loam. In some areas the
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the major          soil is brown or yellowish brown to a depth of 60 inches
hazard and wetness is a limitation. If cultivated crops        or more. In some areas the soil has more sand or is
are grown, a cropping sequence that includes grasses           stratified clay, sand, and gravel.
and legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves             Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
44                                                                                                           Soil Survey




areas of poorly drained Baile and Hatboro soils. Baile        are irregular or are long and narrow in shape and range
and Hatboro soils, which are grayish throughout, are in       from 5 to 75 acres in size.
depressions and drainageways on lowlands. Also                    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
included, on the highest part of bottom lands, are            loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 31
some areas subject to rare flooding. Included soils           inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is brown, friable
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.                     silt loam. In the next 7 inches it is yellowish brown,
    Permeability of the Codurus soil is moderate              friable silty clay loam. In the lower 16 inches it is
in the subsoil and moderately rapid or rapid in the           brown, friable silty clay loam. The substratum extends
substratum. Available water capacity is moderate              to a depth of 60 inches. In the upper part it is
or high. Surface runoff is low. This soil is subject          variegated yellowish brown, strong brown, and dark
to frequent flooding for very brief periods mainly in         yellowish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower part it is
late winter and early spring. The seasonal high water         variegated brown and strong brown, friable loam. In
table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches. In unlimed            some areas the soil is gently sloping. In some areas
areas this soil is very strongly acid to moderately           the subsoil is strong brown or reddish yellow. In other
acid in the upper part of the solum and strongly              areas the substratum is dark brown or dark yellowish
acid to slightly acid in the lower part and in the            brown, or depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.
substratum.                                                       Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or           scattered areas of moderately well drained Clarksburg
pasture. Some small areas are used as woodland or             soils on low rises and poorly drained Penlaw soils in
are idle land.                                                depressions on lowlands. Clarksburg soils have a
    This soil is well suited to corn and soybeans. It is      fragipan. Penlaw soils are grayish throughout. Included
not as well suited to small grain, however, because           soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
floodwater causes severe crop damage. The main                    Permeability of the Conestoga soil is moderate.
hazard is frequent flooding. Existing dikes and levees        Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface
in large areas help to overcome flooding. Crop residue        runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly
management, cover crops, and green manure crops               acid to neutral in the solum and moderately acid to
help to maintain organic matter content and to improve        slightly alkaline in the substratum.
soil tilth.                                                       Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
    This soil is suited to pasture. Overgrazing or grazing    pasture. Some areas are used for urban development
when the soil is wet, however, can damage the sod,            or as woodland.
reduces plant density and forage yields, and causes               This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased surface         grain, and most specialty crops. Crop residue
runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key plant           management, cover crops, and green manure crops
species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of grazing,       help to maintain organic matter content and to improve
applications of lime and fertilizer, and restricted use       soil tilth.
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil          This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
in good condition.                                            grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main         causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
management concern. Wet periods limit use of planting         surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
or logging equipment. Machine planting of trees is            plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
practical in large areas.                                     grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
    Flooding is a severe limitation. This soil is unsuited    restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
as a site for septic tank absorption fields and               pasture and the soil in good condition.
dwellings. It is severely limited as a site for local roads       Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
and streets because of flooding and frost action.             moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
    The land capability classification is 2w. The             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
woodland ordination symbol is 5W.                             in large areas.
                                                                  This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
CnA—Conestoga silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                       tank absorption fields because of moderate
  slopes                                                      permeability. It is suitable as a site for dwellings and
                                                              most other urban uses. It is very limited as a site for
   This is a nearly level, very deep, well drained soil on    local roads and streets because of low strength and
broad uplands. Slopes are smooth. Areas of this soil          frost action.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                              45




   The land capability classification is 1. The woodland       plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
ordination symbol is 4A.                                       grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
                                                               restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
                                                               pasture and the soil in good condition.
CnB—Conestoga silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                            Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
  slopes                                                       moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
                                                               and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
                                                               in large areas.
on undulating, broad uplands. Slopes are smooth and
                                                                   This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
convex. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
                                                               tank absorption fields because of moderate
range from 5 to 500 acres in size.
                                                               permeability. It is suitable as a site for dwellings and
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
                                                               most other urban uses. It is severely limited as a site
loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 31
                                                               for local roads and streets because of low strength and
inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is brown, friable
                                                               frost action.
silt loam. In the next 7 inches it is yellowish brown,
                                                                   The land capability classification is 2e. The
friable silty clay loam. In the lower 16 inches it is
                                                               woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
brown, friable silty clay loam. The substratum extends
to a depth of 60 inches. In the upper part it is
variegated yellowish brown, dark yellowish brown, and          CnC—Conestoga silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
strong brown, friable silt loam. In the lower part it is         slopes
variegated brown and strong brown, friable loam. In
some areas the soil is nearly level. In some areas the             This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
subsoil is strong brown or reddish yellow. In a few            soil on undulating uplands and side slopes. Slopes are
areas the substratum is dark brown or dark yellowish           smooth or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are
brown or depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.              long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 15 acres
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,       in size.
scattered areas of moderately well drained Clarksburg              Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
soils on low rises and poorly drained Penlaw soils in          loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 31
depressions on lowlands. Clarksburg soils have a               inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is brown, friable
fragipan. Penlaw soils are grayish throughout. Included        silt loam. In the next 7 inches it is yellowish brown,
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.                friable silty clay loam. In the lower 16 inches it is
    Permeability of this Conestoga soil is moderate.           brown, friable silty clay loam. The substratum extends
Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface          to a depth of 60 inches. In the upper part it is
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil ranges            variegated yellowish brown, dark yellowish brown, and
from strongly acid to neutral in the solum and from            strong brown, friable silt loam. In the lower part it is
moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the substratum.        variegated brown and strong brown, friable loam. In
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or            some areas the soil is gently sloping and moderately
pasture. Some areas are used for urban development             steep. In a few areas the substratum is dark brown and
or as woodland.                                                dark yellowish brown. In some areas depth to bedrock
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small          is less than 60 inches.
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main               Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping               scattered areas of moderately well drained Clarksburg
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                  soils on low rises and poorly drained Penlaw soils in
conservation tillage system that leaves protective             depressions on lowlands. Clarksburg soils have a
amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour                fragipan. Penlaw soils are grayish throughout. Also
farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce surface          included are areas where a few large sandstone
runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and crop            fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
residue management also help to control erosion, to            soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil               Permeability of the Conestoga soil is moderate.
tilth.                                                         Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or        runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil ranges
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the          from very strongly acid to neutral in the solum and
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and              from moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased           substratum.
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
46                                                                                                           Soil Survey




pasture. Some areas are used for urban development            channery silt loam. Fractured weak red siltstone
or as woodland.                                               bedrock is at a depth of 42 inches. In some areas the
   This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans,         soil is gently sloping. In some areas the soil contains
small grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the         more sand. In a few areas the soil does not have a
main hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping         fragipan. In some areas the surface layer is loam or
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                 silty clay loam. In some areas depth to bedrock is less
conservation tillage system that leaves protective            than 40 inches.
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,               Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways         scattered areas of very deep, somewhat poorly drained
help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.         Abbottstown soils on broad uplands and in depressions
Cover crops and crop residue management also help to          and drainageways and somewhat poorly drained
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and      Bowmansville soils and moderately well drained
to improve soil tilth.                                        Rowland soils in lower, nearly level or slightly
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses       depressional areas on bottom lands. These soils are
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.              less silty than the Croton soil. Also included are a few
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,         small areas of moderately well drained Raritan soils on
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage          stream terraces. Included soils make up about 15
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and        percent of the map unit.
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to                Permeability of the Croton soil is moderate or
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely          moderately slow above the fragipan and slow or very
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,    slow in the fragipan and in the substratum. Available
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the        water capacity is moderate or high. Surface runoff is
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       low to ponded. The fragipan is at a depth of 15 to 25
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is           inches. The seasonal high water table is within 6
moderately high. No major hazards or limitations affect       inches of the surface, mainly in winter and in early
use and management. Machine planting of trees is              spring. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
practical in large areas.                                     or strongly acid in the upper part of the solum and very
   This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic         strongly acid to moderately acid in the lower part and
tank absorption fields because of moderate                    in the substratum. The fragipan restricts root
permeability and slope. It is somewhat limited as a site      penetration.
for dwellings and most other urban uses because of                Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
slope. It is severely limited as a site for local roads and   pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.
streets because of low strength.                                  This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops
   The land capability classification is 3e. The              because of wetness and very slow or slow permeability
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                             in the fragipan. Existing, well maintained surface or
                                                              subsurface drainage systems help to overcome
CrA—Croton silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                          wetness. Cover crops and a conservation tillage
   slopes                                                     system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
                                                              on the surface help to maintain organic matter content
    This is a nearly level, deep, poorly drained soil on      and to improve soil tilth.
lowlands and in depressions and drainageways. Slopes              This soil is well suited to pasture. It is poorly suited
are smooth or concave. Areas of this soil are irregular       to such deep-rooted legumes as alfalfa because very
or long and narrow in shape and range from 5 to 150           slow or slow permeability in the fragipan restricts root
acres in size.                                                penetration and downward movement of water.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,       Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
friable silt loam about 12 inches thick. The subsurface       can cause surface compaction and poor tilth. Proper
layer is dark reddish gray, mottled, friable silt loam        stocking rates to maintain key plant species, pasture
about 2 inches thick. The subsoil is about 23 inches          rotation, timely deferment of grazing, applications of
thick. In the upper 6 inches it is reddish gray, mottled,     lime and fertilizer, and restricted use during wet periods
firm silt loam. In the next 7 inches it is pinkish gray,      help to keep the pasture and the soil in good condition.
mottled, very firm and brittle silt loam. In the lower 10         Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
inches it is reddish brown, mottled, very firm silt loam      moderate. The main management concerns are the
that has lenses of gray silty clay. The substratum, to a      equipment limitation and seedling mortality. The
depth of 42 inches, is reddish brown, mottled, firm           seasonal high water table and fragipan restrict rooting
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            47




depth. Equipment should be operated only when the            very high. The fragipan is at a depth of 15 to 25
soil is relatively dry or frozen. Using special planting     inches. The seasonal high water table is within 6
stock and overstocking help to overcome seedling             inches of the surface mainly in winter and in early
mortality. Machine planting of trees is practical in large   spring. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
areas.                                                       or strongly acid in the upper part of the solum and very
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank       strongly acid to moderately acid in the lower part and
absorption fields because of wetness and very slow           in the substratum. The fragipan restricts root
permeability. It is very limited as a site for dwellings     penetration.
and most other urban uses because of wetness. It is              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,
very limited as a site for local roads and streets           pasture, or woodland. Some areas are used for urban
because of wetness and frost action.                         development or as woodland.
   The land capability classification is 4w. The                 This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops
woodland ordination symbol is 3W.                            because of slow permeability in the fragipan and
                                                             wetness. Existing, well maintained surface or
CrB—Croton silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                         subsurface drainage systems help to overcome
   slopes                                                    wetness. Erosion is a hazard if cultivated crops are
                                                             grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
    This is a gently sloping, deep, poorly drained soil on   legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
lower slopes and in depressions and drainageways.            protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
Slopes are smooth and concave. Areas of this soil are        contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
irregular or long and narrow in shape and range from 5       surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
to 100 acres in size.                                        crop residue management also help to control erosion,
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,      to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
friable silt loam about 12 inches thick. The subsurface      tilth. Subsurface tile is needed for seepy areas in some
layer is dark reddish gray, mottled, friable silt loam       drainageways.
about 2 inches thick. The subsoil is about 23 inches             This soil is well suited to pasture. It is poorly suited
thick. In the upper 6 inches it is reddish gray, mottled,    to deep-rooted legumes, such as alfalfa, because very
firm silt loam. In the next 7 inches it is pinkish gray,     slow and slow permeability in the fragipan restricts
mottled, very firm and brittle silt loam. In the lower 10    roots. Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet,
inches it is reddish brown, mottled, very firm silt loam     however, can damage the sod, reduces plant density
that has lenses of gray silty clay. The substratum, to a     and forage yields, and causes surface compaction,
depth of 42 inches, is reddish brown, mottled, firm          poor tilth, and increased surface runoff. Proper
channery silt loam. Fractured, weak red siltstone            stocking rates to maintain key plant species, pasture
bedrock is at a depth of 42 inches. In some areas the        rotation, timely deferment of grazing, applications of
soil is nearly level. In some areas the soil has more        lime and fertilizer, and restricted use during wet periods
sand. In a few areas the soil does not have a fragipan.      help to keep the pasture and the soil in good condition.
In some areas the surface layer is loam or silty clay            Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
loam. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40         moderate. The main management concerns are the
inches.                                                      equipment limitation and seedling mortality. The
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,     seasonal high water table and fragipan restrict rooting
scattered areas of very deep, somewhat poorly drained        depth. Equipment should be operated only when the
Abbottstown soils on broad uplands and in depressions        soil is relatively dry or frozen. Using special planting
and drainageways and somewhat poorly drained                 stock and overstocking help to overcome seedling
Bowmansville soils and moderately well drained               mortality. Machine planting of trees is practical in large
Rowland soils in lower, nearly level or slightly             areas.
depressional areas on bottom lands. These soils are              This soil very limited as a site for septic
less silty than the Croton soil. Also included are a few     tank absorption fields because of wetness and
small areas of moderately well drained Raritan soils on      restricted permeability. The soil is very limited
stream terraces. Included soils make up about 15             as a site for dwellings and most other urban uses.
percent of the map unit.                                     The soil is very limited as a site for local roads and
    Permeability of the Croton soil is moderate or           streets because of wetness, low strength, and frost
moderately slow above the fragipan and very slow or          action.
slow in the fragipan and in the substratum. Available            The land capability classification is 4w. The
water capacity is moderate or high. Surface runoff is        woodland ordination symbol is 3W.
48                                                                                                         Soil Survey




DAM—Dams                                                      stratified substratum or the surface layer is black. In a
                                                              few areas the soil has more sand and less clay.
     This map unit consists of dams.                             Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
     The land capability classification is 8s.                areas of moderately well drained Lindside soils in
                                                              swells on bottom lands. These soils are browner or
                                                              redder throughout than the Dunning soil. Also included
Dx—Dumps, refuse                                              are some areas where a few large rock fragments are
                                                              on the surface and in the soil. Included soils make up
   This map unit consists of areas that have been cut
                                                              about 15 percent of the map unit.
and filled for the disposal of refuse and waste from
                                                                 Permeability of the Dunning soil is moderate in the
residential, commercial, and industrial sites. It is on
                                                              surface layer and slow in the subsoil and the
uplands. Slopes are very complex. They are nearly
                                                              substratum. Available water capacity is high, but the
level to strongly sloping, and range from 0 to 15
                                                              high water table restricts rooting depth. The seasonal
percent. Areas of this map unit are irregular in shape,
                                                              high water is within 6 inches of the surface for most of
and range from 10 to 200 acres in size.
                                                              the year. Surface runoff is very high. This soil is
   Typically, the fill and pit areas consist of mixed
                                                              subject to frequent flooding for brief periods, mainly in
surface soil, subsoil, and substratum of the original
                                                              winter and in early spring. In unlimed areas this soil is
soil. Textures are silt loam, silty clay loam, silty clay,
                                                              moderately acid to slightly alkaline throughout.
clay, clay loam, loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy
                                                                 Most areas of this soil are used for hayland,
loam. In some areas the soil material is gravel, sand,
                                                              pasture, or woodland or are idle land.
stones, or boulders.
                                                                 This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and
   The soil materials comprising Dumps, refuse, are
                                                              most specialty crops, but flooding and wetness are
variable. A detailed onsite investigation is needed to
                                                              limitations. It generally is unsuitable to small grain
determine the suitability and limitations of these areas
                                                              because floodwaters cause severe crop damage.
for any proposed use.
                                                              Existing dikes and levees in large areas help to reduce
   Included with Dumps, refuse, in mapping are small
                                                              flooding. Existing, well maintained drainage systems
areas of soils that have not been disturbed.
                                                              help to overcome wetness. A conservation tillage
   On Dumps, refuse, permeability, available water
                                                              system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
capacity, runoff, reaction, and depth to bedrock are
                                                              on the surface, cover crops, and green manure crops
variable.
                                                              help to maintain organic matter content and to improve
   Most areas of this map unit are barren or have a
                                                              soil tilth.
sparse vegetation of grasses, shrubs, and trees. Some
                                                                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
areas are still active, but a few are abandoned.
                                                              grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
   No land capability classification or woodland
                                                              sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
ordination symbols are assigned.
                                                              causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
                                                              surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
Dy—Dunning silty clay loam                                    plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
                                                              grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
   This is a nearly level, very deep, poorly drained soil     restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
on flood plains. Slopes are smooth, and range from 0          pasture and the soil in good condition.
to 3 percent. Areas of this soil are long and narrow in          Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.                  moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in
   Typically, the surface layer is very dark, grayish         timber stands. The equipment limitation, seedling
brown, friable silty clay loam about 11 inches thick.         mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
The subsoil is about 19 inches thick. In the upper 7          concerns. The high water table restricts use of
inches it is dark gray, mottled, friable silty clay. In the   equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry, or to
lower 12 inches it is grayish brown, mottled, firm silty      midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an adequate
clay. The substratum extends to a depth of 60 inches.         snow cover. Special site preparation, such as bedding
In the upper 6 inches it is yellowish brown, mottled,         before planting, can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
firm silty clay. In the next 6 inches it is light brownish    Harvest methods that do not isolate the remaining
gray, mottled, firm silty clay loam. In the lower 18          trees or leave them widely spaced help to prevent
inches it is grayish brown, mottled, friable, stratified      windthrow. Machine planting of trees is practical in
sandy clay loam and gravelly sandy clay loam. In              large areas.
some areas the soil is less than 40 inches deep to the           Flooding and wetness are severe limitations. This
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           49




soil is unsuited as a site for septic tank absorption           Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
fields and dwellings. The soil is very limited as a site        can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
for local roads and streets because of low strength,            yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
wetness, flooding, and frost action.                            increased surface runoff. Some suitable management
    The land capability classification is 3w. The               practices are proper stocking rates to maintain key
woodland ordination symbol is 6W.                               plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
                                                                grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
                                                                restricted use during wet periods. These practices help
EdB—Edgemont channery loam, 3 to 8                              to keep the pasture and the soil in good condition.
  percent slopes                                                    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
                                                                moderately high. Machine planting of trees is practical
   This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
                                                                in large areas.
on broad ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex.
                                                                    This soil is not limited as a site for septic tank
Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from
                                                                absorption fields. It is suited as a site for dwellings
5 to 200 acres in size.
                                                                without basements. It is not limited as a site for
   Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray, brown,
                                                                dwellings with basements and for most other urban
and yellowish brown friable channery loam about 8
                                                                uses. It is somewhat limited as a site for local roads
inches thick. The subsoil is about 22 inches thick. In
                                                                and streets because of frost action.
the upper 16 inches it is yellowish brown, friable
                                                                    The land capability classification is 2e. The
channery loam. In the lower 6 inches it is yellowish
                                                                woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
brown, friable very channery sandy loam. The
substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is brown, friable
extremely channery sandy loam. In some areas the                EdC—Edgemont channery loam, 8 to 15
soil is nearly level and strongly sloping. In some areas          percent slopes
the soil has less clay and more sand. In some areas
depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches. In a few areas            This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
the solum is redder. In some areas a few rock                   soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth
fragments are on the surface.                                   or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or long and
   Included with this soil in mapping, on lower benches         narrow in shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
and footslopes, are a few, scattered areas of Buchanan             Typically, the surface layer is dark gray, brown, and
soils. These soils are very deep and moderately well            yellowish brown, very friable channery loam about 8
drained, and have a fragipan at a depth of 25 inches.           inches thick. The subsoil is about 22 inches thick. In
Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map              the upper 16 inches it is yellowish brown, friable
unit.                                                           channery loam. In the lower 6 inches it is yellowish
   Permeability of the Edgemont soil is moderate or             brown, friable very channery sandy loam. The
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or            substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is brown, friable
moderate. Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas the           extremely channery sandy loam. In some areas the
soil is extremely acid to strongly acid.                        soil is gently sloping or moderately steep or has less
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or              clay and more sand. In some areas depth to bedrock is
pasture. Some areas are used for urban development              less than 60 inches. In a few areas the solum is redder
or are woodland.                                                or a few rock fragments are on the surface.
   This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small               Included with this soil in mapping are a few
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main            scattered areas of moderately deep, somewhat
hazard, and low or moderate available water capacity            excessively drained Mt. Airy soils on the sides of
during periods of low rainfall is a limitation. If cultivated   ridges and hills. These soils contain more sand and
crops are grown, a cropping sequence that includes              rock fragments than the Edgemont soil. Also included
grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage system              are a few small areas where many large boulders are
that leaves protective amounts of crop residue on the           on the surface and in the soil. Also included are a few
surface, contour farming, and grassed waterways help            areas where sandstone or limestone bedrock crops out.
to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover          Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
crops and crop residue management also help to                  unit.
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and           Permeability of the Edgemont soil is moderate or
to improve soil tilth.                                          moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses         moderate. Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas the
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.                soil is extremely acid to strongly acid.
50                                                                                                         Soil Survey




    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or           substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is brown, friable
pasture or are woodland. Some areas are used for              extremely channery sandy loam. In some areas the
urban development.                                            soil is strongly sloping and steep. In some areas the
    This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is   soil has more clay. In some areas depth to bedrock is
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.        less than 60 inches.
Erosion is the main hazard and low or moderate                    Included with this soil in mapping are a few
available water during periods of low rainfall is a           scattered areas of moderately deep, somewhat
limitation. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping         excessively drained Mt. Airy soils on sides of ridges
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                 and hills. These soils contain more sand and rock
conservation tillage system that leaves protective            fragments than the Edgemont soil. Also included are a
amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour               few small areas where many large boulders are on the
farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to         surface and in the soil. Also included are a few areas
reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover           where sandstone, schist, or phyllite bedrock crops out.
crops and crop residue management also help to                Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and      unit.
to improve soil tilth.                                            Permeability of the Edgemont soil is moderate or
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.              moderate. Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,         this soil is extremely acid to strongly acid.
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage              Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and        woodland or are idle land. A few areas are used for
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to            cultivated crops.
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely              This soil is fairly well suited to some specialty
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,    crops. It is poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the        small grain in areas where slope is less than 18
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       percent. It is unsuited to cultivated crops in areas
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          where slope is more than 18 percent. Erosion is a
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use         major hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical        sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
in large areas.                                               conservation tillage system that leaves protective
    This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic        amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour
tank absorption fields because of slope. It is somewhat       farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways help to
limited as a site for dwellings without basements             reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover
because of slope. It is moderately limited as a site for      crops and crop residue management also help to
dwellings with basements and most other urban uses            control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
because of slope. It is somewhat limited as a site for        to improve soil tilth.
local roads and streets because of frost action and               This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
slope.                                                        and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
    The land capability classification is 3e. The             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
                                                              yield, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
EdD—Edgemont channery loam, 15 to 25                          increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
  percent slopes                                              maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
                                                              deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
   This is a moderately steep, very deep, well drained        and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are smooth or convex.        pasture and the soil in good condition.
Areas of this soil are irregular and or are long and              Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.       moderately high. The equipment limitation is the major
   Typically, the surface layer is dark gray, brown, and      management concern. When the soil is wet, logging
yellowish brown, very friable channery loam about 8           roads tend to be slippery and ruts form quickly. Use of
inches thick. The subsoil is about 22 inches thick. In        planting or logging equipment is limited during wet
the upper 16 inches it is yellowish brown, friable            periods. Machine planting of trees is generally practical
channery loam. In the lower 6 inches it is yellowish          in large areas.
brown, friable very channery sandy loam. The                      This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          51




absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and             The land capability classification is 6s. The
streets because of slope.                                   woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
   The land capability classification is 4e. The
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.
                                                            EeD—Edgemont channery loam, 8 to 25
                                                              percent slopes, very stony
EeB—Edgemont channery loam, 0 to 8
  percent slopes, very stony                                    This is a strongly sloping and moderately steep,
                                                            deep and very deep, well drained soil on ridges and
    This is a nearly level and gently sloping, very deep,   hills. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of the soil
well drained soil on ridgetops. Slopes are smooth and       are irregular or are long and narrow in shape and range
convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and    from 10 to 400 acres in size. Stones and boulders
narrow in shape and range from 5 to 400 acres in size.      cover about 1 to 3 percent of the surface. They range
Stones and boulders cover about 1 to 3 percent of the       in size from 1 to more than 3 feet across.
surface. They range in width from 1 to more than 3 feet.        Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray, very
    Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray, very    friable channery loam about 2 inches thick. The
friable channery loam about 2 inches thick. The             subsurface layer is brown channery loam about 3
subsurface layer is brown, friable channery loam 3          inches thick. The subsoil is about 25 inches thick. In
inches thick. The subsoil is about 25 inches thick. In      the upper 19 inches it is yellowish brown, friable
the upper 19 inches it is yellowish brown, friable          channery loam. In the lower 6 inches it is yellowish
channery loam. In the lower 6 inches it is yellowish        brown, friable very channery sandy loam. The
brown, friable, very channery sandy loam. The               substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is brown, very
substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is brown, friable      friable extremely channery sandy loam. In some areas
extremely channery loam. In some areas the soil is          the soil is gently sloping and steep. In some areas
strongly sloping to steep. In some areas depth to           depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.
bedrock is less than 60 inches.                                 Included with this soil in mapping are a few
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few            scattered areas of moderately deep, somewhat
scattered areas of moderately deep, somewhat                excessively drained Mt. Airy soils on the side of ridges
excessively drained Mt. Airy soils on the sides of          and hills. These soils contain more sand and rock
ridges and hills. These soils have more sand and rock       fragments than the Edgemont soil. Also included are a
fragments than the Edgemont soil. Also included are a       few small areas where many large boulders are on the
few small areas where many large boulders are on the        surface and in the soil. Also included are a few areas
surface and in the soil. Also included are a few areas      where sandstone or limestone bedrock crops out.
where sandstone and limestone bedrock crops out.            Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map          unit.
unit.                                                           Permeability of the Edgemont soil is moderate or
    Permeability of the Edgemont soil is moderate or        moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or        moderate. Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas
moderate. Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this      this soil is extremely acid or strongly acid.
soil is extremely acid to strongly acid.                        Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or are
    Most areas of this soil are used as woodland. Some      idle land. Some areas are used for urban development.
areas are used for urban development.                       This soil is unsuited to grasses and legumes,
    This soil is unsuited to grasses and legumes,           permanent pasture, and cultivated crops because of
permanent pasture, and cultivated crops because of          the amount of stones and boulders on the surface.
the amount of stones and boulders on the surface. It is         Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
moderately suited to production and harvest of timber.      moderately high. The main management concern is the
Stones and boulders restrict machine planting of trees.     equipment limitation. Operating ordinary crawler
Disturbing the ground cover as little as possible when      tractors and rubber-tired skidders can be hazardous
trees are harvested helps to control erosion.               because of slope. Slope, stones, and boulders restrict
    This soil is not limited as a site for septic tank      machine planting of trees. Disturbing the ground cover
absorption fields. It is suitable as a site for dwellings   as little as possible when harvesting trees helps to
without basements. It is not limited as a site for          control erosion.
dwellings without basements and for most other urban            This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
uses. It is moderately limited as a site for local roads    absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and
and streets because of frost action.                        streets because of slope.
52                                                                                                      Soil Survey




  The land capability classification is 6s. The              The land capability classification is 7s. The
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                          woodland ordination symbol is 4R.


EeF—Edgemont channery loam, 25 to 70                       GbB—Glenelg channery silt loam, 3 to 8
  percent slopes, very stony                                 percent slopes
    This is a steep and very steep, deep and very deep,        This is a gently sloping, deep, well drained soil on
well drained soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are smooth   ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of this
and convex. Areas of this soil are long and narrow in      soil are irregular or are long and narrow in shape, and
shape, and range from 10 to 400 acres in size. Stones      range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
and boulders cover about 1 to 3 percent of the surface.        Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
They range from 1 to 3 feet in size.                       friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
    Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray,        subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In the upper 4 inches
very friable channery loam about 2 inches thick.           it is reddish brown, friable channery silt loam. In the
The subsurface layer is brown, channery loam               next 13 inches it is yellowish red, friable channery silt
about 3 inches thick. The subsoil is about 25 inches       loam and channery silty clay loam. In the lower 4
thick. In the upper 19 inches it is yellowish brown,       inches it is yellowish red, friable channery loam. The
friable channery loam. In the lower 6 inches it is         substratum, to a depth of 50 inches, is variegated
yellowish brown, friable very channery sandy loam.         yellowish red, red, and light reddish brown, very
The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is                micaceous very channery loam. Weathered fractured
brown, extremely channery sandy loam. In some              mica schist bedrock is at a depth of 50 inches. In
areas the soil is strongly sloping or moderately           some areas the soil is nearly level or strongly sloping.
steep.                                                     In some areas the soil has more clay throughout. In
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few           some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches. In
scattered areas of moderately deep, somewhat               some areas the solum and the substratum are red.
excessively drained Mt. Airy soils on sides of ridges          Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
and hills. These soils have more sand and rock             areas of somewhat excessively drained Manor and Mt.
fragments than the Edgemont soil. Also included are a      Airy soils on narrow ridges. Also included are narrow
few small areas where many large boulders are on the       strips of wetter soils along narrow drainageways at the
surface and in the soil. Also included are a few areas     bottom of draws. Also included are some areas where
where sandstone or limestone bedrock crops out.            the lower part of the subsoil is grayish. Included soils
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map         make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
unit.                                                          Permeability of the Glenelg soil is moderate.
    Permeability of the Edgemont soil is moderate or       Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or       runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very
moderate. Runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil     strongly acid or strongly acid in the surface layer and
is extremely acid to strongly acid.                        very strongly acid to slightly acid in the subsoil and
    Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or are    substratum.
idle land. The soil is unsuited to permanent pasture and       Most areas of this soil are used as cropland and
cultivated crops because of slope and the amount of        pasture. A few areas are used as woodland or are idle
stones and boulders on the surface.                        land.
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is           This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
moderately high. The main management concern is the        grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is a hazard if
equipment limitation. Because of the equipment             cultivated crops are grown. A cropping sequence that
hazard, the grade of logging roads, skid trails, and       includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage
landings should be gentle and water should be              system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
removed by water bars, out sloping road surfaces,          on the surface, diversions, contour farming, and
culverts, and drop structures. Ordinary crawler tractors   grassed waterways help to reduce surface runoff and
and rubber-tired skidders cannot be operated safely on     to control erosion. Cover crops and crop residue
these slopes. Slope, stones, and boulders restrict         management also help to control erosion, to maintain
machine planting of trees.                                 organic matter content, and to improve soil tilth.
    These soils are unsuited to use as a site for septic       This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and     and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
streets because of slope.                                  Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           53




can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         very strongly acid to slightly acid in the subsoil and
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       substratum.
increased surface runoff. Some suitable management               Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
practices are proper stocking rates to maintain key          pasture. A few areas are used as woodland or are idle
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of         land.
grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and                This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is
restricted use during wet periods. These practices help      fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.
to keep the pasture and soil in good condition.              Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use        legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical       protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
in large areas. This soil is moderately limited as a site    diversions, contour farming, and grassed waterways
for septic tank absorption fields because of depth to        help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.
bedrock and moderate permeability. The soil is suitable      Cover crops and crop residue management also help to
as a site for dwellings and most other urban uses. The       control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
soil is somewhat limited as a site for local roads and       to improve soil tilth.
streets because of frost action.                                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
    The land capability classification is 2e. The            and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                            Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
                                                             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
                                                             yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
GbC—Glenelg channery silt loam, 8 to 15                      increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
  percent slopes                                             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
                                                             deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
    This is a strongly sloping, deep, well drained soil on
                                                             and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth or
                                                             pasture and soil in good condition.
convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and
                                                                 Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
                                                             moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
                                                             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
                                                             in large areas.
subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In the upper 4 inches
                                                                 This soil is moderately limited as a site for septic
it is reddish brown, friable channery silt loam. In the
                                                             tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock,
next 13 inches it is yellowish red, friable channery silt
                                                             moderate permeability, and slope. The soil is
loam and friable silty clay loam. In the lower 4 inches it
                                                             moderately limited as a site for dwellings and most
is yellowish red, friable channery loam. The
                                                             other urban uses because of slope. It is moderately
substratum, to a depth of 50 inches, is variegated
                                                             limited as a site for local roads and streets because of
yellowish red, red, and light reddish brown, very
                                                             slope and frost action.
micaceous very channery loam. Weathered fractured
                                                                 The land capability classification is 3e. The
mica schist bedrock is at a depth of 50 inches. In
                                                             woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
some areas the soil is gently sloping and moderately
steep. In some areas the soil has more clay. In some
areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches. In some       GbD—Glenelg channery silt loam, 15 to 25
areas the solum and the substratum are red.                    percent slopes
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
areas of somewhat excessively drained Manor and Mt.              This is a moderately steep, deep, well drained soil
Airy soils on narrow ridges. Also included are narrow        on ridges and hills. Slopes are convex. Areas of this
strips of wetter soils along narrow drainageways at the      soil are long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to
bottom of draws. Also included are some areas of soils       100 acres in size.
that are grayish in the lower part of the subsoil.               Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map           friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
unit.                                                        subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In the upper 4 inches
    Permeability of the Glenelg soil is moderate.            it is reddish brown, friable channery silt loam. In the
Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface        next 13 inches it is yellowish red, friable channery silt
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very         loam and channery silty clay loam. In the lower 4
strongly acid or strongly acid in the surface layer and      inches it is yellowish red, friable channery loam. The
54                                                                                                             Soil Survey




substratum, to a depth of 50 inches, is variegated              and most other urban uses because of steepness of
yellowish red, red, and light reddish brown very                slope.
micaceous, very channery loam. Weathered fractured                 The land capability classification is 4e. The
mica schist bedrock is at a depth of 50 inches. In              woodland ordination symbol is 4R.
some areas the soil is strongly sloping and steep. In
some areas the soil has more clay. In some areas
depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches. In some areas          GdA—Glenville silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
the solum and the substratum are red.                             slopes
    Included with this soil in mapping are few small
areas of somewhat excessively drained Manor and Mt.                 This is a nearly level, very deep, moderately well
Airy soils on narrow ridges. Also included are narrow           drained soil on broad lowlands and in depressions and
strips of wetter soils along narrow drainageways at the         drainageways. Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of
bottom of draws. Also included are some areas that are          this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in shape,
grayish in the lower part of the subsoil. Included soils        and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.                           Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
    Permeability of the Glenelg soil is moderate.               loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is about 30
Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface           inches thick. In the upper 9 inches it is yellowish
runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly     brown, mottled, friable and firm silt loam. In the next 17
acid or strongly acid in the surface layer and very             inches it is yellowish brown, mottled, very firm and
strongly acid to slightly acid in the subsoil and in the        brittle silt loam. In the lower 4 inches it is strong brown,
substratum.                                                     mottled, friable channery loam. The substratum, to a
    Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or              depth of 60 inches, is strong brown, mottled, very
woodland. Some areas are used as cropland or are idle           friable channery loam in the upper part and extremely
land.                                                           channery loam in the lower part. In some areas the soil
    This soil is fairly well suited to specialty crops. It is   is gently sloping. In some areas the solum is less than
poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.               20 inches thick. In other areas it is loam. In a few
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are              areas the soil does not have a fragipan. In some areas
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and            depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves                  Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,              areas of moderately well drained Codorus soils and
diversions, contour farming, and grassed waterways              poorly drained Hatboro soils on narrow bottom lands
help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.           next to stream channels. Hatboro soils are grayish
Cover crops and crop residue management also help to            throughout. Also included are a few very small areas of
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and        somewhat excessively drained Manor and Mt. Airy
to improve soil tilth.                                          soils at the base of side slopes and on narrow, low
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses        breaks adjacent to major streams. Also included are
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.                areas where some large rock fragments are on the
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,           surface and in the soil. Included soils make up about
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage            15 percent of the map unit.
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and              Permeability of the Glenville soil is moderate above
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to              the fragipan, slow in the fragipan, and moderately slow
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely            in the substratum. Available water capacity is
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,      moderate. Surface runoff is medium. The fragipan is at
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the          a depth of 19 to 36 inches. The seasonal high water
pasture and the soil in good condition.                         table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches. In unlimed areas
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is            this soil is very strongly acid to neutral in the surface
moderately high. The erosion hazard and the equipment           layer and very strongly acid to moderately acid in the
limitation are major management concerns.                       substratum. The fragipan and the seasonal high water
Constructing roads on the contour to reduce slope is a          table restrict root penetration.
suitable management practice. Slope restricts use of                Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
equipment. Machine planting of trees is practical in            pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.
large areas.                                                    A few small areas are used as woodland.
    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank             This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
absorption fields, dwellings, local roads and streets,          grain, and most specialty crops. The seasonal high
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                             55




water table and moderately slow and slow permeability          channery loam in the lower part. In some areas the soil
in the fragipan are limitations. During periods when           is nearly level or strongly sloping. In a few areas the
rainfall is below normal or poorly distributed, drought        solum is less than 20 inches thick, and in other areas
can damage crops. Existing, well maintained drainage           it is loam throughout. In some areas the soil does not
systems help to overcome wetness. Leaving stubble              have a fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is
on the surface and adding other organic material will          less than 60 inches.
conserve moisture. Crop residue management, cover                  Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
crops, and green manure crops help to maintain                 areas of somewhat excessively drained Manor and Mt.
organic matter content and to improve soil tilth.              Airy soils on narrow ridges and at the base of side
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or        slopes next to stream channels and poorly drained
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the          Baile soils in lower, nearly level or slightly depressional
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and              areas on lowlands. Except the Baile soil, which has a
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased           grayish solum, these soils do not have gray mottles in
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key          the solum. Also included are a few very small areas of
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of           somewhat excessively drained Manor soils on higher
grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and              hills. Also included are areas where some large rock
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the             fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
pasture and the soil in good condition.                        soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is               Permeability of the Glenville soil is moderate above
moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling            the fragipan, slow or moderately slow in the fragipan,
mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management           and moderately slow in the substratum. Available water
concerns. Equipment should be operated only when the           capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is high. The
soil is relatively dry or is frozen. Using special planting    fragipan is at a depth of 19 to 36 inches. The seasonal
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome                high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches. In
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate        unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid to neutral
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help           in the solum and moderately acid to very strongly acid
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is             in the substratum. The fragipan and the seasonal high
practical in large areas.                                      water table restrict root penetration.
    Because of wetness and depth to a restrictive layer,           Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
this soil is very limited as a site for septic tank            pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban
absorption fields. It is very limited as a site for            development.
dwellings and for most other urban uses because of                 This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
wetness. It is severely limited as a site for local roads      grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main
and streets because of wetness and frost action.               hazard, and moderately slow and slow permeability in
    The land capability classification is 2w. The              the fragipan and wetness are limitations. During periods
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                              when rainfall is below normal or is poorly distributed,
                                                               drought can damage crops. Existing, well maintained
GdB—Glenville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                        drainage systems will help to overcome wetness. If
  slopes                                                       cultivated crops are grown, a cropping sequence that
                                                               includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, moderately well       system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
drained soil on broad lowlands and in depressions and          on the surface, contour farming, and grassed
drainageways. Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of           waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control
this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in shape,       erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management
and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.                          also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt   content, and to improve soil tilth.
loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is about 30                This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
inches thick. In the upper 9 inches it is yellowish            and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
brown, mottled, friable and firm silt loam. In the next 17     Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
inches it is yellowish brown, mottled, very firm and           can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
brittle silt loam. In the lower 4 inches it is strong brown,   yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
mottled, friable channery loam. The substratum, to a           increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
depth of 60 inches, is strong brown, mottled, very             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
friable channery loam in the upper part and extremely          deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
56                                                                                                             Soil Survey




and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the          within 6 inches of the surface for most of the year.
pasture and the soil in good condition.                         Surface runoff is slow or negligible. The soil is subject
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is             to frequent flooding for brief periods, mainly in winter
moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling             and in early spring. In unlimed areas this soil is very
mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management            strongly acid to neutral in the solum and moderately
concerns. Equipment should be operated only when the            acid or slightly acid in the substratum.
soil is relatively dry or is frozen. Using special planting         Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome                 woodland or are idle land.
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate             This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help            most specialty crops, but it is unsuited to small grain
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is              because of flooding and wetness. Existing, well
practical in large areas.                                       maintained drainage systems will help to overcome
   This soil very limited as a site for septic tank             wetness. A conservation tillage system that leaves
absorption fields because of wetness and depth to a             protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
restrictive layer. It is very limited as a site for dwellings   cover crops, and green manure crops help to maintain
and most other urban uses because of wetness. It is             organic matter content and to improve soil tilth.
very limited as a site for local roads and streets                  This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
because of wetness and frost action.                            grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
   The land capability classification is 2e. The                sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                               causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
                                                                surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
                                                                plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
Hc—Hatboro silt loam                                            grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use
                                                                during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil
    This is a nearly level, very deep, poorly drained soil
                                                                in good condition.
on flood plains. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to
                                                                    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
3 percent slopes. Areas of this soil are long and narrow
                                                                moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in
in shape, and range from 5 to 300 acres in size.
                                                                timber stands. The equipment limitation and windthrow
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, mottled,
                                                                hazard are major management concerns. The high
friable silt loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
                                                                water table restricts use of equipment to midsummer,
layer is light brownish gray, mottled, friable silt loam 6
                                                                when the soil is dry, or to midwinter, when the soil is
inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown and light
                                                                frozen or has an adequate snow cover. Harvest
brownish gray, mottled, friable silt loam about 33
                                                                methods that do not isolate the remaining trees or
inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches,
                                                                leave them widely spaced help to overcome the
is light brownish gray, mottled, friable gravelly silt loam.
                                                                windthrow hazard. Machine planting of trees is practical
In some areas the soil is less than 40 inches deep to
                                                                in large areas.
the stratified substratum. In some areas the surface
                                                                    Flooding and wetness are severe limitations. This
layer is black. In a few areas the soil has more sand
                                                                soil is unsuited as a site for septic tank absorption
and less clay.
                                                                fields and dwellings. It is very limited as a site for local
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
                                                                roads and streets because of wetness and frost action.
scattered areas of moderately well drained Buchanan,
                                                                    The land capability classification is 3w. The
Codorus, and Glenville soils. Buchanan soils are on
                                                                woodland ordination symbol is 3W.
lower benches, on footslopes, and along sides of deep
depressions. Codorus soils are in high swells on
bottom lands. Glenville soils are on broad lowlands             HgB—Highfield channery silt loam, 3 to 8
above the Hatboro soil. These soils are less grayish              percent slopes
throughout than the Hatboro soil. Glenville soils have a
fragipan. Also included are some small areas where a               This is a gently sloping, deep, well drained soil on
few large rock fragments are on the surface and in the          ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of this
soil. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the            soil are irregular in shape, and range from 5 to 500
map unit.                                                       acres in size.
    Permeability of the Hatboro soil is moderate in the            Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable
solum and moderately rapid in the substratum.                   channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
Available water capacity is high, but the water table           about 29 inches thick. In the upper 3 inches it is
restricts rooting depth. The seasonal high water table is       yellowish brown, friable channery silt loam. In the next
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         57




12 inches it is light olive brown, friable channery silt   tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock and
loam. In the lower 14 inches it is light olive brown,      moderate permeability. It is suitable as a site for
friable very channery silt loam. The substratum, to a      dwellings without basements. It is somewhat limited as
depth of 42 inches, is light olive brown, firm very        a site for dwellings with basements because of depth
channery silt loam. Bedrock is at a depth of about 42      to bedrock. The soil is somewhat limited as a site for
inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level or          local roads and streets because of frost action.
strongly sloping or has more clay. In other areas depth       The land capability classification is 2e. The
to bedrock is more than 60 inches. In a few areas base     woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
saturation is lower.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few           HgC—Highfield channery silt loam, 8 to 15
scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained              percent slopes
Catoctin soils on swells above the Highfield soil.
Included soils contain less clay and more rock                 This is a strongly sloping, deep, well drained soil on
fragments than the Highfield soil. Also included are       ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth or
some small areas of moderately well drained Buchanan       convex. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape, and
soils on benches and footslopes and some areas             range from 5 to 300 acres in size.
where a few large rocks or boulders are on the surface         Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, channery
and in the soil. Included soils make up about 10           silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 26
percent of the map unit.                                   inches thick. In the upper 3 inches it is yellowish
    Permeability of the Highfield soil is moderate.        brown, channery silt loam. In the next 12 inches it is
Available water capacity is moderate. Surface              light olive brown, friable channery silt loam. In the lower
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is            14 inches it is light olive brown, friable very channery
very strongly acid or strongly acid in the solum           silt loam. The substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is
and strongly acid to moderately acid in the                light olive brown, firm very channery silt loam. Bedrock
substratum.                                                is at a depth of about 42 inches. In some areas the soil
    Most areas of this soil are used as orchards or        is gently sloping and moderately steep. In some areas
woodland. A few areas are used as cropland or pasture      the soil has more clay. In a few areas depth to bedrock
or are idle land.                                          is more than 60 inches. In a few areas the soil has a
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small      lower base saturation.
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main           Included with this soil in mapping are a few
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping           scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a              Catoctin soils on swells above the Highfield soil.
conservation tillage system that leaves protective         Included soils have less clay and more rock fragments
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,        than the Highfield soil. Also included are some small
contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce      areas of moderately well drained Buchanan soils on
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and     benches and footslopes and areas where a few large
crop residue management also help to control erosion,      rocks or boulders are on the surface and in the soil.
to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil    Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
tilth.                                                     unit.
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses       Permeability of this Highfield soil is moderate.
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.           Available water capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,      medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage       or strongly acid in the solum and strongly acid to
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and     moderately acid in the substratum.
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to             Most areas of this soil are used as orchards or
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely       woodland. A few areas are used as cropland or pasture
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and      or are idle land.
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the             This soil is well suited to most specialty crops (fig.
pasture and the soil in good condition.                    10). It is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is       grain. Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
moderately high. No major hazards or limitations affect    grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
use and management. Machine planting of trees is           legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
practical in large areas.                                  protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
    This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic     diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed
58                                                                                                                 Soil Survey




                 Figure 10.—Highfield channery silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, is well suited to fruit trees.




waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control             HHD—Highfield and Catoctin channery
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management                     silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
content, and to improve soil tilth.                                   This map unit consists of the deep, well drained
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses            Highfield silt loam and the moderately deep, somewhat
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.                   excessively drained Catoctin channery silt loam. These
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,              soils are in moderately steep areas at edges of broad
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage               ridges and hills. They were mapped together because
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and             they are similar in use, management, and slope. The
increased surface runoff. Some suitable management                 unit is about 45 percent Highfield soils, 35 percent
practices are proper stocking rates to maintain key                Catoctin soils, and 20 percent included soils. Slopes
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of               are convex. Areas of these soils are irregular or are
grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use            long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100
during wet periods. These practices help to keep the               acres in size.
pasture and the soil in good condition.                               Typically, the Highfield soil has a surface layer of
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is                dark brown, channery silt loam about 9 inches thick.
moderately high. No major hazards or limitations affect            The subsurface layer is yellowish brown, friable
use and management. Machine planting of trees is                   channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil is
practical in large areas.                                          about 26 inches thick. In the upper 12 inches it is light
   This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic              olive brown, friable channery silt loam. In the lower 14
tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock,                inches it is light olive brown, friable very channery silt
moderate permeability, and slope. It is somewhat                   loam. The substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is light
limited as a site for dwellings without basements and              olive brown, firm very channery silt loam. Bedrock is at
most other urban uses because of slope. The soil is                a depth of about 42 inches. In some areas the soil is
somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with                      strongly sloping or steep or has more clay. In other
basements because of slope and depth to bedrock.                   areas depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. In a
The soil is moderately limited as a site for local roads           few areas base saturation is lower.
and streets because of slope and frost action.                        Typically, the Catoctin soil has a surface layer of
   The land capability classification is 3e. The                   dark brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                                  thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown, friable very
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          59




channery silt loam about 7 inches thick. The                 mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
substratum, to a depth of 24 inches, is brown, friable       concerns on the Catoctin soil. Because of the erosion
extremely channery silt loam. Bedrock is at a depth of       hazard, the grade of logging roads, skid trails, and
24 inches. In some areas the soil is strongly sloping        landings should be gentle and water should be
and steep. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than       removed by water bars, outsloping road surfaces,
20 inches. In a few areas the solum is less than 15          culverts, and drop structures. Ordinary crawler tractors
inches thick.                                                and rubber-tired skidders cannot be operated safely on
    Included with the Highfield and Catoctin soils in        the steeper slopes. When the soils are wet, logging
mapping are some scattered areas where a few large           roads tend to be slippery and ruts form quickly. Harvest
rocks or boulders are on the surface and in the soils,       methods that do not isolate the remaining trees or
some areas where slope is 8 to 15 percent, and               leave them widely spaced help to prevent windthrow.
exposures of sandstone, shale, or limestone bedrock          Some replanting of seedlings may be needed.
in the lower part of draws. Included soils make up              These soils are very limited as a site for septic tank
about 20 percent of the map unit.                            absorption fields and dwellings because of depth to
    Permeability of the Highfield soil is moderate.          bedrock and slope. They are severely limited as a site
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability of        for local roads and streets because of slope.
the Catoctin soil is moderately rapid. Available water          The land capability classification for the Highfield
capacity is low or very low. Surface runoff is high on       and Catoctin soils is 4e. The woodland ordination
the Highfield soil and medium on the Catoctin soil. In       symbol is 4R for the Highfield soil and 3F for the
unlimed areas the Highfield soil is very strongly acid or    Catoctin soil.
strongly acid in the solum and strongly acid to
moderately acid in the substratum. The Catoctin soil is      HKB—Highfield, Catoctin, and Myersville
strongly acid to slightly acid in the solum and                soils, 0 to 8 percent slopes, very stony
moderately acid to neutral in the substratum. Depth to
bedrock restricts root penetration in the Catoctin soil.        This map unit consists of deep, well drained
    Most areas of these soils are used as orchards or        Highfield channery silt loam; moderately deep,
woodland or are idle land. Some areas are used as            somewhat excessively drained Catoctin channery silt
cropland or pasture.                                         loam; and deep, well drained Myersville silt loam.
    These soils are fairly well suited to specialty crops    These nearly level and gently sloping soils are on top
and poorly suited to cultivated crops because of slope.      of broad ridges and hills. They were mapped together
Erosion is a hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A         because they are similar in use, management, and
cropping sequence that includes grasses and legumes,         slope. The map unit is about 40 percent Highfield soils,
a conservation tillage system that leaves protective         30 percent Catoctin soils, 10 percent Myersville soils,
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,          and 20 percent included soils. Slopes are convex.
contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways        Stones cover about 1 to 3 percent of the soil surface.
help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.        They range in size from 1 to more than 3 feet across.
Cover crops and crop residue management also help to         Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and     shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
to improve soil tilth.                                          Typically, Highfield soils have a surface layer of dark
    These soils are well suited to pasture. Growing          brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches thick.
grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.     The subsurface layer is yellowish brown, friable
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil is
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         about 26 inches thick. In the upper 12 inches it is light
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       olive brown, friable channery silt loam. In the lower 14
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           inches it is light olive brown, friable very channery silt
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         loam. The substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is light
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and        olive brown, firm very channery silt loam. Bedrock is at
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           a depth of about 42 inches. In some areas the soils are
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      sloping or steep. In some areas the soils have more
    Potential productivity for trees is moderately high on   clay. In other areas depth to bedrock is less than 40
the Highfield soil. It is moderate on the Catoctin soil      inches.
because of depth to bedrock. The equipment limitation           Typically, Catoctin soils have a surface layer of dark
is the main management concern on the Highfield soil.        brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches thick.
The erosion hazard, the equipment limitation, seedling       The subsoil is yellowish brown, friable very channery
60                                                                                                        Soil Survey




silt loam about 7 inches thick. The substratum, to a         limitation, seedling mortality, and windthrow hazard are
depth of 24 inches, is brown, friable extremely              major management concerns on Catoctin soils. The
channery silt loam. Bedrock is at a depth of 24 inches.      erosion hazard, the equipment limitation, and plant
In some areas the soils are sloping or steep. In some        competition are major management concerns on
areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches. In other      Myersville soils. Because of the erosion hazard, the
areas the solum is less than 15 inches thick.                grade of logging roads, skid trails, and landings should
    Typically, Myersville soils have a surface layer of      be gentle and water should be removed by water bars,
very dark brown, friable silt loam about 3 inches thick.     outsloping road surfaces, culverts, and drop structures.
The subsurface layer is brown, friable silt loam about 6     Ordinary crawler tractors and rubber-tired skidders
inches thick. The subsoil is about 29 inches thick. In       cannot be operated safely on steeper slopes. When the
the upper 5 inches it is yellowish red, friable silty clay   soils are wet, logging roads tend to be slippery and ruts
loam. In the next 13 inches it is yellowish red, friable     form quickly. Harvest methods that do not isolate the
channery silty clay loam. In the lower 11 inches it is       remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help to
yellowish red, friable channery silt loam. The               prevent windthrow. Some seedlings may have to be
substratum, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellowish brown      replanted.
and reddish brown, friable channery loam. Highly                Highfield soils are somewhat limited as a site for
weathered metabasalt bedrock is at a depth of 48             septic tank absorption fields because of depth to
inches. In some areas the soils are sloping or steep. In     bedrock and moderate permeability. They are suitable
some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.          as a site for dwellings without basements. They are
    Included with these soils in mapping are some            somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with
scattered areas where a few large rocks or boulders          basements because of depth to bedrock. Highfield
are on the surface and in the soil and some areas            soils are somewhat limited as a site for local roads and
where slope is greater than 25 percent. Also included        streets because of frost action.
are exposures of sandstone, shale, or limestone                 Catoctin soils are very limited as a site for septic
bedrock in the lower part of draws. Included soils make      tank absorption fields and dwellings with basements
up about 20 percent of the map unit.                         because of depth to bedrock. They are somewhat
    Permeability of Highfield soils is moderate.             limited as a site for dwellings without basements and
Permeability of Myersville soils is moderately rapid in      most other urban uses, including local roads and
the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Available     streets, because of depth to bedrock.
water capacity for Highfield and Myersville soils is            Myersville soils are somewhat limited as a site for
moderate. Permeability of Catoctin soils is moderately       septic tank absorption fields because of moderate
rapid, and available water capacity is low or very low.      permeability and depth to bedrock. They are suitable as
Surface runoff is low on Highfield soils, very low on        a site for dwellings and most other urban uses.
Catoctin soils, and low on Myersville soils. Surface         Myersville soils are very limited as a site for local
runoff is rapid on all these soils. In unlimed areas         roads and streets because of low strength and frost
Highfield soils are very strongly acid or strongly acid in   action.
the solum and strongly acid to moderately acid in the           The land capability classification for Highfield,
substratum. In unlimed areas Catoctin soils are              Catoctin, and Myersville soils is 6s. The woodland
strongly acid to slightly acid in the solum and              ordination symbol is 4R for Highfield soils, 6F for
moderately acid to neutral in the substratum. In             Catoctin soils, and 5F for Myersville soils.
unlimed areas Myersville soils are very strongly acid to
moderately acid. Depth to bedrock restricts root             HKD—Highfield, Catoctin, and Myersville
penetration in Catoctin soils.                                 soils, 8 to 25 percent slopes, very
    Most areas of these soils are used as woodland. A
few areas are used for urban development.
                                                               stony
    These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops and            This map unit consists of deep, well drained
poorly suited to permanent pasture because of the            Highfield channery silt loam; moderately deep,
amount of stones and boulders on the surface. The use        somewhat excessively drained Catoctin channery silt
of most types of farm machinery is impractical.              loam; and deep, well drained Myersville silt loam.
    Potential productivity for trees on Highfield and        These strongly sloping and moderately steep soils are
Myersville soils is moderately high. It is moderate on       on edges of broad ridges and hills. They were mapped
Catoctin soils because of depth to bedrock. The              together because they are similar in use, management,
equipment limitation is the main management concern          and slope. The map unit is about 40 percent Highfield
on Highfield soils. The erosion hazard, the equipment        soils, 30 percent Catoctin soils, 10 percent Myersville
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           61




soils, and 20 percent included soils. Slopes are              and medium on Catoctin soils. In unlimed areas
convex. Stones cover about 1 to 3 percent of the soil         Highfield soils are very strongly acid or strongly acid in
surface. They range in size from 1 to more than 3 feet        the solum and strongly acid to moderately acid in the
across. Areas of these soils are irregular or are long        substratum. In unlimed areas Catoctin soils are
and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in         strongly acid to slightly acid in the solum and
size.                                                         moderately acid to neutral in the substratum. In
    Typically, Highfield soils have a surface layer of dark   unlimed areas Myersville soils are very strongly acid to
brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches thick.       moderately acid. In Catoctin soils depth to bedrock
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown, friable              restricts root penetration.
channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil is          Most areas of these soils are used as woodland. A
about 26 inches thick. In the upper 12 inches it is light     few areas are used for urban development.
olive brown, friable channery silt loam. In the lower 14         These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops and
inches it is light olive brown, friable very channery silt    poorly suited to permanent pasture because of the
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is light       amount of stones and boulders on the surface. Use of
olive brown, firm very channery silt loam. Bedrock is at      most types of farm machinery is impractical.
a depth of about 42 inches. In some areas the soils are          Potential productivity for trees on Highfield and
gently sloping and steep or have more clay. In other          Myersville soils is moderately high. It is moderate on
areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.                Catoctin soils because of depth to bedrock. The
    Typically, Catoctin soils have a surface layer of dark    equipment limitation is the main management concern
brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches thick.       on Highfield soils. The equipment limitation, seedling
The subsoil is yellowish brown, friable very channery         mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
silt loam about 7 inches thick. The substratum, to a          concerns on Catoctin soils. The equipment limitation
depth of 24 inches, is brown, friable extremely               and plant competition are major management concerns
channery silt loam. Bedrock is at a depth of 24 inches.       on Myersville soils. Erosion is a hazard, and grade of
In some areas the soils are sloping or steep. In some         logging roads, skid trails, and landings should be
areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches. In other       gentle and water should be removed by water bars,
areas the solum is less than 15 inches thick.                 outsloping road surfaces, culverts, and drop structures.
    Typically, Myersville soils have a surface layer of       When the soil is wet, logging roads tend to be slippery
very dark brown, friable silt loam about 3 inches thick.      and ruts form quickly. Harvest methods that do not
The subsurface layer is brown, friable silt loam about 6      isolate the remaining trees or leave then widely spaced
inches thick. The subsoil is about 29 inches thick. In        help to prevent windthrow. Some seedlings may be
the upper 5 inches it is yellowish red, friable silty clay    need to be replanted.
loam. In the next 13 inches it is yellowish red, friable         These soils are very limited as a site for septic tank
channery silty clay loam. In the lower 11 inches it is        absorption fields and dwellings with basements
yellowish red, friable channery silt loam. The                because of slope. The soil is very limited as a site for
substratum, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellowish brown       local roads and streets because of slope.
and reddish brown, friable channery loam. Highly                 The land capability classification for Highfield,
weathered metabasalt bedrock is at a depth of 48              Catoctin, and Myersville soils is 7s. The woodland
inches. In some areas the soils are sloping or steep. In      ordination symbol is 4R for Highfield soils, 6F for
some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.           Catoctin soils, and 5F for Myersville soils.
    Included with this soil in mapping are some
scattered areas where a few large rocks or boulders           HMF—Highfield and Catoctin channery
are on the surface and in the soil and some areas               silt loams, 25 to 70 percent slopes, very
where slope is 8 to 15 percent. Also included are
exposures of sandstone, shale, or limestone bedrock
                                                                stony
in the lower part of draws. Included soils make up               This map unit is made up of the deep, well drained
about 20 percent of the map unit.                             Highfield channery silt loam and the moderately deep,
    Permeablility of Highfield soils is moderate.             somewhat excessively drained Catoctin channery silt
Permeability of Myersville soils is moderately rapid in       loam. These steep and very steep soils are on edges
the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Available      of broad ridges and hills. They were mapped together
water capacity of Highfield and Myersville soils is           because they were similar in use, management, and
moderate. Permeability of Catoctin soils is moderately        slope. The map unit is about 55 percent Highfield soil,
rapid, and available water capacity is low or very low.       35 percent Catoctin soil, and 10 percent included soils.
Surface runoff is high on Highfield and Myersville soils      Slopes are convex. Stones cover about 1 to 3 percent
62                                                                                                         Soil Survey




of the soil surface. They range in size from 1 to more        is the main management concern on the Highfield soil.
than 3 feet across. Areas of this soil are irregular or are   The erosion hazard, the equipment limitation, seedling
long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 300             mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
acres in size.                                                concerns on the Catoctin soil. Because of the erosion
    Typically, the Highfield soil has a surface layer of      hazard, the grade of logging roads, skid trails, and
dark brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches         landings should be gentle and water should be
thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown, friable       removed by water bars, outsloping road surfaces,
channery silt loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil is       culverts, and drop structures. Ordinary crawler tractors
about 26 inches thick. In the upper 12 inches it is light     and rubber-tired skidders cannot be operated safely on
olive brown, friable channery silt loam. In the lower 14      the steeper slopes. When the soils are wet, logging
inches it is light olive brown, friable very channery silt    roads tend to be slippery and ruts form quickly. Harvest
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is light       methods that do not isolate the remaining trees or
olive brown, firm very channery silt loam. Bedrock is at      leave them widely spaced help to prevent windthrow.
a depth of about 42 inches. In some areas the soil is         Some seedlings may have to be replanted.
moderately steep. In some areas the soil has more                 These soils are very limited as a site for septic tank
clay. In other areas depth to bedrock is less than 40         absorption fields and dwellings because of slope. The
inches.                                                       soil is very limited as a site for local roads and streets
    Typically, the Catoctin soil has a surface layer of       because of slope.
dark brown, friable channery silt loam about 9 inches             The land capability classification for Highfield and
thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown, friable very           Catoctin soils is 7s. The woodland ordination symbol
channery silt loam about 7 inches thick. The                  is 4R for the Highfield soil and 6F for the Catoctin
substratum, to a depth of 24 inches, is brown, friable        soil.
extremely channery silt loam. Bedrock is at a depth of
24 inches. In some areas the soils are moderately             KnB—Klinesville channery silt loam, 3 to 8
steep. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 20           percent slopes
inches. In other areas the solum is less than 15 inches
thick.                                                            This is a gently sloping, shallow, somewhat
    Included with this soil in mapping are some               excessively drained soil on ridgetops. Slopes are
scattered areas where a few large rocks or boulders           convex. Areas of this soil are long and narrow in
are on the surface and in the soil and some areas             shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
where slope is less than 25 percent. Also included are            Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, very
exposures of sandstone, shale, or limestone bedrock           friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
in the lower part of draws. Included soils make up            subsoil is red, friable very channery silt loam about 6
about 10 percent of the map unit.                             inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 16 inches,
    Permeability of the Highfield soil is moderate, and       is dark red, firm extremely channery silt loam.
available water capacity is moderate. Permeability of         Fractured, weak, red shale bedrock is at a depth of
the Catoctin soil is moderate and moderately rapid, and       about 6 inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level
available water capacity is low or very low. Surface          and strongly sloping. In some areas the solum is less
runoff is high on the Highfield soil and medium on the        than 10 inches. In some areas depth to bedrock is less
Catoctin soil. In unlimed areas the Highfield soil is very    than 16 inches.
strongly acid or strongly acid in the solum and strongly          Included with this soil in mapping are a few
acid to moderately acid in the substratum. The Catoctin       scattered areas of somewhat poorly drained
soil is strongly acid to slightly acid in the solum and       Abbottstown soils on broad ridgetops and a few areas
moderately acid to neutral in the substratum. Depth to        of moderately well drained Reaville soils on knolls and
bedrock restricts root penetration on the Catoctin soil.      sides of draws below Klinesville soil. These soils are
    Most areas of these soils are used as woodland. A         less loamy throughout. Also included are a few small
few areas are used for urban development.                     areas of moderately deep, well drained Brecknock and
    These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops and are      Penn soils on sides of ridges above Klinesville soils.
poorly suited to permanent pasture because of slope           Also included are areas where a few large rock
and the amount of stones and boulders on the surface.         fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
Use of most types of farm machinery is impractical.           soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
    Potential productivity for trees on the Highfield soil        Permeability of the Klinesville soil is moderately
is moderately high. It is moderate on the Catoctin soil       rapid. Available water capacity is very low. Surface
because of depth to bedrock. The equipment limitation         runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            63




strongly acid to moderately acid. Shallow depth to           Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of this soil are
bedrock restricts root penetration.                          long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or           in size.
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban            Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, very
development, or are idle land.                               friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
   This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and    subsoil is red, friable very channery silt loam about 6
small grain. Droughtiness and very low available water       inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 16 inches,
capacity are major limitations. Erosion is the main          is dark red, firm extremely channery silt loam.
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping             Fractured, weak, red shale stone bedrock is at a depth
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                of about 6 inches. In some areas the soil is gently
conservation tillage system that leaves protective           sloping and moderately steep. In some areas the
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,          solum is less than 10 inches thick or depth to bedrock
contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce        is less than 16 inches.
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and           Included with this soil in mapping are a few
crop residue management also help to control erosion,        scattered areas of somewhat poorly drained
to maintain organic matter content, to conserve              Abbottstown soils on broad ridgetops and a few areas
moisture, and to improve soil tilth.                         of moderately well drained Reaville soils on knolls and
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      sides of draws below the Klinesville soil. These soils
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.             are less loamy throughout than the Klinesville soil.
Drought-tolerant species are favorable for planting.         Also included are a few small areas of moderately
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        deep Brecknock and Penn soils on sides of ridges
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         above the Klinesville soil. Also included are areas
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       where a few large rock fragments are on the surface
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           and in the soil. Included soils make up about 15
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         percent of the map unit.
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,       Permeability of the Klinesville soil is moderately
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the       rapid, and available water capacity is very low. Surface
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          strongly acid to moderately acid. Shallow depth to
moderately high. The equipment limitation and seedling       bedrock restricts root penetration.
mortality are major management concerns. When the                Most areas of these soils are used as cropland or
soil is wet, logging roads tend to be slippery and ruts      pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban
form quickly. Use of planting or logging equipment is        development, or are idle land.
limited during wet periods. Thinning or removing                 This soil is fairly well suited to most specialty crops.
undesirable species are suitable management                  It is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of very
practices. Seedlings can survive and grow well if            low available water capacity. Erosion is the main
competing vegetation is controlled and if livestock is       hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
excluded from wooded areas. Machine planting                 sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
generally is practical in large areas.                       conservation tillage system that leaves protective
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank       amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
absorption fields and dwellings with basements               contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways
because of depth to bedrock. It is very limited as a site    help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.
for dwellings without basements because of depth to          Cover crops and crop residue management also help to
bedrock. The soil is very limited as a site for local        control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, to
roads and streets because of depth to bedrock and            conserve moisture, and to improve soil tilth.
frost action.                                                    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
   The land capability classification is 3e. The             and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
woodland ordination symbol is 3D.                            Drought-tolerant species are favorable for planting.
                                                             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
KnC—Klinesville channery silt loam, 8 to                     can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
  15 percent slopes                                          yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
                                                             increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
  This is a strongly sloping, shallow, somewhat              maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
excessively drained soil on ridgetops and side slopes.       deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
64                                                                                                          Soil Survey




and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the        acid to moderately acid. Shallow depth to bedrock
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       restricts root penetration.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is               Most areas of this soil are used as pasture. Some
moderately high. The equipment limitation and                 areas are used as woodland or are idle land.
seedling mortality are major management concerns.                 This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops because of
When the soil is wet, logging roads tend to be                slope, very low available water capacity, and shallow
slippery and ruts form quickly. Use of planting or            depth to bedrock.
logging equipment is limited during wet periods.                  This soil is fairly well suited to pasture. Growing
Thinning or removing undesirable species are                  grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
suitable management practices. Seedlings can                  Drought-tolerant species are favorable for planting.
survive and grow well if competing vegetation is              Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
controlled and if livestock is excluded from wooded           can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
areas. Machine planting generally is practical in large       yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
areas.                                                        increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank        maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
absorption fields and dwellings because of depth to           deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
bedrock and slope. It is very limited as a site for local     and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
roads and streets because of depth to bedrock, slope,         pasture and the soil in good condition.
and frost action.                                                 Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
   The land capability classification is 4e. The              moderately high. The equipment limitation and seedling
woodland ordination symbol is 3D.                             mortality are major management concerns. When the
                                                              soil is wet, logging roads tend to be slippery and ruts
                                                              form quickly. The use of planting or logging equipment
KnD—Klinesville channery silt loam, 15 to                     is limited during wet periods. Thinning or removing
  25 percent slopes                                           undesirable species are suitable management
                                                              practices. Seedlings can survive and grow well if
    This is a moderately steep, shallow, somewhat
                                                              competing vegetation is controlled and if livestock is
excessively drained soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are
                                                              excluded from wooded areas. Machine planting
convex. Areas of this soil are long and narrow in
                                                              generally is practical in large areas.
shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
                                                                  This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
    Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, very
                                                              absorption fields and dwellings because of depth to
friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
                                                              bedrock and slope. The soil is very limited as a site for
subsoil is red, friable very channery silt loam about 6
                                                              local roads and streets because of slope and depth to
inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 16 inches,
                                                              bedrock.
is dark red, firm extremely channery silt loam.
                                                                  The land capability classification is 6e. The
Fractured, weak, red shale bedrock is at a depth of
                                                              woodland ordination symbol is 3D.
about 16 inches. In some areas the soil is strongly
sloping and steep. In some areas the solum is less
than 10 inches thick. In some areas depth to bedrock          KnE—Klinesville channery silt loam, 25 to
is less than 16 inches.                                         40 percent slopes
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few
scattered areas of somewhat poorly drained                        This is a steep, shallow, somewhat excessively
Abbottstown soils on broad ridgetops and a few areas          drained soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are convex.
of moderately well drained Reaville soils on knolls and       Areas of this soil are long and narrow in shape, and
sides of draws below the Klinesville soil. These soils        range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
are less loamy throughout than the Klinesville soil.              Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, very
Also included are a few small areas of moderately             friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick. The
deep Brecknock and Penn soils on sides of ridges              subsoil is red, friable very channery silt loam about 6
above the Klinesville soil and areas where a few large        inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 16 inches,
rock fragments are on the surface and in the soil.            is dark red, firm extremely channery silt loam.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map            Fractured, weak, red shale bedrock is at a depth of
unit.                                                         about 6 inches. In some areas the soil is strongly
    Permeability of the Klinesville soil is moderately        sloping and very steep. In some areas the solum is
rapid, and available water capacity is very low. Surface      less than 10 inches thick. In some areas depth to
runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly   bedrock is less than 16 inches.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            65




   Included with this soil in mapping are a few               flood plains of large streams. Slopes are smooth or
scattered areas of well drained Brecknock and Penn            concave, and range from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this
soils on broad ridgetops and side slopes above the            soil are oval, irregular, or long and narrow in shape, and
Klinesville soil. These soils are less loamy throughout       range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
than the Klinesville soil. Also included are a few small         Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
areas of moderately deep Steinsburg soils on sides of         loam about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
ridges above the Klinesville soil and areas where a few       reddish gray, mottled, friable silt loam 3 inches thick.
large rock fragments are on the surface and in the soil.      The subsoil is about 35 inches thick. In the upper 6
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map            inches it is pinkish gray, mottled, firm silty clay loam.
unit.                                                         In the next 15 inches it is reddish gray, mottled, very
   Permeability of the Klinesville soil is moderately         firm and brittle clay loam. In the lower 14 inches it is
rapid, and available water capacity is very low. Surface      pinkish gray, mottled, firm cobbly loam. The
runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly   substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is stratified sand
acid or moderately acid. Shallow depth to bedrock             and gravel. In some areas the soil is gently sloping. In
restricts root penetration.                                   some areas the soil has more sand and gravel
   Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or            throughout. In some areas the upper part of the
pasture. Some areas are idle land.                            subsoil is brown. In some areas the solum is less
   This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and hay          than 40 inches thick, and in other areas the soil does
crops and is poorly suited to grasses and legumes for         not have a fragipan. In some areas base saturation is
permanent pasture because of slope, low available             high.
water capacity, and shallow depth to bedrock.                    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
Machinery that can be operated on steep and very              scattered areas of well drained Birdsboro soils and
steep slopes should be used during seedbed                    moderately well drained Raritan soils on narrow
preparation. Permanent stands of grasses and legumes          ridgetops above the Lamington soil. Also included are a
help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.         few small areas of somewhat poorly drained
Overgrazing or tramping by livestock when the soil is         Bowmansville soils on narrow bottom lands. Included
wet, however, can damage the sod, reduces plant               soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
density and forage yields, and causes surface                    Permeability of the Lamington soil is moderate in
compaction and poor tilth. Proper seeding rates,              the solum above the fragipan, slow in the fragipan,
pasture rotation, timely grazing, and restricted use          and moderate to rapid in the substratum. Available
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil      water capacity is high. The high water table and the
in good condition.                                            fragipan restrict rooting depth. The seasonal high
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is           water table is within 6 inches of the surface for most of
moderately high. The equipment limitation and                 the year. Surface runoff is very low or negligible. In
seedling mortality are major management concerns.             unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid or strongly
When the soil is wet, logging roads tend to be                acid.
slippery and ruts form quickly. Use of planting or               Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,
logging equipment is limited during wet periods.              pasture, or woodland.
Thinning or removing undesirable species are                     This soil is poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and
suitable management practices. Seedlings can                  most specialty crops because of wetness and ponding.
survive and grow well if competing vegetation is              Existing, well maintained drainage systems with
controlled and if livestock is excluded from wooded           suitable outlets will help to remove excess water. A
areas. Machine planting generally is practical in large       system of conservation tillage that leaves protective
areas.                                                        amounts of crop residue on the surface, cover crops,
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank        and green manure crops help to maintain organic
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and             matter content and to improve soil tilth.
streets because of slope and depth to bedrock.                   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
   The land capability classification is 7e. The              grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
woodland ordination symbol is 3D.                             sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
                                                              causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
Lc—Lamington silt loam                                        surface runoff. Some suitable management practices
                                                              are proper stocking rates to maintain key plant
  This is a nearly level, very deep, poorly drained soil      species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of grazing,
on benches and lowlands and in depressions above              application of fertilizers, and restricted use during wet
66                                                                                                          Soil Survey




periods. These practices help to keep the pasture and        landscape positions similar to those of the Lansdale
the soil in good condition.                                  soil. Included soils make up about 10 percent of the
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          map unit.
moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in           Permeability of the Lansdale soil is moderate in the
timber stands. The equipment limitation, seedling            surface layer, moderate or moderately rapid in the
mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management         subsoil, and moderately rapid in the substratum.
concerns. The high water table restricts use of              Available water capacity is low or moderate. Surface
equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry, or to          runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is very
midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an adequate        strongly acid throughout.
snow cover. Special site preparation, such as bedding            Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
before planting, can reduce the seedling mortality rate.     pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or
Harvest methods that do not isolate the remaining            woodland. A few areas are used for urban
trees or leave them widely spaced help to prevent            development.
windthrow. Seedlings survive and grow well if                    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
competing vegetation is controlled, especially during        grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main
the first few years, and if livestock is excluded from       hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
the wooded areas. Machine planting of trees is               sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
practical in large areas.                                    conservation tillage system that leaves protective
   This soil is unsuited as a site for septic tank           amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
absorption fields and dwellings because of wetness           contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
and depth to a restrictive layer. The soil is very limited   surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
as a site for local roads and streets because of             crop residue management also help to control erosion,
wetness and frost action.                                    to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
   The land capability classification is 4w. The             tilth.
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                                This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
                                                             and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
                                                             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
LeB—Lansdale loam, 3 to 8 percent                            can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
  slopes                                                     yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
                                                             increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
   This is a gently sloping, deep, well drained soil on
                                                             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
broad, undulating uplands and on ridgetops of
                                                             deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
dissected uplands. Slopes are smooth or convex.
                                                             restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in
                                                             pasture and the soil in good condition.
shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
                                                                 Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
   Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable
                                                             moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is about 20
                                                             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is dark yellowish
                                                             in large areas.
brown, friable loam. In the lower 13 inches it is
                                                                 This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
yellowish brown, friable and very friable sandy loam.
                                                             tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock. It
The substratum, to a depth of 47 inches, is yellowish
                                                             is suitable as a site for dwellings without buildings. It is
brown, very friable loamy sand and loose channery
                                                             somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with
loamy sand. Fractured dark grayish brown sandstone is
                                                             basements because of depth to bedrock. It is
at a depth of about 47 inches. In some areas the soil is
                                                             somewhat limited as a site for local roads and streets
nearly level and strongly sloping. In some areas the
                                                             because of frost action.
lower part of the subsoil is dusky red. In a few areas
                                                                 The land capability classification is 2e. The
the surface layer is silt loam.
                                                             woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few
scattered areas of moderately well drained Readington
soils on broad ridgetops and in depressions above the        LfC—Lansdale channery loam, 8 to 15
Lansdale soil. These soils have a redder solum than             percent slopes
the Lansdale soil. Also included are some small areas
of poorly drained Croton soils in depressions on                This is a moderately sloping, deep, well drained soil
lowlands. Also included are extremely channery,              on ridgetops and side slopes of dissected uplands.
somewhat excessively drained Steinsburg soils in             Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of this soil are
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            67




irregular or are long and narrow in shape, and range          moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
from 5 to 50 acres in size.                                   and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable       in large areas.
channery loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is               This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
about 20 inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is dark       tank absorption fields because of slope and depth to
yellowish brown, friable loam. In the lower 13 inches it      bedrock. It is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings
is yellowish brown, friable and very friable sandy loam.      without basements. It is somewhat limited as a site for
The substratum, to a depth of 47 inches, is yellowish         local roads and streets because of slope and frost
brown, very friable loamy sand and loose channery             action. It is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings
loamy sand. Fractured dark grayish brown sandstone is         with basements because of slope and depth to
at a depth of about 47 inches. In some areas the soil is      bedrock.
gently sloping and moderately steep. In some areas                The land capability classification is 3e. The
the lower part of the subsoil is dusky red. In a few          woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
areas the surface layer is silt loam.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few              LgB—Legore channery silt loam, 3 to 8
scattered areas of moderately well drained Readington           percent slopes
soils on broad ridgetops and in depressions above the
Lansdale soil. These soils have a redder solum than              This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
that of the Lansdale soil. Also included are some small       on ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of
areas of extremely channery, somewhat excessively             this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in shape,
drained Steinsburg soils in landscape positions similar       and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
to those of the Lansdale soil. Included soils make up            Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown,
about 10 percent of the map unit.                             very friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.
    Permeability of the Lansdale soil is moderate in the      The subsurface layer is brown, friable silt loam about 2
surface layer, moderate or moderately rapid in the            inches thick. The subsoil is about 20 inches thick. In
subsoil, and moderately rapid in the substratum.              the upper 11 inches it is yellowish red, friable silty clay
Available water capacity is low or moderate. Surface          loam. In the lower 9 inches it is strong brown and
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil has a high       yellowish red, firm silty clay loam. The substratum, to a
level of acidity.                                             depth of 60 inches, is strong brown, firm loam and
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or           sandy loam. In some areas the soil is nearly level and
pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or                   strongly sloping. In some areas the soil has less silt
woodland. A few areas are used for urban development.         and clay or more sand.
    This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is      Included with this soil in mapping are a few
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.        scattered areas of nearly level, somewhat poorly
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are            drained Mount Lucas soils on low rises below the
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and          Legore soil. These soils have gray mottles in the
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves            middle and lower parts of the subsoil. Also included are
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,            some areas where a few large rock fragments are on
diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed       the surface and in the soil and a few small areas where
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control        limestone bedrock crops out. Included soils make up
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management              about 10 percent of the map unit.
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter         Permeability of the Legore soil is moderate or
content, and to improve soil tilth.                           moderately rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.              substratum. Available water capacity is moderate.
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,         Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage          strongly acid or slightly acid in the upper part of the
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and        solum and moderately acid to slightly acid in the
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to            substratum.
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely             Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and         pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or woodland
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the            or are idle land. A few areas are used for urban
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       development.
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is             This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
68                                                                                                         Soil Survey




grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main         Legore soil. These soils have gray mottles in
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping             the middle and lower parts of the subsoil. Also
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                included are some areas where a few large rock
conservation tillage system that leaves protective           fragments are on the surface and in the soil and a few
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,          small areas where limestone bedrock crops out.
contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce        Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and       unit.
crop residue management also help to control erosion,            Permeability of the Legore soil is moderate or
to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil      moderately rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the
tilth.                                                       subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses     substratum. Available water capacity is moderate.
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.             Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        strongly acid to slightly acid in the upper part of the
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         solum and moderately acid or slightly acid in the
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       substratum.
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to               Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or woodland
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and        or are idle land. A few areas are used for urban
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           development.
pasture and soil in good condition.                              This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.
moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use        Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
and management. Machine planting of trees is practical       grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
in large areas.                                              legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
    The soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic        protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
tank absorption fields because of restricted                 diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed
permeability. The soil is very limited as a site for local   waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control
roads and streets because of low strength and frost          erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management
action. The soil is somewhat limited as a site for           also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
dwellings because of shrinking and swelling.                 content, and to improve soil tilth.
    The land capability classification is 2e. The                This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                            and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
                                                             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet,
LgC—Legore channery silt loam, 8 to 15                       however, can damage the sod, reduces plant density
  percent slopes                                             and forage yields, and causes surface compaction,
                                                             poor tilth, and increased surface runoff. Proper
   This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained       stocking rates to maintain key plant species,
soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are convex.        pasture rotation, timely deferment of grazing,
Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in   application of fertilizers, and restricted use during wet
shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.                 periods help to keep the pasture and the soil in good
   Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown,     condition.
very brown channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.              Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
The subsurface layer is brown, silt loam about 2 inches      moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
thick. The subsoil is about 20 inches thick. In the upper    and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
11 inches it is yellowish red, friable silty clay loam. In   in large areas.
the lower 9 inches it is strong brown and yellowish red,         Slope and restricted permeability make this soil
firm silty clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 60        somewhat limited as a site for septic tank absorption
inches is strong brown, firm loam and sandy loam. In         fields. The soil is somewhat limited as a site for
some areas the soil is gently sloping and moderately         dwellings because of slope and shrinking and swelling.
steep. In some areas the soil has less silt and clay or      The soil is very limited as a site for local roads and
more sand.                                                   streets because of low strength, slope, and frost
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few              action.
scattered areas of the nearly level, somewhat poorly             The land capability classification is 3e. The
drained Mount Lucas soils on low rises below the             woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            69




LgD—Legore channery silt loam, 15 to 25                        restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
  percent slopes                                               pasture and the soil in good condition.
                                                                  Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
    This is a moderately steep, very deep, well drained        moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main
soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are convex. Areas of          management concern. Thinning or removing
this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in shape,       undesirable species and constructing roads on the
and range from 5 to 25 acres in size.                          contour to reduce slope are suitable management
    Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish             practices. Machine planting of trees is practical in large
brown, very friable channery silt loam about 8                 areas.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown, friable              Because of slope, this soil is severely limited as a
silt loam about 2 inches thick. The subsoil is about           site for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and
20 inches thick. In the upper 11 inches it is yellowish        local road and streets.
red, friable silty clay loam. In the lower 9 inches               The land capability classification is 4e. The
it is strong brown and yellowish red, firm silty clay          woodland ordination symbol is 4R.
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches,
is strong brown, firm loam and sandy loam. In                  LhA—Lehigh channery silt loam, 0 to 3
some areas the soil is strongly sloping and steep.               percent slopes
In some areas it has less silt and clay or more
sand.                                                              This is a nearly level, deep, somewhat poorly
    Included with this soil in mapping are some areas          drained soil on broad ridgetops and in depressions.
where a few large rock fragments are on the surface            Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of this soil are
and in the soil and a few small areas where limestone          oval or are long and narrow, and range from 5 to 50
bedrock crops out. Included soils make up about 10             acres in size.
percent of the map unit.                                           Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
    Permeability of the Legore soil is moderate or             brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.
moderately rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the         The subsoil is about 22 inches thick. In the upper 6
subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the               inches it is dark grayish brown, friable channery silt
substratum. Available water capacity is moderate.              loam. In the next 7 inches it is dark grayish brown,
Surface runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is          mottled, firm silty clay loam. In the lower 9 inches it is
strongly acid to slightly acid in the upper part of the        dark gray, mottled, firm channery silt loam. In the lower
solum and moderately acid or slightly acid in the              6 inches it is dark gray, mottled, firm channery silt
substratum.                                                    loam. The substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is dark
    Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or             gray and very dark gray, mottled, firm extremely
woodland or are idle land. Some areas are used as              channery silt loam. The very dark gray porcelanite
orchards or cropland.                                          bedrock is at a depth of 42 inches. In some areas the
    This soil is fairly well suited to most specialty crops.   soil is gently sloping. In a few areas the solum is less
It is poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.        than 20 inches thick. In some areas depth to bedrock
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are             is more than 42 inches.
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and               Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves             scattered areas of moderately well drained Reaville
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,             soils and poorly drained Watchung soils in depressions
diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed        and along drainageways of lowlands. Watchung soils
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control         have more clay throughout. Also included are some
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management               areas where a few large rock fragments are on the
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter       surface and in the soil. Included soils make up about
content, and to improve soil tilth.                            15 percent of the map unit.
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses           Permeability of the Lehigh soil is moderate in the
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.               surface layer and slow in the subsoil and the
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,          substratum. Available water capacity is low and
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage           surface runoff is high. The seasonal high water table is
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and         at a depth of 6 to 18 inches. In unlimed areas this soil
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to             is very strongly acid to neutral. The seasonal high
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely           water table restricts root penetration.
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
70                                                                                                         Soil Survey




pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.           loam. In the next 7 inches it is dark grayish brown,
   This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small          mottled, firm silty clay loam. In the lower 9 inches it is
grain, and most specialty crops. The seasonal high            dark gray, mottled, firm channery silt loam. The
water table and depth to bedrock are limitations. During      substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is dark gray and
periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly            very dark gray, mottled, firm extremely channery silt
distributed, drought can damage crops. A well                 loam. The very dark gray porcelanite bedrock is at a
maintained drainage system that is already established        depth of 42 inches. In some areas the soil is nearly
helps to overcome wetness. Leaving stubble on the             level and strongly sloping. In a few areas the solum is
surface and adding other organic material to the soil         less than 20 inches thick. In some areas depth to
help to conserve soil moisture. Crop residue                  bedrock is less than 42 inches.
management, cover crops, and green manure crops                   Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
help to maintain organic matter content and to improve        scattered areas of moderately well drained Reaville
soil tilth.                                                   soils and poorly drained Watchung soils in depressions
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or        and along drainageways on lowlands. Watchung soils
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the         have more clay throughout. Also included are some
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and             areas where a few large rock fragments are on the
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased          surface and in the soil. Included soils make up about
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key         15 percent of the map unit.
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of              Permeability is moderate in the surface layer and
grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use       slow in the subsoil and the substratum. Available water
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil      capacity is low. Surface runoff is very high. The
in good condition.                                            seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is           inches. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling           to neutral. The seasonal high water table restricts root
mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management          penetration.
concerns. Equipment should be operated only when the              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
soil is relatively dry or is frozen. Using special planting   pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome               development.
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate           This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help          grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the major
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is            hazard and depth to bedrock is the major limitation. If
practical in large areas.                                     cultivated crops are grown, a cropping sequence that
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank        includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage
absorption fields because of wetness and restricted           system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
permeability. It is somewhat limited as a site for            on the surface, diversions, contour farming,
dwellings without basements because of wetness. It is         stripcropping (fig. 11), and grassed waterways help to
very limited as a site for dwellings with basements           reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover
because of wetness and depth to bedrock. It is                crops and crop residue management also help to
severely limited as a site for local roads and streets        control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
because of wetness and frost action.                          to improve soil tilth.
   The land capability classification is 2w. The                  This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                             and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
                                                              Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
LhB—Lehigh channery silt loam, 3 to 8                         can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
  percent slopes                                              yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
                                                              increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
   This is a gently sloping, deep, somewhat poorly            maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
drained soil on broad ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or         deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
concave. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and     restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 300 acres in size.       pasture and the soil in good condition.
   Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish              Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.       moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling
The subsoil is about 22 inches thick. In the upper 6          mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
inches it is dark grayish brown, friable channery silt        concerns. Equipment should be operated only when the
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                                      71




Figure 11.—Contour strips help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. The soil is Lehigh channery silt loam, 3 to 8
    percent slopes.



soil is relatively dry or is frozen. Using special planting        inches it is dark grayish brown, friable channery silt
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome                    loam. In the lower 7 inches it is dark grayish brown,
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate            mottled, firm silty clay loam. In the next 9 inches it is
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help               dark gray, mottled, firm channery silt loam. The
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is                 substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is dark gray and
practical in large areas.                                          very dark gray, mottled, firm extremely channery silt
    Because of wetness and restricted permeability, this           loam. The very dark gray porcelanite bedrock is at a
soil is very limited as a site for septic tank absorption          depth of 42 inches. In some areas the soil is gently
fields. It is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings             sloping or moderately steep. In a few areas the solum
without basements because of wetness. It is very                   is less than 20 inches thick. In some areas depth to
limited as a site for dwellings without basements                  bedrock is less than 42 inches.
because of wetness and depth to bedrock. It is very                    Included with this soil in mapping are a few,
limited as a site for local roads and streets because of           small, scattered areas of well drained Brecknock
wetness and frost action.                                          soils on sides of ridges and hills above the Lehigh
    The land capability classification is 2w. The                  soil and poorly drained Watchung soils in depressions
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                                  and along drainageways on lowlands. Watchung
                                                                   soils have more clay throughout than the Lehigh
LhC—Lehigh channery silt loam, 8 to 15                             soil. Also included are some areas where a few large
  percent slopes                                                   rock fragments are on the surface and in the soil.
                                                                   Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
   This is a strongly sloping, deep, somewhat poorly               unit.
drained soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are                  Permeability of the Lehigh soil is moderate in the
smooth or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are          surface layer and slow in the subsoil and substratum.
long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 200                  Available water capacity is low. Surface runoff is very
acres in size.                                                     high. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
   Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish               18 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly
brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.            acid to neutral. The seasonal high water table restricts
The subsoil is about 22 inches thick. In the upper 6               root penetration.
72                                                                                                         Soil Survey




   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or            shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size. Stones
pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or woodland          and boulders cover about 1 to 3 percent of the surface.
or are idle land. A few areas are used for urban              They range in size from 1 to more then 3 feet across.
development.                                                      Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
   This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is    brown, friable channery silt loam about 2 inches thick.
fairly suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.             The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown, channery
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are            silt loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about 22
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and          inches thick. In the upper 6 inches it is dark grayish
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves            brown, friable channery silt loam. In the next 7 inches it
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,            is dark grayish brown, mottled, firm silty clay loam. The
diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed       substratum, to a depth of 42 inches, is dark gray and
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control        very dark gray, mottled, firm extremely channery silt
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management              loam. The very dark gray porcelanite bedrock is at a
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter      depth of 42 inches. In some areas the soil is strongly
content, and to improve soil tilth.                           sloping. In a few areas the solum is less than 20
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses       inches thick. In some areas depth to bedrock is less
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.              than 42 inches.
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,             Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage          scattered areas of moderately well drained Reaville
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and        soils and poorly drained Watchung soils in depressions
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to            and along drainageways on lowlands. Watchung soils
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely          have more clay throughout than the Lehigh soil. Also
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and         included are some areas where a few large rock
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the            fragments are on the surface and in the soil. Included
pasture and the soil in good condition.                       soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is               Permeability of the Lehigh soil is moderate in the
moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling           surface layer and slow in the subsoil and substratum.
mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management          Available water capacity is low. Surface runoff is high.
concerns. Equipment should be operated only when the          The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
soil is relatively dry or is frozen. Using special planting   inches. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome               to neutral. The seasonal high water table restricts root
seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate       penetration.
the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help              Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or are
to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is            idle land.
practical in large areas.                                         This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and poorly
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank        suited to permanent pasture because of large rock
absorption fields because of wetness and restricted           fragments and boulders on the surface and beneath the
permeability. The soil is somewhat limited as a site for      surface.
dwellings without basements because of wetness and                Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
slope. This soil is very limited as a site for dwellings      moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling
with basements because of wetness, depth to bedrock,          mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
and slope. The soil is very limited as a site for local       concerns. Equipment should be operated only when the
roads and streets because of wetness, frost action,           soil is relatively dry or frozen. Using special planting
and slope.                                                    stock and limited overstocking help to overcome
   The land capability classification is 3e. The              seedling mortality. Harvest methods that do not isolate
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                             the remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help
                                                              to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of trees is
LkB—Lehigh channery silt loam, 0 to 8                         practical in large areas.
  percent slopes, very stony                                      Because of wetness and slow permeability, this soil
                                                              is very limited as a site for septic tank absorption
  This is a nearly level and gently sloping, deep,            fields. It is very limited as a site for dwellings with
somewhat poorly drained soil on ridgetops and in              basements because of wetness and depth to bedrock.
depressions. Slopes are smooth, concave, or convex.           It is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings without
Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in    basements because of wetness. It is very limited as a
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                              73




site for local roads and streets because of wetness            surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
and frost action.                                              plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
   The land capability classification is 7s. The               grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                              during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil
                                                               in good condition.
                                                                   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
Lw—Lindside silt loam                                          moderately high. No hazards or limitations affect use
                                                               and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
    This is a nearly level, very deep, moderately well
                                                               in large areas.
drained soil on flood plains. Slopes are smooth and
                                                                   This soil is unsuited as a site for septic tank
range from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this soil are long
                                                               absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and
and narrow, and range from 5 to 400 acres in size.
                                                               streets because of flooding.
    Typically, the surface layer is brown, friable silt loam
                                                                   The land capability classification is 2w. The
about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is about 23 inches
                                                               woodland ordination symbol is 5A.
thick. In the upper 12 inches it is brown, mottled,
friable silt loam. In the lower 11 inches it is brown,
mottled, firm silt loam. The substratum, to a depth of         MdA—Mount Lucas silt loam, 0 to 3
60 inches, is brown, mottled, firm silt loam. In some            percent slopes
areas the soil has more sand and gravel. In some
areas the soil is subject to rare flooding. In some areas          This is a nearly level, deep and very deep,
depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches. In some areas         somewhat poorly drained soil on broad uplands and in
the surface layer is loam, sandy loam, or silty clay           depressions. Slopes are smooth. Areas of this soil are
loam. In other areas it is gravelly. In a few areas the        oval or are long and narrow, and range from 5 to 100
upper part of the solum is grayish brown.                      acres in size.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,           Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
scattered areas of somewhat poorly drained Penlaw              loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is about 29
soils on the lower lying rises below the Lindside soil         inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is brown, mottled,
and a few narrow, elongated areas of poorly drained            friable silty clay loam. In the next 15 inches it is
Dunning soils in shallow swales and in drainageways            yellowish brown, mottled, firm channery clay loam. In
below the Lindside soil. Included soils make up about          the lower 6 inches it is brown, mottled, firm channery
10 percent of the map unit.                                    clay loam. The substratum is brown, mottled, firm
    Permeability of the Lindside soil is moderate in the       channery loam and sandy loam to a depth of 44 inches
surface layer, moderate or moderately slow in the              and yellowish brown, firm sandy loam to a depth of 60
subsoil, and moderately slow to moderately rapid in the        inches. In some areas the soil is gently sloping. In
substratum. Available water capacity is high or very           some areas the solum is less than 30 inches thick. In
high. Surface runoff is low. This soil is subject to           some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.
occasional flooding for brief periods, mainly in late              Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
winter and early spring. In unlimed areas this soil is         scattered areas of very deep, well drained Legore and
strongly acid to slightly alkaline in the solum and            Neshaminy soils on narrow, elongated ridges and on
moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the substratum.        sides of ridges above the Mount Lucas soil and a few
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or            areas of very deep, poorly drained Watchung soils in
pasture. Some small areas are used as woodland or              swales and drainageways below the Mount Lucas soil.
are idle land.                                                 Also included are some small areas where many
    This soil is well suited to corn and soybeans.             stones and boulders are on the surface and in the soil.
Because of flooding, this soil is fairly well suited to        Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
small grain. However, floodwater may cause severe              unit.
crop damage in early spring. Dikes and levees can be               Permeability of the Mount Lucas soil is moderate in
used in large areas to help overcome flooding. Crops           the surface layer, slow or moderately slow in the
residue management, cover crops, and green manure              subsoil, and slow to moderately rapid in the
crops help to maintain organic matter content and to           substratum. Available water capacity is moderate or
improve soil tilth.                                            high. Surface runoff is very high. The seasonal high
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or        water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches. In unlimed
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the          areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid in the
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and              upper part of the solum, strongly acid to neutral in the
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased           lower part, and moderately acid to neutral in the
74                                                                                                         Soil Survey




substratum. The seasonal high water table restricts           inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is brown, mottled,
root penetration.                                             friable silty clay loam. In the next 15 inches it is
   Most areas of this soil are used as pasture. Some          yellowish brown, mottled, firm channery clay loam. In
areas are used as cropland or woodland or are idle            the lower 6 inches it is brown, mottled, firm channery
land. A few areas are used for urban development.             clay loam. The substratum is brown, mottled, firm
   This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small          channery loam and sandy loam to a depth of 44 inches
grain, and most specialty crops. The main limitation is       and yellowish brown, firm sandy loam to a depth of 60
the seasonal high water table. During periods when            inches. Some areas are nearly level and strongly
rainfall is below normal or is poorly distributed, drought    sloping. In some areas the solum is less than 30
can damage crops. A well maintained drainage system           inches thick. In some areas depth to bedrock is less
that is already established will help to overcome             than 40 inches.
wetness. Leaving stubble on the surface and adding                Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
other organic material help to conserve soil moisture.        scattered areas of very deep, well drained Legore and
Crop residue management, cover crops, and green               Neshaminy soils on narrow, elongated ridges and on
manure crops help to maintain organic matter content          sides of ridges above the Mount Lucas soil and a few
and to improve soil tilth.                                    areas of very deep, poorly drained Watchung soils in
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or        swales and drainageways below the Mount Lucas soil.
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the         Also included are some small areas where many
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and             stones and boulders are on the surface and in the soil.
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased          Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key         unit.
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of              Permeability of the Mount Lucas soil is moderate in
grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use       the surface layer, slow or moderately slow in the
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil      subsoil, and slow to moderately rapid in the
in good condition.                                            substratum. Available water capacity is moderate or
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is           high. Surface runoff is very high. The seasonal high
moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in        water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches. In unlimed
timber stands. The equipment limitation is the main           areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid in the
management concern. The high water table restricts            upper part of the solum, strongly acid to neutral in the
use of equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry,          lower part, and moderately acid to neutral in the
or to midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an            substratum. The seasonal high water table restricts
adequate snow cover. Machine planting of trees is             root penetration.
practical in large areas.                                         Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank        pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban
absorption fields because of wetness and slow or              development.
moderately slow permeability. The soil is very limited            This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
as a site for dwellings and most other urban uses             grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the major
because of wetness. The soil is very limited as a site        hazard and the seasonal high water table is the main
for local roads and streets because of wetness and            limitation if cultivated crops are grown. Existing, well
frost action.                                                 maintained drainage systems help to overcome
   The land capability classification is 2w. The              wetness. A cropping sequence that includes grasses
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                             and legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
                                                              protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
MdB—Mount Lucas silt loam, 3 to 8                             diversions, contour farming, and grassed waterways
  percent slopes                                              help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.
                                                              Cover crops and crop residue management also help to
   This is a gently sloping, deep and very deep,              control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
somewhat poorly drained soil on broad uplands, in             to improve soil tilth.
benches, and in depressions. Slopes are smooth or                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
concave. Areas of this soil are irregular, oval, or long      and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in         Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
size.                                                         can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
   Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt   yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is about 29            increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           75




maintain key plant species, pasture rotation,                  boulders are on the surface and in the soil. Included
timely deferment of grazing, application of                    soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.
fertilizers, and restricted use during wet periods                Permeability of the Mount Lucas soil is moderate in
help to keep the pasture and the soil in good                  the surface layer, slow or moderately slow in the
condition.                                                     subsoil, and slow to moderately rapid in the
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is            substratum. Available water capacity is moderate or
moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in         high. Surface runoff is very high. The seasonal high
timber stands. The equipment limitation is the main            water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches. In unlimed
management concern. The high water table restricts             areas this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid in the
use of equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry,           upper part of the solum, strongly acid to neutral in the
or to midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an             lower part, and moderately acid to neutral in the
adequate snow cover. Machine planting of trees is              substratum. The seasonal high water table restricts
practical in large areas.                                      root penetration.
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank            Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or are
absorption fields because of wetness and slow or               idle land.
moderately slow permeability. The soil is very limited            This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and poorly
as a site for dwellings and most other urban uses              suited to permanent pasture because of the amount of
because of wetness. The soil is very limited as a site         stones and boulders on or beneath the surface.
for local roads and streets because of wetness and                Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
frost action.                                                  moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in
   The land capability classification is 2e. The               timber stands. The equipment limitation is the main
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                              management concern. The high water table restricts
                                                               use of equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry,
                                                               or to midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an
MeB—Mount Lucas silt loam, 0 to 8                              adequate snow cover. Machine planting of trees is
  percent slopes, very bouldery                                practical in large areas.
                                                                  This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
    This is a nearly level and gently sloping, deep and
                                                               absorption fields because of wetness and slow
very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil on broad
                                                               permeability. It is very limited as a site for dwellings
uplands and in depressions. Slopes are smooth or
                                                               and most other urban uses because of wetness. It is
concave. Areas of this soil are irregular, oval, or long
                                                               very limited as a site for local roads and streets
and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in
                                                               because of wetness and frost action.
size. Stones and boulders cover about 1 to 3 percent
                                                                  The land capability classification is 6s. The
of the surface. They range in size from 10 inches to
                                                               woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
more than 6 feet.
    Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable silt
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is about 29             MOB—Mt. Airy and Manor channery
inches thick. In the upper 8 inches it is brown, mottled,        loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes
friable silty clay loam. In the next 15 inches it is
yellowish brown, mottled, firm channery clay loam. In              This map unit consists of the moderately deep,
the lower 6 inches it is brown, mottled, firm channery         somewhat excessively drained Mt. Airy channery silt
clay loam. The substratum is brown, mottled, firm              loam and the very deep, somewhat excessively
channery loam and sandy loam to a depth of 44 inches           drained Manor channery loam. These gently sloping
and yellowish brown, firm sandy loam to a depth of 60          soils are on ridgetops. They were mapped together
inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level and             because they are similar in use, management, and
strongly sloping. In some areas the solum is less than         slope. The map unit is about 55 percent Mt. Airy soil,
30 inches thick. In some areas depth to bedrock is             30 percent Manor soil, and 15 percent included soils.
less than 40 inches.                                           Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of these soils are
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,       irregular or are long and narrow in shape, and range
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Neshaminy           from 5 to 100 acres in size.
soils on narrow, elongated ridges and on sides of                  Typically, the Mt. Airy soil has a surface layer of
ridges above the Mount Lucas soil and a few areas of           dark brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches
very deep, poorly drained Watchung soils in swales and         thick. The subsoil is about 12 inches thick. In the upper
drainageways below the Mount Lucas soil. Also                  7 inches it is yellowish brown, friable channery silt
included are some small areas where many stones and            loam. In the lower 5 inches it is strong brown, friable
76                                                                                                       Soil Survey




very channery silt loam. The substratum, to a depth of      crops and crop residue management also help to
32 inches, is brown and yellowish brown, very firm,         control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
micaceous extremely channery loam. Fractured schist         to improve soil tilth.
bedrock is at a depth of about 32 inches. In some               These soils are well suited to pasture. Growing
areas the soil is nearly level or strongly sloping. In      grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
some areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches.         Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
    Typically, the Manor soil has a surface layer of dark   can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
brown, very friable channery loam about 8 inches thick.     yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
The subsoil is about 16 inches thick. In the upper 10       increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
inches it is strong brown, very friable channery silt       maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
loam. In the lower 6 inches it is reddish yellow, very      deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
friable channery loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60     and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
inches, is reddish yellow, very friable, very micaceous     pasture and the soil in good condition.
channery loam. In some areas the soil is nearly level           Potential productivity for trees on these soils is
and strongly sloping. In some areas depth to bedrock        moderately high. The main management concern is
is less than 60 inches. In a few areas the surface layer    seedling mortality. The use of special planting stock
is very channery or extremely channery.                     and harvest methods that leave some mature trees to
    Included with these soils in mapping are a few          provide shade and protection will help to reduce
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Edgemont         seeding mortality. Machine planting of trees is practical
soils and deep Glenelg soils on undulating ridgetops        in large areas.
and side slopes above Mt. Airy and Manor soils and a            The Mt. Airy soil is very limited as a site for septic
few areas of very deep, moderately well drained             tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock.
Glenville soils in shallow depressions and along            The Manor soil is not limited as a site for septic tank
drainageways. These soils have fewer rock fragments         absorption fields. These soils are both suitable as a
and sand throughout. Glenville soils have a fragipan;       site for dwellings without basements. The Mt. Airy soil
these soils are grayish in the lower part of the subsoil.   is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with
Also included are some small areas where many               basements because of depth to bedrock. The Manor
stones and boulders are on the surface and in the soil.     soil is not limited as a site for dwellings with
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map          basements. These soils are both somewhat limited as
unit.                                                       a site for local roads and streets because of frost
    Permeability of the Mt. Airy soil is moderate in the    action.
surface layer and moderate or moderately rapid in the           The land capability classification is 3e for the Mt.
solum and substratum. Permeability of the Manor soil        Airy soil and 2e for the Manor soil. The woodland
is moderate in the surface layer and solum and              ordination symbol is 3F for the Mt. Airy soil and 4A for
moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum. On          the Manor soil.
both soils available water capacity is low. Surface
runoff is high for the Mt. Airy soil and medium for the     MOC—Mt. Airy and Manor channery
Manor soil. In unlimed areas the Mt. Airy soil is very        loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes
strongly acid or strongly acid. The Manor soil is
extremely acid to moderately acid. On the Mt. Airy soil        This map unit consists of the moderately deep,
depth to bedrock restricts root penetration.                somewhat excessively drained Mt. Airy channery silt
    Most areas of the Mt. Airy and Manor soils are used     loam and the very deep, somewhat excessively
as cropland, pasture, or woodland. Some areas are           drained Manor channery loam. These strongly sloping
used for urban development or are idle land.                soils are on broad ridgetops and side slopes. They
    These soils are well suited to most specialty crops.    were mapped together because of similarities in use,
They are fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small    management, and slope. The map unit is about 55
grain. Erosion is the main hazard, and low available        percent Mt. Airy soil, 30 percent Manor soil, and 15
water capacity during periods of low rainfall is a          percent included soils. Slopes are smooth or convex.
limitation. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping       Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a               shape, and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
conservation tillage system that leaves protective             Typically, the Mt. Airy soil has a surface layer of
amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour             dark brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches
farming, terraces, and grassed waterways helps to           thick. The subsoil is about 12 inches thick. In the upper
control surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover        7 inches it is yellowish brown, friable channery silt
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          77




loam. In the lower 5 inches it is strong brown, friable     protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
very channery silt loam. The substratum, to a depth of      contour farming, terraces, stripcropping (fig. 12), and
32 inches, is brown and yellowish brown, very firm          grassed waterways. Cover crops and crop residue
extremely channery micaceous loam. Fractured schist         management also help to control erosion, to maintain
bedrock is at a depth of about 32 inches. In some           organic matter content, and to improve soil tilth.
areas the soils are gently sloping or moderately steep.         These soils are well suited to pasture. Growing
In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches.      grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
    Typically, the Manor soil has a surface layer of dark   Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
brown, very friable channery loam about 8 inches thick.     can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
The subsoil is about 16 inches thick. In the upper 10       yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
inches it is strong brown, very friable channery silt       increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
loam. In the lower 6 inches it is reddish yellow, very      maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
friable channery loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60     deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
inches, is reddish yellow, very friable, very micaceous     and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
channery loam. In some areas the soils are gently           pasture and the soil in good condition.
sloping or moderately steep. In some areas depth to             Potential productivity for trees on these soils is
bedrock is less than 60 inches. In a few areas the          moderately high. Seedling mortality is the main
surface layer is very channery or extremely channery.       management concern. The use of special planting
    Included with these soils in mapping are a few          stock and harvest methods that leave some mature
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Edgemont         trees to provide shade and protection will help to
soils and deep Glenelg soils on undulating ridgetops        reduce the seeding mortality rate. Machine planting of
and side slopes above the Mt. Airy and Manor soils          trees is practical in large areas.
and a few areas of very deep, moderately well drained           Because of depth to bedrock and slope, the Mt. Airy
Glenville soils in shallow depressions and along            soil is very limited as a site for septic tank absorption
drainageways. These soils have fewer rock fragments         fields. The Manor soil is somewhat limited as a site for
and less sand throughout than the Mt. Airy and Manor        septic tank absorption fields because of slope. These
soils. Glenville soils have a fragipan. They are grayish    soils are both somewhat limited as a site for dwellings
in the lower part of the subsoil. Also included are some    without basements because of slope. They are
small areas where many stones and boulders are on           somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with
the surface and in the soil. Included soils make up         basements and most other urban uses because of
about 15 percent of the map unit.                           depth to bedrock and slope. These soils are somewhat
    Permeability of the Mt. Airy soil is moderate in the    limited as a site for local roads and streets because of
surface layer and moderate or moderately rapid in the       slope and frost action.
subsoil and substratum. Permeability of the Manor soil          The land capability classification is 4e for the Mt.
is moderate in the surface layer and solum and              Airy soil and 3e for the Manor soil. The woodland
moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum.             ordination symbol is 3F for the Mt. Airy soil and 4A for
Available water capacity is low on both Mt. Airy and        the Manor soil.
Manor soils. Surface runoff is high on the Mt. Airy soil
and medium on the Manor soil. In unlimed areas the          MOD—Mt. Airy and Manor channery
Mt. Airy soil is very strongly acid or strongly acid. In      loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes
unlimed areas the Manor soil is extremely acid to
moderately acid. On the Mt. Airy soil depth to bedrock          This map unit consists of the moderately deep,
restricts root penetration.                                 somewhat excessively drained Mt. Airy channery silt
    Most areas of the Mt. Airy and Manor soils are used     loam and the very deep, somewhat excessively
as cropland, pasture, or woodland. Some areas are           drained Manor channery loam. These moderately steep
used for urban development or are idle land.                soils are on ridges and hills. They were mapped
    These soils are fairly well suited to most specialty    together because of similarities in use, management,
crops. They are fairly well suited to corn, soybeans,       and slope. The map unit is about 60 percent Mt. Airy
and small grain. Erosion is the main hazard and the low     soil, 25 percent Manor soil, and 15 percent included
available water during periods of low rainfall is a         soils. Slopes are convex. Areas of these soils are
limitation. Measures that control surface runoff are        irregular or are long and narrow in shape, and range
needed in cultivated areas. Some examples of these          from 5 to 300 acres in size.
measures are cropping sequences that include grasses            Typically, the Mt. Airy soil is a surface layer of dark
and legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves      brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.
78                                                                                                               Soil Survey




Figure 12.—Contour stripcropping helps to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. The soils are Mt. Airy and Manor
    channery loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes.



The subsoil is 12 inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it          solum and substratum. Permeability of the Manor
is yellowish brown, friable channery silt loam. In the            soil is moderate in the surface layer and solum
lower 5 inches it is strong brown, friable very channery          and moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum.
silt loam. The substratum, to a depth of 32 inches, is            On both soils available water capacity is low and
brown and yellowish brown, very firm extremely                    surface runoff is high. In unlimed areas the Mt. Airy soil
channery micaceous loam. Fractured schist bedrock is              is very strongly acid or strongly acid. In unlimed areas
at a depth of about 32 inches. In some areas the soil is          the Manor soil is extremely acid to moderately acid.
strongly sloping and steep. In some areas depth to                Depth to bedrock in the Mt. Airy soil restricts root
bedrock is less than 20 inches.                                   penetration.
    Typically, the Manor soil has a surface layer of dark            Most areas of the Mt. Airy and Manor soils are used
brown, very friable channery loam about 8 inches thick.           as pasture or woodland or are idle land. A few areas
The subsoil is 16 inches thick. In the upper 10 inches it         are used as cropland or for urban development.
is strong brown, very friable channery silt loam. In the             These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops and
lower 6 inches it is reddish yellow, very friable                 poorly suited to most specialty crops because of slope
channery loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60                   and low available water capacity.
inches, is reddish yellow, very friable, very micaceous              These soils are fairly well suited to pasture. Growing
channery loam. In some areas the soil is strongly                 grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
sloping and steep. In some areas depth to bedrock is              Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
less than 60 inches. In a few areas the surface layer is          can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
very channery or extremely channery.                              yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
    Included with these soils in mapping are a few                increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Edgemont               maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
and Glenelg soils on undulating ridgetops and side                deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
slopes above the Mt. Airy and Manor soils and a few               and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
areas of very deep, moderately well drained Glenville             pasture and the soil in good condition.
soils in shallow depressions and along drainageways.                 Potential productivity for trees on these soils is
These soils have fewer rock fragments and less sand               moderately high. The erosion hazard, equipment
throughout than the Mt. Airy and Manor soils. Glenville           limitation, and seedling mortality are major
soils have a fragipan, and they are grayish in the lower          management concerns. When the soils are wet, logging
part of the subsoil. Also included are some small areas           roads tend to be slippery and ruts form quickly. Use of
where many stones and boulders are on the surface                 planting or logging equipment is limited during wet
and in the soil. Included soils make up about 15                  periods. Use of special planting stock and harvest
percent of the map unit.                                          methods that leave some mature trees to provide
    Permeability of the Mt. Airy soil is moderate in the          shade and protection will help to overcome seeding
surface layer and moderate or moderately rapid in the             mortality. Thinning or removing undesirable species are
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           79




suitable management practices. Machine planting of            contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
trees is generally practical in large areas.                  surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
   These soils are very limited as a site for septic tank     crop residue management also help to control erosion,
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and             to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
streets because of slope.                                     tilth. Subsurface tile is needed for seepy areas in some
   The land capability classification is 6e for the Mt.       drainageways.
Airy soil and 4e for the Manor soil. The woodland                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
ordination symbol is 3F for the Mt. Airy soil and 4R for      and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
the Manor soil.                                               Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
                                                              can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
                                                              yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
MtB—Mt. Zion gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8                       increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
  percent slopes                                              maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
                                                              deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, moderately well
                                                              restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
drained soil on footslopes. Slopes are smooth or
                                                              pasture and the soil in good condition.
concave. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
                                                                  Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.
range from 10 to 80 acres in size.
                                                              No hazards or limitations affect use and management.
    Typically, the surface layer is very friable, very dark
                                                              Machine planting of trees is practical in large areas.
grayish brown gravelly silt loam and dark brown silt
                                                                  This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about 63
                                                              absorption fields because of wetness and slow
inches thick. In the upper 6 inches it is dark yellowish
                                                              permeability. It is somewhat limited as a site for
brown, friable gravelly silt loam. In the next 7 inches
                                                              dwellings because of wetness and shrinking and
it is dark yellowish brown, friable loam in the upper
                                                              swelling. It is somewhat limited as a site for local roads
part and yellowish red, mottled, firm gravelly silt
                                                              and streets because of shrinking and swelling, and
loam in the lower part. In the lower 21 inches, to a
                                                              frost action.
depth of 69 inches, it is strong brown, mottled, firm
                                                                  The land capability classification is 2e. The
very channery loam. In some areas the soil is nearly
                                                              woodland ordination symbol is 5A.
level or strongly sloping. In a few areas the soil has a
fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than
60 inches.                                                    MtC—Mt. Zion gravelly silty loam, 8 to 15
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,        percent slopes
scattered areas of well drained Ravenrock, Catoctin,
Highfield, and Myersville soils on the steeper side              This is a strongly sloping, very deep, moderately
slopes. Also included are some small areas of                 well drained soil on footslopes. Slopes are smooth or
somewhat poorly drained Rohrersville soils in the more        concave. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape, and
concave areas. Included soils make up about 15                range from 10 to 80 acres in size.
percent of the map unit.                                         Typically, the surface layer is very friable, very dark
    Permeability of the Mt. Zion soil is moderate in the      grayish brown gravelly silt loam and dark brown silt
upper part of the solum and slow or moderate in the           loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about 63
lower part. Available water capacity is high and surface      inches thick. In the upper 6 inches it is dark yellowish
runoff is medium. The seasonal high water table is at a       brown, friable gravelly silt loam. In the next 7 inches it
depth of 36 to 48 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is       is dark yellowish brown, friable loam. In the next 29
strongly acid to slightly acid.                               inches it is yellowish red, friable gravelly loam in the
    Most areas of this soil are used as hayland,              upper part and yellowish red, mottled, firm gravelly silt
pasture, or woodland. Some areas are used for urban           loam in the lower part. In the lower 21 inches, to a
development or are idle land.                                 depth of 69 inches, it is strong brown, mottled, firm
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, and small     very channery loam. In some areas the soil is steep. In
grain. Erosion is the major hazard, and the seasonal          a few areas it has a fragipan. In some areas depth to
high water table is the major limitation. Existing, well      bedrock is less than 60 inches.
maintained drainage systems help to overcome                     Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
wetness. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping            scattered areas of well drained Ravenrock, Catoctin,
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                 Highfield, and Myersville soils on the steeper side
conservation tillage system that leaves protective            slopes. Also included are some small areas of
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,           somewhat poorly drained Rohrersville soils in the more
80                                                                                                       Soil Survey




concave areas. Included soils make up about 15               concave. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape, and
percent of the map unit.                                     range from 5 to 80 acres in size.
    Permeability of the Mt. Zion soil is moderate in the         Typically, the surface layer is very friable, very
upper part of the solum and slow or moderate in the          dark grayish brown gravelly silt loam and dark brown
lower part. Available water capacity is high, and            silt loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about
surface runoff is medium. The seasonal high water            63 inches thick. In the upper 6 inches it is dark
table is at a depth of 36 to 48 inches. In unlimed areas     yellowish brown, friable gravelly silt loam. In the next
this soil is strongly acid to slightly acid.                 7 inches it is dark yellowish brown, friable loam. In
    Most areas of this soil are used as hayland,             the next 29 inches it is yellowish red, friable gravelly
pasture, or woodland. A few areas are urban or idle.         loam in the upper part and yellowish red, mottled,
    This soil is suited to corn, soybeans, and small         firm gravelly silt loam in the lower part. In the lower
grain. Erosion is the major hazard, and the seasonal         21 inches, to a depth of 69 inches, it is strong
high water table is the major limitation. Drainage           brown, mottled, firm very channery loam. In some
systems that are well maintained can help to overcome        areas the soil is nearly level to strongly sloping. In
wetness. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping           some areas depth to bedrock is less than 60
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                inches.
conservation tillage system that leaves protective               Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,          scattered areas of well drained Ravenrock, Catoctin,
contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce        Highfield, and Myersville soils on the steeper side
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and       slopes. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the
crop residue management also help to control erosion,        map unit.
to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil          Permeability of the Mt. Zion soil is moderate
tilth. Subsurface tile is needed for seepy areas in some     in the upper part of the solum and slow or
drainageways.                                                moderate in the lower part. Available water
    This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses     capacity is high, and surface runoff is high.
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.             The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 36
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        to 48 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is strongly
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         acid to slightly acid.
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and           Most areas of this soil are used as hayland,
increased surface runoff. Some suitable management           pasture, or woodland.
practices are proper stocking rates to maintain key              This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing
plant species, pasture fertilizers, and restricted use       grasses and legumes is effective in controlling
during wet periods. These practices help to keep the         erosion. Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      wet, however, can damage the sod, reduces plant
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.   density and forage yields, and causes runoff.
No hazards or limitations affect use and management.         Proper stocking rates to maintain key plant
Machine planting of trees is practical in large areas.       species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank      grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted
absorption fields because of wetness and slow                use during wet periods help to keep the
permeability. It is somewhat limited as a site for           pasture and the soil in good condition.
dwellings without basements because of shrinking and             Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
swelling, and slope. It is somewhat limited as a site for    high. The main management concern is the
dwellings with basements because of wetness and              equipment limitation. Operating ordinary
slope. It is somewhat limited as a site for local roads      crawler tractors and rubber-tired skidders
and streets because of slope, shrinking and swelling,        can be hazardous because of slope. Slope, and
and frost action.                                            stones and boulders restrict machine planting
    The land capability classification is 3e. The            of trees. Disturbing the ground cover as little as
woodland ordination symbol is 5A.                            possible when trees are harvested helps to control
                                                             erosion.
MtD—Mt. Zion gravelly silt loam, 15 to 25                        This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
  percent slopes                                             absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and
                                                             streets because of slope.
  This is a moderately steep, very deep, moderately              The land capability classification is 4e. The
well drained soil on footslopes. Slopes are smooth or        woodland ordination symbol is 5R.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                              81




MyB—Myersville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                          This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
  slopes                                                       grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
                                                               sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
    This is a gently sloping, deep, well drained soil on       causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
ridgetops. Slopes are smooth, concave, or convex.              surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
Areas of this soil are irregular or long in shape, and         plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
range from 5 to 100 acres in size.                             grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
    Typically, the surface layer is brown, friable silt loam   restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 29 inches           pasture and the soil in good condition.
thick. In the upper 5 inches it is yellowish red, friable         Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
silty clay loam. In the next 13 inches it is yellowish red     moderately high. Thinning or removing undesirable
and red, friable channery silty clay loam. In the lower        species and constructing roads on the contour to
11 inches it is yellowish red, friable channery silt loam.     reduce slope are suitable management practices.
The substratum, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellowish          Seedlings survive and grow well if competing
brown and reddish brown, friable channery loam. Highly         vegetation is controlled, especially during the first few
weathered bedrock extends from a depth of 48 to 60             years, and if livestock is excluded from wooded areas.
inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level and             Machine planting of trees is practical in large areas.
strongly sloping. In some areas the subsoil has less              This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic
clay. In a few areas the soil has a lower base                 tank absorption fields because of moderate
saturation. In some areas the surface layer is gravelly        permeability and depth to bedrock. It is suited as a site
silt loam and channery loam, and in other areas it is          for dwellings and most other urban uses. It is very
channery or stony.                                             limited as a site for local roads and streets because of
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,       low strength and frost action.
scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained                   The land capability classification is 2e. The
Catoctin soils on sides of steep hills and ridges and          woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
moderately well drained Buchanan soils on the lower
rises and the broader ridgetops below the Myersville           MyC—Myersville silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
soil. Catoctin soils have more rock fragments and sand           slopes
throughout than the Myersville soil. Buchanan soils
have gray mottles in the lower part of the subsoil and             This is a strongly sloping, deep, well drained soil on
have a fragipan. Also included are a few small areas of        ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth,
poorly drained Baile soils along narrow drainageways.          concave, or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or
Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map             long in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
unit.                                                              Typically, the surface layer is brown, friable silt loam
    Permeability of the Myersville soil is moderately          about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 29 inches
rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil         thick. In the upper 5 inches it is yellowish red, friable
and substratum. Available water capacity is moderate.          silty clay loam. In the next 13 inches it is yellowish red
Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas the soil is         and red, friable channery silty clay loam. In the lower
very strongly acid to moderately acid.                         11 inches it is yellowish red, friable channery silt loam.
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or            The substratum, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellowish
orchards. Some areas are used as woodland or pasture           brown and reddish brown, friable channery loam. Highly
or are idle land. A few areas are used for urban               weathered bedrock extends from a depth of 48 to 60
development.                                                   inches. In some areas the soil is gently sloping and
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small          moderately steep. In some areas the soil has less clay
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main           in the subsoil. In a few areas base saturation is lower.
hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping               In some areas the surface layer is gravelly silt loam
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                  and gravelly loam, and in other areas it is channery or
conservation tillage system that leaves protective             stony.
amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,                Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce          scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained
surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and         Catoctin soils on sides of steep hills and ridges and
crop residue management also help to control erosion,          moderately well drained Buchanan soils on the lower
to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil        rises and the broader ridgetops below the Myersville
tilth.                                                         soil. Catoctin soils have more rock fragments and sand
82                                                                                                          Soil Survey




throughout than the Myersville soil. Buchanan soils          MyD—Myersville silt loam, 15 to 25
have gray mottles in the lower part of the subsoil and         percent slopes
have a fragipan. Also included are a few small areas of
poorly drained Baile soils along narrow drainageways.            This is a moderately steep, deep, well drained soil
Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map           on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth,
unit.                                                        concave, or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or
   Permeability of the Myersville soil is moderately         long in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil           Typically, the surface layer is brown, friable silt loam
and substratum. Available water capacity is moderate.        about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is about 29 inches
Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is      thick. In the upper 5 inches it is yellowish red, friable
very strongly acid to moderately acid.                       silty clay loam. In the next 13 inches it is yellowish red
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,             and red, friable channery silty clay loam. In the lower
orchards, or woodland. Some areas are used as                11 inches it is yellowish red, friable channery silt loam.
pasture or are idle land. A few areas are used for urban     The substratum, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellowish
development.                                                 brown and reddish brown, friable channery loam. Highly
   This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is   weathered bedrock extends from a depth of 48 to 60
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.       inches. In some areas the soil is strongly sloping and
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are           steep. In some areas the subsoil has less clay. In a
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and         few areas base saturation is lower. In some areas the
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves           surface layer is gravelly silt loam and gravelly loam,
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,           and in other areas it is channery or stony.
diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed          Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control       scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management             Catoctin soils on sides of steep hills and ridges and
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter     moderately well drained Buchanan soils on the lower
content, and to improve soil tilth.                          rises and the broader ridgetops below the Myersville
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or       soil. Catoctin soils have more rock fragments and sand
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the        throughout than the Myersville soil. Buchanan soils
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and            have gray mottles in the lower part of the subsoil and
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased         have a fragipan. Also included are a few small areas of
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key        poorly drained Baile soils along narrow drainageways.
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of         Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and            unit.
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the               Permeability of the Myersville soil is moderately
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          and the substratum. Available water capacity is
moderately high. The erosion hazard and the equipment        moderate. Surface runoff is high. In unlimed areas this
limitation are the main management concerns.                 soil is very strongly acid to moderately acid.
Because of the erosion hazard, the grade of logging              Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or
roads, skid trails, and landings should be gentle and        orchards or are idle land. Some areas are used as
water should be removed by water bars, outsloping            pasture or cropland. A few areas are used for urban
road surfaces, culverts, and drop structures. Seedlings      development.
survive and grow well if competing vegetation is                 This soil is fairly well suited to most specialty crops
controlled, especially during the first few years, and if    and poorly suited to cultivated crops because of slope.
livestock is excluded from wooded areas. Machine             Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
planting of trees is practical in large areas.               grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
   This soil is somewhat limited as a site for septic        legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
tank absorption fields because of slope, depth to            protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
bedrock, and restricted permeability. It is somewhat         diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed
limited as a site for dwellings and most other urban         waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control
uses because of slope. It is very limited as a site for      erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management
local roads and streets because of low strength.             also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
   The land capability classification is 3e. The             content, and to improve soil tilth.
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                                This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         83




grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the       are on the surface and in the soil. Included soils make
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and           up about 15 percent of the map unit.
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased            Permeability of the Neshaminy soil is moderate in
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key       the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of        and substratum. Available water capacity is moderate,
grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and           and surface runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the          very strongly acid or moderately acid in the upper part
pasture and the soil in good condition.                     of the solum and strongly acid to slightly acid in the
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         lower part and in the substratum.
moderately high. The erosion hazard and the equipment           Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,
limitation are the main management concerns.                orchards, or woodland. A few areas are used for urban
Because of the erosion hazard, the grade of logging         development.
roads, skid trails, and landings should be gentle and           This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
water should be removed by water bars, outsloping           grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main
road surfaces, culverts, and drop structures. Use of        hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
crawler tractors and methods of logging uphill with         sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
cables may be needed because of slope. Seedlings            conservation tillage system that leaves protective
survive and grow well if competing vegetation is            amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
controlled, especially during the first few years, and if   contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
livestock is excluded from wooded areas. Machine            surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
planting of trees is practical in large areas.              crop residue management also help to control erosion,
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank      to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
absorption fields, dwellings, and most other urban uses     tilth.
because of slope. It is very limited as a site for local        This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
roads and streets because of low strength and slope.        and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
   The land capability classification is 4e. The            Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                           can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
                                                            yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
                                                            increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
                                                            maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
NaB—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 3 to                      deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
  8 percent slopes                                          and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
                                                            pasture and the soil in condition.
   This is a gently sloping, very deep, well drained soil
                                                                Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
on ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or convex. Areas of
                                                            moderately high. No major hazards or limitations affect
this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in shape,
                                                            use and management. Machine planting of trees is
and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
                                                            practical in large areas.
   Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
                                                                This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
brown, very friable channery silt loam about 8 inches
                                                            absorption fields because of moderately slow
thick. The subsoil is about 47 inches thick. In the upper
                                                            permeability. It is suitable as a site for dwellings and
7 inches it is strong brown, friable channery silt loam.
                                                            most other urban uses. It is somewhat limited as a site
In the next 19 inches it is yellowish red, friable clay
                                                            for local roads and streets because of frost action.
loam and channery clay loam. In the lower 21 inches it
                                                                The land capability classification is 2e. The
is yellowish red, firm clay loam. The substratum, to a
                                                            woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown, firm clay loam. In
some areas the soil is nearly level or strongly sloping.
In a few areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.     NaC—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 8 to
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few               15 percent slopes
scattered areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained
Mount Lucas soils on low rises and at the base of              This is a strongly sloping, very deep, well drained
ridges and hills and very deep, poorly drained              soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth
Watchung soils in shallow depressions and along             or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long
drainageways. Also included are some areas where            and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in
many stones and boulders are on the surface and in          size.
the soil and some areas where no stones or boulders            Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
84                                                                                                         Soil Survey




brown, friable channery silt loam about 8 inches thick.          This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
The subsoil is about 47 inches thick. In the upper 7         absorption fields because of slope and moderately
inches it is strong brown, friable channery silt loam. In    slow permeability. It is somewhat limited as a site for
the next 19 inches it is yellowish red, friable clay loam    dwellings and most other urban uses because of slope.
and channery clay loam. In the lower 21 inches it is         It is somewhat limited as a site for local roads and
yellowish red, firm clay loam. The substratum, to a          streets because of slope and frost action.
depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown, firm clay loam. In         The land capability classification is 3e. The
some areas the soil is gently sloping and moderately         woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
steep. In a few areas depth to bedrock is less than 40
inches.                                                      NdB—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 0 to
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few                8 percent slopes, extremely bouldery
scattered areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained
Mount Lucas soils on low rises and at the base of                This is a nearly level and gently sloping, very deep,
ridges and hills and very deep, poorly drained               well drained soil on ridgetops. Slopes are smooth or
Watchung soils in shallow depressions and along              convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and
drainageways. Also included are some areas where             narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
either many stones and boulders or no stones and             Stones and boulders cover about 3 to 5 percent of the
boulders are on the surface and in the soil. Included        surface. They range in size from 10 inches to more
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.              than 10 feet in diameter.
   Permeability of the Neshaminy soil is moderate in             Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil         brown, very friable channery silt loam about 4 inches
and substratum. Available water capacity is moderate,        thick. The subsurface layer is brown channery silt loam
and surface runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is    about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is about 47 inches
very strongly acid to moderately acid in the upper part      thick. In the upper 7 inches it is strong brown, friable
of the solum and strongly acid to slightly acid in the       channery silt loam. In the next 19 inches it is yellowish
lower part and in the substratum.                            red, friable clay loam and channery clay loam. In the
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland,             lower 21 inches it is yellowish red, firm clay loam. The
orchards, or woodland. Some areas are used for urban         substratum, to a depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown,
development.                                                 firm clay loam. In some areas the soil is nearly level
   This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is   and strongly sloping. In some areas the soil has more
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.       clay. In a few areas depth to bedrock is less than 40
Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are           inches.
grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and             Included with this soil in mapping are a few
legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves           scattered areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained
protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,           Mount Lucas soils on low rises and at the base of
diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed      ridges and hills. Also included are some areas where
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control       either many stones and boulders or no stones and
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management             boulders are on the surface and in the soil. Included
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter     soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.
content, and to improve soil tilth.                              Permeability of the Neshaminy soil is moderate in
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      the surface layer, moderately slow in the subsoil, and
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.             moderate or moderately slow in the substratum.
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        Available water capacity is moderate, and surface
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         runoff is high. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       acid to moderately acid in the upper part of the solum
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           and strongly acid to slightly acid in the lower part and
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         in the substratum.
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,       Most areas of this soil are used as woodland. A few
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the       areas are used as orchards or pasture, are idle land, or
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      are in urban development.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is              This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and
moderately high. No major hazards or limitations affect      permanent pasture and use of most farm machinery is
use and management. Machine planting of trees is             impractical because of stones and boulders on or
practical in large areas.                                    beneath the surface.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                       85




   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         permanent pasture and most farm machinery is
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main       impractical because of the amount of stones and
management concern. Ordinary crawler tractors and           boulders on or beneath the surface.
rubber-tired skidders cannot be operated safely on             Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
these soils because large stones and boulders on the        moderately high (fig. 13). The equipment limitation is
surface somewhat limit their use.                           the main management concern. Ordinary crawler
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank      tractors and rubber-tired skidders cannot be operated
absorption fields because of moderately slow                safely on these soils because large stones and
permeability. It is suited as a site for dwellings and      boulders on the surface and slope somewhat limit their
most other urban uses. It is somewhat limited as a site     use.
for local roads and streets because of frost action.           Because of slope and moderately slow permeability,
   The land capability classification is 7s. The            this soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
woodland ordination symbol is 4X.                           absorption fields. It is severely limited as a site for
                                                            dwellings and local roads and streets because of slope.
                                                               The land capability classification is 7s. The
NdD—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 8 to                      woodland ordination symbol is 4X.
  25 percent slopes, extremely bouldery
   This is a strongly sloping and moderately steep,         NdE—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 25
very deep, well drained soil on ridges and hills. Slopes      to 45 percent slopes, extremely
are smooth or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or
                                                              bouldery
are long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 400
acres in size. Stones and boulders cover about 3 to 15          This is a steep and very steep, very deep, well
percent of the surface. They range in size from 10          drained soil on ridges and hills. Slopes are smooth or
inches to more than 10 feet in diameter.                    convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and
   Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish        narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
brown, very friable channery silt loam about 4 inches       Stones and boulders cover about 3 to 15 percent of the
thick. The subsurface layer is brown channery silt loam     surface. They range in size from 10 inches to more
about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is about 47 inches        than 10 feet in diameter.
thick. In the upper 7 inches it is strong brown, friable        Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
channery silt loam. In the next 19 inches it is yellowish   brown, friable channery silt loam about 4 inches
red, friable clay loam and channery clay loam. In the       thick. The subsurface layer is brown channery silt
lower 21 inches it is yellowish red, firm clay loam. The    loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is about 47
substratum, to a depth of 72 inches, is reddish brown,      inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is strong brown,
firm clay loam. In some areas the soil is gently sloping    friable channery silt loam. In the next 19 inches it is
or steep. In some areas the solum has more clay. In a       yellowish red, friable clay loam and channery clay
few areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches.          loam. In the lower 21 inches it is yellowish red, firm
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few             clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of 72 inches, is
scattered areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained            reddish brown, firm clay loam. In some areas the soil is
Mount Lucas soils on low rises and at the base of           moderately steep. In some areas the solum has more
ridges and hills. Also included are some areas where        clay. In a few areas depth to bedrock is less than 40
either many stones and boulders or no stones and            inches.
boulders are on the surface and in the soil. Included           Included with this soil in mapping are a few
soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.             scattered areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained
   Permeability of the Neshaminy soil is moderate in        Mount Lucas soils on low rises and at the base of
the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil        ridges and hills. Also included are some areas where
and substratum. Available water capacity is moderate,       many stones and boulders are on the surface and in
and surface runoff is very high. In unlimed areas this      the soil and some areas where no stones and boulders
soil is very strongly acid to moderately acid in the        are on the surface and in the soil. Included soils make
upper part of the solum and strongly acid to slightly       up about 10 percent of the map unit.
acid in the lower part and in the substratum.                   Permeability of the Neshaminy soil is moderate in
   Most areas of this soil are used as woodland. A few      the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil
areas are used as orchards or pasture, are idle land, or    and substratum. Available water capacity is moderate,
are in urban development.                                   and surface runoff is very high. In unlimed areas this
   This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and            soil is very strongly acid to moderately acid in the
86                                                                                                                Soil Survey




           Figure 13.—Neshaminy channery silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, extremely bouldery, is suited to trees.


upper part of the solum and strongly acid to slightly                Because of slope, this soil is severely limited as a
acid in the lower part and in the substratum.                     site for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and
   Most areas of this soil are used as woodland. A few            local roads and streets.
areas are used as orchards or pasture, are idle land, or             The land capability classification is 7s. The
are in urban development.                                         woodland ordination symbol is 4X.
   This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and
permanent pasture and use of most farm machinery is               Pa—Penlaw silt loam
impractical because of slope and the amount of stones
and boulders on or beneath the surface.                               This is a nearly level, very deep, somewhat poorly
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is               drained soil on broad uplands, in depressions, and on
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main             lowlands. Slopes are smooth or concave and range
management concern. Ordinary crawler tractors and                 from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this soil are oval or are
rubber-tired skidders cannot be operated safely on                long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 200
these soils because they are somewhat limited by                  acres in size.
slope and by large stones and the boulders on the                     Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,
surface.                                                          friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            87




about 37 inches thick. In the upper 10 inches it is           yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
yellowish brown, mottled, friable silty clay loam. In the     increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
next 6 inches it is yellowish brown, mottled, very firm       maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
and brittle gravelly silt loam. In the next 12 inches it is   deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
yellowish brown, mottled, very firm and brittle silty clay    restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
loam. In the lower 9 inches it is yellowish brown,            pasture and the soil in good condition.
mottled, firm and brittle gravelly silt loam. The                Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is yellowish             moderately high. Water-tolerant species are favored in
brown, firm gravelly silt loam. In some areas the soil is     timber stands. The equipment limitation, seedling
gently sloping. In a few areas the solum has more clay.       mortality, and windthrow hazard are major management
In some areas the soil is predominantly gray                  concerns. The high water table restricts use of
throughout. In some areas the soil does not have a            equipment to midsummer, when the soil is dry, or to
fragipan.                                                     midwinter, when the soil is frozen or has an adequate
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,       snow cover. Selecting special planting stock and
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Conestoga          overstocking help to overcome seedling mortality.
soils on broad ridgetops above the Penlaw soil and a          Harvest methods that do not isolate the remaining
few small areas of very deep, moderately well drained         trees or leave them widely spaced help to overcome
Clarksburg soils on low-lying rises above the Penlaw          the windthrow hazard. Machine planting of trees is
soil. Conestoga soils have more sand and less silt            practical in large areas.
throughout than the Penlaw soil, and they do not have            This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
a fragipan. Also included are a few small areas of            absorption fields because of wetness and slow
moderately well drained Lindside soils on low rises on        permeability in the fragipan. It is very limited as a site
bottom lands and some areas where many stones and             for dwellings and most other urban uses because of
boulders are on the surface and in the soil. Included         wetness. The soil is very limited as a site for local
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.               roads and streets because of wetness, low strength,
   Permeability of the Penlaw soil is moderate in the         and frost action.
upper part of the solum, slow in the fragipan, and slow          The land capability classification is 3w. The
or moderately slow in the substratum. Available water         woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
capacity is moderate, and surface runoff is very high.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18        PbD—Penn loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes,
inches. The fragipan is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches. In       very stony
unlimed areas this soil is moderately acid to neutral
throughout. The seasonal high water table and depth to            This is a strongly sloping and moderately steep,
the fragipan restrict root penetration.                       moderately deep, well drained soil on ridges and hills.
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or            Slopes are convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or
pasture. Some areas are used for urban development.           are long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 65
   This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is    acres in size. Stones and boulders cover about 1 to 3
fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.        percent of the surface. They range in size from 1 to
The seasonal high water table and the slowly                  more than 4 feet across.
permeable fragipan are major limitations. During                  Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly            friable loam about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
distributed, drought can damage crops. A well                 is reddish brown, friable loam about 6 inches thick. The
maintained drainage system that is already established        subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches
will help to overcome wetness. Leaving stubble on the         it is reddish brown, friable loam. In the next 10 inches it
surface and adding other organic material help to             is weak red, friable silt loam. In the lower 6 inches it is
conserve moisture. Crop residue management, cover             weak red, firm channery silt loam. The substratum, to a
crops, and green manure crops help to maintain                depth of 38 inches, is weak red, very firm very
organic matter content and to improve soil tilth.             channery loam. Fractured, weak red sandstone bedrock
   This soil is well suited to pasture. However, it is        is at a depth of about 38 inches. In some areas depth
poorly suited to deep-rooted legumes, such as alfalfa,        to bedrock is more than 40 inches.
because the slowly permeable fragipan restricts root              Included with this soil in mapping are a few
penetration and the downward movement of water.               scattered areas of shallow, somewhat excessively
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,         drained Klinesville soils on sides of ridges below the
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage          Penn soil and a few small areas of moderately deep,
88                                                                                                        Soil Survey




moderately well drained Reaville soils on low rises and      channery silt loam. Fractured dusky red, siltstone
in depressions on uplands. Klinesville soils have more       bedrock is at a depth of about 38 inches. In some
sand and rock fragments throughout. Reaville soils           areas the soil is nearly level and strongly sloping. In
have gray mottles in the middle and lower parts of the       some areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches or
subsoil. Also included are some small areas of               more than 40 inches. In some areas the soil is brown,
somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown soils on low-            yellowish brown, or strong brown throughout. In many
lying rises below the Penn soil and a few nonstony,          areas the surface layer is loam, channery loam, or
channery, extremely stony and rubbly areas. Included         channery silt loam.
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.                 Included with this soil in mapping are a few
   Permeability of the Penn soil is moderate or              scattered areas of shallow, somewhat excessively
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or         drained Klinesville soils on sides of ridges below the
moderate. Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas         Penn soil and a few small areas of moderately deep,
this soil is extremely acid to strongly acid in the upper    moderately well drained Reaville soils on low rises and
part of the solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in       in depressions on uplands. Klinesville soils have more
the lower part, and strongly acid to slightly acid in the    sand and rock fragments throughout than the Penn soil.
substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts root penetration.     Reaville soils have gray mottles in the middle and
   Most areas of this soil are used as woodland. Some        lower parts of the subsoil. Also included are some
areas are used for urban development.                        small areas of somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown
   This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and fairly      soils on low-lying rises below the Penn soil and a few
well suited to grasses and legumes for permanent             nonstony, channery, extremely stony, or rubbly areas.
pasture because of the amount of stones and boulders         Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
on the surface. Slope and the hazard of erosion are          unit.
major management concerns. Farm machinery that can              Permeability of the Penn soil is moderate or
be operated on strongly sloping or moderately steep          moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or
slopes should be used during seedbed preparation.            moderate. Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          soil is extremely acid to strongly acid in the upper part
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main        of the solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in the
management concern. Operating ordinary crawler               lower part, and strongly acid to slightly acid in the
tractors and rubber-tired skidders can be hazardous          substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts root penetration.
because of slope. Thinning or removing undesirable              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
species are suitable management practices. Slope,            pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or
and stones and boulders restrict machine planting of         woodland. A few small areas are used for urban
trees. Disturbing the ground cover as little as possible     development.
when the trees are harvested helps to prevent                   This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
excessive soil loss.                                         grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the main
   This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank   hazard if cultivated crops are grown. A cropping
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and            sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
streets because of slope.                                    conservation tillage system that leaves protective
   The land capability classification is 6s. The             amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
woodland ordination symbol is 3R.                            contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways
                                                             help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.
PcB—Penn silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes                    Cover crops and crop residue management also help to
                                                             control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
    This is a gently sloping, moderately deep, well          to improve soil tilth.
drained soil on undulating uplands. Slopes are smooth           This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
and convex. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape,       grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
and range from 5 to 400 acres in size.                       sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,      causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
friable silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is       surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
about 21 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is           plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the next 10 inches it   grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer, and
is dusky red, firm silt loam. In the lower 6 inches it is    restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
dusky red, firm channery silt loam. The substratum, to       pasture and the soil in good condition.
a depth of 38 inches, is dusky red, very firm very              Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           89




moderate. No hazards or limitations affect use and           soil is extremely acid to strongly acid in the upper part
management. Machine planting of trees is practical in        of the solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in the
large areas.                                                 lower part, and strongly acid to slightly acid in the
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank       substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts root penetration.
absorption fields because of depth to bedrock. It is             Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
somewhat limited as a site for dwellings without             pasture. Some areas are used as orchards or
basements because of depth to bedrock. It is limited         woodland. A few areas are used for urban development.
as a site for dwellings with basements and most other            This soil is well suited to most specialty crops. It is
urban uses because of depth to bedrock. It is                fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.
somewhat limited as a site for local roads and streets       Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
because of frost action and depth to bedrock.                grown. A cropping system that includes grasses and
   The land capability classification is 2e. The             legumes, a system of conservation tillage that leaves
woodland ordination symbol is 3A.                            protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
                                                             diversions, contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed
                                                             waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control
PcC—Penn silt loam, 8 to 15 percent                          erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management
  slopes                                                     also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
                                                             content, and to improve soil tilth.
    This is a strongly sloping, moderately deep, well
                                                                 This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
drained soil on broad ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes
                                                             and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
are smooth or convex. Areas of this soil are irregular or
                                                             Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
are long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 200
                                                             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
acres in size.
                                                             yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
                                                             increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
friable silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
                                                             maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
about 21 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is
                                                             deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the next 10 inches it
                                                             and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
is dusky red, firm silt loam. In the lower 6 inches it is
                                                             pasture and the soil in good condition.
dusky red, firm channery silt loam. The substratum, to
                                                                 Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
a depth of 38 inches, is dusky red, very firm very
                                                             moderate. No major hazards or limitations affect use
channery silt loam. Fractured dusky red, siltstone
                                                             and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
bedrock is at a depth of about 38 inches. In some
                                                             in large areas.
areas the soil is nearly level and strongly sloping. In
                                                                 This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
some areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches or
                                                             absorption fields because of slope and depth to
more than 40 inches. In some areas the soil is brown,
                                                             bedrock. It is very limited as a site for dwellings with
yellowish brown, or strong brown throughout. In many
                                                             basements because of slope and depth to bedrock. It
areas the surface layer is loam, channery loam, or
                                                             is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings without
channery silt loam.
                                                             basements because of slope and depth to bedrock. It
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few
                                                             is somewhat limited as a site for local roads and
scattered areas of shallow, somewhat excessively
                                                             streets because of slope, frost action, and depth to
drained Klinesville soils on sides of ridges below the
                                                             bedrock.
Penn soil and a few small areas of moderately deep,
                                                                 The land capability classification is 3e. The
moderately well drained Reaville soils on low rises and
                                                             woodland ordination symbol is 3A.
in depressions on uplands. Klinesville soils have more
sand and rock fragments throughout than the Penn soil.
Reaville soils have gray mottles in the middle and           PoB—Penn-Klinesville channery silt
lower parts of the subsoil. Also included are some             loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes
small areas of somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown
soils on low-lying rises below the Penn soil and a few          This map unit consists of the gently sloping,
nonstony, channery, extremely stony and rubbly areas.        moderately deep, well drained Penn soil and the
Included areas make up about 15 percent of the map           shallow, somewhat excessively drained Klinesville soil
unit.                                                        on undulating ridgetops on uplands. Slopes are smooth
    Permeability of the Penn soil is moderate or             or convex. Areas are irregular or are long and narrow in
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low or         shape, and range from 5 to 200 acres in size. This map
moderate. Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this       unit is about 40 percent Penn soil, 35 percent
90                                                                                                        Soil Survey




Klinesville soil, and 25 included areas. The Penn and           These soils are well suited to most specialty crops.
Klinesville soils are in areas so intricately mixed or so    They are fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small
small in size that separating them in mapping was not        grain. Erosion is the main hazard, and low or very low
practical.                                                   available water capacity during low rainfall is a
    Typically, the Penn soil has a surface layer of dark     limitation. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping
reddish brown, friable channery silt loam about 9            sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a
inches thick. The subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In       conservation tillage system that leaves protective
the upper 5 inches it is reddish brown, friable silt loam.   amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour
In the next 10 inches it is dusky red, firm silt loam. In    farming, stripcropping (fig. 14), terraces, and grassed
the lower 6 inches it is dusky red, firm channery silt       waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 38 inches, is            erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management
dusky red, very firm very channery silt loam. Fractured      also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter
dusky red siltstone bedrock is at a depth of 38 inches.      content, and to improve soil tilth.
In some areas the soils are nearly level or strongly            These soils are well suited to pasture. Growing
sloping. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than         grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
20 inches. In a few areas the surface layer is silt loam,    Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
loam, channery loam, or very channery silt loam. In          can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
some areas the soils are sandy loam throughout or are        yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
brown, yellowish brown, or strong brown throughout.          increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
    Typically, the Klinesville soil has a surface layer of   maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
reddish brown, very friable channery silt loam about 8       deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,
inches thick. The subsoil is red, friable very channery      and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
silt loam about 6 inches thick. The substratum, to a         pasture and the soil in good condition.
depth of 16 inches, is dark red, firm extremely                 Potential productivity for trees on these soils is
channery silt loam. Fractured, weak red shale bedrock        moderate. Seedling mortality is the main management
is at a depth of about 16 inches. In some areas the soil     concern. Using special planting stock and harvesting to
is nearly level or strongly sloping. In some areas it is     leave some mature trees for shade and protection help
sandy loam throughout. In other areas it is brown,           to reduce the seeding mortality rate. Machine planting
yellowish brown, or strong brown throughout.                 of trees is practical in large areas.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few                These soils are very limited as a site for onsite
scattered areas of moderately deep, moderately well          waste disposal because of depth to bedrock. The Penn
drained Reaville soils on low rises and in depressions       soil is somewhat limited as a site for dwellings without
on uplands. Reaville soils have gray mottles in the          basements because of depth to bedrock. It is very
middle and lower parts of the subsoil. Also included are     limited as a site for dwellings with basements and
some small areas of somewhat poorly drained                  most other urban uses because of depth to bedrock.
Abbottstown soils on low-lying rises below the Penn          The Klinesville soil is very limited as a site for
soil and a few nonstony, channery, extremely stony           dwellings without basements because of depth to
and rubbly areas. Included areas make up about 25            bedrock. It is severely limited as a site for dwellings
percent of the map unit.                                     with basements because of depth to bedrock. The
    Permeability of the Penn soil is moderate or             Penn soil is somewhat limited as a site for local roads
moderately rapid, and available water capacity is low or     and streets because of frost action and depth to
moderate. Permeability of the Klinesville soil is            bedrock. The Klinesville soil is very limited for local
moderately rapid, and available water capacity is very       roads and streets because of depth to bedrock and
low. Surface runoff is low on the Penn soil and medium       frost action.
on the Klinesville soil. In unlimed areas the Penn soil is      The land capability classification is 2e for the Penn
extremely acid to strongly acid in the upper part of the     soil and 3e for the Klinesville soil. The woodland
solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in the lower         ordination symbol is 3A for the Penn soil and 3D for the
part of the solum, and strongly acid to slightly acid in     Klinesville soil.
the substratum. In unlimed areas the Klinesville soil is
very strongly acid to moderately acid. Depth to bedrock      PoC—Penn-Klinesville channery silt
in these soils restricts root penetration.                     loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes
    Most areas of the Penn and Klinesville soils are
used as cropland, pasture, or woodland. Some areas             This map unit consists of the strongly sloping,
are used for urban development or are idle land.             moderately deep, well drained Penn soil and the
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                                     91




Figure 14.—Stripcropping helps to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. The soils are Penn-Klinesville channery silt
    loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes.



shallow, somewhat excessively drained Klinesville soil             channery silt loam. Fractured weak red shale bedrock
on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are smooth or                 is at a depth of about 16 inches. In some areas the
convex. Areas are irregular or are long and narrow in              soil is gently sloping and moderately steep or steep.
shape, and range from 5 to 200 acres in size. This map             In some areas the soil is sandy loam throughout or
unit is about 40 percent Penn soil, 35 percent                     is brown, yellowish brown, or strong brown throughout.
Klinesville soil, and 25 percent included soils. The               In a few areas depth to bedrock is less than 10
Penn and Klinesville soils are in areas so intricately             inches.
mixed or so small in size that separating them in                      Included with this soil in mapping are a few
mapping was not practical.                                         scattered areas of moderately deep, moderately well
    Typically, the Penn soil has a surface layer of dark           drained Reaville soils on low rises and in depressions
reddish brown, friable channery silt loam about 9                  on uplands. Reaville soils have gray mottles in the
inches thick. The subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In             middle and lower parts of the subsoil. Also included are
the upper 5 inches it is reddish brown, friable silt loam.         some small areas of somewhat poorly drained
In the next 10 inches it is dusky red, firm silt loam. In          Abbottstown soils on low-lying rises below the Penn
the lower 6 inches it is dusky red, firm channery silt             soil and a few nonstony, channery, extremely stony
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 38 inches, is                  and rubbly areas. Included areas make up about 25
dusky red, very firm very channery silt loam. Fractured            percent of the map unit.
dusky red siltstone bedrock is at a depth of 38 inches.                Permeability of the Penn soil is moderate or
In some areas the soil is gently sloping and moderately            moderately rapid, and available water capacity is low or
steep or steep. In some areas depth to bedrock is less             moderate. Permeability of the Klinesville soil is
than 20 inches. In a few areas the surface layer is silt           moderately rapid, and available water capacity is very
loam, loam, channery loam, or very channery silt loam.             low. Surface runoff is low on the Penn soil and medium
In other areas the soil is sandy loam throughout. In               on the Klinesville soil. In unlimed areas the Penn soil is
some areas the soil is brown, yellowish brown, or                  extremely acid to strongly acid in the upper part of the
strong brown throughout.                                           solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in the lower
    Typically, the Klinesville soil has a surface layer of         part of the solum, and strongly acid to slightly acid in
reddish brown, very friable channery silt loam about 8             the substratum. The Klinesville soil is very strongly
inches thick. The subsoil is red, friable very channery            acid to moderately acid. Depth to bedrock in these
silt loam about 6 inches thick. The substratum, to a               soils restricts root penetration.
depth of 16 inches, is dark red, firm extremely                        Most areas of these soils are used as cropland,
92                                                                                                          Soil Survey




pasture, or woodland. Some areas are used for urban          soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape, and range
development or are idle land.                                from 5 to 100 acres in size.
    These soils are well suited to most specialty crops.         Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, very
They are fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and small     friable silt loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is
grain. Erosion is the main hazard, and low or very low       brown, friable silt loam about 16 inches thick. The
available water capacity during periods of low rainfall is   substratum extends to a depth of 59 inches. In the
a limitation. If cultivated crops are grown, a cropping      upper 16 inches it is brown and very dark grayish
sequence that includes grasses and legumes, a                brown, friable very micaceous channery loam. In the
conservation tillage system that leaves protective           lower 19 inches it is very dark grayish brown, friable,
amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour              very micaceous, channery sandy loam. Very dark gray,
farming, terraces, stripcropping, and grassed                micaceous schist bedrock is at a depth of 59 inches.
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control       In some areas the soil is strongly sloping to very
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management             steep. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 40
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter     inches.
content, and to improve soil tilth.                              Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
    These soils are well suited to pasture. Growing          scattered areas where a few large rock fragments are
grasses and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.     on the surface and in the soil. Included soils make up
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        about 10 percent of the map unit.
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage             Permeability of the Pequea soil is moderate or
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       moderately rapid. Available water capacity is moderate
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           or low. Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         soil is slightly acid or neutral in the solum and neutral
deferment of grazing, applications of lime and fertilizer,   to moderately alkaline in the substratum.
and restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      woodland or are idle land. A few areas are used as
    Potential productivity for trees on these soils is       cropland.
moderate. The main management concern is seedling                This soil is fairly well suited to most specialty crops.
mortality. Use of special planting stock and harvest         It is poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain.
methods that leave some mature trees to provide              Erosion is the main hazard if cultivated crops are
shade and protection help to reduce the seeding              grown. A cropping sequence that includes grasses and
mortality rate. Machine planting of trees is practical in    legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
large areas.                                                 protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
    These soils are severely limited as a site for septic    contour farming, stripcropping, and grassed waterways
tank absorption fields because of depth to bedrock.          help to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion.
The Penn soil is somewhat limited as a site for              Cover crops and crop residue management also help to
dwellings without basements because of slope. It is          control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with                to improve soil tilth.
basements because of depth to bedrock. The                       This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or
Klinesville soil is very limited as a site for dwellings     grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the
because of depth to bedrock. The Penn soil is                sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and
moderately limited as a site for local roads and streets     causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased
because of slope and frost action. The Klinesville soil      surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key
is very limited as a site for local roads and streets        plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of
because of depth to bedrock.                                 grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use
    The land capability classification is 3e for the Penn    during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil
soil and 4e for the Klinesville soil. The woodland           in good condition.
ordination symbol is 3A for the Penn soil and 3D for the         Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
Klinesville soil.                                            moderately high. The erosion hazard and the equipment
                                                             limitation are major management concerns. Because of
PsD—Pequea silt loam, 15 to 25 percent                       the erosion hazard, logging roads, skid trails, and
  slopes                                                     landings should be established on gentle grades and
                                                             water should be removed by water bars, culverts, and
  This is a moderately steep, deep, well drained soil        drop structures. Special logging methods, such as
on ridges and hills. Slopes are concave. Areas of this       yarding logs uphill with cable, may be needed to
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         93




minimize the use of rubber-tired skidders and crawler        firm silty clay loam. In the next 10 inches it is strong
tractors. Ordinary crawler tractors and rubber-tired         brown, mottled, very firm and brittle clay loam. In the
skidders cannot be operated safely on these slopes.          next 12 inches it is brown and reddish brown, mottled,
Machine planting of trees is practical in large areas.       very firm and brittle silty clay loam. In the lower 6
   Slope is a severe limitation to use of this soil as a     inches it is brown, mottled, firm clay loam. The
site for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and       substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is reddish brown,
most other urban uses, including local roads and             mottled, friable, stratified gravelly loam and gravelly
streets.                                                     clay loam. In some areas the soil is gently sloping. In
   The land capability classification is 4e. The             some areas the subsoil is yellowish brown. In a few
woodland ordination symbol is 4R.                            areas the surface layer is loam or sandy loam. In some
                                                             areas the soil does not have gray mottles in the upper
                                                             part of the subsoil. In other areas the soil does not
Pt—Pits, quarries                                            have a fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is
                                                             less than 60 inches.
   This map unit consists of nearly level to very steep
                                                                Included with this soil in mapping are a few
areas where bedrock has been removed for use as
                                                             scattered areas of very deep, well drained Birdsboro
construction material. Areas are 5 to 1,000 acres in
                                                             soils on large flats of stream terraces and on benches
size.
                                                             above the Raritan soil and a few small areas of poorly
   Typically, the exposed material is limestone,
                                                             drained Lamington soils in shallow depressions and
greenstone, quartzite, phyllite, shale, and sandstone
                                                             along narrow drainageways on lowlands. Lamington
bedrock and either thin or thick layers of sand, gravel,
                                                             soils are grayish throughout. Also included are some
or soil material.
                                                             small areas of the very deep, moderately well drained
   Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
                                                             Rowland soils on low rises on bottom lands. Included
rubble; spoil; and commercial, industrial, and residential
                                                             soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
waste near edges of pits. Also included, near the
                                                                Permeability of the Raritan soil is moderate above
center of the pits, are small areas of water. Included
                                                             the fragipan, moderately slow in the fragipan, and
areas make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
                                                             moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum.
   On Pits, quarries, permeability, available water
                                                             Available water capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is
capacity, runoff, reaction, and depth to bedrock are
                                                             low. The fragipan is at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. The
variable.
                                                             seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36
   Most pits are being mined. Areas of exposed
                                                             inches. In unlimed areas this soil is very strongly acid
bedrock and water support no vegetation. Pine
                                                             to moderately acid throughout. The fragipan and the
seedlings and selected hardwood species can be
                                                             seasonal high water table restrict root penetration.
established on spoil banks where a sufficient amount
                                                                Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
of soil material is mixed with flaggy, channery, and
                                                             pasture. A few small areas are used as woodland or
shaly rock fragments.
                                                             are idle land.
   Onsite investigation is needed if these areas are to
                                                                This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
be used as building sites.
                                                             grain, and most specialty crops. The main limitation is
   No land capability classification or woodland
                                                             the seasonal high water table. Moderately slow
ordination symbols are assigned.
                                                             permeability in the fragipan is also a limitation. During
                                                             periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly
RaA—Raritan silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                        distributed, drought can damage crops. A well
  slopes                                                     maintained, existing drainage system can help to
                                                             overcome wetness. Leaving stubble on the surface and
    This is a nearly level, very deep, moderately well       adding other organic material help to conserve
drained soil on terraces and benches above flood             moisture. Crop residue management, cover crops, and
plains of larger streams. Slopes are smooth or               green manure crops help to maintain organic matter
concave. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and    content and to improve soil tilth.
narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.          This soil is well suited to pasture. However, it is
    Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,      poorly suited to deep-rooted legumes, such as alfalfa,
friable silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is       because moderately slow permeability in the fragipan
about 45 inches thick. In the upper 11 inches it is          restricts root penetration and downward movement of
strong brown and yellowish red, mottled, friable silt        water. Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet,
loam. In the next 6 inches it is yellowish red, mottled,     however, can damage the sod, reduces plant density
94                                                                                                        Soil Survey




and forage yields, and causes surface compaction,             few small areas of poorly drained Lamington soils in
poor tilth, and increased surface runoff. Proper              shallow depressions and along narrow drainageways on
stocking rates to maintain key plant species,                 lowlands. Lamington soils are grayish throughout. Also
pasture rotation, timely deferment of grazing,                included are some small areas of very deep,
application of fertilizers, and restricted use                moderately well drained Rowland soils on low rises on
during wet periods help to keep the pasture                   bottom lands. Included soils make up about 15 percent
and the soil in good condition.                               of the map unit.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is              Permeability of the Raritan soil is moderate above
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the              the fragipan, moderately slow in the fragipan, and
main management concern. Equipment should be                  moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum.
operated only when the soil is relatively dry or is           Available water capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is
frozen. Machine planting of trees is practical in             medium. The fragipan is at a depth of 20 to 30 inches.
large areas.                                                  The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18
   Because of wetness and moderately slow                     to 36 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is very
permeability, this soil is very limited as a site for         strongly acid to moderately acid throughout. The
septic tank absorption fields. It is somewhat limited as      fragipan and the seasonal high water table restrict
a site for dwellings without basements because of             root penetration.
wetness. It is very limited as a site for dwellings and          Most areas of the Raritan soil are used as cropland
most other urban uses. It is very limited as a site for       or pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for
local roads and streets because of wetness and frost          urban development.
action.                                                          This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
   The land capability classification is 2w. The              grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is a major
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                             hazard, and moderately slow or slow permeability is a
                                                              limitation. During periods when rainfall is below normal
RaB—Raritan silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                         or is poorly distributed, drought can damage crops. If
  slopes                                                      cultivated crops are grown, a cropping sequence that
                                                              includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage
     This is a gently sloping, very deep, moderately well     system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue
drained soil on terraces and benches above flood              on the surface, contour farming, and grassed
plains of larger streams. Slopes are smooth or                waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to
concave. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and     control erosion. Cover crops and crop residue
narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.        management also help to control erosion, to
     Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,      maintain organic matter content, and to improve
friable silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is        soil tilth.
about 45 inches thick. In the upper 11 inches it is              This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
strong brown and yellowish red, friable silt loam. In the     and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
next 6 inches it is yellowish red, mottled, firm silty clay   Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
loam. In the next 10 inches it is strong brown, mottled,      can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
very friable and brittle clay loam. In the next 12 inches     yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
it is brown and reddish brown, mottled, very firm and         increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
brittle silty clay loam. In the lower 6 inches it is brown,   maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
mottled, firm clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of        deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
60 inches, is reddish brown, mottled, friable, stratified     restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
gravelly loam and gravelly clay loam. In some areas           pasture and the soil in good condition.
the soil is nearly level or strongly sloping. In some            Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
areas the subsoil is yellowish brown. In a few areas the      moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main
surface layer is loam or sandy loam. In some areas the        management concern. Equipment should be operated
upper part of the subsoil does not have gray mottles or       only when the soil is relatively dry or frozen. Machine
the soil does not have a fragipan. In some areas depth        planting of trees is practical in large areas.
to bedrock is less than 60 inches.                               This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
     Included with this soil in mapping are a few             absorption fields because of wetness and moderately
scattered areas of very deep, well drained Birdsboro          slow permeability. It is severely limited as a site for
soils on large flats of streams and on terraces and           dwellings and most other urban uses, including local
benches above the Raritan soil. Also included are a           roads and streets, because of wetness.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           95




  The land capability classification is 2e. The                areas, are some small areas of somewhat poorly
woodland ordination symbol is 4A.                              drained Rohrersville soils. Included soils make up
                                                               about 15 percent of the map unit.
                                                                  Permeability of the Ravenrock soil is moderate in
RcC—Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop                           the upper part of the solum and slow in the lower part.
  complex, 8 to 15 percent slopes                              Permeability of the Highfield soil is moderate. Available
                                                               water capacity is moderate on the Ravenrock soil and
    This map unit consists of the strongly sloping, very
                                                               high on the Highfield soil. Surface runoff on both soils
deep, moderately well drained Ravenrock soil, the well
                                                               is medium. The seasonal high water table is at a depth
drained Highfield soil, and areas of Rock outcrop on
                                                               of 42 to 72 inches on the Ravenrock soil and at a
backslopes and benches on mountains. Slopes are
                                                               depth of 72 inches or more on the Highfield soil. In
smooth or concave. Areas of the Ravenrock and
                                                               unlimed areas these soils are moderately acid to very
Highfield soils and Rock outcrop are irregular in shape,
                                                               strongly acid.
and range from 10 to 220 acres in size. This map unit
                                                                  Most areas of the Ravenrock and Highfield soils are
is about 40 percent Ravenrock soil, 35 percent
                                                               used as woodland.
Highfield soil, 10 percent Rock outcrop, and 15 percent
                                                                  These soils are generally not suited to use as
included soils. These soils and areas of Rock outcrop
                                                               cropland, hayland, or pasture because of large stones
are in areas so intricately mixed or so small in size
                                                               and rock outcrops on the surface.
that separating them in mapping was not practical.
                                                                  Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.
Stones and boulders cover 3 to 15 percent of the
                                                               Because of stones on the surface, wheeled skidders
surface of the map unit.
                                                               with high clearance should be operated at a reduced
    Typically, the Ravenrock soil has a surface layer of
                                                               speed over carefully chosen routes. Removing
brown or dark brown, friable gravelly loam about 4
                                                               undesirable species will increase production.
inches thick. The subsurface layer, from a depth of 4 to
                                                                  On the Ravenrock soil, wetness and slow
7 inches, is strong brown, friable gravelly silt loam. The
                                                               permeability are severe limitations for septic tank
subsoil is about 50 inches thick. In the upper 9 inches
                                                               absorption fields, and on the Highfield soil depth to
it is yellowish red, friable very gravelly silt loam. In the
                                                               bedrock, permeability, and slope are moderate
next 18 inches it is yellowish red, friable very gravelly
                                                               limitations. These soils are both somewhat limited as a
clay loam. In the next 9 inches it is red, firm very
                                                               site for dwellings because of slope, depth to bedrock,
gravelly clay loam. In the lower 14 inches it is
                                                               and wetness. These soils are somewhat limited as a
yellowish red, friable gravelly silty clay. The substratum
                                                               site for local roads and streets because of slope and
is yellowish red, firm gravelly clay loam. In some areas
                                                               frost action.
the soils are nearly level or strongly sloping. In some
                                                                  The land capability classification is 6s for the
areas depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.
                                                               Ravenrock and Highfield soils and 8s for Rock outcrop.
    Typically, the surface layer of the Highfield soil is
                                                               The woodland ordination symbol is 5X for the
covered by a 1-inch-thick layer of moderately
                                                               Ravenrock soil and 4X for the Highfield soil.
decomposed mat of twigs, leaves, and roots. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown, friable
channery silt loam about 1 inch thick. The subsurface          RcD—Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop
layer, to a depth of 3 inches, is light brownish gray,           complex, 15 to 25 percent slopes
friable channery silt loam. The subsoil is about 47
inches thick. In the upper 2 inches it is brownish                This map unit consists of the steep, very deep,
yellow, friable channery silt loam. In the next 17 inches      moderately well drained Ravenrock soil, the well
it is light yellowish brown, friable channery silt loam. In    drained Highfield soil, and Rock outcrop on mountain
the next 16 inches it is yellowish brown and brown,            backslopes and benches. Slopes are smooth or
friable channery silt loam. In the lower 12 inches it is       concave. Areas of the Ravenrock and Highfield soils
yellowish brown and brown, firm channery silt loam.            and Rock outcrop are irregular in shape and range from
The substratum, from a depth of 50 to 65 inches, is            5 to 450 acres in size. This map unit is about 40
brown and yellowish brown, firm very channery silt             percent Ravenrock soil, 40 percent Highfield soil, and
loam.                                                          10 percent Rock outcrop. The Ravenrock and Highfield
    Included with the Ravenrock and Highfield soils in         soils and Rock outcrop are in areas so intricately
mapping are a few small areas of well drained Catoctin         mixed or so small in size that separating them in
soils on the steeper side slopes. Also included, in the        mapping was not practical. Stones and boulders cover
lower areas, are a few areas of moderately well drained        3 to 15 percent of the surface of the map unit.
Mt. Zion soils. Also included, in the more concave                Typically, the Ravenrock soil has a surface layer
96                                                                                                             Soil Survey




that is brown or dark brown, friable gravelly loam about       erosion hazard, the grade of the logging roads, skid
4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, from a depth of 4        trails, and landings should be gentle and water should
to 7 inches, is strong brown, friable gravelly silt loam.      be removed by water bars, outsloping road surfaces,
The subsoil is about 50 inches thick. In the upper 9           culverts, and drop structures.
inches it is yellowish red, friable very gravelly silt loam.      These soils are very limited as a site for septic tank
In the next 18 inches it is yellowish red, friable clay        absorption fields because of slope, depth to bedrock,
loam. In the next 9 inches it is red, firm very gravelly       wetness, and restricted permeability. They are very
clay loam. In the lower 22 inches it is yellowish red,         limited as a site for dwellings because of slope, depth
friable silty clay. The substratum is yellowish red, firm      to bedrock, and wetness. They are very limited as a
gravelly clay loam. In some areas the soil is nearly           site for local roads and streets because of slope and
level or strongly sloping. In some areas depth to              frost action.
bedrock is less than 60 inches.                                   The land capability classification is 7s for the
    Typically, the surface layer of the Highfield soil is a    Ravenrock and Highfied soils and 8s for Rock outcrop.
1-inch-thick layer of moderately decomposed mat of             The woodland ordination symbol is 5X for the
twigs, leaves, and roots. The surface layer is 1 inch of       Ravenrock soil and 4X for the Highfield soil.
very dark grayish brown, friable channery silt loam. The
subsurface layer, from a depth of 2 to 3 inches, is light      RcF—Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop
brownish gray, friable channery silt loam. The subsoil is        complex, 25 to 65 percent slopes
about 47 inches thick. In the upper 2 inches it is
brownish yellow, friable channery silt loam. In the next           This map unit consists of the very steep, very deep,
17 inches it is light yellowish brown, friable channery        moderately well drained Ravenrock soil and the well
silt loam. In the next 16 inches it is yellowish brown         drained Highfield soil on backslopes of mountains.
and brown, friable channery silt loam. In the lower 12         Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of the
inches it is yellowish brown and brown, firm channery          Ravenrock and Highfield soils and Rock outcrop are
silt loam. The substratum, from a depth of 50 to 65            irregular in shape, and range from 10 to 160 acres in
inches, is brown and yellowish brown, firm very                size. This map unit is about 40 percent Ravenrock soil,
channery silt loam.                                            40 percent Highfield soil, 10 percent Rock outcrop, and
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small         10 percent included soils. The Ravenrock and Highfield
areas of moderately deep, well drained Catoctin soils          soils and Rock outcrop are in areas so intricately
on the steeper side slopes. A few areas of moderately          mixed or so small in size that separating them in
well drained Mt. Zion soils are in the lower areas. Also       mapping was not practical. Stones and boulders cover
included are some small areas of somewhat poorly               3 to 15 percent of the surface of this map unit.
drained Rohrersville soils in the more concave areas.              Typically, the Ravenrock soil has a surface layer of
Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map             brown or dark brown, friable gravelly loam about 4
unit.                                                          inches thick. The subsurface layer, from a depth of 4 to
    Permeability of the Ravenrock soil is moderate in          7 inches, is strong brown, friable gravelly silt loam. The
the upper part of the solum and slow in the lower part.        subsoil is about 50 inches thick. In the upper 9 inches
Permeability of the Highfield soil is moderate. The            it is yellowish red, friable, very gravelly silt loam. In the
available water capacity is moderate on the Ravenrock          next 18 inches it is yellowish red, friable, clay loam. In
soil and high on the Highfield soil. Surface runoff on         the next 9 inches it is red, firm very gravelly clay loam.
both soils is high. The seasonal high water table is at a      In the lower 22 inches it is yellowish red, friable silty
depth of 42 to 72 inches on the Ravenrock soil and at          clay. The substratum is yellowish red, firm gravelly clay
a depth of more than 72 inches on the Highfield soil. In       loam. In some areas the soil is nearly level or strongly
unlimed areas the Ravenrock and Highfield soils are            sloping. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than
moderately acid to very strongly acid.                         60 inches.
    Most areas of the Ravenrock and Highfield soils are            Typically, the surface layer of the Highfield soil is
used as woodland.                                              covered by a 1-inch-thick layer of a moderately
    These soils are generally not suited to use as             decomposed mat of twigs, leaves, and roots. The
cropland, hayland, or pasture because of slope, large          surface layer is very dark grayish brown, friable
stones, and rock outcrops on the surface.                      channery silt loam about 1 inch thick. The subsurface
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.     layer, from a depth of 2 to 3 inches, is light brownish
Because of stones on the surface, wheeled skidders             gray, friable channery silt loam. The subsoil is about 47
with high clearance should be operated at a reduced            inches thick. In the upper 2 inches it is brownish
speed over carefully chosen routes. Because of the             yellow, friable channery silt loam. In the next 17 inches
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                             97




it is light yellowish brown, friable channery silt loam. In   Ravenrock soil, 45 percent Rohrersville soil, and 10
the next 16 inches it is yellowish brown and brown,           percent included soils. The two soils are in areas so
friable channery silt loam. In the lower 12 inches it is      intricately mixed or so small in size that separating
yellowish brown and brown, firm channery silt loam.           them in mapping was not practical. Large stones cover
The substratum, from a depth of 50 to 65 inches, is           3 to 15 percent of the surface.
brown and yellowish brown, firm very channery silt                Typically, the Ravenrock soil has a surface layer of
loam.                                                         brown or dark brown, friable gravelly loam about 4
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few small        inches thick. The subsurface layer, from a depth of 4 to
areas of well drained Catoctin soils on some side             7 inches, is strong brown, friable gravelly silt loam. The
slopes. Included soils make up about 10 percent of the        subsoil is about 50 inches thick. In the upper 9 inches
map unit.                                                     it is yellowish red, friable very gravelly silt loam. In the
    Permeability of the Ravenrock soils is moderate in        next 18 inches it is yellowish red, friable clay loam. In
the upper part of the solum and slow in the lower part.       the next 9 inches it is red, firm very gravelly clay loam.
Permeability of the Highfield soil is moderate. Available     In the lower 22 inches it is yellowish red, friable silty
water capacity is moderate on the Ravenrock soil and          clay. The substratum is yellowish red, firm gravelly clay
high on the Highfield soil. Surface runoff on both soils      loam. In some areas the soil is nearly level or strongly
is high. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of       sloping. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than
42 to 72 inches on the Ravenrock soil and at a depth          60 inches.
of more than 72 inches on the Highfield soil. In unlimed          Typically, the Rohrersville soil has a surface layer of
areas the Ravenrock and Highfield soils are moderately        dark grayish brown, friable silt loam about 5 inches
acid to very strongly acid.                                   thick. The subsurface layer is brown, friable silt loam
    Most areas of the Ravenrock and Highfield soils are       about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is about 53 inches
used as woodland.                                             thick. In the upper 6 inches it is light olive brown,
    These soils are generally not suited as cropland,         mottled, friable silt loam. In the next 10 inches it is
hayland, or pasture because of very steep slopes.             light pale brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the next 6
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.    inches it is brown, mottled silty clay loam. In the lower
Because of the erosion hazard, the grade of logging           24 inches it is mottled, firm strong brown silt loam and
roads, skid trails, and landings should be gentle and         grayish brown silty clay loam. The substratum, to a
water should be removed by water bars, outsloping             depth of 62 inches, is yellowish red, mottled, firm silty
road surfaces, culverts, and drop structures. Ordinary        clay loam. Greenstone is at a depth of 62 inches. In
crawler tractors and rubber-tired skidders cannot be          some areas the soil does not have a fragipan. In some
operated safely on the steeper slopes. When the soil is       areas bedrock is at a depth of less than 60 inches.
wet, logging roads tend to be slippery and ruts form              Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
quickly. Harvest methods that do not isolate the              areas of well drained Mt. Zion and Highfield soils.
remaining trees or leave them widely spaced help to           Included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
prevent windthrow. Some replanting of seedlings may           unit.
be needed.                                                        Permeability of the Ravenrock soil is moderate in
    Because of slope, this soil is very limited for most      the upper part of the solum and slow in the lower part.
urban uses.                                                   Permeability of the Rohrersville soil is moderate above
    The land capability classification is 7s for the          the fragipan, slow or moderate in the fragipan, and
Ravenrock and Highfield soils and 8s for Rock outcrop.        moderately slow in the substratum. The Rohrersville
The woodland ordination symbol is 5R for the                  soil has a fragipan at a depth of 20 to 35 inches.
Ravenrock soil and 4R for the Highfield soil.                 Available water capacity is moderate on both soils.
                                                              Surface runoff for both soils is medium on the
RdC—Ravenrock-Rohrersville complex, 3                         Ravenrock soil and very high on the Rohrersville soil.
  to 15 percent slopes, extremely stony                       The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to 72
                                                              inches on the Ravenrock soil and at a depth of 15 to
   This map unit consists of the gently sloping to            25 inches on the Rohrersville soil. In unlimed areas
strongly sloping, very deep, moderately well drained          reaction is moderately acid to very strongly acid on the
Ravenrock soil and the somewhat poorly drained                Ravenrock soil and slightly acid to strongly acid on the
Rohrersville soil on swales and toeslopes. Slopes are         Rohrersville soil.
concave. Areas of the Ravenrock and Rohrersville                  Most areas of the Ravenrock and Highfield soils are
soils are irregular in shape, and range from 12 to 25         used as woodland.
acres in size. This map unit is about 45 percent                  These soils are generally not suited to cropland,
98                                                                                                        Soil Survey




hayland, or pasture because of large stones on the           lowlands. Included soils make up about 15 percent of
surface.                                                     the map unit.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is high.        Permeability of the Readington soil is moderate in
Because of stones on the surface, wheeled skidders           the upper part of the solum and moderately slow or
with high clearance should be operated at a reduced          moderate in the fragipan and substratum. Available
speed over carefully chosen routes. Removing                 water capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is low. The
undesirable species will increase production.                fragipan is at a depth of 20 to 36 inches. The seasonal
   These soils are very limited as sites for septic tank     high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches. In
absorption fields because of wetness and restricted          unlimed areas the soil is extremely acid to slightly acid
permeability. The Ravenrock soil is somewhat limited         in the upper part of the solum and strongly acid to
as a site for dwellings with basements because of            slightly acid in the lower part and in the substratum.
wetness and slope and somewhat limited for dwellings         The fragipan and the seasonal high water table restrict
without basements because of wetness. The                    root penetration.
Rohrersville soil is very limited as a site for dwellings        Most areas of the Readington soil are used as
because of wetness. The Ravenrock soil is somewhat           cropland or pasture. A few small areas are used as
limited as a site for local roads and streets because of     woodland or for urban development.
frost action and slope. The Rohrersville soil is limited         This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
for this use because of low strength and frost action.       grain, and most specialty crops. The main limitation is
   The land capability classification for the Ravenrock      the seasonal high water table. Another limitation is the
and Highfield soils is 6s. The woodland ordination           moderately slow permeability in the fragipan. During
symbol is 5X for the Ravenrock soil and 4W for the           periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly
Rohrersville soil.                                           distributed, drought can damage crops. A well
                                                             maintained, existing drainage system can help to
ReA—Readington silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                     overcome wetness. Leaving stubble on the surface and
  slopes                                                     adding other organic material help to conserve
                                                             moisture. Crop residue management, cover crops, and
    This is a nearly level, deep, moderately well drained    green manure crops help to maintain organic matter
soil on broad uplands and in depressions. Slopes are         content and to improve soil tilth.
smooth or concave. Areas of this soil are irregular or           This soil is well suited to pasture. However, it is
long and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100            poorly suited to deep-rooted legumes, such as alfalfa,
acres in size.                                               because moderately slow permeability in the fragipan
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish gray,       restricts root penetration and downward movement of
friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is      water. Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet,
about 30 inches thick. In the upper 15 inches it is          however, can damage the sod, reduces plant density
reddish brown, friable, silt loam. In the next 2 inches it   and forage yields, and causes surface compaction,
is reddish brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower   poor tilth, and excessive surface runoff. Proper
13 inches it is weak red, mottled, very firm and brittle     stocking rates to maintain key plant species, pasture
channery silt loam and very channery silt loam. The          rotation, timely deferment of grazing, application of
substratum, to a depth of 46 inches, is weak red,            fertilizers, and restricted use during wet periods help to
mottled, very firm extremely channery silt loam. Weak        keep the pasture and the soil in good condition.
red, fractured siltstone bedrock is at a depth of 46             Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
inches. In some areas the soil is gently sloping. In         moderately high. No limitations or hazards affect use
some areas the subsoil is yellowish brown. In a few          and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
areas the surface layer is loam and sandy loam. In           in large areas.
some areas the soil does not have a fragipan. In a few           This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
areas depth to bedrock is less than 40 inches or more        absorption fields because of wetness and depth to a
than 60 inches.                                              restrictive layer. It is somewhat limited as a site for
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few             dwellings without basements because of wetness. It is
scattered areas of well drained Lansdale soils on            very limited as a site for dwellings with basements and
broad, undulating ridgetops and somewhat poorly              most other urban uses because of wetness. It is
drained Abbottstown soils on slight rises below the          somewhat limited as a site for local roads and streets
Readington soil. Also included are a few small areas of      because of wetness and frost action.
deep, poorly drained Croton soils in shallow                     The land capability classification is 2w. The
depressions and along narrow drainageways on                 woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          99




ReB—Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                     a conservation tillage system that leaves protective
  slopes                                                     amounts of crop residue on the surface, contour
                                                             farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce surface
    This is a gently sloping, deep, moderately well          runoff and to prevent excessive soil loss. Cover crops
drained soil on broad uplands and in depressions.            and crop residue management also help to control
Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of this soil are         erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and to
irregular or long and narrow in shape, and range from 5      improve soil tilth.
to 100 acres in size.                                            This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
    Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish gray,       and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is      Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
about 30 inches thick. In the upper 15 inches it is          can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the next 2 inches it    yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
is reddish brown, mottled, friable silt loam. In the lower   increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
13 inches it is weak red, mottled, very firm and brittle     maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
channery silt loam and very channery silt loam. The          deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
substratum, to a depth of 46 inches, is weak red,            restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
mottled, very firm extremely channery silt loam. Weak        pasture and the soil in good condition.
red, fractured siltstone bedrock is at a depth of 46             Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level and           moderately high. No limitations or hazards affect use
strongly sloping. In some areas the subsoil is yellowish     and management. Machine planting of trees is practical
brown. In a few areas the surface layer is loam or           in large areas.
sandy loam. In some areas the soil does not have                 This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
fragipan. In a few areas depth to bedrock is less than       absorption fields because of wetness and depth to a
40 inches or more than 60 inches.                            restrictive layer. It is somewhat limited as a site for
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few             dwellings without basements because of wetness. It is
scattered areas of well drained Lansdale soils on            very limited as a site for dwellings with basements and
broad, undulating ridgetops and somewhat poorly              most other urban uses because of wetness. It is
drained Abbottstown soils on slight rises below the          somewhat limited as a site for local roads and streets
Readington soil. Also included are a few small areas of      because of wetness and frost action.
deep, poorly drained Croton soils in shallow                     The land capability classification is 2e. The
depressions and along narrow drainageways on                 woodland ordination symbol is 4A.
lowlands. Included soils make up about 15 percent of
the map unit.                                                RfA—Reaville channery silt loam, 0 to 3
    Permeability of the Readington soil is moderate in          percent slopes
the upper part of the solum and moderately slow or
moderate in the fragipan and in the substratum.                  This is a nearly level, moderately deep, moderately
Available water capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is      well drained soil on broad ridgetops and in depressions.
medium. The fragipan is at a depth of 20 to 36 inches.       Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave. Areas of this
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36      soil are irregular or long and narrow in shape, and range
inches. In unlimed areas this soil is extremely acid to      from 5 to 50 acres in size.
slightly acid in the upper part of the solum and strongly        Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable
acid to slightly acid in the lower part and in the           channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
substratum. The fragipan and the seasonal high water         reddish brown, mottled, friable and firm channery silt
table restrict root penetration.                             loam about 6 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or          of 25 inches, is dusky red, mottled, firm very channery
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban        silt loam. Weak red shale and siltstone bedrock is at a
development.                                                 depth of 25 inches. In some areas the soil is gently
    This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small        sloping. In some areas the subsoil is yellowish brown.
grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the major        In a few areas the soil has a weak fragipan. In some
hazard, and moderately slow permeability in the              areas depth to bedrock is less than 20 inches or more
fragipan is a limitation. During periods when rainfall is    than 40 inches.
below normal or is poorly distributed, drought can               Included with this soil in mapping are a few
damage crops. If cultivated crops are grown, a               scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained
cropping sequence that includes grasses and legumes,         Klinesville soils on knobs and along tops and sides of
100                                                                                                          Soil Survey




ridges and a few small areas of Penn soils on broad,           dwellings with basements and most other urban uses
undulating ridgetops. Also included are a few areas of         because of wetness and depth to bedrock. It is very
deep, poorly drained Croton soils in shallow                   limited as a site for local roads and streets because of
depressions and along narrow drainageways on                   frost action.
lowlands. Also included are small areas of somewhat               The land capability classification is 3w. The
poorly drained Lehigh soils on slightly higher rises           woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
above the Reaville soil and some small areas where
there are no rock fragments on the surface or in the           RfB—Reaville channery silt loam, 3 to 8
soil. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the              percent slopes
map unit.
   Permeability of the Reaville soil is moderate in the            This is a gently sloping, moderately deep,
surface layer and slow in the subsoil and substratum.          moderately well drained soil on ridgetops and in
Available water capacity is low or very low. Surface           depressions. Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave.
runoff is high. The seasonal high water table is at a          Areas of this soil are irregular or long and narrow in
depth of 16 to 36 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is        shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
strongly acid to slightly acid. Depth to bedrock and the           Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable
seasonal high water table restrict root penetration.           channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or             reddish brown, mottled, friable and firm channery silt
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban          loam about 6 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth
development.                                                   of 25 inches, is dusky red, mottled, firm very channery
   This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small           silt loam. Weak red shale and siltstone bedrock is at a
grain, and most specialty crops. Wetness is the main           depth of 25 inches. In some areas the soil is nearly
limitation. During periods when rainfall is below normal       level or strongly sloping. In some areas the subsoil is
or is poorly distributed, drought can damage crops. A          yellowish brown. In a few areas the soil has a weak
well maintained, existing drainage system can help to          fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than
overcome wetness. A conservation tillage system that           20 inches or more than 40 inches.
leaves protective amounts of crop residue on the                   Included with this soil in mapping are a few
surface, cover crops, and crop residue management              scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained
help to maintain organic matter content and to improve         Klinesville soils on knobs and along the tops and sides
soil tilth.                                                    of ridges and a few small areas of Penn soils on broad,
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or         undulating ridgetops. Also included are a few areas of
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the          deep, poorly drained Croton soils in shallow
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and              depressions and along narrow drainageways on
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased           lowlands. Also included are small areas of somewhat
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key          poorly drained Lehigh soils on slightly higher rises
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of           above the Reaville soil and some small areas where
grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use        rock fragments are neither on the surface nor in the
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil       soil. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the
in good condition.                                             map unit.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is                Permeability of the Reaville soil is moderate in the
moderately high. The equipment limitation and the              surface layer and slow in the subsoil and substratum.
windthrow hazard are major management concerns.                Available water capacity is low or very low. Surface
When the soil is wet, the logging roads tend to be             runoff is very high. The seasonal high water table is at
slippery and ruts form quickly. Use of planting or             a depth of 16 to 36 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is
logging equipment is limited during wet periods. Some          strongly acid to slightly acid. Depth to bedrock and the
replanting of seedlings may be needed. Harvest                 seasonal high water table restrict root penetration.
methods that do not isolate the remaining trees or                 Most areas of the Reaville soil are used as cropland
leave them widely spaced help to prevent windthrow.            or pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for
Machine planting of trees is practical in large areas.         urban development.
   Because of depth to bedrock, wetness, and slow                  This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, small
permeability, this soil is very limited as a site for septic   grain, and most specialty crops. Erosion is the major
tank absorption fields. It is somewhat limited as a site       hazard. During periods when rainfall is below normal or
for dwellings without basements because of wetness             is poorly distributed, drought can damage crops. If
and depth to bedrock. It is very limited as a site for         cultivated crops are grown, a cropping sequence that
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           101




includes grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage         loam about 6 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth
system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue        of 25 inches, is dusky red, mottled, firm very channery
on the surface, contour farming, and grassed                 silt loam. Weak red shale and siltstone bedrock is at a
waterways help to reduce surface runoff and to control       depth of 25 inches. In some areas the soil is gently
erosion. Cover crops and crop residue management             sloping and moderately steep. In some areas the
also help to control erosion, to maintain organic matter     subsoil is yellowish brown. In a few areas the soil has
content, and to improve soil tilth.                          a weak fragipan. In some areas depth to bedrock is
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses      less than 20 inches or more than 40 inches.
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.                 Included with this soil in mapping are a few
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,        scattered areas of somewhat excessively drained
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage         Klinesville soils on knobs and along the tops and sides
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       of ridges and a few small areas of Penn soils on broad,
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to           undulating ridgetops. Also included are a few areas of
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely         deep, poorly drained Croton soils in shallow
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and        depressions and along narrow drainageways on
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           lowlands. Also included are small areas of somewhat
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      poorly drained Lehigh soils on slightly higher rises
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          above the Reaville soil and some small areas where
moderately high. The equipment limitation and                rock fragments are neither on the surface nor in the
windthrow hazard are major management concerns.              soil. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the
When the soil is wet, logging roads tend to be slippery      map unit.
and ruts form quickly. Use of planting or logging                Permeability of the Reaville soil is moderate in the
equipment is limited during wet periods. Because of the      surface layer and slow in the subsoil and substratum.
erosion hazard, the grade of logging roads, skid trails,     Available water capacity is low or very low. Surface
and landings should be gentle and water should be            runoff is very high. The seasonal high water table is at
removed by water bars, outsloping road surfaces,             a depth of 16 to 36 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is
culverts, and drop structures. Some seedlings may            strongly acid to slightly acid. Depth to bedrock and the
need to be replanted. Harvest methods that do not            seasonal high water table restrict root penetration.
isolate the remaining trees or leave them widely                 Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
spaced help to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of        pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or for urban
trees is practical in large areas.                           development.
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank           This soil is well suited to specialty crops. It is fairly
absorption fields because of depth to bedrock,               well suited to corn, soybeans, and small grain. Erosion
wetness, and slow permeability. It is somewhat limited       is the major hazard. During periods when rainfall is
as a site for dwellings without basements because of         below normal or is poorly distributed, drought can
wetness and depth to bedrock. It is very limited as a        damage crops. If cultivated crops are grown, a
site for dwellings with basements and most other urban       cropping sequence that includes grasses and legumes,
uses because of wetness and depth to bedrock. It is          a conservation tillage system that leaves protective
very limited as a site for local roads and streets           amounts of crop residue on the surface, diversions,
because of frost action.                                     contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
   The land capability classification is 3w. The             surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                            crop residue management also help to control erosion,
                                                             to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
RfC—Reaville channery silt loam, 8 to 15                     tilth.
   percent slopes                                                This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
                                                             and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
   This is a strongly sloping, moderately deep,              Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
moderately well drained soil on ridgetops and in             can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
depressions. Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave.          yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
Areas of this soil are irregular or are long and narrow in   increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.                maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
   Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable    deferment of grazing, application of fertilizer, and
channery silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is      restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
reddish brown, mottled, friable and firm channery silt       pasture and the soil in good condition.
102                                                                                                        Soil Survey




    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is              Permeability of the Rohrersville soil is moderate
moderately high. The equipment limitation and                 above the fragipan and slow or moderately slow in the
windthrow hazard are major management concerns.               fragipan and moderately slow in the substratum.
When the soil is wet, logging roads tend to be slippery       Available water capacity is moderate, and surface
and ruts form quickly. Use of planting or logging             runoff is very high. The seasonal high water table is
equipment is limited during wet periods. Because of the       at a depth of 15 to 25 inches. In unlimed areas this
erosion hazard, the grade of logging roads, skid trails,      soil is slightly acid to strongly acid. The seasonal
and landings should be gentle and water should be             high water table and the fragipan restrict root
removed by water bars, outsloping road surfaces,              penetration.
culverts, and drop structures. Some replanting of                 Most areas of this soil are used as hayland or
seedlings may be needed. Harvest methods that do not          woodland or are idle land. A few areas are used as
isolate the remaining trees or leave them widely              pasture or cropland.
spaced help to prevent windthrow. Machine planting of             This soil is fairly well suited to crop production.
trees is practical in large areas.                            Major management concerns include the seasonal high
    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank       water table, wetness, and the erosion hazard. During
absorption fields because of depth to bedrock,                periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly
wetness, and slow permeability. It is somewhat limited        distributed, drought can damage crops. The fragipan
as a site for dwellings without basements because of          and the seasonal high water table restrict root
wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock. It is very limited      penetration. A well maintained, existing drainage
as a site for dwellings with basements and most other         system helps to overcome wetness. If cultivated crops
urban uses because of wetness and depth to bedrock.           are grown, a cropping sequence that includes grasses
It is severely limited as a site for local roads and          and legumes, a conservation tillage system that leaves
streets because of frost action.                              protective amounts of crop residue on the surface,
    The land capability classification is 3e. The             contour farming, and grassed waterways help to reduce
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                             surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover crops and
                                                              crop residue management also help to control erosion,
RoB—Rohrersville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent                    to maintain organic matter content, and to improve soil
  slopes                                                      tilth.
                                                                  This soil is fairly well suited to pasture. Major
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, somewhat             management concerns include seasonal high water
poorly drained soil on toe slopes and in swales. Slopes       table, wetness, and erosion. Growing grasses and
are concave. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long     legumes is effective in controlling erosion. Overgrazing
and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 150 acres in         or grazing when the soil is wet, however, can
size.                                                         damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
    Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,       yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth,
friable silt loam about 5 inches thick. The subsurface        and increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates
layer is brown, friable silt loam about 4 inches thick.       to maintain key plant species, pasture rotation,
The subsoil is about 53 inches thick. In the upper 6          timely deferment of grazing, applications of lime
inches it is light olive brown, mottled, friable silt loam.   and fertilizer, and restricted use during wet periods
In the next 10 inches it is light pale brown, mottled,        help to keep the pasture and the soil in good
friable silty clay loam. In the lower 24 inches it is         condition.
brown, mottled, friable silty clay loam. The substratum,          Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
to a depth of 62 inches, is yellowish red, mottled, firm      moderately high. Wetness is a management concern.
silty clay loam. Greenstone is at a depth of 62 inches.       Equipment should be operated only when the soil is
In some areas the soil has a fragipan. In some areas          relatively dry or is frozen. Machine planting of trees is
bedrock is at a depth of less than 60 inches.                 practical in large areas.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,          This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
scattered areas of well drained Highfield, Catoctin, and      absorption fields because of wetness and slow
Myersville soils on the steeper side slopes. These soils      permeability. It is very limited as a site for dwellings
are browner or redder throughout than the Rohrersville        because of wetness. It is very limited as a site for local
soil. Also included are some small areas of poorly            roads and streets because of low strength and frost
drained Hatboro soils on bottom lands. Hatboro soils          action.
are grayish throughout. Included soils make up about              The land capability classification is 3w. The
15 percent of the map unit.                                   woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           103




RsB—Rohrersville silt loam, 0 to 15                           soil is very limited as a site for local roads and streets
  percent slopes, very stony                                  because of wetness and frost action.
                                                                 The land capability classification is 6s. The
    This is a gently sloping, very deep, somewhat             woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
poorly drained soil on toe slopes and in swales. Slopes
are concave. Areas of this soil are irregular or are long     Rw—Rowland silt loam
and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 300 acres in
size. Stones and boulders cover about 1 to 3 percent              This is a nearly level, very deep, moderately well
of the surface. They range from 1 to more than 4 feet in      drained soil on flood plains. Slopes are smooth and
diameter.                                                     range from 0 to 3 percent. Areas of this soil are long
    Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,       and narrow in size, and range from 5 to 200 acres in
friable silt loam about 5 inches thick. The subsurface        size.
layer is brown, friable silt loam about 4 inches thick.           Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown,
The subsoil is about 53 inches thick. In the upper 6          very friable silt loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil
inches it is light olive brown, mottled, friable silt loam.   is about 18 inches thick. In the upper 6 inches it is
In the next 10 inches it is light pale brown, mottled,        reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the lower 12 inches
friable silt loam. In the next 6 inches it is brown,          it is reddish brown, mottled, friable silt loam. The
mottled, friable silty clay loam. In the lower 24 inches it   substratum extends to a depth of 60 inches. In the
is mottled, strong brown, firm silt loam and grayish          upper 16 inches it is weak red, mottled, firm silty clay
brown, firm silty clay loam. The substratum, to a depth       loam. In the lower 16 inches it is weak red, stratified
of 62 inches, is yellowish red, mottled, firm silty clay      sand and gravel. In some areas the stratified
loam. Greenstone is at a depth of 62 inches. In some          substratum is at a depth of less than 40 inches. In a
areas the soil has a fragipan. In some areas bedrock is       few areas depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches. In
at a depth of less than 60 inches.                            some areas the surface layer is loam or sandy loam.
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,          Included with this soil in mapping are a few, small,
scattered areas of well drained Highfield, Catoctin, and      scattered areas of somewhat poorly drained
Myersville soils on the steeper side slopes. These soils      Bowmansville soils on slightly lower rises and poorly
are browner or redder throughout than the Rohrersville        drained Lamington soils in swales and in narrow
soil. Also included are some small areas of poorly            drainageways. Also included are a few small areas of
drained Hatboro soils on bottom lands. Hatboro soils          moderately well drained Raritan soils on ridgetops and
are grayish throughout. Included soils make up about          side slopes of low stream terraces. Bowmansville and
15 percent of the map unit.                                   Lamington soils are grayish throughout. Raritan soils
    Permeability of the Rohrersville soil is moderate         have a fragipan. Also included are some areas that are
above the fragipan, slow or moderately slow in the            subject to rare flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.
fragipan, and moderately slow in the substratum.              Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
Available water capacity is moderate, and surface             unit.
runoff is very high. The seasonal high water table is at          Permeability of the Rowland soil is moderate or
a depth of 15 to 25 inches. In unlimed areas this soil is     moderately slow in the surface layer and subsoil and
slightly acid to strongly acid. The seasonal high water       moderately rapid in the substratum. Available water
table and the fragipan restrict root penetration.             capacity is moderate. Surface runoff is low. This soil is
    Most areas of this soil are used as woodland or are       subject to frequent flooding for brief periods, mainly in
idle land.                                                    late winter and early spring. In unlimed areas this soil
    This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and poorly      is very strongly acid to moderately acid throughout.
suited to permanent pasture because of the amount of          The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 36
stones and boulders on or beneath the surface.                inches.
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is              Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
moderately high. Wetness is a major management                pasture. Some small areas are used as woodland or
concern. Equipment should be operated only when the           are idle land.
soil is relatively dry or frozen. Machine planting of trees       This soil is well suited to corn and soybeans.
is practical in large areas.                                  However, it is fairly well suited to small grain because
    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank       floodwater causes severe crop damage. Frequent
absorption fields because of wetness and slow                 flooding is the main hazard. Crop residue management,
permeability. It is very limited as a site for dwellings      cover crops, and green manure crops help to maintain
and most other urban uses because of wetness. The             organic matter content and to improve soil tilth.
104                                                                                                      Soil Survey




   This soil is well suited to pasture. Overgrazing or      moderately well drained Readington soils on broad flats
grazing when the soil is wet, however, can damage the       and a few areas of somewhat poorly drained
sod, reduces plant density and forage yields, and           Abbottstown soils below the Steinsburg soil at heads
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and increased        of drains. Included soils make up about 15 percent of
surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to maintain key       the map unit.
plant species, pasture rotation, timely deferment of            Permeability of the Steinsburg soil is moderately
grazing, application of fertilizers, and restricted use     rapid, and available water capacity is low or very low.
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil    Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is
in good condition.                                          extremely acid to strongly acid. Depth to bedrock
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         restricts root penetration.
moderately high. The equipment limitation is the main           Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
management concern. Prolonged seasonal wetness              pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or are idle
hinders harvesting, logging, and planting of seedlings.     land.
Equipment should be used only during periods when               This soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, and small
the soil is relatively dry or is frozen. Machine planting   grain. Erosion is the major hazard, and the low or very
of trees is practical in large areas.                       low available water capacity is a limitation. During
   This soil is unsuited as a site for septic tank          periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly
absorption fields and dwellings because of flooding. It     distributed, drought can damage crops. If cultivated
is very limited as a site for local roads and streets       crops are grown, a cropping sequence that includes
because of flooding and frost action.                       grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage system
   The land capability classification is 2w. The            that leaves protective amounts of crop residue on the
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                           surface, contour farming, and grassed waterways help
                                                            to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover
StB—Steinsburg channery sandy loam, 3                       crops and crop residue management also help to
   to 8 percent slopes                                      control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
                                                            to improve soil tilth.
   This is a gently sloping, moderately deep, well              This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
drained soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are       and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
convex. Areas of this soil are long and narrow in           Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.                can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
   Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable   yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
channery sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The              increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
subsoil is yellowish red, friable channery sandy loam       maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
about 10 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 26     deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
inches, is reddish brown, friable channery loamy sand.      restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
Reddish brown sandstone bedrock is at a depth of            pasture and the soil in good condition.
about 26 inches. In some areas the soil is nearly level         Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
or strongly steep. In a few areas the soil is redder        moderately high. Seedling mortality is the main
throughout, and in other areas it has more silt             management concern. Selecting proper planting stock
throughout. In some areas depth to bedrock is at a          and limited overstocking help to reduce the seedling
depth of less than 20 inches.                               mortality rate. Seedlings survive and grow well if
   Included with this soil in mapping are a few             competing vegetation is controlled, especially during
scattered areas of shallow, somewhat excessively            the first few years, and if livestock is excluded from
drained Klinesville soils on sides of ridges below the      wooded areas. Machine planting of trees is generally
Steinsburg soil and a few areas of moderately deep,         practical in large areas.
well drained Penn soils on broad uplands. Also included         This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
are a few small areas of deep, well drained Lansdale        absorption fields because of depth to bedrock. It is
soils in landscape positions similar to those of the        somewhat limited as a site for dwellings because of
Steinsburg soil. Klinesville soils have less sand and       depth to bedrock. It is very limited as a site for
are shallower than the Steinsburg soil. Penn soils are      dwellings with basements because of depth to bedrock.
redder and have fewer rock fragments throughout than        It is somewhat limited as a site for local roads and
the Steinsburg soil. Lansdale soils have fewer              streets because of depth to bedrock.
channers and more clay throughout than the                      The land capability classification is 2e. The
Steinsburg soil. Also included are some small areas of      woodland ordination symbol is 8F.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        105




StC—Steinsburg channery sandy loam, 8                        control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
   to 15 percent slopes                                      to improve soil tilth.
                                                                This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
    This is a strongly sloping, moderately deep, well        and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
drained soil on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are        Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
convex. Areas of this soil are long and narrow in            can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
shape, and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.                 yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and
    Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable   increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to
channery sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The               maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
subsoil is yellowish red, friable channery sandy loam        deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and
about 10 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 26      restricted use during wet periods help to keep the
inches, is reddish brown, friable channery loamy sand.       pasture and the soil in good condition.
Reddish brown sandstone bedrock is at a depth of                Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
about 26 inches. In some areas the soil is gently            moderately high. Seedling mortality is the main
sloping or moderately steep. In a few areas the soil is      management concern. Selecting proper planting stock
redder throughout, and in other areas it has more silt       and limited overstocking help to reduce the seedling
throughout. In some areas depth to bedrock is less           mortality rate. Seedlings survive and grow well if
than 20 inches.                                              competing vegetation is controlled, especially during
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few             the first few years, and if livestock is excluded from
scattered areas of shallow, somewhat excessively             the wooded areas. Machine planting of trees is
drained Klinesville soils on sides of ridges below the       generally practical in large areas.
Steinsburg soil and a few scattered areas of                    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank
moderately deep, well drained Penn soils on broad            absorption fields because of depth to bedrock. It is
uplands. Also included are a few small areas of deep,        somewhat limited as a site for dwellings without
well drained Lansdale soils in landscape positions           basements because of depth to bedrock and slope. It
similar to those of the Steinsburg soil. Klinesville soils   is very limited as a site for dwellings with basements
have less sand and are shallower than the                    because of depth to bedrock. It is moderately limited
Steinsburg soil. Penn soils are redder and have              as a site for local roads and streets because of slope
fewer rock fragments throughout than the                     and depth to bedrock.
Steinsburg soil. Lansdale soils have fewer                      The land capability classification is 3e. The
channers and more clay throughout than the                   woodland ordination symbol is 8F.
Steinsburg soil. Also included are some small areas of
moderately well drained Readington soils on broad            StD—Steinsburg channery sandy loam,
flats. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the           15 to 25 percent slopes
map unit.
    Permeability of the Steinsburg soil is moderately           This is a moderately steep, moderately deep, well
rapid, and available water capacity is low or very low.      drained soil on sides of ridges. Slopes are convex.
Surface runoff is low. In unlimed areas this soil is         Areas of this soil are long and narrow in shape, and
extremely acid to strongly acid. Depth to bedrock            range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
restricts root penetration.                                     Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable
    Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or          channery sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or are idle         subsoil is yellowish red, friable channery sandy loam
land.                                                        about 10 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 26
    This soil is fairly well suited to corn, soybeans, and   inches, is reddish brown, friable channery loamy sand.
small grain. Erosion is the major hazard, and low or         Reddish brown sandstone bedrock is at a depth of
very low available water capacity is a limitation. During    about 26 inches. In some areas the soil is strongly
periods when rainfall is below normal or is poorly           sloping, steep, or very steep. In a few areas the soil is
distributed, drought can damage crops. If cultivated         redder throughout. In other areas it has more silt
crops are grown, a cropping sequence that includes           throughout. In some areas depth to bedrock is less
grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage system           than 20 inches.
that leaves protective amounts of crop residue on the           Included with this soil in mapping are a few
surface, contour farming, and grassed waterways help         scattered areas of shallow, somewhat excessively
to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover       drained Klinesville soils on sides of ridges below the
crops and crop residue management also help to               Steinsburg soil and a few scattered areas of
106                                                                                                        Soil Survey




moderately deep, well drained Penn soils on broad            absorption fields because of depth to bedrock and
uplands. Also included are a few small areas of deep,        slope. It is severely limited as a site for dwellings and
well drained Lansdale soils in landscape positions           local roads and streets because of slope.
similar to those of the Steinsburg soil. Klinesville soils      The land capability classification is 4e. The
have less sand and are shallower than the Steinsburg         woodland ordination symbol is 8F.
soil. Penn soils are redder and have fewer rock
fragments than the Steinsburg soil. Lansdale soils
have fewer channers and more clay throughout than            Uc—Urban land
the Steinsburg soil. Included soils make up about 15
                                                                This nearly level to strongly sloping map unit is on
percent of the map unit.
                                                             broad uplands, in depressions, and along
   Permeability of the Steinsburg soil is moderately
                                                             drainageways. Slopes are smooth, concave, or convex.
rapid, and available water capacity is low or very low.
                                                             Areas of this soil are rectangular or irregular in shape,
Surface runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil is
                                                             and range from 10 to more than 800 acres in size.
extremely acid to strongly acid. Depth to bedrock
                                                                Urban land consists of areas where 75 percent or
restricts root penetration.
                                                             more of the surface is covered by roads, streets,
   Most areas of this soil are used as cropland or
                                                             parking lots, houses, shopping centers, factories, and
pasture. Some areas are used as woodland or are idle
                                                             other municipal structures that so obscure or alter the
land.
                                                             soil that it was unidentifiable.
   This soil is poorly suited to corn, soybeans, and
                                                                Included with Urban land in mapping are small areas
small grain. Erosion is a major hazard, and low or very
                                                             having slopes of more than 15 percent and open areas
low available water capacity is a limitation. During
                                                             consisting of miscellaneous fill materials. Also included
periods when rainfall is below normal or poorly
                                                             are areas of soils that have been excavated or
distributed, drought can damage crops. If cultivated
                                                             smoothed and small areas of relatively undisturbed
crops are grown, a cropping sequence that includes
                                                             soils. Included areas make up about 15 percent of the
grasses and legumes, a conservation tillage system
                                                             map unit.
that leaves protective amounts of crop residue on the
                                                                Most areas of Urban land are in residential,
surface, contour farming, and grassed waterways help
                                                             commercial, or industrial use. A few areas are used for
to reduce surface runoff and to control erosion. Cover
                                                             schools, hospitals, cemeteries, and recreational
crops and crop residue management also help to
                                                             facilities.
control erosion, to maintain organic matter content, and
                                                                Onsite investigation is needed for areas of Urban
to improve soil tilth.
                                                             land to be used as building sites.
   This soil is well suited to pasture. Growing grasses
                                                                The land capability classification is 8s. A woodland
and legumes is effective in controlling erosion.
                                                             ordination symbol is not assigned.
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and       UeB—Urban land-Conestoga complex, 0
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to             to 8 percent slopes
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and           This nearly level or gently sloping map unit is on
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the           ridgetops and in depressions on uplands. It consists of
pasture and the soil in good condition.                      areas of the very deep, well drained Conestoga soil
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is          closely intermingled with areas of Urban land. Slopes
moderately high. The equipment limitation and seedling       are smooth, concave, and convex. Areas of this unit
mortality are major management concerns. When the            are rectangular or are long and narrow in shape, and
soil is wet, logging roads tend to be slippery and ruts      range from 10 to 200 acres in size. They are 65 percent
form quickly. Use of planting or logging equipment is        Urban land, 20 percent Conestoga soil, and 15 percent
limited during wet periods. Selecting proper planting        included soils.
stock and limited overstocking help to overcome                 Urban land consists of areas where 75 percent or
seedling mortality. Seedlings survive and grow well if       more of the surface is covered by roads, streets,
competing vegetation is controlled, especially during        parking lots, houses, shopping centers, factories, and
the first few years, and if livestock is excluded from       other municipal structures that so obscure or alter the
the wooded areas. Machine planting of trees is               soil that it was unidentifiable.
generally practical in large areas.                             Typically, the surface layer of the Conestoga soil is
   This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank   dark brown, friable silt loam about 9 inches thick. The
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        107




subsoil is about 31 inches thick. In the upper 8 inches      Urban land, 25 percent Penn soil, and 15 percent
it is brown, friable silt loam. In the next 7 inches it is   included soils.
yellowish brown, friable silty clay loam. In the lower 16        Urban land consists of areas where 75 percent or
inches it is brown, friable silty clay loam. The             more of the surface is covered by roads, streets,
substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is variegated           parking lots, houses, shopping centers, factories, and
brown, yellowish brown, and strong brown, friable silt       other municipal structures that so obscure or alter the
loam and loam. In some areas the soil is strongly            soil that it was unidentifiable.
sloping or moderately steep.                                     Typically, the surface layer of the Penn soil is dark
    Included with this soil in mapping are a few             reddish brown, friable silt loam about 9 inches thick.
scattered areas of very deep, moderately well drained        The subsoil is about 21 inches thick. In the upper 5
Clarksburg soils at the base of side slopes below the        inches it is reddish brown, friable silt loam. In the next
Conestoga soil and a few small areas of very deep,           10 inches it is dusky red, firm silt loam. In the lower 6
somewhat poorly drained Penlaw soils in swales on            inches it is dusky red, firm channery silt loam. The
lowlands. Clarksburg soils have gray mottles in the          substratum, to a depth of 38 inches, is dusky red, very
middle and lower parts of the subsoil and have a             firm very channery silt loam. Fractured dusky red
fragipan. Penlaw soils have gray mottles                     siltstone bedrock is at a depth of about 38 inches. In
throughout.Included soils make up about 15 percent of        some areas the soil is strongly sloping.
the map unit.                                                    Included with this soil in mapping are few scattered
    Permeability of the Conestoga soil is moderate.          areas of shallow, somewhat excessively drained
Available water capacity is moderate or high. Surface        Klinesville soils on the middle part of shoulder slopes
runoff is medium. In unlimed areas this soil ranges          and some small areas of deep, well drained Lansdale
from very strongly acid to neutral in the solum and          soils on the upper part of shoulder slopes. Also
from moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the             included are a few small areas of deep, moderately
substratum.                                                  well drained Readington soils and moderately deep
    Most areas of Urban land and the Conestoga soil          Reaville soils on low rises, along drainageways, and in
are used for residences, schools, commerce, and              depressions on uplands. Klinesville and Lansdale soils
industry.                                                    have more sand and rock fragments and less clay
    The Conestoga soil, or open part of this unit, is in     throughout than the Penn soil. Readington and Reaville
yards, vacant lots, lawns, gardens, cemeteries,              soils have gray mottles in the lower part of the subsoil.
athletic fields, and other areas. It is well suited to       Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
vegetables, flowers, grasses, trees, and shrubs. It has      unit.
few limitations to use as gardens, lawns, landscaping,           Permeability of the Penn soil is moderate or
golf courses, and recreation areas.                          moderately rapid, and available water capacity is low or
    The Conestoga soil is somewhat limited as a site for     moderate. Surface runoff is very low. In unlimed areas
septic tank absorption fields because of moderate            this soil is extremely acid to strongly acid in the upper
permeability. It is suited as a site for dwellings and       part of the solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in
most other urban uses. It is very limited as a site for      the lower part, and strongly acid to slightly acid in the
local roads and streets because of low strength and          substratum. Depth to bedrock restricts root penetration.
frost action. Onsite investigation is needed to                  Most areas of Urban land and the Penn soil are used
determine areas of the Conestoga soil.                       for residences, schools, commerce, and industry. The
    The land capability classification is 8s for Urban       Penn soil, or open part of this unit, is in yards, vacant
land and 2e for the Conestoga soil. The woodland             lots, lawns, gardens, cemeteries, athletic fields, and
ordination symbol for the Conestoga soil is 5A.              other areas.
                                                                 The Penn soil is fairly well suited to vegetables,
UgB—Urban land-Penn complex, 0 to 8                          flowers, grasses, trees, and shrubs. Severe hazard of
  percent slopes                                             erosion, low available water for plants, and rock
                                                             fragments in the surface layer are limitations for
   This nearly level and gently sloping map unit is in       gardens, lawns, landscaping, golf courses, and
depressions on broad uplands (fig. 15). It consists of       recreation areas.
areas of the moderately deep, well drained Penn soil             Because of depth to bedrock, the Penn soil is very
closely intermingled with areas of Urban land. Slopes        limited as a site for septic tank absorption fields. It is
are smooth, concave, and convex. Areas of this unit          suitable as a site for dwellings without basements. It is
are rectangular or are long and narrow in shape, and         somewhat limited as a site for dwellings with
range from 10 to 100 acres in size. They are 60 percent      basements and most other urban uses because of
108                                                                                                             Soil Survey




             Figure 15.—Residential development in an area of Urban land-Penn complex, 0 to 8 percent slopes.



depth to bedrock. Most areas of the map unit are                   Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray, friable
surface drained through sewer drains and gutters. The          silt loam about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
soil is somewhat limited as a site for local roads and         dark grayish brown, mottled, friable silt loam about 7
streets because of frost action. Onsite investigation is       inches thick. The subsoil is about 31 inches thick. In
needed to determine use of any areas of Penn soils.            the upper 9 inches it is dark gray, mottled, firm silty
   The land capability classification is 8s for Urban          clay. In the next 7 inches it is gray, mottled, firm clay.
land and 2e for the Penn soil. The woodland ordination         In the next 5 inches it is gray, mottled, friable silty clay
symbol is 3A.                                                  loam. In the lower 10 inches it is olive, mottled, friable
                                                               clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is
WaA—Watchung silt loam, 0 to 3 percent                         yellowish brown, mottled, firm loam. In some areas the
  slopes                                                       soil is gently sloping. In some areas the subsoil has
                                                               more sand and less clay than the Watchung soil. In a
   This is a nearly level, very deep, poorly drained soil      few areas the surface layer is black. In some areas
in depressions and along drainageways on lowlands.             depth to bedrock is less than 60 inches.
Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of this soil are               Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
oval, irregular, or long and narrow in shape, and range        areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained Lehigh and
from 5 to 100 acres in size.                                   Mount Lucas soils on slightly higher lying, broader
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            109




ridgetops above the Watchung soil. Also included are         roads and streets because of wetness, low strength,
some areas on the lowest part of lowlands that are           and frost action.
subject to occasional flooding. Also included are some          The land capability classification is 4w. The
areas where a few large boulders are on the surface          woodland ordination symbol is 4W.
and in the soil. Included soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit.                                     WaB—Watchung silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
    Permeability of the Watchung soil is moderate or           slopes
moderately slow in the surface layer, slow or very slow
in the subsoil, and moderate or moderately slow in the           This is a gently sloping, very deep, poorly drained
substratum. Available water capacity is high, and            soil in depressions and along drainageways on
surface runoff is very high or negligible. The seasonal      lowlands. Slopes are smooth or concave. Areas of this
high water table is within 12 inches of the surface,         soil are oval, irregular, or long and narrow in shape, and
mainly in winter and in early spring. In unlimed areas       range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
this soil is very strongly acid to slightly acid in the          Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray, friable
surface layer, strongly acid to neutral in the subsoil,      silt loam about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
and moderately acid to neutral in the substratum.            dark grayish brown, mottled, friable silt loam about 7
    Most areas of this soil are used as pasture or           inches thick. The subsoil is about 31 inches thick. In
woodland or are idle land. Some drained areas are used       the upper 9 inches it is dark gray, mottled, firm silty
as cropland.                                                 clay. In the next 7 inches it is gray, mottled, firm clay.
    This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops and       In the next 5 inches it is gray, mottled friable silty clay
such deep-rooted legumes as alfalfa because of               loam. In the lower 10 inches it is olive, mottled, friable
wetness and very slow or slow permeability in the            clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is
subsoil. Excessive water can be removed if existing          yellowish brown, mottled, firm loam. In some areas the
shallow surface drains, tile drains, or both are             soil is nearly level or strongly sloping. In some areas
maintained. Cover crops and a conservation tillage           the subsoil has more sand and less clay than the
system that leaves protective amounts of crop residue        Watchung soil. In a few areas the surface layer is
on the surface help to maintain organic matter content       black. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 60
and to improve soil tilth.                                   inches.
    This soil is well suited to pasture (fig. 16). It is         Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
poorly suited to such deep-rooted legumes as alfalfa         areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained Lehigh and
because very slow or slow permeability in the subsoil        Mount Lucas soils on slightly higher lying, broader
restricts root penetration and downward movement of          ridgetops above the Watchung soil. Also included are
water. Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet,          some areas on the lowest part of lowlands that are
however, can damage the sod, reduces plant density           subject to occasional flooding. Also included are some
and forage yields, and causes surface compaction,            areas where a few large boulders are on the surface
poor tilth, and increased surface runoff. Proper             and in the soil. Included soils make up about 15
stocking rates to maintain key plant species, pasture        percent of the map unit.
rotation, timely deferment of grazing, application of            Permeability of the Watchung soil is moderate or
fertilizers, and restricted use during wet periods help to   moderately slow in the surface layer, slow or very slow
keep the pasture and the soil in good condition.             in the subsoil, and moderate or moderately slow in the
    Potential productivity for trees on this soil is         substratum. Available water capacity is high, and
moderate. The main management concerns are the               surface runoff is very high. The seasonal high water
equipment limitation and seedling mortality. The             table is within 12 inches of the surface, mainly in
seasonal high water table restricts rooting depth.           winter and early spring. In unlimed areas this soil is
Equipment should be operated only when the soil is           very strongly acid to slightly acid in the surface layer,
relatively dry or is frozen. Using special planting stock    strongly acid to neutral in the subsoil, and moderately
and overstocking help to reduce the seedling mortality       acid to neutral in the substratum.
rate. Machine planting of trees is practical in large            All areas of this soil are used as pasture or
areas.                                                       woodland or are idle land.
    This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank          This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, grasses,
absorption fields because of wetness and very slow           and legumes for permanent pasture because of
and slow permeability in the subsoil. It is very limited     wetness and slow or very slow permeability in the
as a site for dwellings and most other urban uses            subsoil.
because of wetness. It is very limited as a site for local       This soil is fairly well suited to pasture. It is unsuited
110                                                                                                                  Soil Survey




             Figure 16.—An area of Watchung silt loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes. This soil is well suited to pasture.




to such deep-rooted legumes as alfalfa because slow               WbB—Watchung silt loam, 0 to 8 percent
or very slow permeability in the subsoil restricts root             slopes, extremely bouldery
penetration and downward movement of water.
Overgrazing or grazing when the soil is wet, however,                 This is a nearly level and gently sloping, very deep,
can damage the sod, reduces plant density and forage              poorly drained soil in depressions and along
yields, and causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and            drainageways on lowlands. Slopes are smooth or
increased surface runoff. Proper stocking rates to                concave. Areas of this soil are oval, irregular, or long
maintain key plant species, pasture rotation, timely              and narrow in shape, and range from 5 to 100 acres in
deferment of grazing, application of fertilizers, and             size. Stones and boulders cover about 3 to 15 percent
restricted use during wet periods help to keep the                of the surface. They range from 10 inches to more than
pasture and the soil in good condition.                           6 feet in diameter.
   Potential productivity for trees on this soil is                   Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray, friable
moderate. The equipment limitation and seedling                   silt loam about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
mortality are the main management concerns. The                   dark grayish brown, mottled, friable silt loam about 7
seasonal high water restricts rooting depth. Equipment            inches thick. The subsoil is about 31 inches thick. In
should be operated only when the soil is relatively               the upper 9 inches it is dark gray, mottled, firm silty
dry or is frozen. Using special planting stock                    clay. In the next 7 inches it is gray, mottled, firm clay.
and overstocking help to reduce the seedling                      In the next 5 inches it is gray, mottled, friable silty clay
mortality rate. Machine planting of trees is practical in         loam. In the lower 10 inches it is olive, mottled, friable
large areas.                                                      clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of 60 inches, is
   This soil is very limited as a site for septic tank            yellowish brown, mottled, firm loam. In some areas the
absorption fields because of wetness and very slow                soil is nearly level or strongly sloping. In some areas
and slow permeability in the subsoil. It is very limited          the subsoil has more sand and less clay than the
as a site for dwellings and most other urban uses                 Watchung soil. In a few areas the surface layer is
because of wetness. It is very limited as a site for local        black. In some areas depth to bedrock is less than 60
roads and streets because of wetness, low strength,               inches.
and frost action.                                                     Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
   The land capability classification is 6w. The                  areas of deep, somewhat poorly drained Lehigh and
woodland ordination symbol is 4W.                                 Mount Lucas soils on slightly higher lying, broader
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        111




ridgetops above the Watchung soil. Also included are        most types of farm machinery is impractical because
some small areas of well drained Highfield and              of stones and boulders on the surface.
Neshaminy soils on hills and ridges above the                  Potential productivity for trees on this soil is
Watchung soil. Included soils make up about 15              moderate. The main management concerns are the
percent of the map unit.                                    equipment limitation and seedling mortality. The
    Permeability of the Watchung soil is moderate or        seasonal high water restricts rooting depth. Equipment
moderately slow in the surface layer, slow or very slow     should be operated only when the soil is relatively dry
in the subsoil, and moderate or moderately slow in the      or is frozen. Using special planting stock and
substratum. Available water capacity is high, and           overstocking help to reduce the seedling mortality rate.
surface runoff is very high. The seasonal high water        Machine planting of trees is practical in large areas.
table is within 12 inches of the surface, mainly in            Because of wetness and very slow and slow
winter and in early spring. In unlimed areas this soil is   permeability in the subsoil, this soil is severely limited
very strongly acid to slightly acid in the surface layer,   as a site for septic tank absorption fields. It is very
strongly acid to neutral in the subsoil, and moderately     limited as a site for dwellings and most other urban
acid to neutral in the substratum.                          uses because of wetness. It is very limited as a site
    All areas of this soil are used as pasture or           for local roads and streets because of wetness, low
woodland or are idle land.                                  strength, and frost action.
    This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and to           The land capability classification is 7s. The
grasses and legumes for permanent pasture and use of        woodland ordination symbol is 4X.
                                                                                                                    113




Use and Management of the Soils
    This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of        indicate the severity of those limitations. The ratings in
the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust        these tables are both verbal and numerical.
land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
                                                              Rating Class Terms
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.                       Rating classes are expressed in the tables in terms
    In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,              that indicate the extent to which the soils are limited by
conservationists, engineers, and others collect               all of the soil features that affect a specified use or in
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral          terms that indicate the suitability of the soils for the
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on            use. Thus, the tables may show limitation classes or
erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that       suitability classes. Terms for the limitation classes are
affect various soil uses and management. Field                not limited, somewhat limited, and very limited. The
experience and collected data on soil properties and          suitability ratings are expressed as well suited,
performance are used as a basis in predicting soil            moderately suited, poorly suited, and unsuited or as
behavior.                                                     good, fair, and poor.
    Information in this section can be used to plan the
                                                              Numerical Ratings
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
forestland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,          Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the relative
highways and other transportation systems, and parks          severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown
and other recreational facilities; for agricultural waste     as decimal fractions ranging from 0.00 to 1.00. They
management; and as wildlife habitat. It can be used to        indicate gradations between the point at which a soil
identify the potentials and limitations of each soil for      feature has the greatest negative impact on the use
specific land uses and to help prevent construction           and the point at which the soil feature is not a
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.               limitation. The limitations appear in order from the most
    Planners and others using soil survey information         limiting to the least limiting. Thus, if more than one
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on              limitation is identified, the most severe limitation is
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the     listed first and the least severe one is listed last.
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or to create a land use pattern in harmony with the
natural soil.                                                 Crops and Pasture
    Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
                                                                  General management needed for crops and pasture
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
                                                              is suggested in this section. The estimated yields of
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
                                                              the main crops and pasture plants are listed, the
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
                                                              system of land capability classification used by the
    Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
                                                              Natural Resources Conservation Service is explained,
others may also find this survey useful. The survey
                                                              and prime farmland is described.
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and
                                                                  Planners of management systems for individual
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
                                                              fields or farms should consider the detailed information
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.
                                                              given in the description of each soil under the heading
                                                              “Detailed Soil Map Units.” Specific information can be
Interpretive Ratings                                          obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
                                                              Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
   The interpretive tables in this survey rate the soils in   Service.
the survey area for various uses. Many of the tables              Farming is the major land use in Adams County. The
identify the limitations that affect specified uses and       1982 Census of Agriculture (U.S. Department of
114                                                                                                          Soil Survey




Commerce, 1984) indicated that about 162,000 acres          entering watercourses. Highfield, Manor, Mt. Airy, and
was used for crops, pasture, or hay. Of this acreage,       Penn soils are examples.
about 12,000 acres was used for permanent pasture.              If the soil is not suitable for terracing or if the farmer
The Pennsylvania Statistical Summary for 1987-88            or manager does not prefer terraces, there are
(Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 1988)              alternatives. Contour stripcropping, for example, helps
reported that Adams County was planted to 41,200            to control erosion by alternating contoured strips of
acres of corn, 40,000 acres of alfalfa and other hay        close-growing crops with clean-tilled crops. Strips of
crops, 14,900 acres of small grain, 8,600 acres of          grasses or of grasses and legumes are generally used
soybeans, 1,100 acres of potatoes and vegetable             for hay. Areas between strips are cultivated and
crops, and 21,400 acres of orchards and vineyards.          planted to row crops on the contour. Conservation
The rest was idle cropland.                                 tillage, which is effective in controlling erosion on
    Water erosion is the major management concern on        sloping land, is becoming more common in the county.
most sloping cropland and overgrazed pasture in             It can be used on many soils. However, if a
Adams County. Erosion is a hazard on all soils where        conservation tillage system is applied in eroded areas,
slope is more than 1 percent.                               special management techniques are needed.
    Loss of the surface layer through erosion is                Soil drainage is a major management concern on
damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is            some soils in the county. A few, such as Baile, Croton,
reduced as the surface layer is lost and part of the        Dunning, Lamington, and Watchung soils, are naturally
subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer. Loss of the    wet and have reduced crop production during part of
surface layer is especially damaging on soils that are      the year. Commonly, however, crop yields can be
shallow or moderately deep to bedrock, on soils that        increased by 50 percent if the existing drainage
have low available water capacity, such as Catoctin,        system is maintained.
Klinesville, Penn, Steinsburg, and Mt. Airy soils, and          Some small, wet areas are in drainageways and
on soils where a layer in or below the subsoil limits       depressions. They are generally within larger areas of
depth of the root zone. On Clarksburg soils, for            well drained and moderately well drained soils. It is
example, plant roots cannot penetrate the fragipan. The     generally not practical to apply artificial drainage to
root zone consists of soil material above the fragipan.     these areas.
As erosion removes the topsoil, it reduces depth of the         Designs of surface and subsurface drainage
root zone. Second, soil erosion on farmland results in      systems vary with the kind of soil. A combination of
sedimentation of streams. Control of erosion minimizes      surface and subsurface drains is generally needed on
sedimentation of streams and improves water quality         somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained soils in
for municipal use, recreation, and fish and wildlife.       intensive farming. Tile drains must be more closely
    Erosion control measures provide a protective           spaced on soils where permeability is slow than on
cover, reduce the runoff rate, and increase the             soils where permeability is faster. Also, finding
infiltration rate. A cropping system that keeps a           adequate outlets for drainage systems is generally
vegetative cover on the surface for extended periods        difficult.
can minimize soil losses and can help to maintain the           On most soils used for crops in Adams County,
productive capacity of the soils. On livestock farms        organic matter content is low. Generally on these soils,
where forage crops are grown, including legumes and         structure is weak and intensive rainfall generally
grasses in a cropping sequence helps to control             results in crusting of the surface when the soil dries.
erosion on sloping land, provides additional nitrogen,      The crust is hard when dry, reducing water infiltration
and improves soil tilth for the following crop.             and increasing runoff. Regular additions of crop
    Terraces and diversions shorten the length of slopes    residue, manure, and other organic material improve
and thus help to reduce surface runoff and to control       soil structure and help to prevent surface crusting.
erosion. They are most practical on deep, well drained          Generally, fall plowing is not considered a good
soils that are highly susceptible to erosion, such as       practice on soils that have a silt loam surface layer
Athol, Conestoga, and Glenelg soils. Terraces reduce        and that are low in organic matter content. Fall plowing
soil loss and associated loss of fertilizer elements,       results in the formation of crusting in winter and spring.
help to prevent eroding sediments from damaging             Many soils are nearly as dense and hard at planting
crops and water courses, and help to eliminate the          time, after fall plowing, as they were before plowing. In
need for grassed waterways, which can take                  addition, sloping soils are subject to accelerated
productive land out of row crop production. Terraces        erosion if plowed in fall.
also facilitate farming on the contour, thus reducing the       Specialty crops produced in the area including
consumption of fuel and the amount of pesticides            Adams County are apples, peaches, cherries, grapes,
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            115




and other fruit (fig. 17). Deep and very deep, medium         limitations for field crops, the risk of damage if they are
textured soils that have good natural drainage and that       used for crops, and the way they respond to
warm up early in spring are best suited to these crops.       management. The criteria used in grouping the soils do
Good air drainage is needed to reduce frost damage to         not include major and generally expensive landforming
apples, peaches, cherries, and other tree fruits.             that would change slope, depth, or other
Undulating to rolling Arendtsville, Athol, Edgemont,          characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
Glenelg, Highfield, Legore, Lansdale, Neshaminy, and          possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
Myersville soils generally have the best soil properties      Capability classification is not a substitute for
for fruit crops.                                              interpretations designed to show suitability and
                                                              limitations of groups of soils for forestland or for
Yields per Acre
                                                              engineering purposes.
    The average yields per acre that can be expected of           In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
the principal crops under a high level of management          at three levels—capability class, subclass, and unit.
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be            Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
higher or lower than those indicated in the table             designated by the numbers 1 through 8. The numbers
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic          indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
factors. The land capability classification of map units      choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
in the survey area also is shown in the table.                follows:
    The yields are based mainly on the experience and             Class 1 soils have slight limitations that restrict their
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension           use.
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and             Class 2 soils have moderate limitations that restrict
results of field trials and demonstrations also are           the choice of plants or that require moderate
considered.                                                   conservation practices.
    The management needed to obtain the indicated                 Class 3 soils have severe limitations that restrict
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil       the choice of plants or that require special
and the crop. Management can include drainage,                conservation practices, or both.
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper         Class 4 soils have very severe limitations that
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop       restrict the choice of plants or that require very careful
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of         management, or both.
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable             Class 5 soils are subject to little or no erosion but
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,                 have other limitations, impractical to remove, that
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each            restrict their use mainly to pasture, rangeland,
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,         forestland, or wildlife habitat.
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures               Class 6 soils have severe limitations that make
the smallest possible loss.                                   them generally unsuitable for cultivation and that
    The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity      restrict their use mainly to pasture, rangeland,
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are      forestland, or wildlife habitat.
likely to increase as new production technology is                Class 7 soils have very severe limitations that make
developed. The relative productivity of a given soil          them unsuitable for cultivation and that restrict their
compared with that of other soils, however, is not likely     use mainly to grazing, forestland, or wildlife habitat.
to change.                                                        Class 8 soils and miscellaneous areas have
    Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in      limitations that preclude commercial plant production
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed          and that restrict their use to recreational purposes,
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local         wildlife habitat, watershed, or esthetic purposes.
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service              Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
or of the Cooperative Extension Service can provide           class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
information about the management and productivity of          w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, 2e. The
the soils for those crops.                                    letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
                                                              erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained;
Land Capability Classification
                                                              w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with
   Land capability classification shows, in a general         plant growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops   can be partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows
(USDA, 1961). Crops that require special management           that the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow,
are excluded. The soils are grouped according to their        droughty, or stony; and c, used in only some parts of
116                                                                                                             Soil Survey




Figure 17.—Orchards on Highfield soils in Adams County. Highfield soils, which are medium textured, deep, and well drained,
    are well suited to fruit trees.


the United States, shows that the chief limitation is            urban or built-up land or water areas. The soil qualities,
climate that is very cold or very dry.                           growing season, and moisture supply are those needed
    In class 1 there are no subclasses because the               for the soil to economically produce sustained high
soils of this class have few limitations. Class 5                yields of crops when proper management, including
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c             water management, and acceptable farming methods
because the soils in class V are subject to little or no         are applied. In general, prime farmland has an
erosion. They have other limitations that restrict their         adequate and dependable supply of moisture from
use to pasture, rangeland, forestland, wildlife habitat,         precipitation or irrigation, a favorable temperature and
or recreation.                                                   growing season, acceptable acidity or alkalinity, an
    The acreage of soils in each capability class or             acceptable salt and sodium content, and few or no
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability                     rocks. It is permeable to water and air. It is not
classification of map units in this survey area is given         excessively erodible or saturated with water for long
in the section “Detailed Soil Map Units” and in the              periods, and it either is not frequently flooded during
yields table.                                                    the growing season or is protected from flooding. Slope
                                                                 ranges mainly from 0 to 6 percent. More detailed
Prime Farmland
                                                                 information about the criteria for prime farmland is
    Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important          available at the local office of the Natural Resources
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.          Conservation Service.
It is of major importance in meeting the Nation’s short-             Prime farmland takes in about 113,000 acres, or
and long-range needs for food and fiber. Because the             about 34 percent, of Adams County. It is scattered
supply of high-quality farmland is limited, the U.S.             throughout the county.
Department of Agriculture recognizes that responsible                A recent trend in land use in some parts of the
levels of government, as well as individuals, should             survey area has been the loss of some prime farmland
encourage and facilitate the wise use of our Nation’s            to industrial and urban uses. The loss of prime
prime farmland.                                                  farmland to other uses puts pressure on marginal
    Prime farmland, as defined by the U.S. Department            lands, which generally are more erodible, droughty, and
of Agriculture, is land that has the best combination of         less productive and cannot be easily cultivated.
physical and chemical characteristics for producing                  The map units in the survey area that are
food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is              considered prime farmland are listed in table 7. This list
available for these uses. It could be cultivated land,           does not constitute a recommendation for a particular
pastureland, forestland, or other land, but it is not            land use. On some soils included in the list, measures
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          117




that overcome a hazard or limitation, such as flooding,      wastewater, rapid infiltration of wastewater, and slow
wetness, and droughtiness, are needed. Onsite                rate treatment of wastewater).
evaluation is needed to determine whether or not the             The ratings are both verbal and numerical. Rating
hazard or limitation has been overcome by corrective         class terms indicate the extent to which the soils are
measures. The extent of each listed map unit is shown        limited by all of the soil features that affect agricultural
in table 4. The location is shown on the detailed soil       waste management. Not limited indicates that the soil
maps. The soil qualities that affect use and                 has features that are very favorable for the specified
management are described under the heading “Detailed         use. Good performance and very low maintenance can
Soil Map Units.”                                             be expected. Somewhat limited indicates that the soil
                                                             has features that are moderately favorable for the
Agricultural Waste Management                                specified use. The limitations can be overcome or
                                                             minimized by special planning, design, or installation.
    Soil properties are important considerations in areas    Fair performance and moderate maintenance can be
where soils are used as sites for the treatment and          expected. Very limited indicates that the soil has one or
disposal of organic waste and wastewater. Selection of       more features that are unfavorable for the specified
soils with properties that favor waste management can        use. The limitations generally cannot be overcome
help to prevent environmental damage.                        without major soil reclamation, special design, or
    Tables 8a and 8b show the degree and kind of soil        expensive installation procedures. Poor performance
limitations affecting the treatment of agricultural waste,   and high maintenance can be expected.
including municipal and food-processing wastewater               Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity
and effluent from lagoons or storage ponds. Municipal        of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as
wastewater is the waste stream from a municipality. It       decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They
contains domestic waste and may contain industrial           indicate gradations between the point at which a soil
waste. It may have received primary or secondary             feature has the greatest negative impact on the use
treatment. It is rarely untreated sewage. Food-              (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a
processing wastewater results from the preparation of        limitation (0.00).
fruits, vegetables, milk, cheese, and meats for public           Application of manure and food-processing waste
consumption. In places it is high in content of sodium       not only disposes of waste material but also can
and chloride. In the context of these tables, the effluent   improve crop production by increasing the supply of
in lagoons and storage ponds is from facilities used to      nutrients in the soils where the material is applied.
treat or store food-processing wastewater or domestic        Manure is the excrement of livestock and poultry, and
or animal waste. Domestic and food-processing                food-processing waste is damaged fruit and vegetables
wastewater is very dilute, and the effluent from the         and the peelings, stems, leaves, pits, and soil
facilities that treat or store it commonly is very low in    particles removed in food preparation. The manure and
content of carbonaceous and nitrogenous material; the        food-processing waste are either solid, slurry, or liquid.
content of nitrogen commonly ranges from 10 to 30            Their nitrogen content varies. A high content of
milligrams per liter. The wastewater from animal waste       nitrogen limits the application rate. Toxic or otherwise
treatment lagoons or storage ponds, however, has             dangerous wastes, such as those mixed with the lye
much higher concentrations of these materials, mainly        used in food processing, are not considered in the
because the manure has not been diluted as much as           ratings.
the domestic waste. The content of nitrogen in this              The ratings are based on the soil properties that
wastewater generally ranges from 50 to 2,000                 affect absorption, plant growth, microbial activity,
milligrams per liter. When wastewater is applied,            erodibility, the rate at which the waste is applied, and
checks should be made to ensure that nitrogen,               the method by which the waste is applied. The
heavy metals, and salts are not added in excessive           properties that affect absorption include permeability,
amounts.                                                     depth to a water table, ponding, the sodium adsorption
    The ratings in the tables are for waste management       ratio, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, and
systems that not only dispose of and treat organic           available water capacity. The properties that affect
waste or wastewater but also are beneficial to crops         plant growth and microbial activity include reaction, the
(application of manure and food-processing waste,            sodium adsorption ratio, salinity, and bulk density. The
application of sewage sludge, and disposal of                wind erodibility group, the soil erodibility factor K, and
wastewater by irrigation) and for waste management           slope are considered in estimating the likelihood that
systems that are designed only for the purpose of            wind erosion or water erosion will transport the waste
wastewater disposal and treatment (overland flow of          material from the application site. Stones, cobbles, a
118                                                                                                       Soil Survey




water table, ponding, and flooding can hinder the            pan, bulk density, the sodium adsorption ratio, salinity,
application of waste. Permanently frozen soils are           reaction, and the cation-exchange capacity, which is
unsuitable for waste treatment.                              used to estimate the capacity of a soil to adsorb heavy
   Application of sewage sludge not only disposes of         metals. Permanently frozen soils are not suitable for
waste material but also can improve crop production by       disposal of wastewater by irrigation.
increasing the supply of nutrients in the soils where the        Overland flow of wastewater is a process in which
material is applied. In the context of this table, sewage    wastewater is applied to the upper reaches of sloped
sludge is the residual product of the treatment of           land and allowed to flow across vegetated surfaces,
municipal sewage. The solid component consists               sometimes called terraces, to runoff-collection ditches.
mainly of cell mass, primarily bacteria cells that           The length of the run generally is 150 to 300 feet. The
developed during secondary treatment and have                application rate ranges from 2.5 to 16.0 inches per
incorporated soluble organics into their own bodies. The     week. It commonly exceeds the rate needed for
sludge has small amounts of sand, silt, and other solid      irrigation of cropland. The wastewater leaves solids and
debris. The content of nitrogen varies. Some sludge          nutrients on the vegetated surfaces as it flows
has constituents that are toxic to plants or hazardous       downslope in a thin film. Most of the water reaches the
to the food chain, such as heavy metals and exotic           collection ditch, some is lost through
organic compounds, and should be analyzed                    evapotranspiration, and a small amount may percolate
chemically prior to use.                                     to the ground water.
   The content of water in the sludge ranges from                The ratings in the table are based on the soil
about 98 percent to less than 40 percent. The sludge is      properties that affect absorption, plant growth,
considered liquid if it is more than about 90 percent        microbial activity, and the design and construction of
water, slurry if it is about 50 to 90 percent water, and     the system. Reaction and the cation-exchange
solid if it is less than about 50 percent water.             capacity affect absorption. Reaction, salinity, and the
   The ratings in the table are based on the soil            sodium adsorption ratio affect plant growth and
properties that affect absorption, plant growth,             microbial activity. Slope, permeability, depth to a water
microbial activity, erodibility, the rate at which the       table, ponding, flooding, depth to bedrock or a
sludge is applied, and the method by which the sludge        cemented pan, stones, and cobbles affect design and
is applied. The properties that affect absorption, plant     construction. Permanently frozen soils are unsuitable
growth, and microbial activity include permeability,         for waste treatment.
depth to a water table, ponding, the sodium adsorption           Rapid infiltration of wastewater is a process in which
ratio, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, available         wastewater applied in a level basin at a rate of 4 to 120
water capacity, reaction, salinity, and bulk density. The    inches per week percolates through the soil. The
wind erodibility group, the soil erodibility factor K, and   wastewater may eventually reach the ground water. The
slope are considered in estimating the likelihood that       application rate commonly exceeds the rate needed for
wind erosion or water erosion will transport the waste       irrigation of cropland. Vegetation is not a necessary
material from the application site. Stones, cobbles, a       part of the treatment; hence, the basins may or may
water table, ponding, and flooding can hinder the            not be vegetated. The thickness of the soil material
application of sludge. Permanently frozen soils are          needed for proper treatment of the wastewater is more
unsuitable for waste treatment.                              than 72 inches. As a result, geologic and hydrologic
   Disposal of wastewater by irrigation not only             investigation is needed to ensure proper design and
disposes of municipal wastewater and wastewater from         performance and to determine the risk of ground-water
food-processing plants, lagoons, and storage ponds           pollution.
but also can improve crop production by increasing the           The ratings in the table are based on the soil
amount of water available to crops. The ratings in the       properties that affect the risk of pollution and the
table are based on the soil properties that affect the       design, construction, and performance of the system.
design, construction, management, and performance of         Depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, and depth to
the irrigation system. The properties that affect design     bedrock or a cemented pan affect the risk of pollution
and management include the sodium adsorption ratio,          and the design and construction of the system. Slope,
depth to a water table, ponding, available water             stones, and cobbles also affect design and
capacity, permeability, slope, and flooding. The             construction. Permeability and reaction affect
properties that affect construction include stones,          performance. Permanently frozen soils are unsuitable
cobbles, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, depth to        for waste treatment.
a water table, and ponding. The properties that affect           Slow rate treatment of wastewater is a process in
performance include depth to bedrock or a cemented           which wastewater is applied to land at a rate normally
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          119




between 0.5 inch and 4.0 inches per week. The                clay in the upper part of the soil; S, sandy texture; F, a
application rate commonly exceeds the rate needed for        high content of rock fragments in the soil; L, low
irrigation of cropland. The applied wastewater is treated    strength; and N, snowpack. The letter A indicates that
as it moves through the soil. Much of the treated water      limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has
may percolate to the ground water, and some enters           more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: R,
the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. The applied       X, W, T, D, C, S, F, L, and N.
water generally is not allowed to run off the surface.          In table 9, the potential productivity of merchantable
Waterlogging is prevented either through control of the      or common trees on a soil is expressed as a site index
application rate or through the use of tile drains, or       and as a volume number. The site index is the average
both.                                                        height, in feet, that dominant and codominant trees of
    The ratings in the table are based on the soil           a given species attain in a specified number of years.
properties that affect absorption, plant growth,             The site index applies to fully stocked, even-aged,
microbial activity, erodibility, and the application of      unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees are those
waste. The properties that affect absorption include the     that forest managers generally favor in intermediate or
sodium adsorption ratio, depth to a water table,             improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis
ponding, available water capacity, permeability, depth       of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability. More
to bedrock or a cemented pan, reaction, the cation-          detailed information regarding site index is available in
exchange capacity, and slope. Reaction, the sodium           the “National Forestry Manual,” which is available in
adsorption ratio, salinity, and bulk density affect plant    local offices of the Natural Resources Conservation
growth and microbial activity. The wind erodibility          Service or on the Internet.
group, the soil erodibility factor K, and slope are             The volume of wood fiber, a number, is the yield
considered in estimating the likelihood of wind erosion      likely to be produced by the most important tree
or water erosion. Stones, cobbles, a water table,            species. This number, expressed as cubic feet per acre
ponding, and flooding can hinder the application of          per year and calculated at the age of culmination of the
waste. Permanently frozen soils are unsuitable for           mean annual increment (CMAI), indicates the amount
waste treatment.                                             of fiber produced in a fully stocked, even-aged,
                                                             unmanaged stand.
Forest Productivity and Management                              Trees to manage are those that are preferred for
                                                             planting, seeding, or natural regeneration and those
   The tables in this section can help forest owners or      that remain in the stand after thinning or partial
managers plan the use of soils for wood crops. Tables        harvest.
9 and 10a to 10e show the potential productivity of the
                                                             Forestland Management
soils for wood crops and rate the soils according to the
limitations that affect various aspects of forest               In tables 10a through 10e, interpretive ratings are
management (Society of American Foresters, 1954).            given for various aspects of forest management. The
                                                             ratings are both verbal and numerical.
Forest Productivity
                                                                Some rating class terms indicate the degree to
    Table 9 lists the ordination symbol for each soil.       which the soils are suited to a specified forest
Soils assigned the same ordination symbol require the        management practice. Well suited indicates that the
same general management and have about the same              soil has features that are favorable for the specified
potential productivity.                                      practice and has no limitations. Good performance can
    The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,       be expected, and little or no maintenance is needed.
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for an     Moderately suited indicates that the soil has features
indicator tree species. The number indicates the             that are moderately favorable for the specified practice.
volume, in cubic meters per hectare per year, which          One or more soil properties are less than desirable,
the indicator species can produce in a pure stand            and fair performance can be expected. Some
under natural conditions. The number 1 indicates low         maintenance is needed. Poorly suited indicates that the
potential productivity; 2 or 3, moderate; 4 or 5,            soil has one or more properties that are unfavorable for
moderately high; 6 to 8, high; 9 to 11, very high; and 12    the specified practice. Overcoming the unfavorable
to 39, extremely high. The second part of the symbol,        properties requires special design, extra maintenance,
a letter, indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The   and costly alteration. Unsuited indicates that the
letter R indicates steep slopes; X, stoniness or             expected performance of the soil is unacceptable for
rockiness; W, excess water in or on the soil; T, toxic       the specified practice or that extreme measures are
substances in the soil; D, restricted rooting depth; C,      needed to overcome the undesirable soil properties.
120                                                                                                        Soil Survey




    Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity     road or off-trail areas where 50 to 75 percent of the
of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as           surface has been exposed by logging, grazing, mining,
decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They             or other kinds of disturbance. The hazard is described
indicate gradations between the point at which a soil         as slight, moderate, severe, or very severe. A rating of
feature has the greatest negative impact on the               slight indicates that erosion is unlikely under ordinary
specified forest management practice (1.00) and the           climatic conditions; moderate indicates that some
point at which the soil feature is not a limitation (0.00).   erosion is likely and that erosion-control measures may
    Rating class terms for fire damage and seedling           be needed; severe indicates that erosion is very likely
mortality are expressed as low, moderate, and high.           and that erosion-control measures, including
Where these terms are used, the numerical ratings             revegetation of bare areas, are advised; and very
indicate gradations between the point at which the            severe indicates that significant erosion is expected,
potential for fire damage or seedling mortality is            loss of soil productivity and off-site damage are likely,
highest (1.00) and the point at which the potential is        and erosion-control measures are costly and generally
lowest (0.00).                                                impractical.
    The paragraphs that follow indicate the soil                 Ratings in the column hazard of erosion on roads
properties considered in rating the soils for forest          and trails are based on the soil erodibility factor K,
management practices. More detailed information               slope, and content of rock fragments. The ratings apply
about the criteria used in the ratings is available in the    to unsurfaced roads and trails. The hazard is described
“National Forestry Manual,” which is available in local       as slight, moderate, or severe. A rating of slight
offices of the Natural Resources Conservation Service         indicates that little or no erosion is likely; moderate
or on the Internet (http://soils.usda.gov/technical/          indicates that some erosion is likely, that the roads or
nfmanual/).                                                   trails may require occasional maintenance; and that
    For limitations affecting construction of haul roads      simple erosion-control measures are needed; and
and log landings, the ratings are based on slope,             severe indicates that significant erosion is expected,
flooding, permafrost, plasticity index, the hazard of soil    that the roads or trails require frequent maintenance,
slippage, content of sand, the Unified classification,        and that costly erosion-control measures are needed.
rock fragments on or below the surface, depth to a               Ratings in the column suitability for roads (natural
restrictive layer that is indurated, depth to a water         surface) are based on slope, rock fragments on the
table, and ponding. The limitations are described as          surface, plasticity index, content of sand, the Unified
slight, moderate, or severe. A rating of slight indicates     classification, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding,
that no significant limitations affect construction           and the hazard of soil slippage. The ratings indicate the
activities, moderate indicates that one or more               suitability for using the natural surface of the soil for
limitations can cause some difficulty in construction,        roads. The soils are described as well suited,
and severe indicates that one or more limitations can         moderately suited, or poorly suited to this use.
make construction very difficult or very costly.                 Ratings in the columns suitability for hand planting
    The ratings of suitability for log landings are based     and suitability for mechanical planting are based on
on slope, rock fragments on the surface, plasticity           slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand,
index, content of sand, the Unified classification, depth     plasticity index, rock fragments on or below the
to a water table, ponding, flooding, and the hazard of        surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. The soils
soil slippage. The soils are described as well suited,        are described as well suited, moderately suited, poorly
moderately suited, or poorly suited to use as log             suited, or unsuited to these methods of planting. It is
landings.                                                     assumed that necessary site preparation is completed
    Ratings in the column soil rutting hazard are based       before seedlings are planted.
on depth to a water table, rock fragments on or below            Ratings in the column suitability for use of
the surface, the Unified classification, depth to a           harvesting equipment are based on slope, rock
restrictive layer, and slope. Ruts form as a result of the    fragments on the surface, plasticity index, content of
operation of forest equipment. The hazard is described        sand, the Unified classification, depth to a water table,
as slight, moderate, or severe. A rating of slight            and ponding. The soils are described as well suited,
indicates that the soil is subject to little or no rutting,   moderately suited, or poorly suited to this use.
moderate indicates that rutting is likely, and severe            Ratings in the column suitability for mechanical site
indicates that ruts form readily.                             preparation (surface) are based on slope, depth to a
    Ratings in the column hazard of off-road or off-trail     restrictive layer, plasticity index, rock fragments on or
erosion are based on slope and on soil erodibility factor     below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding.
K. The soil loss is caused by sheet or rill erosion in off-   The soils are described as well suited, poorly suited, or
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          121




unsuited to this management activity. The part of the         indicate gradations between the point at which a soil
soil from the surface to a depth of about 1 foot is           feature has the greatest negative impact on the use
considered in the ratings.                                    (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a
   Ratings in the column suitability for mechanical site      limitation (0.00).
preparation (deep) are based on slope, depth to a                The ratings in the tables are based on restrictive soil
restrictive layer, rock fragments on or below the             features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. The soils       surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
are described as well suited, poorly suited, or unsuited      Not considered in the ratings, but important in
to this management activity. The part of the soil from        evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the surface to a depth of about 3 feet is considered in       the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
the ratings.                                                  quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
   Ratings in the column potential for damage to soil         impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
by fire are based on texture of the surface layer,            The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
content of rock fragments and organic matter in the           and the ability of the soil to support vegetation also are
surface layer, thickness of the surface layer, and slope.     important. Soils that are subject to flooding are limited
The soils are described as having a low, moderate, or         for recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
high potential for this kind of damage. The ratings           flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
indicate an evaluation of the potential impact of             planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of
prescribed fires or wildfires that are intense enough to      the height, duration, intensity, and frequency of
remove the duff layer and consume organic matter in           flooding is essential.
the surface layer.                                               The information in tables 11a and 11b can be
   Ratings in the column potential for seedling               supplemented by other information in this survey, for
mortality are based on flooding, ponding, depth to a          example, interpretations for building site development,
water table, content of lime, reaction, salinity, available   construction materials, sanitary facilities, and water
water capacity, soil moisture regime, soil temperature        management.
regime, aspect, and slope. The soils are described as            Camp areas require site preparation, such as
having a low, moderate, or high potential for seedling        shaping and leveling the tent and parking areas,
mortality.                                                    stabilizing roads and intensively used areas, and
                                                              installing sanitary facilities and utility lines. Camp
Recreation                                                    areas are subject to heavy foot traffic and some
                                                              vehicular traffic. The ratings are based on the soil
    The soils of the survey area are rated in tables 11a      properties that affect the ease of developing camp
and 11b according to limitations that affect their            areas and the performance of the areas after
suitability for recreation. The ratings are both verbal       development. Slope, stoniness, and depth to bedrock
and numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent         or a cemented pan are the main concerns affecting the
to which the soils are limited by all of the soil features    development of camp areas. The soil properties that
that affect the recreational uses. Not limited indicates      affect the performance of the areas after development
that the soil has features that are very favorable for the    are those that influence trafficability and promote the
specified use. Good performance and very low                  growth of vegetation, especially in heavily used areas.
maintenance can be expected. Somewhat limited                 For good trafficability, the surface of camp areas
indicates that the soil has features that are moderately      should absorb rainfall readily, remain firm under heavy
favorable for the specified use. The limitations can be       foot traffic, and not be dusty when dry. The soil
overcome or minimized by special planning, design, or         properties that influence trafficability are texture of the
installation. Fair performance and moderate                   surface layer, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding,
maintenance can be expected. Very limited indicates           permeability, and large stones. The soil properties that
that the soil has one or more features that are               affect the growth of plants are depth to bedrock or a
unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations            cemented pan, permeability, and toxic substances in
generally cannot be overcome without major soil               the soil.
reclamation, special design, or expensive installation           Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic (fig.
procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance             18). Most vehicular traffic is confined to access roads
can be expected.                                              and parking areas. The ratings are based on the soil
    Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity     properties that affect the ease of developing picnic
of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as           areas and that influence trafficability and the growth of
decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They             vegetation after development. Slope and stoniness are
122                                                                                                            Soil Survey




                      Figure 18.—A picnic area on Neshaminy channery silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes.



the main concerns affecting the development of picnic           affect the growth of plants are depth to bedrock or a
areas. For good trafficability, the surface of picnic           cemented pan, permeability, and toxic substances in
areas should absorb rainfall readily, remain firm under         the soil.
heavy foot traffic, and not be dusty when dry. The soil            Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
properties that influence trafficability are texture of the     should require little or no slope modification through
surface layer, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding,       cutting and filling. The ratings are based on the soil
permeability, and large stones. The soil properties that        properties that affect trafficability and erodibility. These
affect the growth of plants are depth to bedrock or a           properties are stoniness, depth to a water table,
cemented pan, permeability, and toxic substances in             ponding, flooding, slope, and texture of the surface
the soil.                                                       layer.
   Playgrounds require soils that are nearly level, are            Off-road motorcycle trails require little or no site
free of stones, and can withstand intensive foot traffic.       preparation. They are not covered with surfacing
The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect        material or vegetation. Considerable compaction of the
the ease of developing playgrounds and that influence           soil material is likely. The ratings are based on the soil
trafficability and the growth of vegetation after               properties that influence erodibility, trafficability,
development. Slope and stoniness are the main                   dustiness, and the ease of revegetation. These
concerns affecting the development of playgrounds.              properties are stoniness, slope, depth to a water table,
For good trafficability, the surface of the playgrounds         ponding, flooding, and texture of the surface layer.
should absorb rainfall readily, remain firm under heavy            Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
foot traffic, and not be dusty when dry. The soil               some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
properties that influence trafficability are texture of the     required. Irrigation is not considered in the ratings. The
surface layer, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding,       ratings are based on the soil properties that affect
permeability, and large stones. The soil properties that        plant growth and trafficability after vegetation is
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         123




established. The properties that affect plant growth are      available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
reaction; depth to a water table; ponding; depth to           stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
bedrock or a cemented pan; the available water                moisture also are considerations. Examples of grain
capacity in the upper 40 inches; the content of salts,        and seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, oats, and
sodium, or calcium carbonate; and sulfidic materials.         barley.
The properties that affect trafficability are flooding,          Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial
depth to a water table, ponding, slope, stoniness, and        grasses and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and
the amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the            features that affect the growth of grasses and legumes
surface layer. The suitability of the soil for traps, tees,   are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
roughs, and greens is not considered in the ratings.          available water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness,
                                                              flooding, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture
Wildlife Habitat                                              also are considerations. Examples of grasses and
                                                              legumes are fescue, timothy, bromegrass, clover, and
    Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that       alfalfa.
is available to wildlife as food and cover. They also            Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
affect the construction of water impoundments. The            established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
kind and abundance of wildlife depend largely on the          properties and features that affect the growth of these
amount and distribution of food, cover, and water.            plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
Wildlife habitat can be created or improved by planting       layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
appropriate vegetation, by maintaining the existing           stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
plant cover, or by promoting the natural establishment        moisture also are considerations. Examples of wild
of desirable plants.                                          herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, beggar-
    In table 12, the soils in the survey area are rated       tick, quackgrass, and ragweed.
according to their potential for providing habitat for           Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used       or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
in planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas,      Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
and other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils       hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
that are suitable for establishing, improving, or             available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
maintaining specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in     these plants are oak, birch, cherry, maple, apple,
determining the intensity of management needed for            hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry.
each element of the habitat.                                  Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for
    The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or   planting on soils rated good are gray dogwood, autumn-
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element        olive, and crabapple.
or kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or           Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,          properties and features that affect the growth of
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of         coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth
fair indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be     of the root zone, available water capacity, and
established, improved, or maintained in most places.          wetness. Examples of coniferous plants are pine,
Moderately intensive management is required for               spruce, yew, cedar, and hemlock.
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that            Shrubs are bushy woody plants that produce fruit,
limitations are severe for the designated element or          buds, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil properties and
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or         features that affect the growth of shrubs are depth of
maintained in most places, but management is difficult        the root zone, available water capacity, salinity, and
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates        soil moisture. Examples of shrubs are
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are      mountainmahogany, bitterbrush, snowberry, and big
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be            sagebrush.
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is         Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
impractical or impossible.                                    herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
    The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the     Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
following paragraphs.                                         properties and features affecting wetland plants are
    Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-        texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and              slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops       plants are smartweed, arrowhead, bur reed, pickerel
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,     weed, cattail, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
124                                                                                                        Soil Survey




    Shallow water areas have an average depth of less        properties that are associated with wetness. In order to
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are        determine whether a specific soil is a hydric soil or
created by dams, levees, or other water-control              nonhydric soil, however, more specific information,
structures. Soil properties and features affecting           such as information about the depth and duration of the
shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness,           water table, is needed. Thus, criteria that identify those
surface stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples         estimated soil properties unique to hydric soils have
of shallow water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding        been established (Federal Register, 1995). These
areas, swamps, and ponds.                                    criteria are used to identify a phase of a soil series that
    The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described   normally is associated with wetlands. The criteria used
in the following paragraphs.                                 are selected estimated soil properties that are
    Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,      described in “Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1999)
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with          and “Keys to Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1990)
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas               and in the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil Survey Division
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,           Staff, 1993).
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these          If soils are wet enough for a long enough period to
areas include bobwhite quail, meadow vole,                   be considered hydric, they should exhibit certain
meadowlark, field sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.          properties that can be easily observed in the field.
    Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of       These visible properties are indicators of hydric soils.
deciduous plants, coniferous plants, or both, and            The indicators used to make onsite determinations of
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous             hydric soils in this survey area are specified in “Field
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild       Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States” (Hurt
turkey, ruffed grouse, woodcock, thrushes,                   and others, 1998).
woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, and deer.             Hydric soils are identified by examining and
    Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open,           describing the soil to a depth of about 20 inches. This
marshy, or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the           depth may be greater if determination of an appropriate
wildlife attracted to such areas are ducks, geese,           indicator so requires. It is always recommended that
herons, shore birds, muskrat, frogs, and tree swallow.       soils be excavated and described to the depth
                                                             necessary for an understanding of the redoximorphic
Hydric Soils                                                 processes. Then, using the completed soil
                                                             descriptions, soil scientists can compare the soil
    In this section, hydric soils are defined and            features required by each indicator and specify which
described and the hydric soils in the survey area are        indicators have been matched with the conditions
listed.                                                      observed in the soil. The soil can be identified as a
    The three essential characteristics of wetlands are      hydric soil if at least one of the approved indicators is
hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland            present.
hydrology (Cowardin and others, 1979; U.S. Army                  The map units that meet the definition of hydric
Corps of Engineers, 1987; National Research Council          soils and, in addition, have at least one of the hydric
1995; Tiner 1985). Criteria for each of the                  soil indicators are listed in table 13. The local landform
characteristics must be met for areas to be identified       is given for both hydric components and hydric
as wetlands. Undrained hydric soils that have natural        inclusions. This list can help in planning land uses;
vegetation should support a dominant population of           however, onsite investigation is recommended to
ecological wetland plant species. Hydric soils that have     determine the hydric soils on a specific site (National
been converted to other uses should be capable of            Research Council, 1995; Hurt and others, 1998).
being restored to wetlands.                                      Map units that are made up of hydric soils may
    Hydric soils are defined by the National Technical       have small areas, or inclusions, of nonhydric soils in
Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS) as soils that             the higher positions on the landform, and map units
formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or          made up of nonhydric soils may have inclusions of
ponding long enough during the growing season to             hydric soils in the lower positions on the landform.
develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part (Federal          Table 14 lists the map units with hydric inclusions.
Register, 1994). These soils are either saturated or         These map units, in general, do not meet the definition
inundated long enough during the growing season to           of hydric soils because they do not have one of the
support the growth and reproduction of hydrophytic           hydric soil indicators. A portion of these map units,
vegetation.                                                  however, has the potential to include hydric soils.
    The NTCHS definition identifies general soil             Onsite investigation is recommended to determine the
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            125




presence and location of the included hydric soils. The        alternative routes for roads, streets, highways,
local landforms of the hydric soil inclusions also are         pipelines, and underground cables; evaluate alternative
given in table 14.                                             sites for sanitary landfills, septic tank absorption fields,
                                                               and sewage lagoons; plan detailed onsite
Engineering                                                    investigations of soils and geology; locate potential
                                                               sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; plan
    This section provides information for planning land        drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, terraces,
uses related to urban development and to water                 and other structures for soil and water conservation;
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the          and predict performance of proposed small
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given       structures and pavements by comparing the
for building site development, sanitary facilities,            performance of existing similar structures on the same
construction materials, and water management. The              or similar soils.
ratings are based on observed performance of the soils            The information in the tables, along with the soil
and on the data in the tables described under the              maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
heading “Soil Properties.”                                     this survey, can be used to make additional
    Information in this section is intended for land use       interpretations.
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for           Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
planning site investigations prior to design and               special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
construction. The information, however, has limitations.       Glossary.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
                                                               Building Site Development
only to that part of the soil between the surface and a
depth of 5 to 7 feet. Because of the map scale, small              Soil properties influence the development of building
areas of different soils may be included within the            sites, including the selection of the site, the design of
mapped areas of a specific soil.                               the structure, construction, performance after
    The information is not site specific and does not          construction, and maintenance. Tables 15a and 15b
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils       show the degree and kind of soil limitations that affect
or for testing and analysis by personnel experienced           dwellings with and without basements, small
in the design and construction of engineering                  commercial buildings, local roads and streets, shallow
works.                                                         excavations, and lawns and landscaping.
    Government ordinances and regulations that restrict            The ratings in the tables are both verbal and
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria           numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent to
were not considered in preparing the information in            which the soils are limited by all of the soil features
this section. Local ordinances and regulations should          that affect building site development. Not limited
be considered in planning, in site selection, and in           indicates that the soil has features that are very
design.                                                        favorable for the specified use. Good performance and
    Soil properties, site features, and observed               very low maintenance can be expected. Somewhat
performance were considered in determining the ratings         limited indicates that the soil has features that are
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,    moderately favorable for the specified use. The
determinations were made about particle-size                   limitations can be overcome or minimized by special
distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction,   planning, design, or installation. Fair performance and
depth to bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 7            moderate maintenance can be expected. Very limited
feet of the surface, soil wetness, depth to a water            indicates that the soil has one or more features that
table, ponding, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil    are unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations
structure aggregation, and soil density. Data were             generally cannot be overcome without major soil
collected about kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of          reclamation, special design, or expensive installation
the sand and silt fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed         procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance
cations. Estimates were made for erodibility,                  can be expected.
permeability, corrosivity, shrinking and swelling,                 Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity
available water capacity, and other behavioral                 of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as
characteristics affecting engineering uses.                    decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They
    This information can be used to evaluate the               indicate gradations between the point at which a soil
potential of areas for residential, commercial,                feature has the greatest negative impact on the use
industrial, and recreational uses; make preliminary            (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a
estimates of construction conditions; evaluate                 limitation (0.00).
126                                                                                                         Soil Survey




   Dwellings are single-family houses of three stories        properties that affect the traffic-supporting capacity
or less. For dwellings without basements, the                 are soil strength (as inferred from the AASHTO
foundation is assumed to consist of spread footings of        group index number), subsidence, linear
reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth      extensibility (shrink-swell potential), the potential
of 2 feet or at the depth of maximum frost penetration,       for frost action, depth to a water table, and
whichever is deeper. For dwellings with basements, the        ponding.
foundation is assumed to consist of spread footings of            Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth      maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for graves, utility lines,
of about 7 feet. The ratings for dwellings are based on       open ditches, or other purposes. The ratings are based
the soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to   on the soil properties that influence the ease of digging
support a load without movement and on the properties         and the resistance to sloughing. Depth to bedrock or a
that affect excavation and construction costs. The            cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented
properties that affect the load-supporting capacity           pan, the amount of large stones, and dense layers
include depth to a water table, ponding, flooding,            influence the ease of digging, filling, and compacting.
subsidence, linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential),    Depth to the seasonal high water table, flooding, and
and compressibility. Compressibility is inferred from the     ponding may restrict the period when excavations can
Unified classification. The properties that affect the        be made. Slope influences the ease of using
ease and amount of excavation include depth to a              machinery. Soil texture, depth to the water table, and
water table, ponding, flooding, slope, depth to bedrock       linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential) influence the
or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a                   resistance to sloughing.
cemented pan, and the amount and size of rock                     Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
fragments.                                                    and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
   Small commercial buildings are structures that are         and maintained. Irrigation is not considered in the
less than three stories high and do not have                  ratings. The ratings are based on the soil properties
basements. The foundation is assumed to consist of            that affect plant growth and trafficability after
spread footings of reinforced concrete built on               vegetation is established. The properties that affect
undisturbed soil at a depth of 2 feet or at the depth of      plant growth are reaction; depth to a water table;
maximum frost penetration, whichever is deeper. The           ponding; depth to bedrock or a cemented pan; the
ratings are based on the soil properties that affect the      available water capacity in the upper 40 inches; the
capacity of the soil to support a load without                content of salts, sodium, or calcium carbonate; and
movement and on the properties that affect excavation         sulfidic materials. The properties that affect
and construction costs. The properties that affect the        trafficability are flooding, depth to a water table,
load-supporting capacity include depth to a water table,      ponding, slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand,
ponding, flooding, subsidence, linear extensibility           clay, or organic matter in the surface layer.
(shrink-swell potential), and compressibility (which is
                                                              Sanitary Facilities
inferred from the Unified classification). The properties
that affect the ease and amount of excavation include            Tables 16a and 16b show the degree and kind of soil
flooding, depth to a water table, ponding, slope, depth       limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
to bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or          sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, and daily cover for
a cemented pan, and the amount and size of rock               landfill. The ratings are both verbal and numerical.
fragments.                                                    Rating class terms indicate the extent to which the
   Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface        soils are limited by all of the soil features that affect
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.        these uses. Not limited indicates that the soil has
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base     features that are very favorable for the specified use.
of gravel, crushed rock, or soil material stabilized by       Good performance and very low maintenance can be
lime or cement; and a surface of flexible material            expected. Somewhat limited indicates that the soil has
(asphalt), rigid material (concrete), or gravel with a        features that are moderately favorable for the specified
binder. The ratings are based on the soil properties that     use. The limitations can be overcome or minimized by
affect the ease of excavation and grading and the             special planning, design, or installation. Fair
traffic-supporting capacity. The properties that affect       performance and moderate maintenance can be
the ease of excavation and grading are depth to               expected. Very limited indicates that the soil has one or
bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a           more features that are unfavorable for the specified
cemented pan, depth to a water table, ponding,                use. The limitations generally cannot be overcome
flooding, the amount of large stones, and slope. The          without major soil reclamation, special design, or
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         127




expensive installation procedures. Poor performance              A high content of organic matter is detrimental to
and high maintenance can be expected.                        proper functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits
    Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity    aerobic activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans
of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as          can cause construction problems, and large stones
decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They            can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor. If the lagoon
indicate gradations between the point at which a soil        is to be uniformly deep throughout, the slope must be
feature has the greatest negative impact on the use          gentle enough and the soil material must be thick
(1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a      enough over bedrock or a cemented pan to make land
limitation (0.00).                                           smoothing practical.
    Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which             A trench sanitary landfill is an area where solid
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil     waste is placed in successive layers in an excavated
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that       trench. The waste is spread, compacted, and covered
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 60 inches is       daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site.
evaluated. The ratings are based on the soil properties      When the trench is full, a final cover of soil material at
that affect absorption of the effluent, construction and     least 2 feet thick is placed over the landfill. The ratings
maintenance of the system, and public health.                in the table are based on the soil properties that affect
Permeability, depth to a water table, ponding, depth to      the risk of pollution, the ease of excavation,
bedrock or a cemented pan, and flooding affect               trafficability, and revegetation. These properties include
absorption of the effluent. Stones and boulders, ice,        permeability, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan,
and bedrock or a cemented pan interfere with                 depth to a water table, ponding, slope, flooding,
installation. Subsidence interferes with installation and    texture, stones and boulders, highly organic layers, soil
maintenance. Excessive slope may cause lateral               reaction, and content of salts and sodium. Unless
seepage and surfacing of the effluent in downslope           otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that part of
areas.                                                       the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper
    Some soils are underlain by loose sand and gravel        trenches, onsite investigation may be needed.
or fractured bedrock at a depth of less than 4 feet              Hard, nonrippable bedrock, creviced bedrock, or
below the distribution lines. In these soils the             highly permeable strata in or directly below the
absorption field may not adequately filter the effluent,     proposed trench bottom can affect the ease of
particularly when the system is new. As a result, the        excavation and the hazard of ground-water pollution.
ground water may become contaminated.                        Slope affects construction of the trenches and the
    Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to          movement of surface water around the landfill. It also
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the             affects the construction and performance of roads in
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly        areas of the landfill.
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments              Soil texture and consistence affect the ease with
of compacted soil. Nearly impervious soil material for       which the trench is dug and the ease with which the
the lagoon floor and sides is required to minimize           soil can be used as daily or final cover. They determine
seepage and contamination of ground water.                   the workability of the soil when dry and when wet. Soils
Considered in the ratings are slope, permeability, depth     that are plastic and sticky when wet are difficult to
to a water table, ponding, depth to bedrock or a             excavate, grade, or compact and are difficult to place
cemented pan, flooding, large stones, and content of         as a uniformly thick cover over a layer of refuse.
organic matter.                                                  The soil material used as the final cover for a trench
    Soil permeability is a critical property affecting the   landfill should be suitable for plants. It should not have
suitability for sewage lagoons. Most porous soils            excess sodium or salts and should not be too acid. The
eventually become sealed when they are used as sites         surface layer generally has the best workability, the
for sewage lagoons. Until sealing occurs, however, the       highest content of organic matter, and the best
hazard of pollution is severe. Soils that have a             potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
permeability rate of more than 2 inches per hour are         should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.
too porous for the proper functioning of sewage                  In an area sanitary landfill, solid waste is placed in
lagoons. In these soils, seepage of the effluent can         successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
result in contamination of the ground water. Ground-         is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
water contamination is also a hazard if fractured            layer of soil from a source away from the site. A final
bedrock is within a depth of 40 inches, if the water         cover of soil material at least 2 feet thick is placed
table is high enough to raise the level of sewage in the     over the completed landfill. The ratings in the table are
lagoon, or if floodwater overtops the lagoon.                based on the soil properties that affect trafficability and
128                                                                                                       Soil Survey




the risk of pollution. These properties include flooding,    evaluate the soil as a source of gravel or sand are
permeability, depth to a water table, ponding, slope,        gradation of grain sizes (as indicated by the Unified
and depth to bedrock or a cemented pan.                      classification of the soil), the thickness of suitable
    Flooding is a serious problem because it can result      material, and the content of rock fragments. If the
in pollution in areas downstream from the landfill. If       bottom layer of the soil contains gravel or sand, the
permeability is too rapid or if fractured bedrock, a         soil is considered a likely source regardless of
fractured cemented pan, or the water table is close to       thickness. The assumption is that the sand or gravel
the surface, the leachate can contaminate the water          layer below the depth of observation exceeds the
supply. Slope is a consideration because of the extra        minimum thickness.
grading required to maintain roads in the steeper areas          The soils are rated good, fair, or poor as potential
of the landfill. Also, leachate may flow along the           sources of gravel and sand. A rating of good or fair
surface of the soils in the steeper areas and cause          means that the source material is likely to be in or
difficult seepage problems.                                  below the soil. The bottom layer and the thickest layer
    Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is    of the soils are assigned numerical ratings. These
used to cover compacted solid waste in an area               ratings indicate the likelihood that the layer is a source
sanitary landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite,    of sand or gravel. The number 0.00 indicates that the
transported to the landfill, and spread over the waste.      layer is a poor source. The number 1.00 indicates that
The ratings in the table also apply to the final cover for   the layer is a good source. A number between 0.00 and
a landfill. They are based on the soil properties that       1.00 indicates the degree to which the layer is a likely
affect workability, the ease of digging, and the ease of     source.
moving and spreading the material over the refuse                The soils are rated good, fair, or poor as potential
daily during wet and dry periods. These properties           sources of reclamation material, roadfill, and topsoil.
include soil texture, depth to a water table, ponding,       The features that limit the soils as sources of these
rock fragments, slope, depth to bedrock or a cemented        materials are specified in the tables. The numerical
pan, reaction, and content of salts, sodium, or lime.        ratings given after the specified features indicate the
    Loamy or silty soils that are free of large stones and   degree to which the features limit the soils as sources
excess gravel are the best cover for a landfill. Clayey      of topsoil, reclamation material, or roadfill. The lower
soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils     the number, the greater the limitation.
are subject to wind erosion.                                     Reclamation material is used in areas that have
    Slope affects the ease of excavation and of moving       been drastically disturbed by surface mining or similar
the cover material. Also, it can influence runoff,           activities. When these areas are reclaimed, layers of
erosion, and reclamation of the borrow area.                 soil material or unconsolidated geological material, or
    After soil material has been removed, the soil           both, are replaced in a vertical sequence. The
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick          reconstructed soil favors plant growth. The ratings in
enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water            the table do not apply to quarries and other mined
table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as      areas that require an offsite source of reconstruction
the final cover for a landfill should be suitable for        material. The ratings are based on the soil properties
plants. It should not have excess sodium, salts, or          that affect erosion and stability of the surface and the
lime and should not be too acid.                             productive potential of the reconstructed soil. These
                                                             properties include the content of sodium, salts, and
Construction Materials
                                                             calcium carbonate; reaction; available water capacity;
   Tables 17a and 17b give information about the soils       erodibility; texture; content of rock fragments; and
as potential sources of gravel, sand, topsoil,               content of organic matter and other features that affect
reclamation material, and roadfill. Normal compaction,       fertility.
minor processing, and other standard construction                Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one
practices are assumed.                                       place and used in road embankments in another place.
   Gravel and sand are natural aggregates suitable for       In this table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill
commercial use with a minimum of processing. They            for low embankments, generally less than 6 feet high
are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications       and less exacting in design than higher embankments.
for each use vary widely. In table 17a, only the                 The ratings are for the whole soil, from the surface
likelihood of finding material in suitable quantity is       to a depth of about 5 feet. It is assumed that soil
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific      layers will be mixed when the soil material is
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect       excavated and spread.
excavation of the material. The properties used to               The ratings are based on the amount of suitable
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                       129




material and on soil properties that affect the ease of     generally cannot be overcome without major soil
excavation and the performance of the material after it     reclamation, special design, or expensive installation
is in place. The thickness of the suitable material is a    procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance
major consideration. The ease of excavation is affected     can be expected.
by large stones, depth to a water table, and slope. How         Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity
well the soil performs in place after it has been           of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as
compacted and drained is determined by its strength         decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They
(as inferred from the AASHTO classification of the soil)    indicate gradations between the point at which a soil
and linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential).          feature has the greatest negative impact on the use
    Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation     (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a
can be established and maintained. The upper 40             limitation (0.00).
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also          Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow        embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
area. The ratings are based on the soil properties that     seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
affect plant growth; the ease of excavating, loading,       potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and spreading the material; and reclamation of the          and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
borrow area. Toxic substances, soil reaction, and the       material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
properties that are inferred from soil texture, such as     capacity of the reservoir area.
available water capacity and fertility, affect plant            Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised
growth. The ease of excavating, loading, and                structures of soil material, generally less than 20 feet
spreading is affected by rock fragments, slope,             high, constructed to impound water or to protect land
depth to a water table, soil texture, and thickness of      against overflow. Embankments that have zoned
suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow area is        construction (core and shell) are not considered. In this
affected by slope, depth to a water table, rock             table, the soils are rated as a source of material for
fragments, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, and          embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil material
toxic material.                                             below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 feet. It is
    The surface layer of most soils is generally            assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and
preferred for topsoil because of its organic matter         compacted during construction.
content. Organic matter greatly increases the                   The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
absorption and retention of moisture and nutrients for      soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
plant growth.                                               depth even greater than the height of the embankment
                                                            can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Water Management
                                                            Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
   Table 18 gives information on the soil properties and    determine these properties.
site features that affect water management. The degree          Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir   seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-         compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
fed excavated ponds. The ratings are both verbal and        include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent to        content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
which the soils are limited by all of the soil features     or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
that affect these uses. Not limited indicates that the      usable material. It also affects trafficability.
soil has features that are very favorable for the               Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
specified use. Good performance and very low                extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
maintenance can be expected. Somewhat limited               permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
indicates that the soil has features that are moderately    only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
favorable for the specified use. The limitations can be     impound water 3 feet or more above the original
overcome or minimized by special planning, design, or       surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
installation. Fair performance and moderate                 permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and
maintenance can be expected. Very limited indicates         quality of the water as inferred from the salinity of the
that the soil has one or more features that are             soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones
unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations          affect the ease of excavation.
                                                                                                                 131




Soil Properties
    Data relating to soil properties are collected during    of State Highway and Transportation Officials
the course of the soil survey.                               (AASHTO, 2000).
    Soil properties are ascertained by field examination        The Unified system classifies soils according to
of the soils and by laboratory index testing of some         properties that affect their use as construction
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are         material. Soils are classified according to particle-size
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are        distribution of the fraction less than 3 inches in
made and examined to identify and classify the soils         diameter and according to plasticity index, liquid limit,
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are          and organic matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the           are identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and
laboratory to determine particle-size distribution,          SC; silty and clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and
plasticity, and compaction characteristics. These            OH; and highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting
results are reported in table 19.                            engineering properties of two groups can have a dual
    Estimates of soil properties are based on field          classification, for example, CL-ML.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the           The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of           those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field            maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
observations, verify properties that cannot be               soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified
estimated accurately by field observation, and help to       in one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the
characterize key soils.                                      basis of particle-size distribution, liquid limit, and
    The estimates of soil properties are shown in tables.    plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained
They include engineering index properties, physical          and low in content of fines (silt and clay). At the other
and chemical properties, and pertinent soil and water        extreme, soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly
features.                                                    organic soils are classified in group A-8 on the basis of
                                                             visual inspection.
Engineering Index Properties                                    If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-
                                                             7 groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
    Table 19 gives the engineering classifications and       A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
the range of index properties for the layers of each soil    refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade
in the survey area.                                          material can be indicated by a group index
    Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each          number. Group index numbers range from 0 for the
layer is indicated.                                          best subgrade material to 20 or higher for the
    Texture is given in the standard terms used by the       poorest.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are                 Rock fragments larger than 10 inches in diameter
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and          and 3 to 10 inches in diameter are indicated as a
clay in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2         percentage of the total soil on a dry-weight basis. The
millimeters in diameter. “Loam,” for example, is             percentages are estimates determined mainly by
soil that is 7 to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent          converting volume percentage in the field to weight
silt, and less than 52 percent sand. If the content          percentage.
of particles coarser than sand is 15 percent or                 Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
more, an appropriate modifier is added, for                  sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
example, “gravelly.” Textural terms are defined in the       inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
Glossary.                                                    sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
    Classification of the soils is determined according to   Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
the Unified soil classification system (ASTM, 2001)          millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
and the system adopted by the American Association           laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area
132                                                                                                         Soil Survey




and in nearby areas and on estimates made in the             to adsorb cations and to retain moisture. They
field.                                                       influence shrink-swell potential, permeability, plasticity,
    Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)     the ease of soil dispersion, and other soil properties.
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The       The amount and kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage
estimates are based on test data from the survey area        and earthmoving operations.
or from nearby areas and on field examination.                    Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
    The estimates of particle-size distribution, liquid      unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
limit, and plasticity index are generally rounded to the     field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
                                                             1
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and        /3- or 1/10-bar (33kPa or 10kPa) moisture tension.
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2            Weight is determined after the soil is dried at 105
percentage points) across classification boundaries,         degrees C. In the table, the estimated moist bulk
the classification in the marginal zone is generally         density of each soil horizon is expressed in grams per
omitted in the table.                                        cubic centimeter of soil material that is less than 2
                                                             millimeters in diameter. Bulk density data are used to
Physical Properties                                          compute shrink-swell potential, available water
                                                             capacity, total pore space, and other soil properties.
   Table 20 shows estimates of some physical                 The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the pore
characteristics and features that affect soil behavior.      space available for water and roots. Depending on soil
These estimates are given for the layers of each soil in     texture, a bulk density of more than 1.4 can restrict
the survey area. The estimates are based on field            water storage and root penetration. Moist bulk density
observations and on test data for these and similar          is influenced by texture, kind of clay, content of
soils.                                                       organic matter, and soil structure.
   Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each                Permeability (Ksat ) refers to the ability of a soil to
layer is indicated.                                          transmit water or air. The term “permeability,” as used in
   Particle size is the effective diameter of a soil         soil surveys, indicates saturated hydraulic conductivity
particle as measured by sedimentation, sieving, or           (Ksat ). The estimates in the table indicate the rate of
micrometric methods. Particle sizes are expressed as         water movement, in inches per hour, when the soil is
classes with specific effective diameter class limits.       saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
The broad classes are sand, silt, and clay, ranging          observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity,
from the larger to the smaller.                              and texture. Permeability is considered in the design of
   Sand as a soil separate consists of mineral soil          soil drainage systems and septic tank absorption
particles that are 0.05 millimeter to 2 millimeters in       fields.
diameter. In table 20, the estimated sand content of              Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
each soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of      water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in         plants. The capacity for water storage is given in
diameter.                                                    inches of water per inch of soil for each soil layer. The
   Silt as a soil separate consists of mineral soil          capacity varies, depending on soil properties that
particles that are 0.002 to 0.05 millimeter in diameter.     affect retention of water. The most important properties
In table 20, the estimated silt content of each soil layer   are the content of organic matter, soil texture, bulk
is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil material    density, and soil structure. Available water capacity is
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.                 an important factor in the choice of plants or crops to
   Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil          be grown and in the design and management of
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in             irrigation systems. Available water capacity is not an
diameter. In table 20, the estimated clay content of         estimate of the quantity of water actually available to
each soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of      plants at any given time.
the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in              Linear extensibility refers to the change in length of
diameter.                                                    an unconfined clod as moisture content is decreased
   The content of sand, silt, and clay affects the           from a moist to a dry state. It is an expression of the
physical behavior of a soil. Particle size is important      volume change between the water content of the clod
for engineering and agronomic interpretations, for           at 1/3- or 1/10-bar tension (33kPa or 10kPa tension) and
determination of soil hydrologic qualities, and for soil     oven dryness. The volume change is reported in the
classification.                                              table as percent change for the whole soil. Volume
   The amount and kind of clay affect the fertility and      change is influenced by the amount and type of clay
physical condition of the soil and the ability of the soil   minerals in the soil.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                            133




    Linear extensibility is used to determine the shrink-      sands, loamy very fine sands, ash material, and sapric
swell potential of soils. The shrink-swell potential is low    soil material.
if the soil has a linear extensibility of less than 3              3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
percent; moderate if 3 to 6 percent; high if 6 to 9            loams, and very fine sandy loams.
percent; and very high if more than 9 percent. If the              4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and
linear extensibility is more than 3, shrinking and             silty clay loams.
swelling can cause damage to buildings, roads, and                 4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams,
other structures and to plant roots. Special design            and silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent
commonly is needed.                                            clay.
    Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the          5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 20,          less than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
the estimated content of organic matter is expressed           clays, and hemic soil material.
as a percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is           6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
less than 2 millimeters in diameter.                           more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
    The content of organic matter in a soil can be             loams that are less than 35 percent clay.
maintained by returning crop residue to the soil.                  7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are
Organic matter has a positive effect on available water        less than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material.
capacity, water infiltration, soil organism activity, and          8. Soils that are not subject to wind erosion
tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and other nutrients for      because of rock fragments on the surface or because
crops and soil organisms.                                      of surface wetness.
    Erosion factors are shown in table 20 as the K                 Wind erodibility index is a numerical value indicating
factor (Kw and Kf) and the T factor. Erosion factor K          the susceptibility of soil to wind erosion, or the tons per
indicates the susceptibility of a soil to sheet and rill       acre per year that can be expected to be lost to wind
erosion by water. Factor K is one of several factors           erosion. There is a close correlation between wind
used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and            erosion and the texture of the surface layer, the size
the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to            and durability of surface clods, rock fragments, organic
predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet          matter, and a calcareous reaction. Soil moisture and
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates      frozen soil layers also influence wind erosion.
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter and on soil structure and                       Chemical Properties
permeability. Values of K range from 0.02 to 0.69.
Other factors being equal, the higher the value, the              Table 21 shows estimates of some chemical
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion         characteristics and features that affect soil behavior.
by water.                                                      These estimates are given for the layers of each soil in
    Erosion factor Kw indicates the erodibility of the         the survey area. The estimates are based on field
whole soil. The estimates are modified by the presence         observations and on test data for these and similar
of rock fragments.                                             soils.
    Erosion factor Kf indicates the erodibility of the fine-      Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
earth fraction, or the material less than 2 millimeters in     layer is indicated.
size.                                                             Cation-exchange capacity is the total amount of
    Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum             extractable bases that can be held by the soil,
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water           expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams
that can occur without affecting crop productivity over        of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated pH
a sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per           value. Soils having a low cation-exchange capacity
year.                                                          hold fewer cations and may require more frequent
    Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that          applications of fertilizer than soils having a high cation-
have similar properties affecting their susceptibility to      exchange capacity. The ability to retain cations
wind erosion in cultivated areas. The soils assigned to        reduces the hazard of ground-water pollution.
group 1 are the most susceptible to wind erosion, and             Effective cation-exchange capacity refers to the
those assigned to group 8 are the least susceptible.           sum of extractable bases plus aluminum expressed in
The groups are as follows:                                     terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil. It is
    1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine          determined for soils that have pH of less than 5.5.
sands.                                                            Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity.
    2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine             The pH of each soil horizon is based on many field
134                                                                                                          Soil Survey




tests. For many soils, values have been verified by            thickness of the restrictive layer, both of which
laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in             significantly affect the ease of excavation. Depth to top
selecting crops and other plants, in evaluating soil           is the vertical distance from the soil surface to the
amendments for fertility and stabilization, and in             upper boundary of the restrictive layer.
determining the risk of corrosion.                                 Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
   Calcium carbonate equivalent is the percent of              saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
carbonates, by weight, in the fraction of the soil less        generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage
than 2 millimeters in size. The availability of plant          or oxidation of organic material, or both, following
nutrients is influenced by the amount of carbonates in         drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
the soil. Incorporating nitrogen fertilizer into calcareous    over a period of several years. The table shows the
soils helps to prevent nitrite accumulation and                expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
ammonium-N volatilization.                                     drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
   Gypsum is expressed as a percent, by weight, of             combination of factors.
hydrated calcium sulfates in the fraction of the soil              Potential for frost action is the likelihood of upward
less than 20 millimeters in size. Gypsum is partially          or lateral expansion of the soil caused by the formation
soluble in water. Soils that have a high content of            of segregated ice lenses (frost heave) and the
gypsum may collapse if the gypsum is removed by                subsequent collapse of the soil and loss of strength on
percolating water.                                             thawing. Frost action occurs when moisture moves into
   Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at       the freezing zone of the soil. Temperature, texture,
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity     density, permeability, content of organic matter, and
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at      depth to the water table are the most important factors
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and                 considered in evaluating the potential for frost action. It
laboratory measurements at representative sites of             is assumed that the soil is not insulated by vegetation
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is         or snow and is not artificially drained. Silty and highly
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the     structured, clayey soils that have a high water table in
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of         winter are the most susceptible to frost action. Well
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the         drained, very gravelly, or very sandy soils are the least
value given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability     susceptible. Frost heave and low soil strength during
of a soil for crop production, the stability of soil if used   thawing cause damage to pavements and other rigid
as construction material, and the potential of the soil to     structures.
corrode metal and concrete.                                        Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
   Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is a measure of the           electrochemical or chemical action that corrodes or
amount of sodium (Na) relative to calcium (Ca) and             weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
magnesium (Mg) in the water extract from saturated             corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors
soil paste. It is the ratio of the Na concentration divided    as soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
by the square root of one-half of the Ca + Mg                  electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
concentration. Soils that have SAR values of 13 or             of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
more may be characterized by an increased dispersion           content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
of organic matter and clay particles, reduced                  soil. Special site examination and design may be
permeability and aeration, and a general degradation of        needed if the combination of factors results in a severe
soil structure.                                                hazard of corrosion. The steel or concrete in
                                                               installations that intersect soil boundaries or soil layers
Soil Features                                                  is more susceptible to corrosion than the steel or
                                                               concrete in installations that are entirely within one
   Table 22 gives estimates of various soil features.          kind of soil or within one soil layer.
The estimates are used in land use planning that                   For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
involves engineering considerations.                           as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
   A restrictive layer is a nearly continuous layer that       class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
has one or more physical, chemical, or thermal                 capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
properties that significantly impede the movement of           extract.
water and air through the soil or that restrict roots or           For concrete, the risk of corrosion also is expressed
otherwise provide an unfavorable root environment.             as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
Examples are bedrock, cemented layers, dense layers,           acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation
and frozen layers. The table indicates the hardness and        extract.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         135




Water Features                                               evaporation. Table 23 indicates surface water depth and
                                                             the duration and frequency of ponding. Duration is
   Table 23 gives estimates of various water features.       expressed as very brief if less than 2 days, brief if 2 to
The estimates are used in land use planning that             7 days, long if 7 to 30 days, and very long if more than
involves engineering considerations.                         30 days. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
   Hydrologic soil groups are based on estimates of          occasional, and frequent. None means that ponding is
runoff potential. Soils are assigned to one of four          not probable; rare that it is unlikely but possible under
groups according to the rate of water infiltration when      unusual weather conditions (the chance of ponding is
the soils are not protected by vegetation, are               nearly 0 percent to 5 percent in any year); occasional
thoroughly wet, and receive precipitation from long-         that it occurs, on the average, once or less in 2 years
duration storms.                                             (the chance of ponding is 5 to 50 percent in any year);
   The four hydrologic soil groups are:                      and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than
   Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low       once in 2 years (the chance of ponding is more than 50
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist         percent in any year).
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained              Flooding is the temporary inundation of an
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate        area caused by overflowing streams, by runoff
of water transmission.                                       from adjacent slopes, or by tides. Water standing
   Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate        for short periods after rainfall or snowmelt is
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of                not considered flooding, and water standing in swamps
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or          and marshes is considered ponding rather than
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to      flooding.
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a                    Duration and frequency are estimated. Duration is
moderate rate of water transmission.                         expressed as extremely brief if 0.1 hour to 4 hours,
   Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when       very brief if 4 hours to 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, long
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a      if 7 to 30 days, and very long if more than 30 days.
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or         Frequency is expressed as none, very rare, rare,
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These      occasional, frequent, and very frequent. None means
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.                that flooding is not probable; very rare that it is very
   Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate       unlikely but possible under extremely unusual weather
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These           conditions (the chance of flooding is less than 1
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell       percent in any year); rare that it is unlikely but possible
potential, soils that have a high water table, soils that    under unusual weather conditions (the chance of
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and     flooding is 1 to 5 percent in any year); occasional that
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.      it occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions
These soils have a very slow rate of water                   (the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year);
transmission.                                                frequent that it is likely to occur often under normal
   As to a soil assigned to a dual hydrologic group,         weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than
such as B/D, the first letter is for drained areas and the   50 percent in any year but is less than 50 percent in all
second is for undrained areas.                               months in any year); and very frequent that it is likely
   The months in the table indicate the portion of the       to occur very often under normal weather conditions
year in which the feature is most likely to be a             (the chance of flooding is more than 50 percent in all
concern.                                                     months of any year).
   Water table refers to a saturated zone in the soil.           The information is based on evidence in the soil
Table 23 indicates, by month, depth to the top (upper        profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
limit) and base (lower limit) of the saturated zone in       deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
most years. Estimates of the upper and lower limits are      matter content with increasing depth; and little or no
based mainly on observations of the water table at           horizon development.
selected sites and on evidence of a saturated zone,              Also considered are local information about the
namely grayish colors or mottles (redoximorphic              extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each
features) in the soil. A saturated zone that lasts for       soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on
less than a month is not considered a water table.           the extent of flooding based on soil data is less
   Ponding is standing water in a closed depression.         specific than that provided by detailed engineering
Unless a drainage system is installed, the water is          surveys that delineate flood-prone areas at specific
removed only by percolation, transpiration, or               flood frequency levels.
                                                                                                                   137




Classification of the Soils
    The system of soil classification used by the           subgroup on the basis of physical and chemical
National Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories         properties and other characteristics that affect
(Soil Survey Staff, 1990 and 1999). Beginning with the      management. Generally, the properties are those of
broadest, these categories are the order, suborder,         horizons below plow depth where there is much
great group, subgroup, family, and series.                  biological activity. Among the properties and
Classification is based on soil properties observed in      characteristics considered are particle size, mineral
the field or inferred from those observations or from       content, soil temperature regime, soil depth, and
laboratory measurements. Table 24 shows the                 reaction. A family name consists of the name of a
classification of the soils in the survey area. The         subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.         properties. An example is fine-loamy, mixed, nonacid,
    ORDER. Twelve soil orders are recognized. The           mesic Typic Hapludalfs.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-            SERIES. The series consists of soils within a
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.         family that have horizons similar in color, texture,
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An        structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and chemical
example is Alfisol.                                         composition, and arrangement in the profile.
    SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil    Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the            In this section, each soil series recognized in the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder         survey area is described. Characteristics of the soil
indicates the order. An example is Udalf (Ud, meaning       and the material in which it formed are identified for
humid, plus alf, from Alfisol).                             each series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
    GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into              of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
great groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,    described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic         follows standards in the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; type       Survey Division Staff, 1993). Many of the technical
of saturation; and base status. Each great group is         terms used in the descriptions are defined in “Soil
identified by the name of a suborder and by a prefix        Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) and in “Keys to
that indicates a property of the soil. An example is        Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1990). Unless
Hapludalfs (Hapl, meaning minimal horizonation, plus        otherwise indicated, colors in the descriptions are for
udalf, the suborder of the Alfisols that has a udic         moist soil. Following the pedon description is the range
moisture regime).                                           of important characteristics of the soils in the series.
    SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic
subgroup. Other subgroups are intergrades or                Abbottstown Series
extragrades. The typic subgroup is the central concept
of the great group; it is not necessarily the most             The soils of the Abbottstown series are fine-loamy,
extensive. Intergrades are transitions to other orders,     mixed, mesic Aeric Fragiaqualfs. These deep,
suborders, or great groups. Extragrades have some           somewhat poorly drained soils are on nearly level and
properties that are not representative of the great group   undulating, broad uplands and in depressions and
but do not indicate transitions to any other taxonomic      drainageways. They formed in residuum derived from
class. Each subgroup is identified by one or more           reddish shale, siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone.
adjectives preceding the name of the great group. The       Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the      Abbottstown soils are on the same landscape as
great group. An example is Typic Hapludalfs.                somewhat excessively drained Klinesville soils; well
    FAMILY. Families are established within a               drained Arendtsville, Lansdale, and Penn soils;
138                                                                                                      Soil Survey




moderately well drained Readington and Reaville soils;     BCx—32 to 40 inches; weak red (10R 4/2) channery
and poorly drained Criton soils. All these soils except       silt loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure
Croton soils are browner or redder throughout than            parting to weak medium platy; very firm and brittle,
Abbottstown soils.                                            slightly sticky and slightly plastic; pinkish gray
   Typical pedon of Abbottstown silt loam, 0 to 3             (7.5YR 6/2) silty clay prism faces 2 to 5 mm thick;
percent slopes; 2 miles northwest of Littlestown, in          20 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; gradual
Germany Township, Adams County, 50 feet west of               wavy boundary.
Township Route 434, 0.1 mile south of its intersection     C—40 to 45 inches; weak red (10R 4/3) extremely
with Township Route 433, in cropland:                         channery silt loam; weak thick platy rock structure;
                                                              firm, nonsticky and nonplastic; 65 percent rock
Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2) silt
                                                              fragments; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
    loam; weak medium granular structure; friable,
                                                           R—45 inches; weak red (10R 4/3) slightly weathered,
    slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 2 percent rock
                                                              fractured siltstone.
    fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bt1—10 to 15 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/3) silty             The solum is 30 to 60 inches thick. The fragipan is
    clay loam; moderate medium angular blocky              at a depth ranging from 15 to 30 inches and bedrock is
    structure; friable, sticky and plastic; common faint   at a depth between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments
    clay films on faces of peds and in pores; many fine    range from 0 to 15 percent in the upper part of the
    and medium prominent light brownish gray (10YR         solum and from 10 to 30 percent in the lower part. In
    6/2) iron depletions and yellowish red (5YR 5/6)       unlimed areas reaction ranges from extremely acid to
    and red (2.5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron                strongly acid in the upper part of the solum and from
    accumulation; 2 percent rock fragments; strongly       strongly acid to slightly acid in the lower part and in the
    acid; clear wavy boundary.                             substratum.
Bt2—15 to 20 inches; reddish gray (5YR 5/2) silty clay         The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of
    loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to       3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
    moderate thick platy and moderate medium                   The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 10R to
    angular blocky; firm, sticky and plastic; many faint   5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4, and it is
    and distinct clay films on faces of peds and in        mottled. The lower part of the Bt horizon has hue of
    pores; many fine and medium prominent pinkish          10R to 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It
    gray (7.5YR 6/2) iron depletions and yellowish red     has redoximorphic masses of iron accumulation and
    (5YR 5/6) and red (2.5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron      iron-depleted areas. The Bt horizon is loam, silt loam,
    accumulation; 5 percent rock fragments; strongly       or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
    acid; abrupt wavy boundary.                                The Btx horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR or it is
Btx1—20 to 25 inches; weak red (2.5YR 4/2) silty clay      neutral; value is 4 or 5 and chroma is 0 to 4. It has
    loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting     redoximorphic masses of iron accumulation and iron-
    to moderate medium platy and angular blocky; very      depleted areas. It is loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam
    firm, sticky and plastic; common faint clay films on   in the fine earth fraction.
    faces of peds and in pores; many fine prominent            The BCx horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR or it is
    reddish gray (5YR 5/2) iron depletions, and many       neutral; value is 4 or 6 and chroma is 0 to 4. It has
    fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and red (2.5YR   redoximorphic masses of iron accumulation and iron-
    4/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 5 percent       depleted areas. It is loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam
    rock fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy            in the fine earth fraction.
    boundary.                                                  The C horizon has hue of 10R or 7.5YR, value of 3
Btx2—25 to 32 inches; weak red (2.5YR 4/2) silt loam;      or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is dominantly loam or silt
    moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting       loam in the fine earth fraction.
    to moderate thick platy parting to moderate fine
    subangular blocky; very firm and brittle, slightly     Arendtsville Series
    sticky and slightly plastic; few faint clay films on
    faces of peds and in pores; pinkish gray (7.5YR           The soils of the Arendtsville series are fine-loamy,
    6/2) silty clay prism faces 2 to 5 mm thick;           mixed, mesic Typic Hapludults. These are very deep,
    common medium prominent pinkish gray (5YR 6/2)         well drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed in
    iron depletions, and common medium distinct            loamy residuum derived from breccia and from
    reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron          conglomerate consisting of quartzite, metabasalt, and
    accumulation; 10 percent rock fragments; slightly      metarhyolite. Slopes range from 3 to 40 percent.
    acid; gradual wavy boundary.                              Arendtsville soils are on the landscape with
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         139




moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained               bedrock is more than 72 inches. Rock fragments range
Catoctin soils; well drained, deep Highfield, Myersville,   from 15 to 35 percent in the solum and from 20 to 80
and Penn soils; moderately well drained Readington          percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
soils; somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown soils; and       ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid in the
poorly drained Croton soils. Catoctin soils are loamy-      upper part of the subsoil and from extremely acid to
skeletal. Highfield soils are coarse-loamy. Abbottstown     strongly acid in the lower part and in the substratum.
and Readington soils have a fragipan. Unlike                   The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3
Arendtsville soils, Croton soils are fine-silty.            or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam in the fine earth
   Typical pedon of Arendtsville gravelly loam, 3 to 8      fraction.
percent slopes; 1.5 miles west of Biglerville in Butler        The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 3
Township, Adams County, 360 feet north of Township          or 4, and chroma of 3 to 6. In the fine earth fraction it
Route 369, 50 feet west of intersection with                is sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam
Pennsylvania Route 234, in an apple orchard:                that is 10 to 25 percent clay and 20 to 50 percent silt.
                                                            The structure of the horizon is weak or moderate, fine
Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
                                                            or medium subangular blocky.
   gravelly loam, light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) dry;
                                                               The C horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 or
   weak fine granular structure; friable, nonsticky and
                                                            4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is sandy loam or loam in the
   slightly plastic; many roots; 15 percent rock
                                                            fine earth fraction.
   fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt1—9 to 16 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) gravelly
   loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;           Athol Series
   friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common
                                                               The soils of the Athol series are fine-loamy, mixed,
   roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; 15
                                                            mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are very deep, well
   percent rock fragments; slightly acid; gradual wavy
                                                            drained soils on undulating and rolling uplands and
   boundary.
                                                            benches. They formed in loamy residuum derived from
Bt2—16 to 28 inches; dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4)
                                                            conglomerate consisting of limestone, quartz,
   gravelly sandy clay loam; moderate medium
                                                            sandstone, and shale. Slopes range from 0 to 15
   subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky
                                                            percent.
   and plastic; common roots; common faint clay
                                                               Athol soils are on the landscape with moderately
   films on faces of peds and in pores; few prominent
                                                            deep, somewhat excessively drained Catoctin soils;
   black coatings on faces of peds; 15 percent rock
                                                            well drained, deep Myersville and Penn soils;
   fragments; moderately acid; gradual wavy
                                                            moderately well drained Clarksburg soils; and
   boundary.
                                                            somewhat poorly drained Penlaw soils. Catoctin soils
Bt3—28 to 40 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) gravelly
                                                            are loamy-skeletal. Unlike Athol soils, Clarksburg soils
   sandy clay loam; moderate medium and coarse
                                                            have a fragipan.
   subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky
                                                               Typical pedon of Athol gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8
   and plastic; few roots; common faint clay films on
                                                            percent slopes; 1 mile southwest of Fairfield in
   faces of peds and in pores; few prominent black
                                                            Hamiltonban Township, Adams County, 100 feet south
   coatings on faces of peds; 15 percent rock
                                                            of State Route 3014, 0.5 mile east of Township Route
   fragments; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                            303, and 0.5 mile west of Pennsylvania Route 116, in a
Bt4—40 to 53 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) gravelly
                                                            cultivated field:
   sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
   friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; few roots; few        Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
   faint clay films and common prominent black                  gravelly silt loam; light reddish brown (5YR 6/3)
   coatings on faces of peds and rock fragments; 30             dry; weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly
   percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; gradual          sticky and slightly plastic; 20 percent rock
   irregular boundary.                                          fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
C—53 to 72 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) and            Btl—10 to 24 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silt loam;
   weak red (2.5YR 4/2) very gravelly sandy loam;               moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
   massive; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; few              friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few faint
   faint clay films bridging some sand grains and rock          clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 10
   fragments; 40 percent rock fragments; very                   percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy
   strongly acid.                                               boundary.
                                                            Bt2—24 to 36 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silty
  The solum is 40 to 60 inches thick. Depth to breccia          clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
140                                                                                                     Soil Survey




   structure; friable, sticky and plastic; common faint         sticky and slightly plastic; common fine distinct
   clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 10                 very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and grayish
   percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy            brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions; 2 percent rock
   boundary.                                                    fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bt3—36 to 52 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silty          Eg—4 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt
   clay loam; moderate medium and fine subangular               loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure
   blocky structure; friable, sticky and plastic; few           parting to moderate fine granular; friable, slightly
   faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 10           sticky and slightly plastic; common fine prominent
   percent rock fragments; strongly acid; gradual               grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions and
   wavy boundary.                                               brown (7.5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron
C—52 to 60 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) gravelly             accumulation; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
   silt loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky and slightly   Btg1—12 to 18 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt
   plastic; 15 percent rock fragments; strongly acid.           loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
                                                                friable, sticky and slightly plastic; very few faint
    The solum is 40 to 75 inches thick. Bedrock is at a
                                                                clay films on faces of peds and in pores; common
depth greater than 60 inches. Rock fragments range
                                                                fine prominent gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions and
from 0 to 25 percent in the solum and from 0 to 15
                                                                reddish brown (5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron
percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction is
                                                                accumulation; moderately acid; clear wavy
very strongly acid to slightly acid in the upper part of
                                                                boundary.
the solum, strongly acid or moderately acid in the lower
                                                            Btg2—18 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt
part, and strongly acid to slightly acid in the
                                                                loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
substratum.
                                                                moderate medium angular blocky; firm, sticky and
    The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
                                                                slightly plastic; many faint clay films on faces of
3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
                                                                peds and in pores; common medium and fine
    The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 3
                                                                prominent reddish brown (5YR 4/4) soft masses of
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam, clay loam, silt
                                                                iron accumulation; strongly acid; gradual wavy
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                                boundary.
    The C horizon has hue of 10R to 7.5YR, value of 3
                                                            Btg3—34 to 40 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam, sandy loam, or
                                                                loam; weak medium angular and subangular blocky
silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                                structure; firm, sticky and slightly plastic; common
                                                                faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
Baile Series                                                    many medium faint brown (10YR 5/3) iron
                                                                depletions, and many medium prominent reddish
   The soils of the Baile series are fine-loamy, mixed,         brown (5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron accumulation;
mesic Typic Ochraquults. These are very deep, poorly            strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
drained soils on lowlands and in depressions. They          Cg—40 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
formed in local alluvium washed from residuum, on the           channery silt loam; massive; friable, sticky and
surrounding uplands, derived from mica schist. Slopes           slightly plastic; few faint clay films on rock
range from 0 to 3 percent.                                      fragments; many mica flakes; many medium and
   Baile soils are on the landscape with somewhat               fine prominent gray (5Y 5/1) iron depletions and
excessively drained Catoctin, Manor, and Mt. Airy               strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
soils; well drained Glenelg and Highfield soils; and            accumulation; 15 percent rock fragments; strongly
moderately well drained Glenville soils. All these soils        acid.
are redder or browner throughout than Baile soils, and
                                                               The solum is 30 to 40 inches thick. Bedrock is at a
are on higher lying ridges and hills.
                                                            depth greater than 60 inches. Rock fragments range
   Typical pedon of Baile silt loam; 3 miles south-
                                                            from 0 to 5 percent in the upper part of the solum and
southwest of Hanover in Union Township, Adams
                                                            from 0 to 15 percent in the lower part and in the
County, 60 feet south of Township Route 463, 0.7 mile
                                                            substratum. In unlimed areas reaction ranges from
southeast of its intersection with Township Route 461
                                                            extremely acid to strongly acid.
and 0.6 mile northwest of Legislative Route 01031, in
                                                               The Ap horizon has hue of 5Y to 10YR, or is neutral;
an abandoned pasture:
                                                            value is 2 to 4 and chroma is 0 to 2.
Ap—0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt           The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak           6, and chroma of 0 to 2.
   medium and fine granular structure; friable, slightly       The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          141




to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has prominent                   substratum to a depth of 40 inches, and 5 to 80
redoximorphic masses of iron accumulation with                 percent below a depth of 40 inches. In unlimed areas
chroma of 5 or 6. It is clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay    reaction ranges from very strongly acid to moderately
loam.                                                          acid throughout.
   The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to            The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
6, and chroma of 0 to 4. It has prominent                      3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is silt loam.
redoximorphic masses of iron accumulation and iron                The Bw horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
depletions with chroma of 1 to 4. It is sandy loam,            3 to 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. The fine earth fraction is
loam, or silt loam in fine earth fraction.                     loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty
                                                               clay loam.
                                                                  The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5YR, value of
Bermudian Series                                               3 to 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is sand in the fine earth
                                                               fraction, but in some pedons it is sandy loam, loam,
   The soils of the Bermudian series are fine-loamy,
                                                               sandy clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay
mixed, mesic Fluventic Dystrochrepts. These are very
                                                               loam.
deep, well drained soils on flood plains. They formed in
alluvium washed from residuum, on uplands, derived
from shale, sandstone, and conglomerate. Slopes                Birdsboro Series
range from 0 to 3 percent.
                                                                  The soils of the Birdsboro series are fine-loamy,
   Bermudian soils are on flood plains with moderately
                                                               mixed, mesic Typic Hapludults. These are very deep,
well drained Rowland soils and somewhat poorly
                                                               well drained soils on stream terraces. They formed in
drained Bowmansville soils. Rowland and
                                                               old alluvium washed from residuum, on uplands,
Bowmansville soils are on rises and are slightly lower
                                                               derived from shale, siltstone, and sandstone. Slopes
than Bermudian soils. They are also in swales.
                                                               range from 0 to 15 percent.
   Typical pedon of Bermudian silt loam, 1.5 miles
                                                                  Birdsboro soils are on the landscape with somewhat
southwest of York Haven, along Conewago Creek, 75
                                                               excessively drained, shallow Klinesville soils; well
feet south of creek in East Manchester Township, York
                                                               drained, deep Lansdale and Penn soils; moderately well
County, on State Route 1004, 0.2 mile east of
                                                               drained Raritan soils; and poorly drained Croton and
Township Route 940, and 0.2 mile west of Township
                                                               Lamington soils. Klinesville soils are loamy-skeletal.
Route 952, in hayland:
                                                               Lansdale soils are coarse-loamy. Croton, Lamington,
Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) silt            and Raritan soils have a fragipan.
   loam, light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) dry; weak fine             Typical pedon of Birdsboro silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
   granular structure; very friable, nonsticky and             slopes; 3 miles southwest of East Berlin in Hamilton
   slightly plastic; moderately acid; clear smooth             Township, Adams County, on the west side of Township
   boundary.                                                   Route 546, 800 feet north of Township Route 579, in
Bw1—8 to 30 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) silt          cropland:
   loam, light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) dry; weak fine
                                                               Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) silt
   subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky
                                                                   loam, light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) dry; moderate
   and slightly plastic; strongly acid; gradual wavy
                                                                   medium and fine granular structure; friable, slightly
   boundary.
                                                                   sticky and slightly plastic; 7 percent rock
Bw2—30 to 50 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) silty
                                                                   fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
   clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
                                                               Btl—10 to 18 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4)
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                                   gravelly silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky
   very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                                   structure; friable, sticky and slightly plastic;
2C—50 to 72 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4)
                                                                   common faint clay films on faces of peds and in
   stratified sand and gravel; single grain; loose,
                                                                   pores; 15 percent rock fragments; strongly acid;
   nonsticky and nonplastic; 30 percent rock
                                                                   clear wavy boundary.
   fragments; very strongly acid.
                                                               Bt2—18 to 30 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silt
   The solum is 34 to 52 inches thick. Depth to                    loam; moderate fine angular and subangular blocky
stratified loamy sand, sand, and gravel is more than 40            structure; friable, sticky and plastic; many faint
inches. Depth to bedrock is more than 72 inches. Rock              clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 5 percent
fragments of sandstone, gravel, and in some places                 rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy
shale range from 0 to 10 percent in the upper part of              boundary.
the solum, 0 to 30 percent in the lower part and in the        Bt3—30 to 40 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay
142                                                                                                      Soil Survey




   loam; moderate coarse angular blocky structure            west of its intersection with Township Route 532, in
   parting to weak medium angular and subangular             woodland:
   blocky; firm, sticky and plastic; continuous faint
                                                             Ap—0 to 11 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) silt loam,
   clay films on faces of coarse peds and in pores;
                                                                pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) dry; moderate medium
   common faint clay films on faces of medium peds;
                                                                and fine granular structure; very friable, slightly
   5 percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy
                                                                sticky and slightly plastic; moderately acid; abrupt
   boundary.
                                                                smooth boundary.
Bt4—40 to 50 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay
                                                             Bw—11 to 14 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) silt
   loam; weak medium and fine subangular blocky
                                                                loam; weak thick platy structure parting to weak
   structure; firm, sticky and plastic; common faint
                                                                fine subangular blocky; friable, slightly sticky and
   clay films on faces of peds and in pores; common
                                                                slightly plastic; few fine prominent dark brown
   medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) and strong
                                                                (7.5YR 3/2) iron depletions and strong brown
   brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
                                                                (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation;
   accumulation; 10 percent rock fragments; strongly
                                                                moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
   acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                             Bg1—14 to 20 inches; reddish gray (5YR 5/2) silt loam;
2C—50 to 60 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) silt
                                                                weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
   loam; weak, thick platy structure; very firm, slightly
                                                                slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common fine
   sticky and slightly plastic; 10 percent rock
                                                                prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and brown
   fragments; very strongly acid.
                                                                (7.5YR 5/4) soft masses of iron accumulation;
   The solum is 30 to 50 inches thick. Depth to                 moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range         Bg2—20 to 34 inches; reddish gray (5YR 5/2) silt loam;
from 0 to 20 percent in the solum and from 0 to 70              weak medium and fine subangular blocky
percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction            structure; friable, sticky and slightly plastic;
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid throughout.         common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
   The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of            5/6 and 7.5YR 5/8) soft masses of iron
3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.                                   accumulation; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
   The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR            boundary.
or 5YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. The           Cg1—34 to 55 inches; pinkish gray (5YR 6/2) stratified
lower part of the Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR to                silt loam and silty clay loam; massive; firm, sticky
7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6, and in            and plastic; common medium prominent strong
some pedons it has redoximorphic masses of iron                 brown (7.5YR 5/6) and common medium distinct
accumulation and iron-depleted areas. It is loam, sandy         yellowish red (5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam in the      accumulation; 1 to 10 percent rock fragments in
fine earth fraction.                                            individual strata; slightly acid, becoming neutral in
   The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 3           the lower part; abrupt smooth boundary.
to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loamy sand, sandy          2Cg2—55 to 72 inches; dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2)
loam, loam, clay loam, or silt loam in the fine earth           gravelly sandy loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky
fraction.                                                       and nonplastic; common medium and fine distinct
                                                                weak red (2.5YR 5/2) and dusky red (2.5YR 3/2)
Bowmansville Series                                             iron depletions; massive; firm, slightly sticky and
                                                                nonplastic; 25 percent rock fragments;
   The soils of the Bowmansville series are fine-loamy,         neutral.
mixed, nonacid, mesic Aeric Fluvaquents. These are
very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils on flood               The solum is 24 to 40 inches thick. Stratified loamy
plains. They formed in alluvium washed from                  sand, sand, and gravel are at a depth of 4 feet or more.
residuum, on uplands, derived from shale,                    Depth to bedrock is more than 72 inches. Rock
sandstone, and conglomerate. Slopes range from 0 to          fragments range from 0 to 15 percent in the solum, 0 to
3 percent.                                                   30 percent in the substratum to a depth of 55 inches,
   Bowmansville soils are on flood plains with well          and 0 to 90 percent below a depth of 55 inches. In
drained Bermudian soils and moderately well drained          unlimed areas reaction ranges from strongly acid to
Rowland soils. These soils are on slightly higher rises.     slightly acid in the solum and from strongly acid to
   Typical pedon of Bowmansville silt loam; 1.5 miles        neutral in the substratum.
southwest of Heidlersburg in Tyrone Township, Adams             The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR; value of 3
County, 180 feet north of Township Route 563, 0.4 mile       or 4 moist, 6 or more dry; and chroma of 2 to 4.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                     143




   The Bw horizon has hue similar to those of the Ap          color variegations; moderate medium angular and
horizon.                                                      subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky and
   The Bg horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 3         plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds
to 6, and chroma of 2. It has some subhorizons with           and in pores; 10 percent rock fragments;
chroma of more than 2. It is sandy clay loam, silt loam,      moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
or silty clay loam. In some pedons it has thin lenses of   Bt2—24 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;
sand, silt, clay, or gravel.                                  common fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) and yellowish
   The Cg horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3          brown (10YR 5/4) color variegations; weak thick
to 6, and chroma of 2. It is sandy loam, loam, silt           platy structure parting to weak fine angular and
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.          subangular blocky; firm, sticky and plastic; few
   The 2Cg horizon has hue and chroma similar to              faint clay films on faces of peds; common faint
those of the Cg horizon. It ranges from silty clay loam       clay films in pores; 10 percent rock fragments;
to sand in the fine earth fraction.                           moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                           C—30 to 42 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very channery
Brecknock Series                                              silt loam; massive; very firm, sticky and plastic; 40
                                                              percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear
   The soils of the Brecknock series are fine-loamy,          wavy boundary.
mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are deep, well        R—42 inches; fractured porcelanite.
drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed in
                                                              The solum is 24 to 40 inches thick. Bedrock is at a
channery residuum derived from porcelanite and
                                                           depth between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments
hornfels, which, respectively, are shale and sandstone
                                                           range from 0 to 35 percent in the solum and from 15 to
that diabase intrusives have metamorphosed. Slopes
                                                           70 percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
range from 3 to 25 percent.
                                                           ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
   Brecknock soils are on the landscape with well
                                                           throughout.
drained, very deep Legore and Neshaminy soils and
                                                              The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5Y, value of 2
deep Penn soils, somewhat poorly drained Lehigh
                                                           or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2.
soils, and poorly drained Croton soils. Brecknock soils
                                                              The E horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5Y, value of 3
are browner throughout than Legore and Neshaminy
                                                           or 4, and chroma 2.
soils. Croton soils have a fragipan.
                                                              The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5Y, value of 3
   Typical pedon of Brecknock channery silt loam, 8 to
                                                           or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. Not all pedons have an Ap
15 percent slopes; 3 miles east of Gettysburg in Mount
                                                           horizon.
Pleasant Township, Adams County, 280 feet northwest
                                                              The BE horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5Y, value of 3
of Cavalry Field Drive, 675 feet southwest of its
                                                           to 5, and chroma of 3 or 4.
intersection with Township Route 483, in woodland:
                                                              The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
O—1 inch to 0; fresh and partly decomposed leaves          5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam, clay loam, silt
   and twigs.                                              loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
A—0 to 3 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/2) channery silt          The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak           5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is loam or silt loam in the
   medium and fine granular structure; very friable,       fine earth fraction.
   slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 25 percent rock
   fragments; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.       Buchanan Series
E—3 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
   channery silt loam; weak medium subangular                 The soils of the Buchanan series are fine-loamy,
   blocky structure parting to weak medium granular;       mixed, mesic Aquic Fragiudults. These are very deep,
   friable, sticky and slightly plastic; 20 percent rock   moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained
   fragments; very strongly acid; clear smooth             soils on footslopes, on benches, in depressions, and
   boundary.                                               on lowlands. They formed in colluvium derived from
BE—7 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) channery silt          residuum derived from quartzite, metabasalt, and
   loam; weak medium and fine subangular blocky            metarhyolite. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
   structure; friable, sticky and plastic; 15 percent         Buchanan soils are on the landscape with somewhat
   rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy               excessively drained Catoctin soils and well drained
   boundary.                                               Edgemont, Myersville, and Highfield soils. Catoctin,
Bt1—12 to 24 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;           Edgemont, Myersville, and Highfield soils all are redder
   common fine faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)       or browner throughout than Buchanan soils.
144                                                                                                        Soil Survey




  Typical pedon of Buchanan channery loam, 0 to 8                 pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron depletions, and many
percent slopes, extremely stony; in Michaux State                 medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft
Forest, 12 miles northwest of Gettysburg, Franklin                masses of iron accumulation; 30 percent rock
Township, Adams County, on the west side of Township              fragments; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Route 364, 200 feet southeast of intersection of              Btx2—34 to 42 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Pennsylvania Route 233, in woodland:                              channery loam; moderate very coarse prismatic
                                                                  structure parting to weak very thick platy and
Oi—2 inches to 1 inch; fresh and partly decomposed
                                                                  coarse subangular blocky; very firm and brittle,
    leaves and twigs.
                                                                  slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many prominent
Oe—1 inch to 0; mat of decomposed organic material.
                                                                  prism coatings; few faint clay films on faces of
A—0 to 1 inch; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                                  platy and blocky peds, in pores, and bridging sand
    channery loam; weak, very fine granular structure;
                                                                  grains; common coarse and medium prominent
    very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 20 percent
                                                                  light brownish gray (2.5YR 6/2) iron depletions, and
    rock fragments; extremely acid; abrupt smooth
                                                                  common coarse and medium faint yellowish brown
    boundary.
                                                                  (10YR 5/8) soft masses of iron accumulation; 20
E—1 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) channery loam;
                                                                  percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; gradual
    weak, fine granular structure; very friable, slightly
                                                                  wavy boundary.
    sticky and nonplastic; 25 percent rock fragments;
                                                              BCtx—42 to 54 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
    very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                  channery loam; weak very coarse prismatic
BE—7 to 11 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
                                                                  structure parting to weak coarse subangular
    channery loam; weak medium and fine subangular
                                                                  blocky; very firm and brittle, slightly sticky and
    blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
                                                                  nonplastic; many prominent prism coatings; very
    plastic; very few faint clay films bridging sand
                                                                  few faint clay films in pores and bridging sand
    grains; 25 percent rock fragments; very strongly
                                                                  grains; common coarse and medium distinct light
    acid, clear wavy boundary.
                                                                  brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions, and
Bt1—11 to 18 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
                                                                  common coarse and medium faint yellowish brown
    channery loam; weak medium and thick platy
                                                                  (10YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 25
    structure parting to moderate fine and very fine
                                                                  percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; gradual
    angular blocky; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
                                                                  wavy boundary.
    plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds
                                                              C—54 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
    and in pores; common medium and fine distinct
                                                                  channery sandy loam; massive; firm, nonsticky
    light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and pale brown
                                                                  and nonplastic; few medium faint brown (10YR 5/3)
    (10YR 6/3) iron depletions, and common medium
                                                                  iron depletions and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) soft
    and fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) soft
                                                                  masses of iron accumulation; 30 percent rock
    masses of iron accumulation; 25 percent rock
                                                                  fragments; very strongly acid.
    fragments; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2—18 to 25 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) channery              The solum is 40 to 60 inches thick. The fragipan
    loam; weak thick platy structure parting to               ranges from a depth of 20 to 36 inches; depth to
    moderate medium angular subangular blocky; firm,          bedrock is greater than 60 inches. Rock fragments
    sticky and slightly plastic; common faint clay films      range from 5 to 40 percent in individual horizons above
    on faces of peds and in pores; many medium faint          the fragipan and from 10 to 60 percent in the fragipan
    light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions, and       and substratum. In unlimed areas reaction ranges from
    many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)           strongly acid to extremely acid throughout.
    and many medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR                The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3
    5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 25 percent         or 4, and chroma of 1 to 3.
    rock fragments; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy              The E horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
    boundary.                                                 or 6, and chroma of 1 to 4.
Btx1—25 to 34 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)                 The Ap horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR
    channery loam; moderate very coarse prismatic             or 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
    structure parting to weak very thick platy parting to        The BE horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
    moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm and          3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4.
    brittle, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many          The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
    prominent prism coatings; common faint clay films         5 or 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loam, sandy clay
    on faces of blocky peds and in pores; common              loam, clay loam, or silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
    medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and           The Btx horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           145




to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6, and it has redoximorphic           from 15 to 55 percent in the B horizon, and from 35 to
masses of iron accumulation and iron depletions. It is         80 percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
loam, sandy clay loam, or silt loam in the fine earth          is strongly acid to slightly acid in the solum and
fraction.                                                      moderately acid to neutral in the substratum.
    The BCtx horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of             The A horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR or
4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6, and it has redoximorphic         10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or 2.
masses of iron accumulation and iron depletions. It is            The E horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR or
loam, sandy clay loam, or silt loam in the fine earth          10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 to 8.
fraction.                                                         The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
    The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4         3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam or silt loam.
to 6, and chroma of 2 to 6, and it generally has                  The Bw horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4
redoximorphic masses of iron accumulation and iron             to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam or silt loam in the
depletions. It is loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or        fine earth fraction.
silt loam in the fine earth fraction.                             The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to
                                                               6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam or silt loam in the
                                                               fine earth fraction.
Catoctin Series
   The soils of the Catoctin series are loamy-skeletal,        Clarksburg Series
mixed, mesic Ruptic-Alfic Eutrochrepts. These are
                                                                  The soils of the Clarksburg series are fine-loamy,
moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained soils
                                                               mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudalfs. These are very deep,
on ridges and hills. They formed in channery residuum
                                                               moderately well drained soils on broad uplands and in
derived from metabasalt and metarhyolite. Slopes
                                                               depressions. They formed in colluvium and underlying
range from 0 to 70 percent.
                                                               loamy material weathered from residuum derived from
   Catoctin soils are on the landscape with well
                                                               limestone, schist, shale, and sandstone. Slopes range
drained, very deep Edgemont soils; deep Highfield and
                                                               from 0 to 8 percent.
Myersville soils; moderately well drained Buchanan and
                                                                  Clarksburg soils are on the landscape with well
Glenville soils; and poorly drained Baile soils. All these
                                                               drained Athol and Conestoga soils, moderately well
soils have less sand and fewer rock fragments than
                                                               drained Lindside soils, and somewhat poorly drained
Catoctin soils.
                                                               Penlaw soils. Clarksburg and Penlaw soils have a
   Typical pedon of Catoctin channery silt loam, 8 to 15
                                                               fragipan; the other soils do not. Lindside soils are on
percent slopes; 1 mile southwest of Cashtown in
                                                               flood plains.
Franklin Township, Adams County, south of Township
                                                                  Typical pedon of Clarksburg silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
Route 353, 1,200 feet northwest of Township Route
                                                               slopes; 2 miles west of Wrightsville in Hellam
566, in an orchard:
                                                               Township, York County, 100 feet south of U.S. Route
Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) channery              30, 175 feet west of culvert and 1.2 miles west of
   silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable,           State Route 1016, in cropland:
   slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 20 percent rock
                                                               Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
   fragments; moderately acid; abrupt smooth
                                                                  moderate medium and fine granular structure;
   boundary.
                                                                  friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 3 percent
Bw—9 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very
                                                                  rock fragments; moderately acid; abrupt and
   channery silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                                  smooth boundary.
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                               Bt1—8 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   lenses with few faint clay films on faces of peds
                                                                  loam; moderate fine and very fine angular blocky
   and rock fragments; 50 percent rock fragments;
                                                                  and subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky and
   strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                                  slightly plastic; common faint clay films on faces
C—16 to 24 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) extremely
                                                                  of peds and in pores; 3 percent rock fragments;
   channery silt loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky
                                                                  strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
   and nonplastic; 70 percent rock fragments;
                                                               Bt2—16 to 27 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   moderately acid; gradual irregular boundary.
                                                                  loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure
R—24 inches; hard, somewhat fractured metabasalt.
                                                                  parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; friable,
   The solum is 15 to 30 inches thick. Bedrock is at a            sticky and plastic; many faint clay films on faces
depth between 20 and 40 inches. Rock fragments                    of peds and in pores; common fine prominent
range from 5 to 35 percent in the A and E horizons,               brown (7.5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron
146                                                                                                         Soil Survey




    accumulation; 2 percent rock fragments; strongly          to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has iron depletions with
    acid; clear wavy boundary.                                chroma of 2 or less. It is clay loam or silty clay loam in
Bt3—27 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt          the fine earth fraction.
    loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to              The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
    moderate medium angular blocky; firm, sticky and          to 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It has iron depletions with
    plastic; common faint clay films on faces of blocky       chroma of 2 or less. It is loam, clay loam, silt loam,
    peds and in pores; common fine distinct grayish           silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay in the fine earth
    brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions, and common fine         fraction.
    prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of
    iron accumulation; 8 percent rock fragments;              Codorus Series
    strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Btx1—32 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)                 The soils of the Codorus series are fine-loamy,
    silty clay loam; weak very coarse prismatic               mixed, mesic Fluvaquentic Dystrochrepts. These are
    structure parting to moderate medium and thin             very deep, moderately well drained soils on flood
    platy; firm and brittle, slightly sticky and slightly     plains. They formed in alluvium washed from residuum,
    plastic; common faint clay films on faces of platy        on uplands, derived from mica schist and phyllite.
    peds, in pores, and bridging sand grains; many            Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent.
    medium and fine faint brown (10YR 5/3) and                   Codorus soils are on flood plains with poorly drained
    grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions, and many        Hatboro soils. Hatboro soils are in swales and
    medium and fine prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) soft          drainageways.
    masses of iron accumulation; 5 percent rock                  Typical pedon of Codorus silt loam, 1.5 miles east-
    fragments; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.         southeast of Jacobus in York Township, York County,
Btx2—40 to 54 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) and yellowish          200 feet southwest of State Route 2087, 0.6 mile
    brown (10YR 5/6) clay loam; moderate very coarse          northwest of Pennsylvania Route 214, and 1,000 feet
    prismatic structure parting to moderate medium            southeast of Pleasant Avenue, on idle land:
    platy parting to moderate very fine angular blocky;
                                                              Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
    firm and brittle, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                                 weak fine and medium granular structure; friable,
    few faint clay films bridging sand grains and in
                                                                 slightly sticky and slightly plastic; slightly acid;
    pores; many faint silt coatings on prism faces;
                                                                 abrupt smooth boundary.
    many coarse and medium prominent grayish brown
                                                              BE—8 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3 and 10YR 4/3)
    (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions, and many coarse and
                                                                 silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
    medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft
                                                                 structure parting to weak, fine subangular blocky;
    masses of iron accumulation; 10 percent rock
                                                                 friable, sticky and slightly plastic; moderately acid;
    fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                                 clear smooth boundary.
C—54 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very
                                                              Bw1—12 to 20 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
    channery clay loam; massive; friable, slightly
                                                                 silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
    sticky and slightly plastic; few medium distinct
                                                                 structure; friable, sticky and slightly plastic;
    grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions; 40
                                                                 common mica flakes; few fine prominent strong
    percent rock fragments; moderately acid.
                                                                 brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
    The solum is 40 to 70 inches thick. The fragipan             accumulation; moderately acid; clear smooth
ranges in depth from 20 to 36 inches. Depth to bedrock           boundary.
is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 0           Bw2—20 to 42 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) and yellowish
to 20 percent in the solum above the fragipan, from 5            brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak medium
to 30 percent in the fragipan, and from 5 to 80 percent          subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky and
in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction ranges              slightly plastic; common mica flakes; many
from strongly acid to slightly acid throughout.                  medium and fine distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
    The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of            iron depletions, and many medium and fine
3 to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3.                                    prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron
    The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of            accumulation; strongly acid; gradual smooth
4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It has low chroma                  boundary.
redoximorphic features beginning at a depth of 20 to 32       Bw3—42 to 48 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
inches. It is loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay          weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
loam in the fine earth fraction.                                 slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common mica
    The Btx horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4           flakes; many medium faint dark grayish brown
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        147




   (10YR 4/2) iron depletions, and many medium               Manchester Township, York County, 250 feet north of
   prominent reddish brown (5YR 4/4) soft masses of          Township Route 492 and 1,000 feet southwest of its
   iron accumulation; strongly acid; gradual smooth          intersection with Pennsylvania Route 616, in cropland:
   boundary.
                                                             Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
C1—48 to 55 inches; stratified olive brown (2.5Y 4/4)
                                                                moderate medium granular structure; friable,
   and dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam;
                                                                slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 2 percent rock
   massive; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                                fragments; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
   many mica flakes; many medium and coarse
                                                             Bt1—9 to 17 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
   prominent reddish brown (5YR 4/4) and yellowish
                                                                moderate medium subangular blocky structure
   red (5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron accumulation;
                                                                parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; friable,
   moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                slightly sticky and plastic; common faint clay films
C2—55 to 60 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt
                                                                on faces of peds and in pores; neutral; clear wavy
   loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
                                                                boundary.
   plastic; many mica flakes; moderately acid.
                                                             Bt2—17 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
    The solum is 30 to 60 inches thick. Depth to                clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range            structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky;
from 0 to 15 percent in the solum, from 0 to 25 percent         friable, sticky and plastic; many faint clay films on
in the substratum to a depth of 40 inches, and from 0           faces of peds and in pores; dark yellowish brown
to 70 percent below a depth of 40 inches. In unlimed            (10YR 4/4) ped coatings; slightly acid; clear wavy
areas reaction ranges from very strongly acid to                boundary.
moderately acid in the upper part of the solum and           Bt3—24 to 40 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay
from strongly acid to slightly acid in the lower part and       loam; moderate medium and fine angular and
in the substratum.                                              subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky and
    The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6,            plastic; many faint clay films on faces of peds and
and chroma of 2 or 3.                                           in pores; 2 percent rock fragments; slightly acid;
    The BE horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,            clear wavy boundary.
and chroma of 3 to 6.                                        C1—40 to 46 inches; variegated yellowish brown (10YR
    The Bw horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of           5/4), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and dark yellowish
4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. Iron-depleted areas begin         brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; massive; friable, sticky
at a depth of 24 inches. The horizon is loam, silt loam,        and plastic; many mica flakes; 5 percent rock
or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.                  fragments; moderately acid; gradual wavy
    The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3          boundary.
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4, and it generally has areas       C2—46 to 60 inches; variegated brown (7.5YR 4/4 and
of redoximorphic depletion or accumulation. It is loam          7.5YR 5/4) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam;
or silt loam in the fine earth fraction. In some pedons         massive; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
the C horizon has strata of material that ranges from           many mica flakes; 10 percent rock fragments;
sand and gravel to silty clay.                                  moderately acid.

                                                                 The solum is 30 to 60 inches thick. Depth to
Conestoga Series
                                                             bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range
   The soils of the Conestoga series are fine-loamy,         from 0 to 15 percent in the surface horizon, from 0 to
mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs. These are very deep,          30 percent in the solum, and from 5 to 35 percent in
well drained soils on undulating and rolling uplands.        the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction ranges from
They formed in loamy residuum derived from                   very strongly acid to neutral in the solum and from
micaceous limestone and calcareous schist. Slopes            moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the substratum.
range from 0 to 15 percent.                                      The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
   Conestoga soils are on the landscape with well            and chroma of 2 or 3.
drained Pequea soils, moderately well drained                    The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
Clarksburg soils, and somewhat poorly drained Penlaw         4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. In some pedons the lower
soils. Clarksburg and Penlaw soils have a fragipan.          part of the B horizon has hue of 2.5Y. It is silt loam or
Pequea soils have more sand and rock fragments               silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
throughout than Conestoga soils.                                 The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4
   Typical pedon of Conestoga silt loam, 3 to 8 percent      to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam, loam, or
slopes; 1.5 miles north of Adams New Salem in West           silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
148                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Croton Series                                                  many prominent silt coatings on faces of peds;
                                                               many faint clay films on faces of peds and in
   The soils of the Croton series are fine-silty, mixed,       pores; common medium and fine prominent
mesic Typic Fragiaqualfs. These are deep, poorly               yellowish red (5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
drained soils on nearly level and undulating lowlands          accumulation, and pinkish gray (5YR 6/2) iron
and in depressions and drainageways. They formed in            depletions; 5 percent rock fragments; strongly acid;
loamy residuum derived from shale, siltstone, and fine-        clear wavy boundary.
grained sandstone. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.         C—37 to 42 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4)
   Croton soils are on the landscape with somewhat             channery silt loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky
excessively drained Klinesville soils; well drained            and slightly plastic; 15 percent rock fragments
Arendtsville, Brecknock, Lansdale, and Penn soils;             increasing with depth; common medium and fine
moderately well drained Readington and Reaville soils;         prominent gray (10YR 6/1) and brown (7.5YR 5/2)
and somewhat poorly drained Abbottstown and Lehigh             iron depletions; moderately acid; clear wavy
soils. These soils are in higher positions than Croton         boundary.
soils on the landscape.                                      R—42 inches; fractured weak red (10R 4/3) siltstone.
   Typical pedon of Croton silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
                                                                 The solum is 25 to 40 inches thick. Depth to the
slopes; 3 miles south of Franklintown in Washington
                                                             fragipan ranges from 15 to 25 inches. Depth to bedrock
Township, York County, 300 feet north of Township
                                                             is between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments range
Route 861 and 0.5 mile east of State Route 4043, in
                                                             from 0 to 10 percent in individual horizons above the
idle land:
                                                             fragipan, from 0 to 20 percent in the fragipan, and from
Ap—0 to 12 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) silt         10 to 35 percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas
    loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable,       reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the
    slightly sticky and slightly plastic; moderately acid;   upper part of the solum and ranges from very strongly
    abrupt smooth boundary.                                  acid to moderately acid in the lower part and in the
EB—12 to 14 inches; dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2) silt         substratum.
    loam; moderate medium subangular blocky                      The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3
    structure parting to moderate medium granular;           or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
    friable, sticky and slightly plastic; common fine            The A horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 5YR to
    prominent weak red (2.5YR 5/2) iron depletions;          10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3.
    strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.                       The EB horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
Btg—14 to 20 inches; reddish gray (5YR 5/2) silt loam;       to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2.
    moderate medium angular blocky structure parting             The Btg horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
    to moderate fine subangular blocky; firm, sticky         to 7, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has prominent
    and plastic; common faint clay films on faces of         redoximorphic accumulations with chroma of 5 or 6. It
    peds and in pores; common fine distinct reddish          is silt loam or silty clay loam.
    brown (5YR 5/3) and pinkish gray (5YR 6/2) iron              The Btx horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
    depletions; 3 percent rock fragments; strongly acid;     to 6, and chroma of 1 to 6. It has prominent
    clear smooth boundary.                                   redoximorphic accumulations with chroma of 5 or 6. It
Btx1—20 to 27 inches; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) silt          is silt loam or silty clay loam in fine earth fraction.
    loam; moderate coarse and very coarse prismatic              The C horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 to
    structure parting to moderate coarse and medium          5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It has prominent
    angular blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and        redoximorphic accumulations with chroma of 5 or 6.
    plastic; many prominent silt coatings on faces of        It is silt loam or silty clay loam in the fine earth
    prisms and on smaller peds; many distinct clay           fraction.
    films on faces of peds and in pores; many medium
    and fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and          Dunning Series
    reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron
    accumulation; 5 percent rock fragments; strongly            The soils of the Dunning series are fine, mixed,
    acid; clear irregular boundary.                          mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls. These are very deep,
Btx2—27 to 37 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silt           very poorly drained soils on flood plains. They formed
    loam; streaks and lenses of gray (N 6/0) and (5YR        in alluvium derived from residuum derived from
    6/1) silty clay; weak very coarse prismatic              limestone and calcareous schist. Slopes range from 0
    structure parting to moderate medium angular and         to 3 percent.
    subangular blocky; very firm, sticky and plastic;           Dunning soils are on flood plains with moderately
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           149




well drained Lindside soils, but Lindside soils are on         The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 or
slightly higher rises.                                      3, and chroma of 0 to 3.
   Typical pedon of Dunning silty clay loam; 2 miles           The Bg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4
northwest of McSherrystown in Oxford Township,              to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has many prominent to
Adams County, 180 feet west of State Route 2009 and         few, faint soft masses of iron accumulation and iron
300 feet south of its intersection with State Route         depletions. It is silty clay loam, silty clay, or
2013, in hayland:                                           clay.
                                                               The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4
Ap—0 to 11 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                            to 6, and chroma of 0 to 6. It has many prominent to
   3/2) silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry;
                                                            few, faint, soft masses of iron accumulation and iron
   moderate medium and fine granular structure;
                                                            depletions. It is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay in the
   friable, sticky and plastic; slightly alkaline; abrupt
                                                            fine earth fraction. In some pedons, below a depth of
   smooth boundary.
                                                            40 inches, it has stratified layers of sandy loam, loam,
Bg1—11 to 18 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay;
                                                            sandy clay loam, clay loam, or silt loam.
   weak medium angular blocky structure; friable,
   sticky and very plastic; many medium and fine
   prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) soft masses         Edgemont Series
   of iron accumulation, and many medium and fine
                                                                The soils of the Edgemont series are fine-loamy,
   prominent grayish brown iron depletions; slightly
                                                            mixed, mesic Typic Hapludults. These are very deep
   alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            and well drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed
Bg2—18 to 30 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
                                                            in weathered residuum of quartzitic rocks. Slopes
   clay; weak coarse and medium angular blocky
                                                            range from 3 to 70 percent.
   structure; firm, sticky and very plastic; many
                                                                Edgemont soils are on the landscape with
   medium and fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
                                                            somewhat excessively drained, moderately deep
   5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation, and many
                                                            Catoctin soils; well drained, very deep or deep Glenelg
   medium and fine faint gray (10YR 5/1) iron
                                                            and deep Highfield and Myersville soils; and
   depletions; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            moderately well drained Buchanan and Glenville soils.
C—30 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty
                                                            Edgemont soils have more clay throughout than that of
   clay; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                            Catoctin and Highfield soils. Glenelg soils are
   firm, sticky and plastic; common medium and fine
                                                            micaceous. Buchanan and Glenville soils have a
   distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions,
                                                            fragipan.
   and common medium and fine faint yellowish
                                                                Typical pedon of Edgemont channery loam, 8 to 25
   brown (10YR 5/8) soft masses of iron
                                                            percent slopes, very stony; 1 mile east of Maple Grove
   accumulation; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
                                                            in Paradise Township, York County, 285 feet northwest
   boundary.
                                                            of Township Route 461 at a point 375 feet northeast of
Cg1—36 to 42 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                            its intersection with State Route 3047, in woodland:
   silty clay loam; massive; firm, sticky and plastic; 2
   percent rock fragments; common fine distinct light
                                                            Oi—2 inches to 1 inch; mat of fresh and slightly
   olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) soft masses of iron
                                                               decayed leaves, twigs, and roots.
   accumulation, and light gray (2.5Y 7/2) iron
                                                            Oa—1 inch to 0; decomposed organic material
   depletions; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
                                                               containing twigs, roots, and rock fragments.
   boundary.
                                                            A—0 to 2 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) channery
Cg2—42 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
                                                               loam; weak fine and very fine granular structure;
   stratified sandy clay loam and gravelly sandy clay
                                                               very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 20 percent
   loam; massive; friable, sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                               rock fragments; extremely acid; abrupt wavy
   many fine distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) soft
                                                               boundary.
   masses of iron accumulation; 5 to 35 percent rock
                                                            E—2 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) channery loam;
   fragments in strata; slightly alkaline.
                                                               weak medium and fine granular structure; very
   The solum is 30 to 50 inches thick. Depth to                friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; 20 percent
bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range           rock fragments; very strongly acid; clear wavy
from 0 to 5 percent to a depth of 30 inches and from 0         boundary.
to 20 percent below that depth. In unlimed areas            BE—5 to 8 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
reaction ranges from moderately acid to slightly               channery loam; weak fine angular blocky structure;
alkaline throughout.                                           very friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; 15
150                                                                                                         Soil Survey




   percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; clear           earth fraction, but the range includes loamy sand,
   wavy boundary.                                              loam, and clay loam.
Bt1—8 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
   channery loam; weak medium subangular blocky                Glenelg Series
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
   very few, faint clay bridges between sand grains on            The soils of the Glenelg series are fine-loamy,
   faces of peds and in pores; 15 percent rock                 mixed, mesic Typic Hapludults. These are deep, well
   fragments; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.             drained soils on ridgetops and side slopes. They
Bt2—14 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)                formed in channery residuum derived from schist and
   channery loam; weak medium angular blocky                   saprolite. Slopes range from 3 to 25 percent.
   structure parting to weak fine angular blocky;                 Glenelg soils are on the landscape with somewhat
   friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common       excessively drained, very deep Manor soils and
   faint clay bridges between sand grains and few              moderately deep Mt. Airy soils; well drained, very deep
   faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 20          Edgemont soils; moderately well drained Glenville
   percent rock fragments; extremely acid; clear wavy          soils; and poorly drained Baile soils. Manor soils are
   boundary.                                                   coarse-loamy, and Mt. Airy soils are loamy-skeletal.
Bt3—24 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) very           Glenelg soils are redder than Edgemont soils. Unlike
   channery sandy loam; weak coarse subangular                 Glenelg soils, Glenville soils have a fragipan. Baile
   blocky structure parting to weak medium angular             soils are grayish throughout.
   blocky; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; very few            Typical pedon of Glenelg channery silt loam, 8 to 15
   faint clay bridges between sand grains on faces of          percent slopes; 1 mile southwest of Brogue in
   peds; 35 percent rock fragments; extremely acid;            Chanceford Township, York County, 200 feet east of
   gradual irregular boundary.                                 State Route 2077 and one-half mile southeast of its
C—30 to 60 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) extremely                  intersection with State Route 2054, in a cultivated field:
   channery sandy loam; streaks and patches of
                                                               Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) channery
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and strong brown
                                                                  silt loam; moderate fine granular structure; very
   (7.5YR 5/8); weak medium subangular blocky
                                                                  friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; 15 percent
   structure; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 70
                                                                  rock fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
   percent rock fragments; extremely acid; abrupt
                                                                  boundary.
   irregular boundary.
                                                               BE—8 to 12 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) channery
    The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. Depth to                  silt loam; weak medium platy structure parting to
bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range              weak very fine subangular blocky; friable, slightly
from 5 to 40 percent in the solum and from 10 to 90               sticky and slightly plastic; 15 percent rock
percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction              fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid                    Bt1—12 to 16 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) channery
throughout.                                                       silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
    The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and           friable, sticky and plastic; common faint clay films
chroma of 1 or 2. The fine earth fraction is sandy loam,          on faces of peds and lining pores; 15 percent rock
loam, or silt loam.                                               fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
    The Ap horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10YR,          Bt2—16 to 22 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) channery
value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is sandy loam,          silty clay loam; moderate medium and fine
loam, or silt loam in the fine earth fraction.                    subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky and
    The E horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4            plastic; many faint clay films on faces of peds and
or 5, and chroma of 0 to 4. It is sandy loam, loam, or            lining pores; 15 percent rock fragments; many mica
silt loam in the fine earth fraction.                             flakes; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
    The BE horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4        Bt3—22 to 25 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) channery
or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is sandy loam, loam, or            silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
silt loam in the fine earth fraction.                             structure; firm, sticky and slightly plastic; common
    The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of             faint clay films on faces of peds and rock
5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The fine earth fraction is          fragments and in pores; 20 percent rock fragments;
sandy loam or loam, but the range includes fine sandy             many mica flakes; very strongly acid; clear wavy
loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam.                              boundary.
    The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5         BC—25 to 29 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) channery
or 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. It is sandy loam in the fine          loam; weak very thick platy and medium
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          151




   subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky         Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
   and slightly plastic; common faint clay films on               moderate medium and fine granular structure;
   rock fragments, few faint clay films on faces of               friable, sticky and slightly plastic; 5 percent rock
   peds and lining pores; 25 percent rock fragments;              fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
   many mica flakes; very strongly acid; gradual wavy         Bt1—10 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   boundary.                                                      loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
C—29 to 50 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6), red                   structure parting to moderate fine subangular
   (2.5YR 5/6), and light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) very            blocky; friable, sticky and plastic; common faint
   channery loam; massive; 35 percent rock                        clay films on faces of peds and lining pores;
   fragments; very micaceous; very strongly acid;                 common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
   abrupt wavy boundary.                                          soft masses of iron accumulation, and common
Cr—50 inches; weathered, fractured mica schist.                   fine distinct brown (10YR 5/3) iron depletions; 3
                                                                  percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy
    The solum is 18 to 30 inches thick. Depth to
                                                                  boundary.
bedrock is between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments
                                                              Bt2—14 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
range from 0 to 35 percent in the solum and from 5 to
                                                                  loam; moderate medium angular blocky structure
35 percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
                                                                  parting to moderate fine angular blocky; firm,
is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the surface
                                                                  sticky and plastic; common faint clay films on
layer and ranges from very strongly acid to slightly
                                                                  faces of peds and in pores; common mica flakes;
acid in the subsoil and substratum.
                                                                  common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
    The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
                                                                  soft masses of iron accumulation, and common
3 to 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam or silt loam in
                                                                  fine prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) iron
the fine earth fraction.
                                                                  depletions; 5 percent rock fragments; slightly acid;
    The BE horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
                                                                  clear wavy boundary.
3 to 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in
                                                              Btx1—19 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
the fine earth fraction.
                                                                  loam; moderate coarse prismatic structure parting
    The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of
                                                                  to moderate medium angular blocky; very firm and
the 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam, silt loam, or
                                                                  brittle, sticky and slightly plastic; many faint clay
silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                                  films on faces of peds and in pores; common mica
    The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4
                                                                  flakes; many medium and fine prominent strong
or 5, and chroma of 2 to 8. It is sandy loam or loam in
                                                                  brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
the fine earth fraction.
                                                                  accumulation, and many medium and fine
                                                                  prominent grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions;
Glenville Series                                                  10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid;
                                                                  gradual wavy boundary.
   The soils of the Glenville Series are fine-loamy,          Btx2—24 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt
mixed, mesic Aquic Fragiudults. These are very deep,              loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting
moderately well drained soils on footslopes and                   to moderate medium platy; very firm and brittle,
benches, in depressions, and on lowlands. They                    sticky and slightly plastic; common faint clay films
formed in loamy residuum derived from schist and                  on faces of platy peds and in pores; many mica
other crystalline rocks containing mica. Slopes range             flakes; many medium prominent strong brown
from 0 to 8 percent.                                              (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation, and
   Glenville soils are on the landscape with somewhat             many medium prominent grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
excessively drained Catoctin, Manor, and Mt. Airy                 iron depletions; 10 percent rock fragments; very
soils; well drained Edgemont, Glenelg, Highfield, and             strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Myersville soils; and poorly drained Baile soils. All         BC—36 to 40 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
these soils except Baile soils are on ridges and hills.           channery loam; weak medium subangular blocky
Glenville soils are not as gray in the subsoil as Baile           structure; friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; few
soils.                                                            faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
   Typical pedon of Glenville silt loam, 3 to 8 percent           many mica flakes; common medium prominent
slopes; 3 miles south-southwest of Hanover in Union               light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions; 15
Township, Adams County, 40 feet northeast of                      percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; gradual
Township Route 463, 0.1 mile northwest of its                     wavy boundary.
intersection with Legislative Route 01031, in cropland:       C—40 to 60 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) channery
152                                                                                                     Soil Survey




      loam, extremely channery loam in the lower part;         (10YR 4/2) iron depletions; strongly acid; abrupt
      weak medium platy structure; very friable,               smooth boundary.
      nonsticky and nonplastic; very many mica flakes;      Eg—6 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
      few medium prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)        silt loam; weak medium and fine granular structure;
      and light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions;      friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
      20 percent rock fragments increasing to 65 percent       many fine prominent brown (10YR 5/3) and strong
      in the lower part; very strongly acid.                   brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
                                                               accumulation; strongly acid; clear smooth
    The solum is 30 to 40 inches thick. Depth to the
                                                               boundary.
fragipan ranges from 15 to 30 inches. Depth to bedrock
                                                            Bg1—12 to 32 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt
is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 0
                                                               loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
to 30 percent in the solum and from 5 to 80 percent in
                                                               friable, sticky and slightly plastic; many fine
the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction ranges from
                                                               prominent brown (10YR 5/3) and yellowish red
very strongly acid to neutral in the solum and from very
                                                               (5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron accumulation;
strongly acid to moderately acid in the substratum.
                                                               strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
    The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3
                                                            Bg2—32 to 45 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 6.
                                                               silt loam; weak medium and fine subangular blocky
    The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
                                                               structure; friable, sticky and slightly plastic;
4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is loam, clay loam, silt
                                                               common mica flakes; many medium and fine
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                               distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions,
    The Btx horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
                                                               and many medium and fine distinct yellowish
4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has prominent soft
                                                               brown (10YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
masses of iron accumulation with chroma of 5 or 6. It
                                                               accumulation; moderately acid; abrupt smooth
is loam or silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                               boundary.
    The BC horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
                                                            Cg—45 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 6. It has prominent soft
                                                               gravelly silt loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky
masses of iron accumulation with chroma of 5 or 6. It
                                                               and slightly plastic; many mica flakes; many
is loam or silt loam in fine earth fraction.
                                                               medium and fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR
    The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4
                                                               5/6) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of
to 6, and chroma of 1 to 8. It is sandy loam or loam in
                                                               iron accumulation; 30 percent rock fragments;
the fine earth fraction.
                                                               moderately acid.
                                                                The solum is 40 to 60 inches thick. Depth to
Hatboro Series                                              bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range
                                                            from 0 to 10 percent in the solum and from 0 to 80
   The soils of the Hatboro series are fine-loamy,
                                                            percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
mixed, nonacid, mesic Typic Fluvaquents. These are
                                                            ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in the solum
very deep, poorly drained soils on flood plains. They
                                                            and is moderately acid or slightly acid in the
formed in alluvium washed from residuum, on uplands,
                                                            substratum.
derived from mica schist, gneiss, and other
                                                                The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4,
metamorphic and crystalline rocks. Slopes range from
                                                            and chroma of 2 or 3. It has prominent soft masses of
0 to 3 percent.
                                                            iron accumulation with chroma of 5 or 6.
   Hatboro soils are on flood plains with moderately
                                                                The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
well drained Codorus soils. Codorus soils are on
                                                            and chroma of 2 or 3. It has prominent soft masses of
slightly lower lying rises.
                                                            iron accumulation with chroma of 5 or 6.
   Typical pedon of Hatboro silt loam, 3 miles
                                                                The Bg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value
southwest of Hanover in Conewago Township, Adams
                                                            of 4 to 7, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has prominent soft
County, on the north bank of South Branch Conewago
                                                            masses of iron accumulation with chroma 5 or 6. It is
Creek, 300 feet north of Township Route 461 at a point
                                                            sandy clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay
1,300 feet northeast of its intersection with Township
                                                            loam.
Route 463, in an abandoned pasture:
                                                                The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
Ap—0 to 6 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam;          7, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has prominent soft masses
   weak medium granular structure; friable, slightly        of iron accumulation with chroma of 5 or 6. In some
   sticky and slightly plastic; common fine distinct        pedons it has strata of material that ranges from sand
   very dark brown (10YR 2/2) and dark grayish brown        or gravel to silt or clay.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           153




Highfield Series                                                 pores; 40 percent rock fragments; strongly acid;
                                                                 gradual wavy boundary.
    The soils of the Highfield series are coarse-loamy,        C—38 to 42 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) very
mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are deep, well              channery silt loam; lenses of yellow (10YR 7/8)
drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed in                and olive brown (2.5Y 4/4); massive; firm, slightly
channery residuum derived from metabasalt and                    sticky and nonplastic; 50 percent rock fragments;
metarhyolite. Slopes range from 3 to 70 percent (fig.            strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
19).                                                           R—42 inches; pale green (5G 6/2) and gray (5G 4/1)
    Highfield soils are on the landscape with well               metarhyolite.
drained, very deep Arendtsville and Edgemont soils
                                                                   The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. Depth to
and deep Myersville soils; moderately well drained
                                                               bedrock is between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments
Buchanan and Glenville soils; and poorly drained Baile
                                                               range from 5 to 25 percent in the A and E horizons,
soils. Highfield soils have less clay in the upper part of
                                                               from 15 to 40 percent in subhorizons of the B horizon,
the solum than Myersville, Edgemont, and Arendtsville
                                                               and from 20 to 80 percent in the substratum. In
soils. Baile, Buchanan, and Glenville soils are in lower
                                                               unlimed areas reaction is very strongly acid or strongly
lying areas.
                                                               acid in the solum and strongly acid or moderately acid
    Typical pedon of Highfield channery silt loam, 8 to
                                                               in the substratum.
15 percent slopes; 3.5 miles southwest of Fairfield in
                                                                   The A horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10YR or
Hamiltonban Township, Adams County, 300 feet south
                                                               2.5Y, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2.
of State Route 3021, 0.8 mile northeast of its
                                                                   The E horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10YR or
intersection with Pennsylvania Route 16, in an apple
                                                               2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 4.
orchard:
                                                                   The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3
Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) channery silt          or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam or silt loam in the
   loam; weak fine and medium granular structure;              fine earth fraction.
   friable, nonsticky and slightly plastic; 25 percent             The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 5
   rock fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth                or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in the
   boundary.                                                   fine earth fraction.
Bt1—9 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)                     The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value 5 or
   channery silt loam; weak fine and medium                    6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in the
   subangular structure; friable, slightly sticky and          fine earth fraction.
   slightly plastic; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly
   acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2—12 to 18 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)              Klinesville Series
   channery silt loam; moderate fine subangular
                                                                  The soils of the Klinesville series are loamy-
   blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
                                                               skeletal, mixed, mesic Lithic Dystrochrepts. These are
   plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds
                                                               shallow, somewhat excessively drained soils on ridges,
   and in pores; 25 percent rock fragments;
                                                               side slopes, and hills. They formed in channery
   moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                               residuum derived from shale, siltstone, and fine-
Bt3—18 to 24 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)
                                                               grained sandstone. Slopes range from 3 to 40 percent.
   channery silt loam; moderate medium subangular
                                                                  Klinesville soils are on the landscape with well
   blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
                                                               drained, deep Lansdale and Penn soils and moderately
   plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds
                                                               deep Steinsburg soils; moderately well drained
   and in pores; 30 percent rock fragments; strongly
                                                               Readington and Reaville soils; and somewhat poorly
   acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                               drained Abbottstown and Lehigh soils. All these soils
Bt4—24 to 32 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) very
                                                               have less sand and fewer rock fragments than
   channery silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                               Klinesville soils.
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                                  Typical pedon of Klinesville channery silt loam, in an
   common faint clay films on faces of peds and in
                                                               area of Penn-Klinesville channery silt loams, 3 to 8
   pores; 35 percent rock fragments; strongly acid;
                                                               percent slopes; 0.25 mile east of Barlow in Mt. Joy
   gradual wavy boundary.
                                                               Township, Adams County, 100 feet north of State
Bt5—32 to 38 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) very
                                                               Route 2001, 0.25 mile east of Pennsylvania Route 134,
   channery silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                               in a cultivated field:
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
   few faint clay films on faces of peds and lining            Ap—0 to 8 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) channery
154                                                                                                               Soil Survey




Figure 19.—Typical landscape of Highfield soils. These soils have a higher base saturation above bedrock than defined for the
    Highfield series. This difference does not affect use and management of the soils.



  silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very                   4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is silt loam in the fine earth
  friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 30               fraction.
  percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear                       The Bw horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3
  smooth boundary.                                                or 4, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in the
Bw—8 to 14 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) very channery silt             fine earth fraction.
  loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;                       The C horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 or
  friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 60               4, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in the
  percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy               fine earth fraction.
  boundary.
C—14 to 16 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) extremely
  channery silt loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky              Lamington Series
  and slightly plastic; 80 percent rock fragments;
                                                                      The soils of the Lamington series are fine-loamy,
  moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                                  mixed, mesic Typic Fragiaquults. These are very deep,
R—16 inches; fractured weak red (10R 4/4) shale
                                                                  poorly drained soils on benches and lowlands and in
  bedrock.
                                                                  depressions. They formed in old alluvium derived from
   The solum is 10 to 20 inches thick. Depth to                   residuum derived from shale, siltstone, and sandstone.
bedrock is between 10 and 20 inches. Rock fragments               Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent.
range from 15 to 75 percent in individual horizons of                 Lamington soils are on the landscape with well
the solum and from 40 to 90 percent in the substratum.            drained Birdsboro soils and moderately well drained
In unlimed areas reaction ranges from very strongly               Raritan soils. Birdsboro soils are on higher ridges and
acid to moderately acid throughout.                               hills above Lamington soils.
   The Ap horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 2 to                Typical pedon of Lamington silt loam; 1.5 miles
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           155




south of Biglerville in Butler Township, Adams County,        to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is silt loam and loam in
on the east side of Pennsylvania Route 34 near                the fine earth fraction.
Conewago Creek, in cropland:                                     The BA or EB horizons, where it occurs, has hue of
                                                              5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2. It is silt
Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam;
                                                              loam in the fine earth fraction.
    weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly sticky
                                                                 The BE horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
    and slightly plastic; moderately acid; abrupt wavy
                                                              to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is silt loam in the fine
    boundary.
                                                              earth fraction.
BE—8 to 11 inches; dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2) silt
                                                                 The Btg horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
    loam; weak thick platy structure parting to weak
                                                              to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has few to many
    very fine subangular blocky; friable, slightly sticky
                                                              prominent soft masses of iron accumulation. It is loam,
    and slightly plastic; common fine prominent red
                                                              clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth
    (2.5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 5
                                                              fraction.
    percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear
                                                                 The Btxg horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value
    wavy boundary.
                                                              of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 8. It has few to many
Btg—11 to 17 inches; pinkish gray (5YR 7/2) silty clay
                                                              prominent soft masses of iron accumulation and iron
    loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                              depletions. It is loam, clay loam, or silt loam in the fine
    structure; firm, sticky and plastic; common faint
                                                              earth fraction.
    clay films on faces of peds; common fine
                                                                 The 2C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of
    prominent red (10R 4/6) and brown (7.5YR 5/4)
                                                              4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 8. It is stratified sand and
    soft masses of iron accumulation; 5 percent
                                                              gravel, but the range includes sand and gravel to silty
    rock fragments; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
                                                              clay loam.
    boundary.
Btxg1—17 to 32 inches; reddish gray (5YR 5/2) clay
    loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to          Lansdale Series
    moderate thick platy and moderate medium
                                                                 The soils of the Lansdale series are coarse-loamy,
    subangular blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and
                                                              mixed, mesic Typic Hapludults. These are deep, well
    slightly plastic; few faint clay films on faces of
                                                              drained soils on broad, undulating uplands and on
    peds; few prominent black coatings on faces of
                                                              ridgetops and side slopes in dissected uplands. They
    peds; common medium prominent light gray (N 7/0)
                                                              formed in loamy residuum derived from sandstone and
    iron depletions, and common medium prominent
                                                              conglomerate. Slopes range from 3 to 15 percent.
    strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
                                                                 Lansdale soils are on the landscape with somewhat
    accumulation; 10 percent rock fragments; strongly
                                                              excessively drained, shallow Klinesville soils; well
    acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                              drained, very deep Penn soils; moderately deep
Btxg2—32 to 46 inches; pinkish gray (5YR 6/2) cobbly
                                                              Steinsburg soils; moderately well drained Readington
    loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting
                                                              and Reaville soils; somewhat poorly drained
    to weak coarse platy and weak medium subangular
                                                              Abbottstown and Lehigh soils; and poorly drained
    blocky; firm, sticky and slightly plastic; few distinct
                                                              Croton soils. All these soils have less sand and fewer
    clay films on faces of peds; few prominent iron and
                                                              rock fragments throughout than those in Lansdale
    manganese oxides and silt coatings on faces of
                                                              soils.
    peds; many coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR
                                                                 Typical pedon of Lansdale loam, 3 to 8 percent
    5/6) and reddish brown (5YR 4/3) soft masses of
                                                              slopes; 1.5 miles southwest of Manchester in East
    iron accumulation; 20 percent rock fragments; very
                                                              Manchester Township, York County, 60 feet northeast
    strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                              of Township Route 941, 0.1 mile southeast of Interstate
2C—46 to 60 inches; stratified sand and gravel.
                                                              83 and 0.2 mile southeast of Pennsylvania Route 921,
   The solum is 40 to 60 inches thick. Depth to the           in a cultivated field:
fragipan ranges from 15 to 30 inches and extends to 40        Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loam;
inches or more. Depth to bedrock is more than 60                 moderate medium and fine granular structure;
inches. Rock fragments range from 0 to 15 percent in             friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 5 percent
the upper part of the solum, from 0 to 25 percent in the         rock fragments; moderately acid; abrupt smooth
lower part, and from 0 to 90 percent in the substratum.          boundary.
In unlimed areas reaction is very strongly acid or            Bt1—10 to 17 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
strongly acid throughout.                                        loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure
   The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4             parting to fine subangular blocky; friable, slightly
156                                                                                                      Soil Survey




   sticky and slightly plastic; few faint clay bridges         Legore soils are on the landscape with well drained,
   between sand grains on faces of peds and in              very deep Neshaminy soils and deep Brecknock soils;
   pores; 5 percent rock fragments; strongly acid;          somewhat poorly drained Lehigh and Mount Lucas
   clear wavy boundary.                                     soils; and poorly drained Watchung soils. Neshaminy
Bt2—17 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)             soils are on higher ridges and hills above Legore soils.
   sandy loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky            Legore soils have a solum thicker than that of
   structure parting to moderate medium subangular          Brecknock soils. Lehigh, Mount Lucas, and Watchung
   blocky; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;   soils are on lower lying ridgetops and along
   common faint clay bridges between sand grains            drainageways.
   and clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 5             Typical pedon of Legore channery silt loam, 3 to 8
   percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy        percent slopes; 1 mile southwest of Franklintown,
   boundary.                                                Franklin Township, York County, on the south side of
Bt3—24 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)             Township Route 853, 800 feet northeast of Township
   sandy loam; weak medium and fine subangular              Route 860, in hayland:
   blocky structure; very friable, slightly sticky and
                                                            Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4)
   nonplastic; few faint clay bridges between sand
                                                               channery silt loam; moderate medium granular
   grains on faces of peds and in pores; 5 percent
                                                               structure; very friable, slightly sticky and slightly
   rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                               plastic; 15 percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt
C1—30 to 42 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                               smooth boundary.
   loamy sand; single grain; very friable, nonsticky
                                                            E—8 to 10 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; weak
   and nonplastic; 5 percent rock fragments; strongly
                                                               fine subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky and
   acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                               plastic; 5 percent rock fragments; neutral; clear
C2—42 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                               wavy boundary.
   channery loamy sand; single grain; loose,
                                                            Bt1—10 to 21 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay
   nonsticky and nonplastic; 35 percent rock
                                                               loam; moderate medium and fine subangular
   fragments; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                               blocky structure; friable, sticky and very plastic;
R—47 inches; fractured dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                               common faint clay films on faces of peds and in
   sandstone.
                                                               pores; 5 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear
    The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. Depth to               wavy boundary.
bedrock is between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments         Bt2—21 to 30 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and
range from 2 to 25 percent in the solum and generally          yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay loam; moderate
increase with depth in the substratum. In unlimed areas        medium subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky
reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid                and plastic; common faint clay films on faces of
throughout.                                                    peds and in pores; 5 percent rock fragments;
    The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of          slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
4 or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is sandy loam or loam      C1—30 to 44 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam;
in the fine earth fraction.                                    massive; firm, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
    The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of          common prominent black (5YR 2/1) streaks; 5
4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is sandy loam or loam         percent rock fragments; slightly acid; gradual wavy
in the fine earth fraction.                                    boundary.
    The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5      C2—44 to 60 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loamy sand, sandy            loam; multicolored sand grains; massive; firm,
loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction. In some              nonsticky and nonplastic; 5 percent rock
pedons the C horizon has layers formed in sandstone            fragments; slightly acid.
or shale.
                                                                The solum is 20 to 34 inches thick. Depth to
                                                            bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range
Legore Series                                               from 3 to 35 percent throughout. In unlimed areas
                                                            reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid in the upper
   The soils of the Legore Series are fine-loamy,           part of the solum and moderately acid or slightly acid
mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are very deep,         in the lower part and in the substratum.
well drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed in          The A and Ap horizons have hue of 5YR to 10YR,
channery residuum derived from diabase. Slopes range        value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
from 3 to 25 percent.                                           The E horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                           157




or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam, silt loam, or silty   Bt3—21 to 30 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) channery
clay loam in the fine earth fraction.                            silt loam; moderate coarse and medium subangular
   The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4             blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic; many
or 5, and chroma of 2 to 6. It is clay loam or silty clay        distinct clay films on faces of peds, on rock
loam in the fine earth fraction.                                 fragments, and in pores; common fine prominent
   The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 10YR, value of 4            olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) soft masses of iron
or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam, loam, silt         accumulation; 30 percent rock fragments; strongly
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.             acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                              C1—30 to 36 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) extremely
Lehigh Series                                                    channery silt loam; weak medium and fine
                                                                 subangular blocky structure; massive; firm, sticky
   The soils of the Lehigh Series are fine-loamy,                and slightly plastic; few faint clay films on rock
mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs. They are deep,                    fragments; common fine prominent olive brown
somewhat poorly drained soils on ridgetops, side                 (2.5Y 4/4) soft masses of iron accumulation; 60
slopes, and hills (fig. 20). They formed in channery             percent rock fragments; moderately acid; gradual
residuum derived from hornfels and porcellanite, which           wavy boundary.
are diabase intrusives that shale and sandstone have          C2—36 to 42 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) extremely
metamorphosed. Slopes range from 0 to 15 percent.                channery silt loam; massive; firm, slightly
   Lehigh soils are on the landscape with somewhat               sticky and slightly plastic; 80 percent rock
excessively drained, shallow Klinesville soils; well             fragments; moderately acid; gradual wavy
drained, very deep Legore and Neshaminy soils; deep              boundary.
Brecknock and Penn soils; moderately well drained             R—42 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) porcelanite.
Readington soils; somewhat poorly drained Mount
                                                                  The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. Depth to
Lucas soils; and poorly drained Croton and Watchung
                                                              bedrock is between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments
soils. These soils, except Croton and Watchung soils,
                                                              range from 0 to 45 percent in the surface layer, from 5
are redder or browner throughout than Lehigh soils.
                                                              to 60 percent in the subsoil, and from 25 to 80 percent
Unlike Lehigh soils, Croton and Watchung soils have
                                                              in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction is very
bright colored redoximorphic features in the upper part
                                                              strongly acid to neutral.
of the solum. Mount Lucas soils formed in residuum
                                                                  The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
derived from weathered diabase.
                                                              5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is silt loam in the fine earth
   Typical pedon of Lehigh channery silt loam, 3 to 8
                                                              fraction.
percent slopes; 0.5 mile east of Gettysburg in Straban
                                                                  The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
Township, Adams County, on Benner Hill, 375 feet
                                                              6, and chroma of 0 to 4. It has soft masses of iron
south of Pennsylvania Route 116 and 80 feet west of
                                                              accumulation or iron depletions at a depth of 10 to 18
Benner Drive, in cropland:
                                                              inches. It is silt loam or silty clay loam in the fine earth
Ap—0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)          fraction.
   channery silt loam; weak fine granular structure;              The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
   friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 20          5, and chroma of 0 to 3. It is silt loam or silty clay loam
   percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt wavy               in the fine earth fraction.
   boundary.
Bt1—8 to 14 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)             Lindside Series
   channery silt loam; moderate medium subangular
   blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly       The soils of the Lindside series are fine-silty, mixed,
   plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds          mesic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts. These are very deep,
   and in pores; 15 percent rock fragments;                   moderately well drained soils on flood plains. They
   moderately acid; abrupt wavy boundary.                     formed in alluvium washed from residuum, on the
Bt2—14 to 21 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)            surrounding uplands, derived from limestone, schist,
   channery silty clay loam; moderate medium                  shale, and sandstone. Slopes range from 0 to 3
   subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky and              percent.
   plastic; many faint clay films on faces of peds and           Lindside soils are on flood plains with very poorly
   in pores; common medium distinct olive brown               drained Dunning soils. These soils are grayer
   (2.5Y 4/4) soft masses of iron accumulation; 15            throughout than Lindside soils.
   percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy             Typical pedon of Lindside silt loam; 1.5 miles north
   boundary.                                                  of New Salem, West Manchester Township, York
158                                                                                                         Soil Survey




                      Figure 20.—Lehigh and Neshaminy soils are adjacent on Roundtop (background).



County, south of Township Route 492, 900 feet west of             medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron
Pennsylvania Route 616, in an idle field:                         depletions, and many prominent yellowish red
                                                                  (5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron accumulation;
Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                                                                  neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
   loam; moderate medium and fine granular
                                                               C2—45 to 60 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) and (10YR 4/3)
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                                  silt loam; massive; firm, sticky and slightly plastic;
   neutral, abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                                  common medium faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
Bw1—8 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
                                                                  iron depletions, and common medium prominent
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure
                                                                  yellowish red (5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron
   parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; friable,
                                                                  accumulation; slightly acid.
   sticky and slightly plastic; few medium faint
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) soft masses of iron                 The solum is 25 to 50 inches thick. Depth to
   accumulation; neutral; clear smooth boundary.               bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments make
Bw2—17 to 20 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;               up from 0 to 5 percent of the volume to a depth of 40
   weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable,             inches and from 0 to 30 percent below. In unlimed
   sticky and slightly plastic; common fine distinct           areas reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions, and               alkaline in the solum and from moderately acid to
   prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses              slightly alkaline in the substratum.
   of iron accumulation; neutral; clear wavy                      The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
   boundary.                                                   3 to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3.
Bw3—20 to 31 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;                  The Bw horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4
   weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky         or 5, and chroma of 3 to 6 to a depth of 20 inches and
   and plastic; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt        1 to 4 below that depth. Iron depletions begin at a
   loam lenses; many medium distinct dark grayish              depth of 14 to 24 inches. The horizon is dominantly silt
   brown (10YR 4/2) iron depletions, and prominent             loam or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction, but in
   reddish brown (5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron                 some pedons it contains strata of sandy loam, loam, or
   accumulation; slightly alkaline; clear wavy                 clay loam.
   boundary.                                                      The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4
C1—31 to 45 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;                to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. It has few to many
   massive; firm, sticky and slightly plastic; many            prominent iron depletions and soft masses of iron
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                      159




accumulation. It is sandy loam, loam, clay loam, silt      evident throughout, increases with depth. In unlimed
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.       areas reaction ranges from extremely acid to
                                                           moderately acid.
                                                              The A horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3
Manor Series                                               or 4, and chroma of 1 to 4.
                                                              The Ap horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 5YR to
   The soils of the Manor series are coarse-loamy,
                                                           10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 1 to 4.
micaceous, mesic Typic Dystrochrepts. These are very
                                                              The E horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
deep, somewhat excessively drained soils on
                                                           to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in the
ridgetops, side slopes, and hillsides of the dissected
                                                           fine earth fraction.
uplands. They formed in channery residuum derived
                                                              The Bw horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
from schist and phyllite. Slopes range from 3 to 25
                                                           4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam or silt loam in
percent.
                                                           the fine earth fraction.
   Manor soils are on the landscape with moderately
                                                              The C horizon has hue of 10R to 10YR, value of 4 to
deep, somewhat excessively drained Mt. Airy soils;
                                                           8, and chroma of 2 to 8. It is sandy loam or loam in the
well drained, deep Glenelg soils; moderately well
                                                           fine earth fraction.
drained Glenville soils; and poorly drained Baile soils.
Mt. Airy soils have more rock fragments throughout. All
these soils, except Mt. Airy soils, have more clay         Mount Lucas Series
throughout than Manor soils.
                                                              The soils of the Mount Lucas series are fine-loamy,
   Typical pedon of Manor channery loam, in an area of
                                                           mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs. These are deep
Mt. Airy and Manor soils, 15 to 25 percent slopes; 1.5
                                                           and very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils on
miles north of Fawn Grove in Fawn Township, York
                                                           nearly level and undulating, broad uplands, footslopes,
County, southeast corner of the intersection of State
                                                           and depressions. They formed in loamy residuum
Route 2057 and Township Road 587, in woodland:
                                                           derived from diabase. Slopes range from 0 to 8
A—0 to 4 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) channery           percent.
   loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable,          Mount Lucas soils are on the landscape with well
   slightly sticky and nonplastic; micaceous; 20           drained Neshaminy and Legore soils and poorly drained
   percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear          Watchung soils. Watchung soils have matrix colors of
   wavy boundary.                                          lower chroma than Mount Lucas soils. They are in
E—4 to 8 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) channery loam;          lower lying areas.
   weak thin platy and very fine granular structure;          Typical pedon of Mount Lucas silt loam, 3 to 8
   very friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic;           percent slopes; 0.25 mile southwest of Franklintown in
   micaceous; 20 percent rock fragments; moderately        Franklin Township, York County, 100 feet north of
   acid; clear wavy boundary.                              Township Route 853, 0.2 mile southwest of
Bw1—8 to 18 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)               Pennsylvania Route 194, and 0.2 mile northwest of
   channery silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky         Township Route 889, in hayland:
   structure; very friable, slightly sticky and slightly
                                                           Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
   plastic; micaceous; 20 percent rock fragments;
                                                              moderate medium granular structure; friable,
   moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                              slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 10 percent rock
Bw2—18 to 24 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 5/8)
                                                              fragments; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
   channery loam; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                           Bt1—8 to 16 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) silty clay loam;
   structure; very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic;
                                                              weak medium and fine subangular blocky
   very micaceous; 20 percent rock fragments;
                                                              structure; friable, sticky and plastic; common
   moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                              distinct clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
C—24 to 60 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6)
                                                              many fine prominent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron
   channery loam; weak medium and thin platy
                                                              depletions, and many fine distinct strong brown
   structure; very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic;
                                                              (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 5
   black coatings on some faces of peds below a
                                                              percent rock fragments; slightly acid; gradual wavy
   depth of 36 inches; very micaceous; 20 percent
                                                              boundary.
   rock fragments; strongly acid.
                                                           Bt2—16 to 31 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) channery clay
   The solum is 15 to 35 inches thick. Depth to               loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting
bedrock is more than 60 inches. The rock fragments            to weak medium platy; firm, sticky and slightly
range from 0 to 30 percent throughout. Mica, which is         plastic; common distinct clay films on faces of
160                                                                                                     Soil Survey




   peds and in pores; many medium prominent                on ridgetops, side slopes, and hillsides on dissected
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions,               uplands. They formed in channery residuum derived
   and many fine faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)            from schist and phyllite. Slopes range from 3 to 25
   soft masses of iron accumulation; 15 percent            percent.
   rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy                  Mt. Airy soils are on the landscape with somewhat
   boundary.                                               excessively drained, very deep Manor soils; well
Bt3—31 to 37 inches; brown (10YR 5/4) channery clay        drained and deep Glenelg soils; moderately well
   loam; weak thick platy structure parting to weak        drained Glenville soils; and poorly drained Baile soils.
   fine subangular blocky; firm, sticky and slightly       Manor soils are in positions on the landscape similar to
   plastic; common distinct clay films on faces of         those of Mt. Airy soils. Glenelg soils are in higher lying
   peds and in pores; many fine prominent grayish          positions on the landscape. Baile and Glenville soils
   brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions, and many fine         are on lowlands.
   faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron         Typical pedon of Mt. Airy channery silt loam, in an
   accumulation; 25 percent rock fragments; slightly       area of Mt. Airy and Manor channery loams, 8 to 15
   acid; clear wavy boundary.                              percent slopes; on Pennsylvania State Game Lands
C1—37 to 44 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) channery loam         No. 181, 1.5 miles east of Airville in Lower Chanceford
   and sandy loam; massive; firm, sticky and slightly      Township, York County, 225 feet southeast of Township
   plastic; many fine prominent very dark brown            Road 653 on the lower access road at a point 65 feet
   (10YR 2/2) iron depletions, and many fine               south of the access road, in a cultivated field:
   prominent brown (10YR 4/3) and dark yellowish
                                                           Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) channery silt
   brown (10YR 4/4) soft masses of iron
                                                              loam; weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly
   accumulation; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly
                                                              sticky and nonplastic; 25 percent rock fragments;
   acid; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                              moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
C2—44 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                                                           Bw1—8 to 15 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
   sandy loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky and
                                                              channery silt loam; weak medium and fine
   nonplastic; 5 percent rock fragments; slightly
                                                              subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky
   acid.
                                                              and slightly plastic; micaceous; 30 percent rock
                                                              fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
    The solum is 25 to 50 inches thick. Depth to
                                                           Bw2—15 to 20 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) very
bedrock is more than 40 inches. Rock fragments range
                                                              channery silt loam; weak medium subangular
from 0 to 30 percent in the solum and from 5 to 60
                                                              blocky structure parting to fine subangular blocky;
percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
                                                              friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; very
ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid in the upper
                                                              micaceous; 40 percent rock fragments; moderately
part of the solum, from strongly acid to neutral in the
                                                              acid; clear wavy boundary.
lower part, and from moderately acid to neutral in the
                                                           C1—20 to 24 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) extremely
substratum.
                                                              channery loam; weak fine and very fine subangular
    The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
                                                              blocky structure; very friable, slightly sticky and
4 or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4.
                                                              slightly plastic; very micaceous; 65 percent rock
    The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
                                                              fragments; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. Low chroma iron depletions
                                                           C2—24 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
begin in the upper 10 inches of the horizon. The horizon
                                                              extremely channery loam; massive; very friable,
is sandy clay loam or clay loam in the fine earth
                                                              nonsticky and nonplastic; very micaceous; 85
fraction.
                                                              percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy
    The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
                                                              boundary.
or 5, chroma of 3 to 6. It has few to many prominent
                                                           R—32 inches; fractured mica schist.
iron depletions and soft masses of iron accumulation.
It is loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, or silt loam in the       The solum is 15 to 36 inches thick. Depth to
fine earth fraction.                                       bedrock is between 20 and 40 inches. Rock fragments
                                                           range from 25 to 75 percent in the solum and from 50
Mt. Airy Series                                            to 95 percent in the substratum. Mica is evident
                                                           throughout, generally increasing with depth. In unlimed
  The soils of the Mt. Airy Series are loamy-skeletal,     areas reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid.
micaceous, mesic Typic Dystrochrepts. These are               The A horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR to
moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained soils        2.5Y, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 to 4.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                       161




    The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3         brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats in root channels
to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4.                                     and in pores; 15 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear
    The E horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR to         wavy boundary.
2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loam or   Bt1—12 to 19 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)
silt loam in the fine earth fraction.                           loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
    The Bw horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4           structure; friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic;
or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is loam or silt loam in the      common fine and medium roots; common medium
fine earth fraction.                                            faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt coatings on
    The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 5            faces of peds; 10 percent gravel and 3 percent
to 7, and chroma of 4 to 6. The fine earth fraction is          cobbles; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
loam or clay loam.                                           Bt2—19 to 31 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) gravelly
                                                                loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure
Mt. Zion Series                                                 parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
                                                                friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; common fine
   The soils of the Mt. Zion series are coarse-loamy,           roots in cracks between peds; many fine distinct
mixed, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs. These are very                strong brown (7.5R 4/6) silt coatings on faces of
deep and moderately well drained soils on nearly level          peds; common fine and medium, distinct reddish
to moderately steep backslopes and footslopes on                brown (2.5YR 5/4) soft masses of iron
mountains. They formed in residuum or soil creep                accumulation; 2 percent cobbles and 20 percent
derived from greenstone. Slopes range from 3 to 25              gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
percent.                                                     Bt3—31 to 48 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) gravelly
   Mt. Zion soils are on the landscape with Ravenrock,          silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting
Catoctin, Highfield, Myersville, and Rohrersville soils.        to weak thin platy; firm, slightly sticky and
Ravenrock, Catoctin, Highfield, and Myersville soils            nonplastic; common fine roots in cracks and along
are higher on the landscape than Mt. Zion soils.                faces of peds; few medium prominent light
Catoctin soils are well drained and moderately deep             yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) iron depletions; many
over bedrock. Ravenrock soils have more rock                    fine and medium, distinct black (5YR 2/1) iron-
fragments throughout than Mt. Zion soils. Highfield and         manganese stains in pores and on faces of peds;
Myersville soils are well drained. Somewhat poorly              common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt
drained Rohrersville soils are lower on the landscape           coatings on faces of peds and lining pores; 3
and in more concave areas than Mt. Zion soils.                  percent cobbles, 20 percent gravel, and 1 percent
   Typical pedon of Mt. Zion gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8         stones; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
percent slopes; about 3,700 feet east of Mt. Zion            BC—48 to 69 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) very
Church Road and its intersection with Catoctin Park             channery loam; common fine and medium
Trail across from Mt. Zion Church, 30 feet southeast of         prominent olive brown (2.5YR 6/4) lithochromic
the trail, in a forested area:                                  variegations; weak coarse subangular blocky
                                                                structure; firm, slightly sticky and nonplastic; few
Oi—0 to 0.5 inch; partly decomposed leaf and twig
                                                                fine roots in cracks; common medium light reddish
   matter.
                                                                brown (5YR 6/4) iron depletions and many fine and
Ap1—0.5 to 2 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                                medium, distinct black (5YR 2/) iron-manganese
   3/2) gravelly silt loam; weak thin platy structure
                                                                stains on faces of peds and in pores; 5 percent
   parting to moderate fine granular; very friable,
                                                                cobbles, 20 percent channers, 5 percent gravel,
   nonsticky and nonplastic; many fine roots,
                                                                and 10 percent flagstones; slightly acid; abrupt
   common medium and few coarse roots; 15 percent
                                                                wavy boundary.
   gravel; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                             R—69 inches; unweathered greenstone.
Ap2—2 to 6 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam;
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure                   The solum ranges from 30 to 70 inches in thickness.
   parting to moderate fine granular; very friable,          Depth to bedrock is more than 5 feet. Rock fragments
   nonsticky and nonplastic; many fine roots;                range from 0 to 20 percent in the surface layer and in
   common medium and few coarse roots; 10 percent            the upper part of the subsoil and from 15 to 45 percent
   gravel; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.            in the lower part of the subsoil and in the substratum.
BE—6 to 12 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)           Aquic conditions occur below a depth of 40 inches. In
   gravelly silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky         unlimed areas reaction ranges from strongly acid to
   structure; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; many        slightly acid.
   fine and common medium roots; few fine faint dark             The A horizon has a hue of 10YR to 2.5YR, value of
162                                                                                                          Soil Survey




2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is silt loam or loam in         silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
the fine earth fraction.                                         friable, slightly sticky and plastic; few faint clay
    The BE horizon has a hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of          films and common prominent black coatings on
4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. The fine earth fraction is         faces of peds; 15 percent rock fragments; strongly
loam, silt loam, or sandy loam.                                  acid; gradual irregular boundary.
    The Bt horizon has a hue of 5YR to 10YR, value 4          C—38 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam, silt loam, or            reddish brown (5YR 4/3) channery loam; massive;
sandy loam in the fine earth fraction.                           friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; 30 percent
    The BC horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4            rock fragments; strongly acid; abrupt smooth
to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam, silt loam, clay          boundary.
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.          Cr—48 to 60 inches; highly weathered metabasalt;
    The C Horizon, where it occurs, has variegated hue           moderately acid.
of 5YR to 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8.
                                                                 The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. Depth to
It is silt loam, loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam in the
                                                              rippable bedrock is between 40 and more than 60
fine earth fraction.
                                                              inches. Depth to hard bedrock is more than 60 inches.
                                                              Rock fragments range from 0 to 35 percent in the
Myersville Series                                             upper part of the solum, from 3 to 50 percent in the
                                                              lower part, and from 5 to 75 percent in the substratum.
   The soils of the Myersville series are fine-loamy,
                                                              In unlimed areas reaction is very strongly acid to
mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are deep, well
                                                              moderately acid.
drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed in loamy
                                                                 The A horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10YR to
residuum derived from metabasalt and metarhyolite.
                                                              5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Slopes range from 0 to 25 percent.
                                                                 The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 3
   Myersville soils are on the landscape with
                                                              or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam or silt loam in the
somewhat excessively drained Catoctin soils; well
                                                              fine earth fraction.
drained Arendtsville, Highfield, and Edgemont soils;
                                                                 The E horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10YR to
and moderately well drained Buchanan and Glenville
                                                              5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4.
soils. Arendtsville, Catoctin, and Highfield soils have
                                                                 The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
more rock fragments and sand throughout than
                                                              to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam, clay loam, silt
Myersville soils. Unlike Myersville soils, Buchanan and
                                                              loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction, but
Glenville soils have a fragipan. Edgemont soils have a
                                                              the range includes loam and clay loam.
lower base saturation than Myersville soils.
                                                                 The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to
   Typical pedon of Myersville silt loam, in an area of
                                                              7, and chroma of 2 to 8, and is multicolored. Rock
Highfield, Catoctin, and Myersville soils, 8 to 25
                                                              fragments are highly weathered and crush easily. The
percent slopes, very stony; 2 miles south of Mt. Hope
                                                              fine earth fraction is loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty
in Hamiltonban Township, Adams County, west of
                                                              clay loam.
Township Route 300, south of Copper Run, 4,800 feet
north of Township Route 305, in a tree plantation:
                                                              Neshaminy Series
Ap—0 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak
   fine granular structure; friable, slightly sticky and         The soils of the Neshaminy series are fine-loamy,
   slightly plastic; 10 percent rock fragments; slightly      mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are very deep,
   acid; clear smooth boundary.                               well drained soils on ridges and hills. They formed in
Bt1—9 to 14 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty clay        channery or bouldery residuum derived from diabase.
   loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;               Slopes range from 0 to 45 percent.
   friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few faint      Neshaminy soils are on the landscape with well
   clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent rock               drained, very deep Legore soils and deep Brecknock
   fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.             soils; somewhat poorly drained Lehigh and Mount
Bt2—14 to 27 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) channery         Lucas soils and poorly drained Watchung soils.
   silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular                Neshaminy soils are redder and have a solum that is
   blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and plastic;    thicker than Brecknock soils. All these soils are in
   common distinct clay films and common prominent            lower lying positions on the landscape.
   black coatings on faces of peds; 15 percent rock              Typical pedon of Neshaminy channery silt loam, 8 to
   fragments; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.           25 percent slopes, extremely bouldery; at York Haven,
Bt3—27 to 38 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) channery         York County, on the west side of State Route 1015, 0.1
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                      163




mile northwest of Pennsylvania Route 382, in               from 0 to 40 percent in individual horizons in the upper
woodland:                                                  part of the solum and from 0 to 60 percent in the lower
                                                           part and in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
Oi—2 inches to 1 inch; mat of fresh and partly
                                                           ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid in
   decayed leaves and twigs.
                                                           the upper part of the solum and from strongly acid to
Oe—1 inch to 0; black (10YR 2/1) decayed organic
                                                           slightly acid in the lower part and in the substratum.
   material containing twigs and roots.
                                                              The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2
A—0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                           to 4, and chroma of 1 to 3.
   channery silt loam; moderate medium and fine
                                                              The Ap horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR
   granular structure; very friable, slightly sticky and
                                                           or 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4.
   slightly plastic; 20 percent rock fragments;
                                                              The E horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
   moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                           or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam or silt loam in the
E—4 to 8 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) channery silt
                                                           fine earth fraction.
   loam; moderate fine granular structure; very friable,
                                                              The BE horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
   slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 20 percent rock
                                                           4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is loam, sandy clay
   fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                           loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam in the fine
BE—8 to 15 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
                                                           earth fraction.
   channery silt loam; moderate fine subangular
                                                              The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
   blocky structure; friable, sticky and plastic; 15
                                                           4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is loam, sandy clay
   percent rock fragments; moderately acid; gradual
                                                           loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam in the fine
   wavy boundary.
                                                           earth fraction.
Bt1—15 to 29 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay
                                                              The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
   loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                           3 to 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is sandy loam, loam,
   structure; friable, sticky and plastic; common faint
                                                           sandy clay loam, clay loam, or silt loam in the fine
   clay films and very few prominent black coatings
                                                           earth fraction.
   on faces of peds and on rock fragments; 10
   percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; gradual
   wavy boundary.                                          Penlaw Series
Bt2—29 to 34 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) channery
                                                              The soils of the Penlaw series are fine-silty, mixed,
   clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                           mesic Aquic Fragiudalfs. These are very deep,
   structure; friable, sticky and very plastic; many
                                                           somewhat poorly drained soils on broad uplands, in
   distinct clay films and common prominent black
                                                           depressions, and on lowlands. They formed in loamy
   coatings on faces of peds and on rock fragments;
                                                           colluvium weathered from residuum derived from
   15 percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear
                                                           limestone, schist, shale, and sandstone. Slopes range
   wavy boundary.
                                                           from 0 to 3 percent.
Bt3—34 to 46 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay
                                                              Penlaw soils are on the landscape with well drained
   loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky
                                                           Conestoga soils and moderately well drained
   structure; firm, sticky and plastic; common distinct
                                                           Clarksburg soils. All these soils are redder or browner
   clay films and common prominent black coatings
                                                           throughout than Penlaw soils.
   on faces of peds, in pores, and on rock fragments;
                                                              Typical pedon of Penlaw silt loam; 2.5 miles
   10 percent rock fragments; strongly acid; gradual
                                                           northeast of Littlestown in Union Township, Adams
   wavy boundary.
                                                           County, 80 feet east of State Route 3016, 1.5 miles
Bt4—46 to 55 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay
                                                           northwest of its intersection with Pennsylvania Route
   loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                           194, in cropland:
   firm, sticky and plastic; few faint clay films and
   few prominent black coatings on faces of peds, in       Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
   pores, and on rock fragments; 10 percent rock              loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable,
   fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.           sticky and slightly plastic; 5 percent rock
C—55 to 72 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay loam;         fragments; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
   multicolored sand grains; massive; firm, sticky and     Bt1—10 to 13 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty
   plastic; few faint films in pores; 5 percent rock          clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky
   fragments; slightly acid.                                  structure parting to moderate very fine angular
                                                              blocky; friable, sticky and plastic; few faint clay
  The solum is 40 to 60 inches thick. Depth to                films on faces of peds and in pores; many fine
bedrock is more than 72 inches. Rock fragments range          distinct brown (10YR 5/3) iron depletions, and
164                                                                                                        Soil Survey




    many fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft        In unlimed areas reaction ranges from moderately acid
    masses of iron accumulation; 3 percent rock              to neutral throughout.
    fragments; neutral; clear wavy boundary.                    The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
Bt2—13 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty        or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3.
    clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky                The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value
    structure; friable, sticky and plastic; common faint     of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. Low chroma mottles
    clay films on faces of peds and in pores; many           begin in the upper 10 inches. It is silt loam or silty clay
    prominent ped coatings; many medium and fine             loam.
    distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions,          The Btx horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
    and many medium and fine prominent strong brown          5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It has few to many
    (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 1          prominent redoximorphic depletions and
    percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt smooth           accumulations. It is silt loam or silty clay loam in the
    boundary.                                                fine earth fraction.
Btx1—20 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)                The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
    gravelly silt loam; weak very coarse prismatic           to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. It is loam, clay loam, silt
    structure parting to moderate medium subangular          loam, silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay in the fine
    blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and plastic;       earth fraction.
    many faint clay films on faces of peds and in
    pores; many common distinct coatings on faces of         Penn Series
    prisms; many medium and fine distinct grayish
    brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions, and many                   The soils of the Penn series are fine-loamy, mixed,
    medium and fine faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)         mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are moderately deep,
    soft masses of iron accumulation; 20 percent rock        well drained soils on broad, undulating uplands, hills,
    fragments; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.               and ridges. They formed in loamy residuum derived
Btx2—26 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)             from shale, siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone.
    silty clay loam; weak very coarse prismatic              Slopes range from 0 to 25 percent.
    structure parting to moderate medium angular                 Penn soils are on the landscape with somewhat
    blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and plastic;       excessively drained, shallow Klinesville soils; well
    many faint clay films on faces of peds and in            drained, deep Brecknock and Lansdale soils and
    pores; common distinct coatings on faces of              moderately deep Steinsburg soils; moderately well
    prisms; common medium and fine distinct grayish          drained Readington and Reaville soils; somewhat
    brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions, and common             poorly drained Abbottstown and Lehigh soils; and
    medium and fine faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)         poorly drained Croton soils. Klinesville soils are loamy-
    soft masses of iron accumulation; 3 percent rock         skeletal. Lansdale and Steinsburg soils are coarse-
    fragments; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.               loamy. Abbottstown, Croton, and Lehigh soils are more
Btx3—38 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)             grayish throughout than Penn soils.
    gravelly silt loam; weak very coarse prismatic               Typical pedon of Penn silt loam, 3 to 8 percent
    structure parting to weak medium subangular              slopes; 1.25 miles south of Dover in Dover Township,
    blocky; firm and brittle, sticky and plastic; common     York County, north of State Route 4008, 0.75 mile east
    faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores;          of its intersection with State Route 4002, in a
    many medium and fine distinct brown (10YR 5/3)           cultivated field:
    iron depletions, and many medium and fine
                                                             Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) silt
    prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of
                                                                loam; weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly
    iron accumulation; 25 percent rock fragments;
                                                                sticky and slightly plastic; 5 percent rock
    neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                                fragments; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary.
C—47 to 65 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                                                             Bt1—9 to 14 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) silt
    gravelly silt loam; massive; firm, sticky and slightly
                                                                loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
    plastic; few clay films on rock fragments; 30
                                                                friable, sticky and slightly plastic; few faint clay
    percent rock fragments; neutral.
                                                                films on faces of peds and lining pores; 5 percent
   The solum is 40 to 60 inches thick. Depth to the             rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
fragipan ranges from 15 to 30 inches. Depth to bedrock       Bt2—14 to 21 inches; dusky red (10R 3/4) silt loam;
is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 0             moderate medium and fine subangular blocky
to 10 percent in the solum above the fragipan and from          structure; firm, sticky and plastic; common faint
0 to 30 percent in the fragipan and in the substratum.          clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 5 percent
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                        165




   rock fragments; strongly acid; gradual wavy               limestone, graphitic phyllite, and calcareous schist.
   boundary.                                                 Slopes range from 15 to 25 percent.
Bt3—21 to 24 inches; dusky red (10R 3/4) silt loam;             Pequea soils are on the landscape with well drained
   weak thick platy structure parting to moderate fine       Conestoga soils. They have less clay in the solum than
   angular blocky; firm, sticky and plastic; many            Conestoga soils.
   distinct clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 5         Typical pedon of Pequea silt loam, 15 to 25 percent
   percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy         slopes; 0.7 mile northeast of East Prospect in Lower
   boundary.                                                 Windsor Township, York County, 100 feet east of
BC—24 to 30 inches; dusky red (10R 3/4) channery silt        Township Route 792 and 400 feet north of Township
   loam; weak medium and fine subangular blocky              Route 760, in hayland:
   structure; firm, sticky and slightly plastic; very few
                                                             Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam;
   faint clay films on faces of peds, on rock
                                                                pale brown (10YR 6/2) dry; weak fine granular
   fragments, and in pores; 25 percent rock
                                                                structure; very friable, slightly sticky and slightly
   fragments; strongly acid; gradual wavy
                                                                plastic; 5 percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt
   boundary.
                                                                smooth boundary.
C—30 to 38 inches; dusky red (10R 3/4) very channery
                                                             Bw—8 to 24 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak
   silt loam; weak thick platy and fine subangular
                                                                medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
   blocky structure; very firm, slightly sticky and
                                                                slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 10 percent rock
   slightly plastic; very few faint clay films on rock
                                                                fragments; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
   fragments; 60 percent rock fragments; strongly
                                                             Cl—24 to 40 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) and very dark
   acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
                                                                grayish brown (10YR 3/2) very micaceous
R—38 inches; fractured dusky red (10R 3/4) siltstone
                                                                channery loam; weak medium platy structure;
   bedrock.
                                                                friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 20 percent rock
   The solum is 17 to 34 inches thick. Depth to                 fragments; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
bedrock is 20 to 40 inches. Rock fragments range from        C2—40 to 59 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
5 to 40 percent in individual horizons of the solum and         3/2) very micaceous channery sandy loam;
from 30 to 90 percent in the substratum. In unlimed             massive; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 30
areas reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly           percent rock fragments; neutral; gradual wavy
acid in the upper part of the solum, is strongly acid or        boundary.
moderately acid in the lower part of the solum, and          R—59 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) micaceous
ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid in the               schist.
substratum.
                                                                 The solum is 16 to 35 inches thick. Depth to
   The Ap horizon has hue of 10R to 7.5YR, value of 3
                                                             bedrock is 40 to 60 inches. The rock fragments range
or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam or silt loam in the
                                                             from 0 to 30 percent in the solum and from 10 to 40
fine earth fraction.
                                                             percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction is
   The E horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10R to
                                                             slightly acid or neutral in the solum and ranges from
7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam
                                                             neutral to moderately alkaline in the substratum. Mica
or silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                             content varies, increasing with depth.
   The Bt horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 or
                                                                 The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3
4, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam, silt loam, or silty
                                                             or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
                                                                 The Bw horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 2
   The BC horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3
                                                             to 4, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is sandy loam, loam, or
or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam or silt loam in the
                                                             silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
fine earth fraction.
                                                                 The C horizon has hue of 5Y to 10YR, value of 3 or
   The C horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 or
                                                             4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam or loam in the
4, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is sandy loam, loam, or silt
                                                             fine earth fraction.
loam in the fine earth fraction.

Pequea Series                                                Raritan Series
   The soils of the Pequea series are coarse-loamy,             The soils of the Raritan series are fine-loamy,
mixed, mesic Typic Eutrochrepts. These are deep, well        mixed, mesic Aquic Fragiudults. These are very deep,
drained soils on ridgetops and side slopes. They             moderately well drained soils on stream terraces. They
formed in weathered residuum derived from micaceous          formed in old alluvium washed from upland soils that
166                                                                                                     Soil Survey




weathered from residuum derived from shale, siltstone,         of iron accumulation; 3 percent rock fragments;
and sandstone. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.               very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
   Raritan soils are on the landscape with well drained    Btx3—44 to 48 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silty
Birdsboro soils and poorly drained Lamington soils,            clay loam; moderate very coarse prismatic
both of which are on nearby terraces.                          structure parting to moderate medium angular and
   Typical pedon of Raritan silt loam, 3 to 8 percent          subangular blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and
slopes; 1 mile southwest of Kralltown in Washington            plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds
Township, York County, 40 feet west of Township Route          and in pores; common medium and fine prominent
852, 800 feet northwest of its intersection with State         light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions, and
Route 4012, in idle land:                                      common medium and fine prominent red (2.5YR
                                                               5/6) and common medium and fine faint yellowish
Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                                                               red (5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 3
    loam; moderate fine granular structure; friable,
                                                               percent rock fragments; very strongly acid; gradual
    slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 5 percent rock
                                                               wavy boundary.
    fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                           BC—48 to 54 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay loam;
BE—9 to 14 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam;
                                                               weak very coarse prismatic structure parting to
    weak medium and fine subangular blocky
                                                               weak medium subangular blocky; firm, sticky and
    structure; friable, sticky and slightly plastic; 3
                                                               plastic; few faint clay films on faces of peds and in
    percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear
                                                               pores; common fine prominent light brownish gray
    wavy boundary.
                                                               (10YR 6/2) iron depletions, and common fine
Bt1—14 to 20 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silt loam;
                                                               prominent red (2.5YR 5/6) and common fine faint
    moderate fine angular blocky structure; friable,
                                                               strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
    sticky and plastic; common faint clay films on
                                                               accumulation; 7 percent rock fragments; very
    faces of peds and in pores; 3 percent rock
                                                               strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
    fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                           C—54 to 60 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) stratified
Bt2—20 to 26 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty clay
                                                               gravelly loam and gravelly clay loam; weak
    loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                               medium subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky
    structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky;
                                                               and slightly plastic; few fine prominent light
    firm, sticky and plastic; many faint and distinct
                                                               brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions, and few
    clay films on faces of peds and in pores; common
                                                               fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and red
    fine prominent pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) iron
                                                               (2.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 15
    depletions, and common fine prominent red (2.5YR
                                                               percent rock fragments; very strongly acid.
    5/6) and common fine faint yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
    soft masses of iron accumulation; 2 percent rock           The solum is 42 to 56 inches thick. Depth to the
    fragments; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.      fragipan ranges from 20 to 30 inches. Depth to bedrock
Btx1—26 to 36 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay        is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 0
    loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting     to 15 percent in the solum and from 0 to 70 percent in
    to moderate medium and fine angular blocky; very       the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction ranges from
    firm and brittle, sticky and plastic; common faint     very strongly acid to moderately acid throughout.
    and distinct clay films on faces of peds and in            The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3
    pores; common fine distinct pinkish gray (7.5YR        or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
    6/2) iron depletions, and common fine prominent            The BE horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
    reddish brown (5YR 5/4) and red (2.5YR 5/6) soft       3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loam, clay loam, silt
    masses of iron accumulation; 5 percent rock            loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
    fragments; very strongly acid; clear wavy                  The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
    boundary.                                              4 or 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has iron depletions in
Btx2—36 to 44 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) silty clay         the upper 10 inches. It is loam, clay loam, silt loam, or
    loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure         silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
    parting to moderate medium and fine angular                The Btx horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value
    blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and plastic;     of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 6. It has few to many
    common faint and distinct clay films on faces of       prominent redoximorphic iron depletions and
    peds and in pores; common medium and fine              accumulations. It is loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam,
    distinct pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) iron depletions,     silt loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
    and common medium and fine prominent reddish               The BC horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
    brown (5YR 5/4) and red (2.5YR 5/6) soft masses        3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It has few to many
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                          167




prominent redoximorphic iron depletions and                     films on faces of peds and lining pores; 35 percent
accumulations. It is loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam,          gravel; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
silt loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.   2Bt3—34 to 43 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) very gravelly
    The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 3          clay loam; weak fine platy structure; firm, slightly
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It has few to many                  sticky and slightly plastic; few fine roots; many
prominent redoximorphic iron depletions and                     distinct clay films on faces of peds and lining
accumulations. It is stratified gravelly loam and               pores; moderately acid; 25 percent gravel and 30
gravelly clay loam, but the range includes silty clay           percent cobbles; moderately acid; abrupt wavy
loam to sand and gravel.                                        boundary.
                                                            2Bt4—43 to 57 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) gravelly
Ravenrock Series                                                silty clay; moderate medium angular blocky
                                                                structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
   The soils of the Ravenrock series are loamy-                 many medium roots; many distinct clay films on
skeletal, mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs. These are very         faces of peds and lining pores; 15 percent gravel;
deep, well drained soils on backslopes and benches on           strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
mountains. They formed in colluvium weathered from          2C—57 to 65 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) gravelly
metabasalt and other metarhyolite. Slopes range from            clay loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky and
3 to 45 percent.                                                slightly plastic; many fine roots; common distinct
   Ravenrock soils are on the landscape with                    yellowish red (5YR 5/6) iron stains; 25 percent
moderately well drained Mt. Zion soils, somewhat                gravel; strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
poorly drained Rohrersville soils, and well drained         3Cr—65 to 80 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) fine sandy
Catoctin, Myersville, and Highfield soils. On Catoctin          loam; massive; very firm, nonsticky and
soils, bedrock is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.                nonplastic; vertical cleavage fractures with some
Myersville soils are, by volume, less than 35 percent           cracks filled with soil material.
rock fragments. Rohrersville soils are in lower,
                                                                The solum ranges from 40 to 80 inches or more in
concave, broad flats and in drainageways. Rock
                                                            thickness. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches.
outcrops and boulders are common on the landscape
                                                            Rock fragments range from 5 to 50 percent in the
with Ravenrock soils.
                                                            surface layer and from 35 to 70 percent in the solum
   Typical pedon of Ravenrock gravelly very stony silt
                                                            and in the substratum. Aquic conditions are below a
loam, in an area of Ravenrock-Highfield-Rock outcrop
                                                            depth of 40 inches. In unlimed areas reaction ranges
complex, 15 to 25 percent slopes; on a moderately
                                                            from very strongly acid to slightly acid.
steep, convex side slope on a mountain in the
                                                                The A horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
Highfield area, in an oak-hickory forest:
                                                            to 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is silt loam or loam in the
A—0 to 4 inches; brown or dark brown (7.5YR 5/6)            fine earth fraction.
   gravelly loam; moderate very fine subangular                 The BE horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
   blocky structure; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic;     or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is silt loam, loam, or silty
   many medium roots; 15 percent gravel; slightly           clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
   acid; clear wavy boundary.                                   The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
BE—4 to 7 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) gravelly         or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. In most pedons it has a
   silt loam; moderate very fine subangular blocky          lithologic discontinuity in the lower part. It is silt loam,
   structure; friable, nonsticky and nonplastic;            clay loam, silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay in the fine
   common fine and medium roots; 20 percent gravel;         earth fraction.
   moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.                      The BC horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 5YR to
Bt1—7 to 16 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) very            10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy
   gravelly silt loam; moderate very fine subangular        loam, loam, or silt loam in the fine earth friction.
   blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and               The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
   nonplastic; many medium and coarse roots; many           or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam, loam, or
   distinct clay skins on faces of peds and lining          silt loam in the fine earth fraction.
   pores; 35 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy
   boundary.                                                Readington Series
Bt2—16 to 34 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) very
   gravelly clay loam; moderate medium subangular             The soils of the Readington series are fine-loamy,
   blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and           mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudalfs. These are deep,
   nonplastic; common fine roots; many patchy clay          moderately well drained soils on nearly level and
168                                                                                                         Soil Survey




undulating, broad ridgetops and in depressions and                percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy
drainageways. They formed in loamy materials                      boundary.
weathered from residuum derived from shale, siltstone,        Btx2—35 to 40 inches; weak red (2.5YR 4/2) very
and fine-grained sandstone. Slopes range from 0 to 8              channery silt loam; moderate very coarse prismatic
percent.                                                          structure parting to weak thick platy and fine
    Readington soils are on the landscape with                    subangular blocky; very firm and brittle, sticky and
somewhat excessively drained Klinesville soils; well              slightly plastic; common faint clay films on faces
drained Arendtsville, Lansdale, and Penn soils;                   of peds and in pores; common fine distinct pale red
moderately well drained Reaville soils; somewhat                  (2.5YR 6/2) iron depletions, and common fine
poorly drained Abbottstown and Lehigh soils; and                  distinct reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) soft masses of
poorly drained Croton soils. Unlike Klinesville,                  iron accumulation; 40 percent rock fragments;
Arendtsville, Lansdale, Penn, Reaville, and Lehigh                strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
soils, Abbottstown, Croton, and Readington soils have         C—40 to 46 inches; weak red (10YR 4/2) extremely
a fragipan.                                                       channery silt loam; weak thick platy rock structure;
    Typical pedon of Readington silt loam, 0 to 3 percent         very firm, slightly sticky and nonplastic; few fine
slopes; 1 mile southwest of Heidlersburg in Tyrone                prominent pale red (10R 6/2) iron depletions; 50
Township, Adams County, 70 feet west of Township                  percent rock fragments; moderately acid; abrupt
Route 532, 0.1 mile north of its intersection with                wavy boundary.
Township Route 563, in cropland:                              R—46 inches; weak red (10R 4/2) partly weathered,
                                                                  fractured siltstone.
Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2) silt
    loam; moderate fine granular structure; friable,             The solum is 35 to 60 inches thick. Depth to
    slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 5 percent rock      fragipan ranges from 20 to 36 inches. Depth to bedrock
    fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.         is between 40 and 60 inches. Rock fragments range
BE—10 to 14 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) silt              from 0 to 20 percent in the upper part of the solum and
    loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure             from 10 to 50 percent in the lower part. In unlimed
    parting to weak fine and very fine subangular             areas reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly
    blocky; friable, sticky and slightly plastic; 2 percent   acid in the upper part of the solum and from strongly
    rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.       acid to slightly acid in the lower part and in the
Bt1—14 to 25 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/3) silt             substratum.
    loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to             The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of
    moderate medium subangular blocky; friable,               3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.
    sticky and plastic; common faint clay films on               The BE horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 3
    faces of peds and in pores; 5 percent rock                to 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is loam, silt loam, or silty
    fragments; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.       clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
Bt2—25 to 27 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) silt                The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 3
    loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to          to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has few to many
    moderate medium angular blocky; friable, sticky           prominent iron depletions and accumulations at a depth
    and plastic; common faint clay films on faces of          of 25 inches. It is loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam in
    peds and in pores; common fine distinct reddish           the fine earth fraction.
    gray (5YR 5/2) iron depletions, and common fine              The Btx horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3
    faint reddish brown (5YR 4/4) soft masses of iron         or 4, and chroma of 2 to 6. It has few to many
    accumulation; 5 percent rock fragments; very              prominent iron depletions and accumulations. It is
    strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.                      loam, clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam in the fine
Btx1—27 to 35 inches; weak red (2.5YR 4/2) channery           earth fraction.
    silt loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure          The C horizon has hue of 10R to 7.5YR, value of 3
    parting to moderate medium angular blocky parting         or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam, clay loam, silt
    to moderate thick platy and fine subangular blocky;       loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
    very firm and brittle, sticky and plastic; many faint
    clay films on faces of peds and in pores; common          Reaville Series
    prominent coatings on faces of peds and on rock
    fragments; common fine prominent pinkish gray                The soils of the Reaville series are fine-loamy,
    (5YR 6/2) and reddish brown (5YR 5/3) iron                mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs. These are moderately
    depletions, and common fine prominent yellowish           deep, moderately well drained soils on nearly level to
    red (5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron accumulation; 20        rolling ridgetops, on side slopes, and in depressions.
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                              169




They formed in loamy residuum derived from shale,                 The Bt horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 4 to
siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone. Slopes range            6, and chroma of 3 or 4. It has few to many prominent
from 0 to 15 percent.                                          iron depletions and accumulations in the upper 10
    Reaville soils are on the landscape with somewhat          inches of the argillic horizon. It is silt loam or silty clay
excessively drained Klinesville soils; well drained            loam in the fine earth fraction.
Lansdale and Penn soils; deep, moderately well drained            The C horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 3 or
Readington soils; somewhat poorly drained                      4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam, silt loam, or silty
Abbottstown soils; and poorly drained Croton soils.            clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
Klinesville soils are loamy-skeletal, and Lansdale soils
are coarse-loamy. Penn soils have a solum that is              Rohrersville Series
redder than that of Reaville soils. Abbottstown, Croton,
and Readington soils have a fragipan, and Croton soils            The soils of the Rohrersville series are fine-loamy,
are grayish throughout.                                        mixed, mesic Fragiaquic Hapludalfs. They are very
    Typical pedon of Reaville channery silt loam, 3 to 8       deep, somewhat poorly drained soils on footslopes and
percent slopes; 5 miles southwest of Gettysburg in             in drainage heads. They formed in residuum or in soil
Freedom Township, north of Township Route 327, 0.125           creep derived from metabasalt. Slopes range from 0 to
mile west of its intersection with Township Route 328,         15 percent.
in cropland:                                                      Rohrersville soils are on the landscape with
                                                               Ravenrock, Mt. Zion, Myersville, Catoctin, and
Ap—0 to 9 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) channery
                                                               Highfield soils. All these soils are better drained and
   silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable,
                                                               are higher on the landscape than Rohrersville soils.
   slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 15 percent rock
                                                                  Typical pedon of Rohrersville silt loam, 0 to 8
   fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               percent slopes, in an area of Rohrersville-Lantz silt
Bt1—9 to 13 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4)
                                                               loams, 0 to 8 percent slopes; in Frederick County,
   channery silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                               Maryland, about 2 miles east-northeast of Mt. Zion
   structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
                                                               Church Road on the Catoctin Trail, 60 feet behind a
   few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine
                                                               shelter in Catoctin Mountain Park:
   prominent light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) iron
   depletions; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly             Ap1—0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
   acid; clear wavy boundary.                                     loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable;
Bt2—13 to 15 inches; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4)                    common medium, many fine, and few coarse
   channery silt loam; moderate medium subangular                 roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
   blocky structure parting to weak medium platy;              Ap2—5 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak
   firm, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common             medium subangular blocky structure parting to
   distinct clay films on faces of peds; common fine              moderate fine granular; friable; common fine,
   prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) soft masses of               medium, and coarse roots; moderately acid; abrupt
   iron accumulation, and common fine prominent                   smooth boundary.
   reddish gray (5YR 5/2) iron depletions; 30 percent          E—9 to 15 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) silt
   rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.            loam; few very fine prominent dark brown (7.5YR
C—15 to 25 inches; dusky red (10R 3/4) very channery              3/4) iron-manganese concentrations; moderate
   silt loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky and slightly         medium platy structure; friable; common fine roots;
   plastic; common fine prominent reddish gray (5YR               moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
   5/2) iron depletions; 50 percent rock fragments;            BE—15 to 25 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) silt
   slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.                          loam; weak medium platy structure parting to
R—25 inches; weak red (10R 4/4) interbedded shale                 strong fine subangular blocky; friable; common
   and siltstone.                                                 medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) soft
                                                                  masses of iron accumulation, and common
   The solum is 12 to 24 inches thick. Depth to                   medium distinct light brownish gray (2.5YR 6/2)
bedrock is between 20 and 40 inches. Rock fragments               iron depletions; common fine roots; 4 percent fine
range from 2 to 45 percent in individual horizons in the          channers, 1 percent stones; strongly acid; clear
solum and from 30 to 70 percent in the substratum. In             wavy boundary.
unlimed areas reaction ranges from strongly acid to            Bt1—25 to 31 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay
slightly acid throughout.                                         loam; weak medium platy structure parting to weak
   The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of             fine subangular blocky; friable; many medium faint
3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4.                                     strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) soft masses of iron
170                                                                                                        Soil Survey




   accumulation, few medium prominent grayish                   The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 5BG, value of 4
   brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions on faces of peds,        to 6, and chroma of 1 to 6. It is sandy clay loam, silty
   common fine dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) iron-                  clay loam, silt loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction.
   manganese concretions, and common fine
   prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) clay films on
   faces of prisms; few fine and few medium roots; 5         Rowland Series
   percent gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy
                                                                 The soils of the Rowland series are fine-loamy,
   boundary.
                                                             mixed, mesic Fluvaquentic Dystrochrepts. These are
Bt2—31 to 43 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) heavy
                                                             very deep, moderately well drained soils on flood
   silt loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure
                                                             plains. They formed in alluvium weathered from
   parting to moderate thin platy; firm; common
                                                             residuum derived from shale, siltstone, sandstone, and
   medium prominent grayish green (5GY 5/1) iron
                                                             conglomerate. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent.
   depletions along roots, common fine prominent
                                                                 Rowland soils are on flood plains with well drained
   iron-manganese concretions and common fine iron-
                                                             Bermudian soils and somewhat poorly drained
   manganese stains, and common medium
                                                             Bowmansville soils. Bermudian soils are redder
   prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) clay films on
                                                             throughout than Rowland soils and are on slightly
   faces of prisms; few fine roots on faces of peds;
                                                             higher lying swells. Bowmansville soils are grayer
   11 percent channers; moderately acid; clear wavy
                                                             throughout than Rowland soils and are in slightly lower
   boundary.
                                                             lying areas.
Btg—43 to 55 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty
                                                                 Typical pedon of Rowland silt loam; 3 miles west of
   clay loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure
                                                             Littlestown in Mount Joy Township, Adams County, in a
   parting to weak medium platy parting to weak fine
                                                             streambank along Plum Creek near intersection of
   subangular blocky; firm; many coarse prominent
                                                             Township Routes 430 and 429, in pasture:
   strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) soft masses of iron
   accumulation, common fine and medium prominent            Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) silt
   iron-manganese concretions, and common medium                loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
   prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) clay films on         slightly sticky and slightly plastic; moderately acid;
   faces of prisms; few, fine roots; 12 percent                 abrupt smooth boundary.
   channers; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.           Bw1—10 to 16 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silt
2BC—55 to 62 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty              loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
   clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky                     friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
   structure; firm; common fine prominent grayish               moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
   brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions; common fine             Bw2—16 to 28 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silt
   prominent iron-manganese stains; few fine roots; 5           loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
   percent channers; abrupt irregular boundary.                 friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common
R—62 inches; greenstone.                                        fine prominent brown (7.5YR 5/2) soft masses of
                                                                iron accumulation, and common fine prominent
   The solum ranges from 20 to 50 inches in thickness.
                                                                light gray (10YR 7/2) iron depletions; strongly acid;
Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Depth to a
                                                                clear wavy boundary.
fragipan is 20 to 30 inches. Rock fragments range from
                                                             C1—28 to 44 inches; weak red (2.5YR 5/2) silty clay
0 to 10 percent in the surface layer and the subsoil and
                                                                loam; massive; firm, sticky and plastic; few faint
from 0 to 20 percent in the substratum. Aquic
                                                                silt and clay films in pores; common medium
conditions occur below a depth of 13 inches. In
                                                                prominent brown (7.5YR 5/4) soft masses of iron
unlimed areas reaction ranges from moderately acid to
                                                                accumulation, and common medium prominent
strongly acid.
                                                                gray (N5/0) iron depletions; 10 percent rock
   The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3
                                                                fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
to 4, and chroma of 2 to 6. It is silt loam in the fine
                                                             2C2—44 to 60 inches; weak red (2.5YR 5/2) stratified
earth fraction.
                                                                sand and gravel; massive; firm, nonsticky and
   The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 5 Y, or it is
                                                                nonplastic; moderately acid.
neutral; value is 4 to 7 and chroma is 0 to 6. It is clay
loam, silty clay loam, or silt loam in the fine earth           The solum is 24 to 40 inches thick. Stratified loamy
fraction.                                                    sand, sand, and gravel are at a depth of 40 inches or
   The Btg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, or it is           more. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock
neutral; value is 4 to 7 and chroma is 0 to 6. It is silty   fragments range from 0 to 10 percent in the solum,
clay loam, silt loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction.    from 0 to 25 percent in the substratum to a depth of 40
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                     171




inches, and from 30 to 90 percent below a depth of 40        nonsticky and nonplastic; very few faint clay
inches. In unlimed areas reaction ranges from very           bridges between sand grains on faces of peds; 20
strongly acid to moderately acid throughout.                 percent rock fragments; strongly acid; gradual
   The Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of        wavy boundary.
3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4.                              C—20 to 26 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) channery
   The Bw horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of        loamy sand; massive; friable, nonsticky and
3 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. It has few to many             nonplastic; 30 percent rock fragments; strongly
prominent iron depletions and accumulations at a depth       acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
of 24 inches or less. It is loam, sandy clay loam, clay    R—26 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) micaceous
loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam.                         sandstone.
   The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of
                                                              The solum is 12 to 20 inches thick. Depth to
3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. It has few to many
                                                           bedrock is between 24 and 40 inches. Rock fragments
prominent iron depletions and accumulations. It is
                                                           range from 0 to 20 percent in the solum and from 15 to
sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silt
                                                           60 percent in the substratum. In unlimed areas reaction
loam, or silty clay loam in the fine earth fraction. In
                                                           ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid throughout.
many pedons, at a depth of 40 inches or more, it has
                                                              The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
strata of loamy sand, sand, and gravel.
                                                           or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4.
                                                              The Bw horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
Steinsburg Series                                          or 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is sandy loam or loam in
                                                           the fine earth fraction.
    The soils of the Steinsburg series are coarse-loamy,
                                                              The BC horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrepts. These are
                                                           or 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is sandy loam or loam in
moderately deep, well drained soils on ridgetops, side
                                                           the fine earth fraction.
slopes, and hills. They formed in channery residuum
                                                              The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4
derived from sandstone. Slopes range from 3 to 25
                                                           or 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is loamy sand, sandy
percent.
                                                           loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction.
    These soils have a higher base saturation in the
solum than is defined for the Steinsburg series. This
difference does not affect use and management of the       Watchung Series
soils.
    Steinsburg soils are on the landscape with                The soils of the Watchung series are fine, mixed,
somewhat excessively drained, shallow Klinesville          mesic Typic Ochraqualfs. These are very deep, poorly
soils and well drained, deep Lansdale and Penn soils.      drained soils on lowlands and in depressions. They
Klinesville soils have more rock fragments throughout      formed in clayey residuum derived from diabase.
than Steinsburg soils. Penn soils have more clay           Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
throughout than Steinsburg soils.                             Watchung soils are on the landscape with well
    Typical pedon of Steinsburg channery sandy loam, 3     drained Brecknock, Legore, and Neshaminy soils and
to 8 percent slopes; 0.25 mile northwest of Whitehall,     somewhat poorly drained Mount Lucas and Lehigh
Mount Pleasant Township, Adams County, on the south        soils. All these soils are browner or redder throughout
side of State Route 2002, 1,400 feet northwest of          than Watchung soils.
Township Route 439, in cropland:                              Typical pedon of Watchung silt loam, 0 to 3 percent
                                                           slopes; 3 miles south of Gettysburg in Cumberland
Ap—0 to 10 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) channery
                                                           Township, Adams County, 60 feet north of Township
   sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; friable,
                                                           Route 411, 1,125 feet east of Township Route 404, in
   slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 15 percent rock
                                                           an abandoned pasture:
   fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bw—10 to 15 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) channery       A—0 to 2 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam;
   sandy loam; weak thick platy structure parting to         weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly sticky
   weak fine subangular blocky; friable, slightly sticky     and slightly plastic; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
   and slightly plastic; very few faint clay bridges         boundary.
   between sand grains on faces of peds; 20 percent        E—2 to 9 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
   rock fragments; moderately acid; clear smooth             loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
   boundary.                                                 structure; friable, slightly sticky and plastic;
BC—15 to 20 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) channery         common medium prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) soft
   sandy loam; weak thick platy structure; friable,          masses of iron accumulation, and common
172




    medium prominent light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)         C—40 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam;
    iron depletions; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.      massive; firm, slightly sticky and nonplastic; few
Btg1—9 to 18 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay;           fine prominent gray (5Y 5/1) iron depletions; 5
    strong medium prismatic structure; firm, sticky and       percent rock fragments; neutral.
    plastic; common distinct clay films on faces of
    peds and lining pores; common medium prominent              The solum is 24 to 55 inches thick. Depth to
    brown (7.5YR 5/4) soft masses of iron                   bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range
    accumulation; slightly acid; gradual irregular          from 0 to 15 percent throughout. In unlimed areas
    boundary.                                               reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
Btg2—18 to 25 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) clay; moderate          in the surface layer, from strongly acid to neutral in the
    medium prismatic and angular blocky structure;          subsoil, and from moderately acid to neutral in the
    firm, very sticky and plastic; many distinct clay       substratum.
    films on faces of peds and in pores; many medium            The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 or
    faint olive gray (5Y 5/2) and many medium               4, and chroma of 1 to 4.
    prominent greenish gray (5GY 5/1) iron depletions;          The Ap horizon, where it occurs, has hue of 10YR to
    neutral; gradual irregular boundary.                    5Y, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4.
Btg3—25 to 30 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;            The E horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 or
    moderate medium prismatic structure; friable,           5, and chroma of 1 to 4. It has few to many prominent
    sticky and plastic; common distinct clay films on       iron depletions and accumulations.
    faces of peds and in pores; many medium                     The Btg horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 5Y, value of 4
    prominent greenish gray (5GY 5/1) iron depletions;      to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. It has few to many
    neutral; gradual irregular boundary.                    prominent iron depletions and accumulations. It is silty
Btg4—30 to 40 inches; olive (5Y 5/3) clay loam; weak        clay or clay, but in some pedons it has subhorizons of
    medium prismatic structure; friable, sticky and         clay loam or silty clay loam.
    slightly plastic; few distinct clay films on faces of       The C horizon has hue of 5Y to 7.5YR, value of 4 to
    peds and in pores; common medium distinct olive         6, and chroma of 0 to 6. It has few to many prominent
    gray (5Y 4/2) and gray (5Y 5/1) iron depletions;        iron depletions and accumulations. It is loam, clay
    neutral; gradual irregular boundary.                    loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam.
                                                                                             173




References
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2000.
      Standard specifications for transportation materials and methods of sampling and
      testing. 20th edition, 2 volumes.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2001. Standard classification of
      soils for engineering purposes. ASTM Standard D 2487-00.

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Bureau of Policy, Planning and Systems Development
    and Pennsylvania State Data Center. 1987. Pennsylvania county data book—
    Adams County.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands
     and deep-water habitats of the United States. United States Fish and Wildlife
     Service. FWS/OBS-79/31.

Federal Register. July 13, 1994. Changes in hydric soils of the United States.

Federal Register. February 24, 1995. Hydric soils of the United States.

Hurt, G.W., P.M. Whited, and R.F. Pringle, editors. Version 4.0, 1998. Field indicators of
       hydric soils in the United States.

National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and boundaries.

Patrick, Austin L. and H.H. Bennett. 1924. Soil survey of Adams County, Pennsylvania.
       Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey. Bulletin C/Pennsylvania, 1, part 3 .

Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Pennsylvania Agricultural Statistics Service.
     1988. Statistical summary 1987-1988, and Pennsylvania Department of
     Agriculture Annual Report. PASS-99.

Society of American Foresters. 1954. Forest cover types of North America.
      Representative commercial forest types.

Soil Survey Division Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service, U.S.
       Department of Agriculture Handbook 18.

Soil Survey Staff. 1990. Keys to soil taxonomy. 4th ed. United States Department of
       Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (Revised in 1998)

Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making
       and interpreting soil surveys. 2d edition. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook
       436.
174




      Stose, George W. 1932. Geology and mineral resources of Adams County, Pennsylvania.
             Pennsylvania Geological Survey. 4th series, county report 1.

      Tiner, R.W., Jr. 1985. Wetlands of Delaware. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Delaware
             Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Wetland Section.

      United States Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory. 1987. Corps of
             Engineers wetlands delineation manual. Waterways Experiment Station Technical
             Report Y-87-1.

      United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1961. Land
             capability classification. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 210.

      United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1967. Soil Survey
             of Adams County, Pennsylvania. Series 1959, number 23.

      United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1984. 1982 Census of
             agriculture, Adams County, Pennsylvania. AC82-SS-4.
                                                                                                                                                                               175




Glossary
ABC soil. A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon.                                            Moderate .......................................................... 6 to 9
AC soil. A soil having only an A and a C horizon.                                              High ................................................................ 9 to 12
                                                                                               Very high ............................................. more than 12
    Commonly, such soil formed in recent alluvium or
    on steep, rocky slopes.
Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from                               Backslope. The position that forms the steepest and
    the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is                                      generally linear, middle portion of a hillslope. In
    similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a poorly                                 profile, backslopes are commonly bounded by a
    aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon                                          convex shoulder above and a concave footslope
    dioxide and lower in oxygen.                                                           below.
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single                                   Basal area. The area of a cross section of a tree,
    mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as                                      generally referring to the section at breast height
    granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods                                    and measured outside the bark. It is a measure of
    are aggregates produced by tillage or logging.                                         stand density, commonly expressed in square feet.
Alluvium. Material, such as sand, silt, or clay,                                        Base saturation. The degree to which material having
    deposited on land by streams.                                                          cation-exchange properties is saturated with
Alpha,alpha-dipyridyl. A dye that when dissolved in                                        exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, and K),
    1N ammonium acetate is used to detect the                                              expressed as a percentage of the total cation-
    presence of reduced iron (Fe II) in the soil. A                                        exchange capacity.
    positive reaction indicates a type of redoximorphic                                 Bedding planes. Fine strata, less than 5 millimeters
    feature.                                                                               thick, in unconsolidated alluvial, eolian, lacustrine,
Animal unit month (AUM). The amount of forage                                              or marine sediment.
    required by one mature cow of approximately 1,000                                   Bedding system. A drainage system made by
    pounds weight, with or without a calf, for 1 month.                                    plowing, grading, or otherwise shaping the surface
Aquic conditions. Current soil wetness characterized                                       of a flat field. It consists of a series of low ridges
    by saturation, reduction, and redoximorphic                                            separated by shallow, parallel dead furrows.
    features.                                                                           Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and
Argillic horizon. A subsoil horizon characterized by                                       other unconsolidated material or that is exposed at
    an accumulation of illuvial clay.                                                      the surface.
Aspect. The direction in which a slope faces.                                           Bedrock-controlled topography. A landscape where
Association, soil. A group of soils or miscellaneous                                       the configuration and relief of the landforms are
    areas geographically associated in a characteristic                                    determined or strongly influenced by the underlying
    repeating pattern and defined and delineated as a                                      bedrock.
    single map unit.                                                                    Bench terrace. A raised, level or nearly level strip of
Available water capacity (available moisture                                               earth constructed on or nearly on a contour,
    capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water                                         supported by a barrier of rocks or similar material,
    available for use by most plants. It is commonly                                       and designed to make the soil suitable for tillage
    defined as the difference between the amount of                                        and to prevent accelerated erosion.
    soil water at field moisture capacity and the                                       Bisequum. Two sequences of soil horizons, each of
    amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed                                      which consists of an illuvial horizon and the
    as inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in                                  overlying eluvial horizons.
    inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is                              Bottom land. The normal flood plain of a stream,
    expressed as:                                                                          subject to flooding.
                                                                                        Boulders. Rock fragments larger than 2 feet (60
       Very low ........................................................... 0 to 3         centimeters) in diameter.
       Low ................................................................... 3 to 6   Breaks. The steep and very steep broken land at the
176                                                                                                       Soil Survey




    border of an upland summit that is dissected by              hillsides, especially in pasture, formed by the
    ravines.                                                     trampling of cattle or the slippage of saturated soil.
Breast height. An average height of 4.5 feet above the       Cement rock. Shaly limestone used in the
    ground surface; the point on a tree where diameter           manufacture of cement.
    measurements are ordinarily taken.                       Channery soil material. Soil material that has, by
Brush management. Use of mechanical, chemical, or                volume, 15 to 35 percent thin, flat fragments of
    biological methods to make conditions favorable              sandstone, shale, slate, limestone, or schist as
    for reseeding or to reduce or eliminate competition          much as 6 inches (15 centimeters) along the
    from woody vegetation and thus allow understory              longest axis. A single piece is called a channer.
    grasses and forbs to recover. Brush management           Chemical treatment. Control of unwanted vegetation
    increases forage production and thus reduces the             through the use of chemicals.
    hazard of erosion. It can improve the habitat for        Chiseling. Tillage with an implement having one or
    some species of wildlife.                                    more soil-penetrating points that shatter or loosen
Cable yarding. A method of moving felled trees to a              hard, compacted layers to a depth below normal
    nearby central area for transport to a processing            plow depth.
    facility. Most cable yarding systems involve use of      Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less
    a drum, a pole, and wire cables in an arrangement            than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural
    similar to that of a rod and reel used for fishing. To       class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay,
    reduce friction and soil disturbance, felled trees           less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40
    generally are reeled in while one end is lifted or the       percent silt.
    entire log is suspended.                                 Clay depletions. Low-chroma zones having a low
Calcareous soil. A soil containing enough calcium                content of iron, manganese, and clay because of
    carbonate (commonly combined with magnesium                  the chemical reduction of iron and manganese and
    carbonate) to effervesce visibly when treated with           the removal of iron, manganese, and clay. A type
    cold, dilute hydrochloric acid.                              of redoximorphic depletion.
California bearing ratio (CBR). The load-supporting          Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the
    capacity of a soil as compared to that of standard           surface of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root
    crushed limestone, expressed as a ratio. First               channels. Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin.
    standardized in California. A soil having a              Claypan. A slowly permeable soil horizon that contains
    CBR of 16 supports 16 percent of the load that               much more clay than the horizons above it. A
    would be supported by standard crushed                       claypan is commonly hard when dry and plastic or
    limestone, per unit area, with the same degree of            stiff when wet.
    distortion.                                              Climax plant community. The stabilized plant
Canopy. The leafy crown of trees or shrubs. (See                 community on a particular site. The plant cover
    Crown.)                                                      reproduces itself and does not change so long as
Capillary water. Water held as a film around soil                the environment remains the same.
    particles and in tiny spaces between particles.          Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
    Surface tension is the adhesive force that holds         Cobble (or cobblestone). A rounded or partly rounded
    capillary water in the soil.                                 fragment of rock 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25
Catena. A sequence, or “chain,” of soils on a landscape          centimeters) in diameter.
    that formed in similar kinds of parent material but      Cobbly soil material. Material that has 15 to 35
    have different characteristics as a result of                percent, by volume, rounded or partially rounded
    differences in relief and drainage.                          rock fragments 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25
Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity.        centimeters) in diameter. Very cobbly soil material
    The common soil cations are calcium, potassium,              has 35 to 60 percent of these rock fragments, and
    magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen.                             extremely cobbly soil material has more than 60
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of                    percent.
    exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil,       Colluvium. Soil material or rock fragments, or both,
    expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100               moved by creep, slide, or local wash and
    grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other        deposited at the base of steep slopes.
    stated pH value. The term, as applied to soils, is       Complex slope. Irregular or variable slope. Planning or
    synonymous with base-exchange capacity but is                establishing terraces, diversions, and other water-
    more precise in meaning.                                     control structures on a complex slope is difficult.
Catsteps. Very small, irregular terraces on steep            Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                      177




   or miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern          part of the soil profile between depths of 10 inches
   or so small in area that it is not practical to map          and 40 or 80 inches.
   them separately at the selected scale of mapping.        Coprogenous earth (sedimentary peat). Fecal
   The pattern and proportion of the soils or                   material deposited in water by aquatic organisms.
   miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar in all          Corrosion. Soil-induced electrochemical or chemical
   areas.                                                       action that dissolves or weakens concrete or
Concretions. Cemented bodies with crude internal                uncoated steel.
   symmetry organized around a point, a line, or a          Cover crop. A close-growing crop grown primarily to
   plane. They typically take the form of concentric            improve and protect the soil between periods of
   layers visible to the naked eye. Calcium carbonate,          regular crop production, or a crop grown between
   iron oxide, and manganese oxide are common                   trees and vines in orchards and vineyards.
   compounds making up concretions. If formed in            Cropping system. Growing crops according to a
   place, concretions of iron oxide or manganese                planned system of rotation and management
   oxide are generally considered a type of                     practices.
   redoximorphic concentration.                             Crop residue management. Returning crop residue to
Congeliturbate. Soil material disturbed by frost action.        the soil, which helps to maintain soil structure,
Conglomerate. A coarse grained, clastic rock                    organic matter content, and fertility and helps to
   composed of rounded or subangular rock                       control erosion.
   fragments more than 2 millimeters in diameter. It        Cross-slope farming. Deliberately conducting farming
   commonly has a matrix of sand and finer textured             operations on sloping farmland in such a way that
   material. Conglomerate is the consolidated                   tillage is across the general slope.
   equivalent of gravel.                                    Crown. The upper part of a tree or shrub, including the
Conservation cropping system. Growing crops in                  living branches and their foliage.
   combination with needed cultural and management          Culmination of the mean annual increment (CMAI).
   practices. In a good conservation cropping system,           The average annual increase per acre in the
   the soil-improving crops and practices more than             volume of a stand. Computed by dividing the total
   offset the effects of the soil-depleting crops and           volume of the stand by its age. As the stand
   practices. Cropping systems are needed on all                increases in age, the mean annual increment
   tilled soils. Soil-improving practices in a                  continues to increase until mortality begins to
   conservation cropping system include the use of              reduce the rate of increase. The point where the
   rotations that contain grasses and legumes and               stand reaches its maximum annual rate of growth
   the return of crop residue to the soil. Other                is called the culmination of the mean annual
   practices include the use of green manure crops of           increment.
   grasses and legumes, proper tillage, adequate            Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations
   fertilization, and weed and pest control.                    tend to cave in or slough.
Conservation tillage. A tillage system that does not        Deferred grazing. Postponing grazing or resting
   invert the soil and that leaves a protective amount          grazing land for a prescribed period.
   of crop residue on the surface throughout the year.      Delta. A body of alluvium having a surface that is
Consistence, soil. Refers to the degree of cohesion             nearly flat and fan shaped; deposited at or near the
   and adhesion of soil material and its resistance to          mouth of a river or stream where it enters a body
   deformation when ruptured. Consistence includes              of relatively quiet water, generally a sea or lake.
   resistance of soil material to rupture and to            Depth, soil. Generally, the thickness of the soil over
   penetration; plasticity, toughness, and stickiness           bedrock. Very deep soils are more than 60 inches
   of puddled soil material; and the manner in which            deep over bedrock; deep soils, 40 to 60 inches;
   the soil material behaves when subject to                    moderately deep, 20 to 40 inches; shallow, 10 to
   compression. Terms describing consistence are                20 inches; and very shallow, less than 10 inches.
   defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.”                     Dip slope. A slope of the land surface, roughly
Contour stripcropping. Growing crops in strips that             determined by and approximately conforming to
   follow the contour. Strips of grass or close-growing         the dip of the underlying bedrock.
   crops are alternated with strips of clean-tilled crops   Diversion (or diversion terrace). A ridge of earth,
   or summer fallow.                                            generally a terrace, built to protect downslope
Control section. The part of the soil on which                  areas by diverting runoff from its natural course.
   classification is based. The thickness varies            Divided-slope farming. A form of field stripcropping in
   among different kinds of soil, but for many it is that       which crops are grown in a systematic
178                                                                                                           Soil Survey




    arrangement of two strips, or bands, across the                water, wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by
    slope to reduce the hazard of water erosion. One               such processes as gravitational creep.
    strip is in a close-growing crop that provides                 Erosion (geologic). Erosion caused by geologic
    protection from erosion, and the other strip is in a           processes acting over long geologic periods and
    crop that provides less protection from erosion.               resulting in the wearing away of mountains and the
    This practice is used where slopes are not long                building up of such landscape features as flood
    enough to permit a full stripcropping pattern to be            plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural
    used.                                                          erosion.
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and              Erosion (accelerated). Erosion much more rapid
    duration of wet periods under conditions similar to            than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of human
    those under which the soil formed. Alterations of              or animal activities or of a catastrophe in nature,
    the water regime by human activities, either                   such as a fire, that exposes the surface.
    through drainage or irrigation, are not a                 Erosion pavement. A layer of gravel or stones that
    consideration unless they have significantly                   remains on the surface after fine particles are
    changed the morphology of the soil. Seven classes              removed by sheet or rill erosion.
    of natural soil drainage are recognized—                  Escarpment. A relatively continuous and steep slope
    excessively drained, somewhat excessively                      or cliff breaking the general continuity of more
    drained, well drained, moderately well drained,                gently sloping land surfaces and resulting from
    somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very              erosion or faulting. Synonym: scarp.
    poorly drained. These classes are defined in the          Extrusive rock. Igneous rock derived from deep-
    “Soil Survey Manual.”                                          seated molten matter (magma) emplaced on the
Drainage, surface. Runoff, or surface flow of water,               earth’s surface.
    from an area.                                             Fallow. Cropland left idle in order to restore
Draw. A small stream valley that generally is more                 productivity through accumulation of moisture.
    open and has broader bottom land than a ravine or              Summer fallow is common in regions of limited
    gulch.                                                         rainfall where cereal grain is grown. The soil is tilled
Duff. A generally firm organic layer on the surface of             for at least one growing season for weed control
    mineral soils. It consists of fallen plant material            and decomposition of plant residue.
    that is in the process of decomposition and               Fan terrace. A relict alluvial fan, no longer a site of
    includes everything from the litter on the surface to          active deposition, incised by younger and lower
    underlying pure humus.                                         alluvial surfaces.
Eluviation. The movement of material in true solution         Fertility, soil. The quality that enables a soil to provide
    or colloidal suspension from one place to another              plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper
    within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material         balance, for the growth of specified plants when
    through eluviation are eluvial; those that have                light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth
    received material are illuvial.                                factors are favorable.
Endosaturation. A type of saturation of the soil in           Fibric soil material (peat). The least decomposed of
    which all horizons between the upper boundary of               all organic soil material. Peat contains a large
    saturation and a depth of 2 meters are                         amount of well preserved fiber that is readily
    saturated.                                                     identifiable according to botanical origin. Peat has
Eolian soil material. Earthy parent material                       the lowest bulk density and the highest water
    accumulated through wind action; commonly refers               content at saturation of all organic soil material.
    to sandy material in dunes or to loess in blankets        Field moisture capacity. The moisture content of a
    on the surface.                                                soil, expressed as a percentage of the ovendry
Ephemeral stream. A stream, or reach of a stream,                  weight, after the gravitational, or free, water has
    that flows only in direct response to precipitation. It        drained away; the field moisture content 2 or 3
    receives no long-continued supply from melting                 days after a soaking rain; also called normal field
    snow or other source, and its channel is above the             capacity, normal moisture capacity, or capillary
    water table at all times.                                      capacity.
Episaturation. A type of saturation indicating a              Fill slope. A sloping surface consisting of excavated
    perched water table in a soil in which saturated               soil material from a road cut. It commonly is on the
    layers are underlain by one or more unsaturated                downhill side of the road.
    layers within 2 meters of the surface.                    Fine textured soil. Sandy clay, silty clay, or clay.
Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by              Firebreak. Area cleared of flammable material to stop
Adams County, Pennsylvania                                                                                         179




    or help control creeping or running fires. It also       Glacial outwash. Gravel, sand, and silt, commonly
    serves as a line from which to work and to                   stratified, deposited by glacial meltwater.
    facilitate the movement of firefighters and              Glaciofluvial deposits. Material moved by glaciers
    equipment. Designated roads also serve as                    and subsequently sorted and deposited by
    firebreaks.                                                  streams flowing from the melting ice. The deposits
First bottom. The normal flood plain of a stream,                are stratified and occur as kames, eskers, deltas,
    subject to frequent or occasional flooding.                  and outwash plains.
Flaggy soil material. Material that has, by volume, 15       Gleyed soil. Soil that formed under poor drainage,
    to 35 percent flagstones. Very flaggy soil material          resulting in the reduction of iron and other
    has 35 to 60 percent flagstones, and extremely               elements in the profile and in gray colors.
    flaggy soil material has more than 60 percent            Graded stripcropping. Growing crops in strips that
    flagstones.                                                  grade toward a protected waterway.
Flagstone. A thin fragment of sandstone, limestone,          Grassed waterway. A natural or constructed waterway,
    slate, shale, or (rarely) schist 6 to 15 inches (15 to       typically broad and shallow, seeded to grass as
    38 centimeters) long.                                        protection against erosion. Conducts surface water
Flood plain. A nearly level alluvial plain that borders a        away from cropland.
    stream and is subject to flooding unless protected       Gravel. Rounded or angular fragments of rock as much
    artificially.                                                as 3 inches (2 millimeters to 7.6 centimeters) in
Fluvial. Of or pertaining to rivers; produced by river           diameter. An individual piece is a pebble.
    action, as a fluvial plain.                              Gravelly soil material. Material that has 15 to 35
Foothill. A steeply sloping upland that has relief of as         percent, by volume, rounded or angular rock
    much as 1,000 feet (300 meters) and fringes                  fragments, not prominently flattened, as much as 3
    a mountain range or high-plateau                             inches (7.6 centimeters) in diameter.
    escarpment.                                              Green manure crop (agronomy). A soil-improving crop
Footslope. The position that forms the inner, gently             grown to be plowed under in an early stage of
    inclined surface at the base of a hillslope. In              maturity or soon after maturity.
    profile, footslopes are commonly concave. A              Ground water. Water filling all the unblocked pores of
    footslope is a transition zone between upslope               the material below the water table.
    sites of erosion and transport (shoulders and            Gully. A miniature valley with steep sides cut by
    backslopes) and downslope sites of deposition                running water and through which water ordinarily
    (toeslopes).                                                 runs only after rainfall. The distinction between a
Forb. Any herbaceous plant not a grass or a sedge.               gully and a rill is one of depth. A gully generally is
Forest cover. All trees and other woody plants                   an obstacle to farm machinery and is too deep to
    (underbrush) covering the ground in a forest.                be obliterated by ordinary tillage; a rill is of lesser
Forest type. A stand of trees similar in composition             depth and can be smoothed over by ordinary
    and development because of given physical and                tillage.
    biological factors by which it may be differentiated     Hard bedrock. Bedrock that cannot be excavated
    from other stands.                                           except by blasting or by the use of special
Fragipan. A loamy, brittle subsurface horizon low in             equipment that is not commonly used in
    porosity and content of organic matter and low or            construction.
    moderate in clay but high in silt or very fine sand.     Hardpan. A hardened or cemented soil horizon, or
    A fragipan appears cemented and restricts roots.             layer. The soil material is sandy, loamy, or clayey
    When dry, it is hard or very hard and has a higher           and is cemented by iron oxide, silica, calcium
    bulk density than the horizon or horizons above.             carbonate, or other substance.
    When moist, it tends to rupture suddenly under           Head out. To form a flower head.
    pressure rather than to deform slowly.                   Head slope. A geomorphic component of hills
Genesis, soil. The mode of origin of the soil. Refers            consisting of a laterally concave area of a hillside,
    especially to the processes or soil-forming factors          especially at the head of a drainageway. The
    responsible for the formation of the solum, or true          overland waterflow is converging.
    soil, from the unconsolidated parent material.           Hemic soil material (mucky peat). Organic soil
Glacial drift. Pulverized and other rock material                material intermediate in degree of decomposition
    transported by glacial ice and then deposited. Also,         between the less decomposed fibric material and
    the sorted and unsorted material deposited by                the more decomposed sapric material.
    streams flowing from glaciers.                           High-residue crops. Such crops as small grain and
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     corn used for grain. If properly managed, residue        Humus. The well decomposed, more or less stable
     from these crops can be used to control erosion               part of the organic matter in mineral soils.
     until the next crop in the rotation is established.      Hydrologic soil groups. Refers to soils grouped
     These crops return large amounts of organic                   according to their runoff potential. The soil
     matter to the soil.                                           properties that influence this potential are those
Hill. A natural elevation of the land surface, rising as           that affect the minimum rate of water infiltration on
     much as 1,000 feet above surrounding lowlands,                a bare soil during periods after prolonged wetting
     commonly of limited summit area and having a                  when the soil is not frozen. These properties are
     well defined outline; hillsides generally have slopes         depth to a seasonal high water table, the infiltration
     of more than 15 percent. The distinction between a            rate and permeability after prolonged wetting, and
     hill and a mountain is arbitrary and is dependent on          depth to a very slowly permeable layer. The slope
     local usage.                                                  and the kind of plant cover are not considered but
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to          are separate factors in predicting runoff.
     the surface, having distinct characteristics             Igneous rock. Rock formed by solidification from a
     produced by soil-forming processes. In the                    molten or partially molten state. Major varieties
     identification of soil horizons, an uppercase letter          include plutonic and volcanic rock. Examples are
     represents the major horizons. Numbers or                     andesite, basalt, and granite.
     lowercase letters that follow represent subdivisions     Illuviation. The movement of soil material from one
     of the major horizons. An explanation of the                  horizon to another in the soil profile. Generally,
     subdivisions is given in the “Soil Survey Manual.”            material is removed from an upper horizon and
     The major horizons of mineral soil are as                     deposited in a lower horizon.
     follows:                                                 Impervious soil. A soil through which water, air, or
     O horizon.—An organic layer of fresh and decaying             roots penetrate slowly or not at all. No soil is
     plant residue.                                                absolutely impervious to air and water all the time.
     A horizon.—The mineral horizon at or near the            Increasers. Species in the climax vegetation that
     surface in which an accumulation of humified                  increase in amount as the more desirable plants
     organic matter is mixed with the mineral material.            are reduced by close grazing. Increasers
     Also, a plowed surface horizon, most of which was             commonly are the shorter plants and the less
     originally part of a B horizon.                               palatable to livestock.
     E horizon.—The mineral horizon in which the main         Infiltration. The downward entry of water into the
     feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or          immediate surface of soil or other material, as
     some combination of these.                                    contrasted with percolation, which is movement of
     B horizon.—The mineral horizon below an A                     water through soil layers or material.
     horizon. The B horizon is in part a layer of             Infiltration capacity. The maximum rate of water
     transition from the overlying A to the underlying C           infiltration into a soil under given set of conditions.
     horizon. The B horizon also has distinctive              Infiltration rate. The rate at which water penetrates the
     characteristics, such as (1) accumulation of clay,            surface of the soil at any given instant, usually
     sesquioxides, humus, or a combination of these;               expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be
     (2) prismatic or blocky structure; (3) redder or              limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the
     browner colors than those in the A horizon; or (4) a          rate at which water is applied at the surface.
     combination of these.                                    Intake rate. The average rate of water entering the soil
     C horizon.—The mineral horizon or layer, excluding            under irrigation. Most soils have a fast initial rate;
     indurated bedrock, that is little affected by soil-           the rate decreases with application time. Therefore,
     forming processes and does not have the                       intake rate for design purposes is not a constant
     properties typical of the overlying soil material. The        but is a variable depending on the net irrigation
     material of a C horizon may be either like or unlike          application. The rate of water intake, in inches per
     that in which the solum formed. If the material is            hour, is expressed as follows:
     known to differ from that in the solum, an Arabic               Less than 0.2 .............................................. very low
     numeral, commonly a 2, precedes the letter C.                   0.2 to 0.4 .............................................................. low
     Cr horizon.—Soft, consolidated bedrock beneath                  0.4 to 0.75 ........................................ moderately low
     the soil.                                                       0.75 to 1.25 ................................................ moderate
     R layer.—Consolidated bedrock beneath the soil.                 1.25 to 1.75 ..................................... moderately high
     The bedrock commonly underlies a C horizon, but                 1.75 to 2.5 .......................................................... high
     it can be directly below an A or a B horizon.                   More than 2.5 ............................................. very high
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Interfluve. An elevated area between two                         soil and loose rock, generally when wet or
     drainageways that sheds water to those                      saturated. The speed and distance of movement,
     drainageways.                                               as well as the amount of soil and rock material,
Intermittent stream. A stream, or reach of a stream,             vary greatly.
     that flows for prolonged periods only when it            Large stones (in tables). Rock fragments 3 inches
     receives ground-water discharge or long, continued          (7.6 centimeters) or more across. Large
     contributions from melting snow or other surface            stones adversely affect the specified use of
     and shallow subsurface sources.                             the soil.
Iron depletions. Low-chroma zones having a low                Leaching. The removal of soluble material from soil or
     content of iron and manganese oxide because of              other material by percolating water.
     chemical reduction and removal, but having a clay        Liquid limit. The moisture content at which the soil
     content similar to that of the adjacent matrix. A           passes from a plastic to a liquid state.
     type of redoximorphic depletion.                         Loam. Soil material that is 7 to 27 percent clay
Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in           particles, 28 to 50 percent silt particles, and less
     production of crops. Methods of irrigation are:             than 52 percent sand particles.
     Basin.—Water is applied rapidly to nearly level          Loess. Fine grained material, dominantly of silt-sized
     plains surrounded by levees or dikes.                       particles, deposited by wind.
     Border.—Water is applied at the upper end of a           Low-residue crops. Such crops as corn used for
     strip in which the lateral flow of water is controlled      silage, peas, beans, and potatoes. Residue from
     by small earth ridges called border dikes, or               these crops is not adequate to control erosion until
     borders.                                                    the next crop in the rotation is established. These
     Controlled flooding.—Water is released at intervals         crops return little organic matter to the soil.
     from closely spaced field ditches and distributed        Low strength. The soil is not strong enough to support
     uniformly over the field.                                   loads.
     Corrugation.—Water is applied to small, closely          Marl. An earthy, unconsolidated deposit consisting
     spaced furrows or ditches in fields of close-growing        chiefly of calcium carbonate mixed with clay in
     crops or in orchards so that it flows in only one           approximately equal amounts.
     direction.