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Peak Lactate _ ATP CP Anaerobic Metabolism Aerobic Capacity

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					                        USSA SPORT SCIENCE
          AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS

The objective of this document is to provide a basic model for the development of the aerobic and anaerobic
components of an individual’s fitness profile.

Pyramid for aerobic & anaerobic development




          Peak Lactate & ATP / CP


            Anaerobic Metabolism




              Aerobic Capacity &
                  Efficiency


               Everything higher in the pyramid is intrinsically dependant on what is below it!!

FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANNING TRAINING

   1. Develop a sound platform or base first
         a. Basic strength – to max power sport specific eccentric profiling
         b. Basic core function – to full function and gross core strength under maximum destabilizing loads
         c. Basic skills – to elite skiing/riding skills
         d. Basic balance and co-ordination – to whole body agility and awareness in the air
         e. Basic aerobic fitness – to specific elite competition anaerobic profile
   2. Consider the developmental status, genetics and training history of your athletes

   3. Be flexible, there is no ONE way to achieve a training response. Everyone responds a little bit differently
      as they are genetically different. This is meant as a guide to give an insight into methodology and
      principles. Use it as a means to develop tools, then gradually change and modify them to suit your own
      athlete’s needs.

   4. Establish progressive training SLOWLY and methodically to achieve a long-term adaptation. Measure
      and identify the adaptation achieved.
A response to training and subsequently an improvement in the test results can be achieved in as little as 1-2
weeks. BUT to achieve a long term adaptation which can be considered part of your athlete’s base, takes a
minimum of 5-7 weeks. If you want to achieve a change which you can continue to work with, your goal should
be long term adaptation, not just a short term response. As such, your training plan needs to allow for
repetition over 5-7 weeks to achieve a sustainable aerobic adaptation. Each block should include progressive
overload, recovery, repetition, and sessions to specifically target your goals.

PLANNING GUIDELINES
                         APPROX. DATES /
 TRAINING PHASE             LENGTH                  DESCRIPTION            NO. SESSIONS                COMPOSITION
 Phase I                   MAY - JULY               AEROBIC BASE                3 -- 5          2-3 x Low Intensity aerobic
                           6-8 WEEKS                                                            1-2 x Threshold
                                                                                                0-1 x Steady State

 Phase II                  JULY - AUGUST              TRANSITION                 3 -- 5         1-3 x Low Intensity aerobic
                            2 - 6 WEEKS                                                         0-2 x Threshold
                                                                                                0-1 x Steady State
                                                                                                0-2 x Tolerance

 Phase III             AUGUST - NOVEMBER              ANAEROBIC                  2 -- 4         1-3 x Low Intensity aerobic
                          4 - 6 WEEKS                   BUILD                                   0-2 x Threshold
                                                                                                0-1 x Steady State
                                                                                                0-2 x Tolerance
                                                                                                1-4 x Recovery Sessions

 Phase IV                        N/A                  CAMPS OR                   2 -- 3         OPTIMIZING SKIING
                                                     COMPETITION
Within this structure, micro cycles of loads need to be built usually around a 3 -5 week base allowing for
progressive load builds in volume and intensity with intermittent recovery weeks. Additionally within this
should be another layer of micro cycles within the weeks program allowing recovery after hard strength, skiing
or anaerobic sessions to allow sufficient time for the body to react to these training sessions, respond and
gradually adapt utilizing the tools of rest, active recovery, diet, and hydration.

Guidelines for work out intensities without using a heart rate monitor
 DESCRIPTORS           INTENSITY                                      BREATHING
                     Aerobic Level 1
 EASY                     (A1)                                  Relaxed and rhythmical
                     Aerobic Level 2
 MODERATE                 (A2)                     Noticeably harder but can still chat comfortably
                                           Breathing is significant- this is the point where talking is starting
 STEADY               Threshold (LT)                           to become uncomfortable
 HARD                   Max Effort         Not applicable- HARD often increasing higher AFTER the effort

PHASE 1 – AEROBIC BASE
Overall aim is to establish a sound and sustainable aerobic base. This will be achieved by working on the
following:
Main Goals:
     1. Increase aerobic capacity
     2. Increase efficiency of work below and at threshold
     3. Increase work load at threshold

Tools to be used to achieve these goals:
Gradual increase the athletes’ total training volume (individually determined from past levels) using a
combination of:
   - Long slow distance (LSD) – Continuous even paced sessions 20 -120 mins maintaining heart rate less
       than level 1 (EASY).
   - Moderate distance – this can be either continuous at a slightly higher intensity up to level 2
       (MODERATE) or a controlled fartlek (mixed pace) session

Threshold Sessions
Threshold sessions are designed as intermittent sessions, which generate lactate and heart rates above
threshold intermittently. However, they have built in to them sufficient rest or slow work to allow complete
recovery between sets or reps allowing maintenance of quality rather than a reduction in performance caused
by fatigue. The aim of these sessions is to get the body used to working intermittently above threshold and
practice recovering after each effort. Gradually this type of training stimulates improved efficiency and
increased recovery rates around threshold allowing the body to gradually increase the work it can do without
accumulating progressive amounts of lactate. There are lots of ways to achieve the aims of a threshold session.
Games can also be used as long as their intensity and duration are controlled tightly. Eg. Indoor soccer using a
good warm-up and 4 x 10 minute quarters.

Steady state sessions
Steady state work is designed to target directly the threshold transition point and gradually increase the time for
which the athletes can tolerate these loads. For this type of work it is important that the threshold heart rate is
both known and checked reasonably regularly OR that there is significant education on the athlete’s knowledge
of and ability to sustain such a continuous controlled load. This is an advanced session both mentally and
physically and as such is usually reserved for older more mature athletes 15 – 16 year old age range and older
who have both a good training history and who have been educated well in adjusting effort level for specific
training outcomes.

PHASE II – TRANSITION
The overall aim is to continuing to build on the athlete’s aerobic base, while starting to establish transition
sessions for anaerobic builds and specific race preparation tools, without dropping the volume too much.

Main goals:
   1. Continue aerobic build
   2. Increase anaerobic capacity

Tools to be used to achieve these goals
            o Continue to build volume of low intensity aerobic work
            o Establish a longer duration threshold session with timing similar to race scenarios.
            o Build volume of steady state sessions
            o Start initiating low-level tolerance sessions

Tolerance sessions
This type of session includes mixed intensity reps and sets which are designed such that there is significant
accumulated lactate and fatigue during the work out so that the quality of each repetition reduces as the reps
and sets progress. This progressive accumulation of lactate results in a substantial improvement in lactate
metabolism as well as an improvement in anaerobic capacity, or peak lactate. These sessions all have specific
warm-up to maximize the effect of the sessions and reduce the risk of injury. Athletes are also educated well on
food and hydration to maximize the training session and improve the rate of recovery after the session.
PHASE III – MAIN ANAEROBIC BUILD
The overall aim is maintaining the aerobic base built in the previous two phases and establishing it as a long
term adaptation while building the anaerobic system to a level related to the physiological requirements of your
athlete's competition.

Main goals:
   1. Decrease volume, whilst maintaining aerobic base
   2. Increase anaerobic capacity
   3. maximize recovery rate post anaerobic challenge
   4. Develop specific race fitness & pace change capacity

Tools to be used to achieve these goals:
   - Decrease overall volume – both the number and length of sessions
   - Build out threshold sessions both with length of rep and reduced recovery ratios
   - Increase the intensity of tolerance sessions by adding loads either with effort, speed or loading
        challenges such as hills and altitude
   - Use race-timing strategies to make event specific challenges

ANAEROBIC TRAINING (LACTATE GENERATING SYSTEM)
Think first, does your athlete need this energy system yet to compete?

These sessions result in residual fatigue, which will affect subsequent training sessions especially those
requiring:
   - Skill acquisition
   - Strength

They need to be planned carefully with proper respect and a purposeful goal to be effective in an athlete's
overall development. This type of training is generally not productive for the goals of training for athletes in
phases 1-4 in the USSA Training Systems model (pre-pubescent and pubertal athletes).

These sessions when combined with a sound aerobic base have the potential to further stimulate maximum
aerobic capacity BUT can reduce cardiac efficiency.


   A LAST WORD
   OVERLOAD PRODUCES FATIGUE PRIOR TO ADAPTATION – RECOVERY IS
   ESSENTIAL FOR OPTIMAL ADAPTATION AND THUS TRAINING EFFICACY.

   QUITE A BIT UNDER IS ALWAYS BETTER THAN JUST A SMIDGE OVER!!

				
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