Dec_1_SYMBIOSIS.B

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					Symbiosis

  Paul Ayayee
What is symbiosis
   Close ecological and biological association between
    2 different species;
   Made up of a host species and a symbiont species
       Endosymbiosis-One organisms living inside another
       Ectosymbiosis- One organism living outside of the other
   Types of symbiosis
       Insect-insect associations
       Insect-plant associations
       Insect -microbial associations
       Insect -vertebrate associations
Forms of symbioses

   Mutualism

   Commensalism

   Parasitism
Mutualism
   Close ecological association between 2
    different organisms where both organisms
    benefit from the association.
   Insect-insect mutualism
       Ants provide protection from other predatory
        insects and organisms
       Aphids provide ants with honey dew ( a rich
        carbohydrate source)
       Ants and sugary fluid producing caterpillar
Mutualism
   Insect-plant mutualisms
       Insect pollinators and plants
         Pollinators get nectar and pollen (source of carbohydrates
          and proteins) also serve as dispersal agents
         Plants get pollinated ( ensure genetic diversity, and
          continuation of species line)
Mutualism
Mutualism
   Insect-plant mutualisms
       Insect pollinators and plants
         Pollinators get _____ and ____ ( source of carbohydrates
          and proteins) also serve as _____ agents
         Plants get pollinated ( ensure genetic _____ and
          continuation of species line)
       Ants and Acacia tree
         Ants get nectar from plant
         Plant is protected from vertebrate and invertebrate
          herbivores
       Mites and plants
         Mites benefit by having a habitat and food
         Mites prevent microbial infection
Mutualism
Mutualism
Mutualism
   Insect –microbial mutualisms
       Scale insects and fungi
           Fungi offers scale insect protection from predators and
            parasites
           Scale insect provides fungi with nutrients
Mutualism
Mutualism
   Insect –microbial mutualisms
       Scale insects and fungi
           Fungi offer scale insect ____ from ____ and
            ________
           Scale insect provides fungi with ______
       Fungi and social insects
           Leaf cutter ants and cellulose fungi (fungus gardens).
            Also has bacteria that produces antibiotics and inhibits
            growth of unwanted fungi
           Termites and cellulose digesting fungi in hindgut
Mutualism
Mutualism
Mutualism
   Insect –microbial mutualisms
       Scale insects and fungi
           Fungi offers scale insect ____ from ____ and ____
           Scale insect provides fungi with ____
       Fungi and social insects
           Leaf cutter ants and cellulose digesting fungi (fungus gardens)
           Termites and cellulose digesting fungi
       Bark beetle and Ambrosia fungi
           Beetle have sacs (mycangia) for housing spores
           Fungus digests cellulose for beetle, overcome plant defenses and serves as
            source of food
       Aphids and Buchnera bacteria
           Aphids get essential amino acids and Buchnera gets protection
Insect microbial associations are widespread and involves bacteria, fungi,
   viruses and protists.
Mutualism




  http://schaechter.asmblog.org/.a/6a00d8341c5e1453ef0120a5aa6d65970c-
  350wi
York.ac.uk
Mutualism
Mutualism
Commensalism
   Close ecological association between 2
    organisms where one derives an ecological
    benefit (commensal) but the other is not
    affected.
   Insect-insect commensalism
       Mites on various insects (beetles, flies etc)
           Mites get transported on beetle from place to place
            (Phoresy)
           Bark beetle unaffected by presence of mite
Commensalism
   Insect-insect commensalism
       Dermestid beetle and ants
           Beetle takes advantage of climate controlled colony of
            ants and feeds on debris from ants.
Commensalism
   Insect-insect commensalism
       Dermestid beetle and ants
           Beetle takes advantage of climate controlled colony of
            ants and feeds on debris from ants.
       Formicine ants and ponerine ants
           Formicine ants follow trials by ponerine ants to get
            access to otherwise unavailable sugar resources
           Ponerine ants do not benefit or gain from this
Commensalism




         http://www.alexanderwild.com/Ants/Taxonomic-List-of-Ant-
         Genera/Lepisiota/9492510_peHbc/1/637482691_XBw7S#637482691_XBw7S
Commensalism
   Insect –microbial commensalism
       Several insect groups and E. coli
           E. coli gets suitable habitat and nutrition
           Insects do not suffer from association
Commensalism
   Insect –microbial commensalism
       Several insect groups and E. coli
           E. coli gets suitable habitat and nutrition
           Insects do not suffer from association
       Pea aphids and pea aphid Bemisia -like symbiont
        (PABS)
         Symbiont derives protection and nutrition
         Pea aphid not affected by presence of symbiont

        Diverse microbe exist in commensal associations with
          insects
Commensalism
Commensalism
   Insect-vertebrate commensalism
       Sloths and moths
           Moths lays egg in sloth droppings and larvae feed on
            droppings
           Sloths does not derive any benefit from this
            association
       Birds and foraging ants
           Birds get access to otherwise hidden insects
           Ants are not affected by birds
       Insects using vertebrates for phoresis
Commensalism
Parasitism
   Ecological association between 2 organisms where
    one derives benefits (parasite) at the expense of the
    other and does harm to the other (host)
   Insect-insect parasitism
       Insect parasitoids and other insects
       Hymenoptera (Braconids and Ichneumonids),
       Diptera (Conopidae)
       Coleoptera
       Lepidoptera
       Neuroptera
       Parasitoids make up about 8.5% of all insect species
       Non-parasitoids eg. ticks on other insects
Parasitism
Parasitism
Parasitism
Parasitism
   Insect-plant parasitism
       All herbivorous insects can be considered
        parasites (chewing, piercing, and sucking insects)
       Galling and mining insects are parasitic as well
       Cheating insect pollinators
Parasitism
Parasitism
   Insect –microbial parasitism
       Tsetse flies and Trypanosome parasite
       Mosquitoes and Plasmodium, viruses
       Insects and Wolbachia, Bacillus thurigiensis, and
        a suite of several microbes
       Insects and nematodes
       Insects and fungi
      Parasitism




http://www.iayork.com/Images/2007/11-5-07/PlasmodiumWellcome.jpg
       Parasitism




http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/1316021.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm%
Parasitism
Parasitism
   Insect-vertebrate parasitism
       Mosquitoes, tsetse flies, etc and man
       Ticks, lice, flies, fleas, chiggers and vertebrates (
        mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians)
Parasitism
Parasitism
Skinny mouse : Fat mouse

   Laboratory wanted to know what was
    different between overweight and thin mice
    fed the same food.
   They compared the gut microbial community
         Skinny mouse : Fat mouse

     The mice had significantly different microbial
      communities, with specific bacteria types
      seeming to cause obesity



Blue = Fat mouse

Red = Skinny Mouse
     Skinny mouse : Fat mouse

   And the fat mice had lower metabolism

   Green/grey boxes are
    lower in fat mice than
    skinny mice
   All things related to
    metabolism are
    reduced
           Skinny mouse : Fat mouse

   If skinny mice were given bacteria
    from fat mice stomachs, they gained
    weight and became fat too!!

   Future research found the same
    types of bacteria in obese people,
    having same effect

   New weight loss tool in the future an
    antibiotic??
In summary
   Symbiosis – biological association between 2
    different organisms
       Commensalism, parasitism, mutualism
   Symbiosis viewed as a ______ with _____
    and _______ at both ends
   Symbionts can be internal (endosymbionts)
    or external (ectosymbionts)
   Full spectrum of symbiosis exhibited in the
    insect kingdom
In summary
 Functions             Mutualism   Commensalism   Parasitism




 Benefit to host       Yes         Undetected     No
                                   effect



 Benefit to symbiont   Yes         Yes            Yes
In summary
   Need for symbiosis
       Insect feeding on _________ food
           _______ nutrition and __________
           Association is either permanent (_______) or
            temporary (_______)
           Form of association dependent on environmental
            conditions
       Offers protection from ______ and ______ factors
        to symbiont
           Stored in crypts, specialized organs and regions in
            insects

				
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posted:8/26/2012
language:English
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