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Physiological Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Endurance

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					Physiological Adaptations to
   Anaerobic and Aerobic
Endurance Training Programs
              Objectives
Describe and analyze physiological responses
 to anaerobic training
Describe and analyze physiological responses
 to aerobic training
Recognize the causes, signs, symptoms, and
 effects of overtraining and detraining
Plan resistance and aerobic endurance
 training programs that optimize physiological
 responses
            Key Concepts
Each person responds differently to training
 stimuli
Sports specificity is key
Gains are related to size of athletes
 adaptational window
Physiological change depends on the
 effectiveness of the exercise prescription
          Key Concepts
Constant change is needed (overload)
Training for peak performance is
 different from general fitness
Psychological component to training,
 do not forget about the mind
          Energy Systems
Key to training is found in the energy
 system
  Phospogen
  Glycolysis
  Oxidative
It must be sports specific
     Adaptations to Anaerobic
             Training
At the start of a training program,
 alterations must be made to increase the
 strength, power, and size of the muscles
 trained
Several physiological systems are
 involved at the beginning of training
        Neural Adaptations
Motor units are recruited according to their
 threshold of firing rates
Larger loads, greater muscle fiber
 recruitment
Recruitment of higher order neurons
  Used for speed and power
More neural recruitment
Possible changes in the neurotransmission at
 the neuromuscular junction
   Acute Program Variables
Choice of exercise
Order of exercise
Resistance intensity used
Number of sets
Length of rest periods
     Muscular Adaptations
Increase size - Hypertrophy
Overload and SAID principles
       Fiber Type Changes
Possible changes from Type II b to
 Type II a fiber is likely
Less likely to have changes from Type I
 to Type II fiber
Changes in cross sectional size
  Both Type I and Type II fiber
          Other changes
Decreased mitochondrial density
Decreased capillary density
Both changes are attributed to and
 increased muscle size
          Strength Gains
Initial strength gains 7-45%
As training time increases strength
 gains decrease
Sex affects the absolute magnitude of
 strength
Higher volumes are needed to elicit
 changes in trained individuals
      The Exercise Protocol
Continuum between strength and muscular
 endurance
As reps increase, strength gains decrease
No one athlete protocol
Need
  Proper progression, variation, periodization, and
   individualization of the program
   Cardiovascular Responses
Resistance training with aerobic
 endurance training can improve the
 ability of the heart, lungs, and
 circulatory system to function under
 conditions of high pressure and force
 productions
 Body Compositions Changes
Increase in Fat Free Mass (FFM)
Decrease in subcutaneous fat
Caloric intake and metabolism are
 factors
Cardiovascular exercise, Short term is
 more effective in decreasing body fat
       Aerobic Metabolic
          Adaptations
Increased respiratory capacity
Lower blood lactate concentrations
Increased mitochondrial density
Increased capillary density
Improved enzyme activities
        Aerobic Endurance
           Adaptations
Intensity of training is the single most
 important factor for improving and
 maintaining aerobic power
  Example
     Short High intensity bouts of interval training
     Short rest periods
Age and Sex Related Changes
Maximal aerobic power decreased with age
Women 75-85% of men
  Higher body fat
  Lower blood hemoglobin
  Men have a larger heart, therefore increased
   blood volume
  Lower muscle mass
  Lower testosterone
  Higher growth hormone concentrations
  Large type I compared to Type II
  Fewer muscle fibers in the upper body muscles
       Aerobic Endurance
          Adaptations
Decrease body fat
No inherent change in muscle if there
 is a balance between anabolic and
 catabolic activities
    Adaptations to Aerobic
          Training
Increased aerobic capacity
Adaptation occurs as a result of
 glycogen sparing
Increased fat utilization
Intense aerobic training in conjunction
 with resistance training decreases
 compromises strength
 Compatibility of Resistance
   and Aerobic Training
Using both aerobic endurance and
 resistance training affects power
  Adverse neural changes
    Neural recruitment patters, decreased muscle
     hypertrophy
  Alterations of muscle proteins
Neuromuscular Adaptation
      Activation of Muscle
Motor Unit activation
  Nerves associated with muscle fibers
Action Potential is needed
  Release of Acetylcholine
 Neuromuscluar Contraction
Action potential fires down nerve
Influx of calcium
Excytosis of synaptic vessicles
Release of ACH (acetylcholine)
Molecules diffuse across membrane
Sarcolema stimulate
Permeability change is t-tuble
  Nueromuscular Contraction
Troponin is stimulated by calcium influx
Tropomyosin moves to expose active site
Actomyosin forms cross-bridge
Power stroke occurs
Separation occurs with ATP present
ATP breaks down to ADP to reload myosin
Repeats a long as calcium is available
    Motor Unit Recruitment
Force of muscle contraction depends
 on muscle fiber recruitment
Fiber type recruitement is dependant
 upon activity
  Marathon - High type I, low type II
  Olympic lifting - Low type I, High type II
           Proprioception
Specialized sensory receptors located
 within joints, muscles, and tendons
The bodies ability to appreciate three
 dimensional space
  Muscle Spindles - Muscle length, rate of
   length change
    Knee Jerk
  Golgi Tendons
    Length changes (inhibition of motor neurons)
  Neuormuscular Adaptations
Hypertrophy
  Increased cross sectional area
  Increased force production
  Greater increase in fast twitch
  Influenced greatest by the time of training
  6-8 weeks becomes evident
Early strength gains
  Greater neuormuscular recruitment of fiber
Resistance training does not enhance
 maximal aerobic power
          Bone Formation
Osteoblasts
  New bone on Periosteum
Osteoclasts
  Cells that break down bone
  Decreased activity decrease bone mineral
   density
Stress is needed for bone to remodel
  Minimal Essential Strain
        Training Concepts
Correlation between physical muscle
 hypertrophy and increased bone
 density
Specificity of loading during training
  Weight bearing exercises
  Progressive overload
Stress fractures
   Essential Components of
           Loading
Magnitude of load (intensity)
Rate of loading
Direction of the forces
Volume of loading (repetitions)
Example Training Program for
       Bone Growth
Volume - 3-6 sets up to 10 reps
Load 1-10 RM
Rest 1-4 minutes
Variation
  Periodized schemes to increase muscle
   size and strength
Exercise selection
  Structural Exercises, squats, dead lifts,
   shoulder presses, and cleans
        Aged or Untrained
           Populations
Medical history
  Clearance from a physician
Proper exercise techniques
Progress to weight bearing exercises
Follow same guidelines as trained
 individuals
        Connective Tissue
          Adaptations
Collagen (tissue that makes up
 tendons, ligament and Fascia)
Tissue growth is proportionate to
 physical activity
Areas of increased strength
  Junctions between tendon/ligament and
   bone surface
  Within the body of the tendon/ligament
  Within the network of fascia
   Effects of Cartilage and
           Exercise
Weight bearing forces and complete
 movements through a full range of
 motion are essential to maintain tissue
 viability
Moderate aerobic exercise helps
 increase cartilage thickness
Strenuous exercise does not cause
 degenerative joint disease
           Overtraining
Overtraining leads to staleness
Staleness leads to burnout
Dramatic decrease in performance
 possible increase in injury rates
       Mistakes leading to
          Overtraining
Most common errors
  Rate of progression
  Non sports specific activities
    Shot putter performing speed training
  Intensity and Volume
  Exercise Selection
      Markers of Anaerobic
          Overtraining
Psychological Effects
  Decreased desire to train
  Decreased joy
Acute epinephrine and norepinephrine
 increases beyond normals
       Markers of Aerobic
         Overtraining
Decrease performance
Decrease body fat
Decrease maximal oxygen uptake
Altered BP
Increased muscle soreness
Decreased muscle glycogen
Altered resting HR
Changes is Hormonal responses
Decreased lactate

				
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posted:8/26/2012
language:English
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