Community and Comparative Report
Origin and development of organic farming. Standardisation process
The European Commission defines organic farming by means of differentiating it from
other farming systems in a number of ways. This modality of farming favours
renewable resources and recycling processes, since it gives back to the soil the
nutrients found in waste products. Where livestock is concerned, meat and poultry
production is regulated with particular concern for animal welfare and by using natural
foodstuffs. Organic farming respects natural mechanisms for controlling pests and
disease in raising crops and livestock, and avoids the use of synthetic pesticides,
herbicides, chemical fertilisers, growth hormones and antibiotics or gene manipulation.
Instead, organic farmers use a range of techniques that help sustain ecosystems and
There are also other definitions of organic farming, applied by different countries. In
Spain, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Food defines organic farming as an
agricultural system whose main aim is to obtain highest quality products while
preserving soil fertility, by means of an optimal use of resources that avoids synthetic
The origins of organic farming are linked to three schools of thought:
Biodynamic farming. This school was created in Germany by Rudolf Steiner
Organic farming. This current appeared in The United Kingdom and was based
upon the theories developed by Sir Albert Howard in his book “An Agricultural
Biological farming, developed in Switzerland by Hans Peter Rusch and H. Müller
These movements are the origin of several terms present on the European Community
regulations on organic farming. All of them sustained, with some minor differences,
that the link between Nature and agriculture and the respect for natural equilibrium
were essential. They therefore criticised interventionist agricultural tendencies that
aimed to increase yields by means of multiple interventions and the use of different
In spite of these schools of thought, organic farming was undeveloped in Europe for a
long time. In the 50s, the main aim was to satisfy immediate food needs and to
improve self-sufficiency in the European Union by means of a strong increase in
Nevertheless, at the end of the 60s and especially at the beginning of the 70s,
European society began to be environmentally conscious in a way that favoured the
development of organic farming.
Farmers, consumers and other individuals created new associations with an interest for
ecological and natural ways of life. These entities created their own rules, specifying
the methods that had to be followed in organic farming; this happened, for instance, in
countries like Germany and Austria.
But it was at the beginning of the 80s when organic farming took off, due to the strong
interest in this farming method that appeared in most of the European countries and
other countries like the United States, Canada, Australia and Japan.
The European Union issued in 1985 a Green paper stating the need to maintain
farming methods that guarantee the preservation of socio-economic and natural
environments. After this initiative, triggered by the growing interest of consumers to
buy healthy and environmentally friendly products, the number of organic farmers
started increasing and organic products were increasingly processed and marketed.
Parallel to this, governments began a slow process of recognition of organic farming,
integrating it in their research plans and enacting specific legislation (this happened in
Austria, France and Denmark, for instance). Some member states also started offering
subsidies to promote this type of farming at a national and regional level.
Nevertheless, during this period organic farming was not clearly defined. This was due,
on the first place, to the confusion among consumers about the meaning of organic
agriculture and the restrictions it implies (a confusion that can be attributed
fundamentally to the existence of different “schools” or “philosophies”, the diverging
terminology, the heterogeneous external presentation of products, the mixture of
organic, natural and quality products, etc). Secondly, there was a fraudulent use of
denominations concerning this type of production.
It must be said, though, that before Community regulations on this subject appeared,
there were national regulations in some countries like France, Denmark or Spain.
The general trend of organic farming since the 90s has been a fast development in
almost all European countries, an upward tendency that has recently started to slow
down. As for the historic evolution of organic farming, it has been different depending
on the countries.
Spain was the third country to regulate organic farming by means of Royal Decree
759/1988, endorsed on July 15th 1988. This norm included all farm and food products
obtained without the use of synthetic chemicals within the generic and specific
Designation of Origin regime, established by Law 25/1970 (endorsed on December 2nd,
After this, the Spanish government passed a Regulation on the Generic Designation
“Organic Farming” and created a Regulating Board, that approved a Book of Technical
Norms for the production and processing of organic farming food products.
This situation went on until the abovementioned Community Regulation was enacted.
After this, the Spanish norms were adapted to European standards by the Regulating
Board for the Generic Designation “Organic Farming” (Consejo Regulador de
Agricultura Ecológica or CRAE)
The CRAE was designed by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Food as the
unique controlling authority concerning organic products in Spain.
Nevertheless, and in order to adapt fully to Community regulations, the Ministry issued
a Royal Decree in October 22nd 1993 (1852/19936) about organic farming production
and labelling of agricultural and food products. This norm recognises regional
governments their full jurisdiction to apply Community regulations and to dictate the
necessary rules, although the Ministry must endorse these rules in order to defend
them nationally and internationally.
In Germany, organic farming has been strongly influenced, on one hand, by
biodynamic farming (funded by Rudolf Steiner in 1924), and on the other hand by
organic-biological farming (funded by Müller in Switzerland in 1950), whose aim was to
get rid of industrial fertilisers and achieve a high lever of fertility of the soil. One of the
most remarkable aspects of this school of farming is its attempt to achieve a closed
farming cycle with low financial output.
The evolution of organic farming in Germany can be divided in two main periods.
During the first period, from 1968 up to 1988, the farmers organised their farm
production themselves and stipulated norms concerning organic farming and
production processes. In this period, farmers showed agricultural experts that organic
methods could be applied sustainably.
The second period began in 1988 and has not finished yet. During this period, an
association of associations was funded in order to gather six producers’ organisations.
From then on, the development of organic farming was promoted by the
implementation of Regulation 2078/92.
Agri-environmental programmes were revised under the rural development regulation
included in Agenda 2000, and this meant a higher support for crop production.
Nevertheless, the IFOAM (Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) criticised the
cost of these measures, since they were perceived as a threat to all kinds of agriculture
and especially to organic farming. Finally, the Regulation of rural development shred a
positive light on the issue since it showed that organic farming could bear the costs.
The origin of organic agriculture in Italy is linked to an ideological choice, to an
alternative culture opposed to the dominating models of economic development and
social structure. Notwithstanding this, today it has developed the characteristics of a
business phenomenon able to attract financial and human resources, in order to obtain
benefits and meet the continuous and growing demands of the market.
On of the most remarkable facts in Italy in the last ten years has been the strong
increase in farms and soil converted to organic farming. An important factor for this
increase is the growing consumer awareness about food safety and environment.
Since European regulations on organic farming came into force in 1991, 10 of each 100
farmers have adopted the organic system. Today, Italy is the country with the highest
percentage of organic farmers in the world, at least between the beginning of the 90s
There is a significant number of farms which are currently undergoing a conversion
process. This increase has been possible thanks to different factors: the development
of local eco-environmental policies; a system of subsidies and advantages for organic
farmers; a clear definition of organic farming methods by means of specific
regulations; an increase in consumer demand for wholesome products; the vocation
for natural farming in Mediterranean areas; and the development of organic production
techniques. It is also worth mentioning the effort of the Ministry of Agriculture, which
devised in 1993 a “Strategy of the Italian European Union Presidency towards a plan of
action for organic farming”.
Portugal was one the last countries to develop organic farming. Portuguese organic
farming began in the 70s, but it was only from the 90s onwards when this system
began to spread parallel to specific regulations. This potential for growth is declining in
the last few years, due to important hindrances in different areas like research,
experimentation and training, as well as extension.
Before the 80s, Swedish organic farming was defined by a concept and philosophy of
their own. From this decade onwards, this philosophy began to converge with the
general concept of organic farming. In 1989, the conversion of farms into organic
farms began to be supported, and organic farmers started to be considered as an
important element for national agricultural policies.
In 1993, the national association and general assembly of alternative farmers adopted
as their goal the participation of society in the development of organic farming; the
slogan was “10% in 2000”. In 1995, the Chamber of Agriculture, together with the
association of organic farmers (KRAV) and other entities, devised a plan to support this
goal. This campaign propitiated a considerable increase in the availability of organic
products in the market from 1995 onwards.
When Sweden entered the UE in 1995, the authorities adapted their agri-
environmental norms to Regulation 2078/92. This has meant a higher support for
organic farming, with subsidies that increase yearly in order to achieve the “10% of
cultivated land” goal. A continuous and strong expansion process has resulted, and this
has lead to the new goal “10-30% of organic farming in 2010”.
There are partial five-year goals, like “20% in 2005”. In 2003, 17% of Swedish
productive land was dedicated to organic farming.
Austria was the first country to establish an official guide to organic farming. The
Federal Ministry of Health and Environmental Protection drew up the first decree on
the subject in 1983; this decree was included in 1989 within chapter A of the Austrian
Food Code. Austria was the first country to define regulations concerning organic
production of livestock products, in 1991.
Regulation 2092/91 was also applied in Austria in1994, when this country entered the
Concerning livestock, the Austrian food code was applied up to the first half of 2000.
After this date, the European regulation 1804/99 was drawn up to complement
Regulation 2092/91. This new regulation included aspects of livestock production
concerning feeding and care of the cattle, as well as provision of medicines. Nowadays
gene modification and products derived from it are banned, although there is a certain
flexibility towards the implementation of regulations on livestock.
Structure of production
According to data offered by the Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL,
the 15 countries in the EU had in 2002 4.8 million hectares of land cultivated with
organic methods by almost 140,000 organic farmers. This meant 3.5% of the total
area used for agricultural purposes and 2% of the farmers in the EU.
Nowadays, according to SOEL-statistic, there are in Europe 6.6 million hectares
involved in organic production and approximately 175,000 farmers.
Compared to previous years, there has been strong increase in organic farming in the
EU, mainly in France, Spain and the UK. Nevertheless, the number of farmers has
decreased due mainly to a downward trend in Italy.
There are also fundamental differences between countries concerning the weight of
organic farming within the total agricultural system. In Austria, for instance, more than
11% of the land is organically cultivated, and in Switzerland the percentage is 10%. As
a contrast, other countries barely reach 1%.
The country with the highest number of organic farmers and hectares is Italy, with
25% of European organically cultivated lands and approximately 35% of the farmers.
Production tendencies depend on climate conditions. For instance, in Italy, Portugal
or Germany the concentration of organic producers is higher in the south of the
countries. This does not mean that these are the areas with the highest yields (which,
in Germany, are found in the east), or the highest concentration of processing and
import companies (which is located in the north, in the case of Italy)
Council Regulation (EEC) N 2092/92 has led to an increase in the number of organic
farmers in most country members, like Portugal, Germany and Spain. In Portugal,
the evolution of organically cultivated land was not significant until 1997, but in 1999
there was an increase of 64%. As for Germany, this regulation has been a support for
the conversion of traditional farms; at the end of 1998 there were 9,200 organic
farmers who cultivated 416,500 hectares.
Concerning percentage of farms and cultivated area, Austria can be quoted as one of
the leading countries of the sector.
The kind of production within each country varies depending on the geographic
situation. In Sweden, for instance, organic grain and seed oil predominate in the east
and west, whereas in the south the most common crops are potatoes, beetroot and
Nonetheless, there is a product that stands out in each country. In Austria, for
instance, milk and veal meet predominate, although little more than half the
production of organic milk is sold as such and only one third of it is exported.
Another important product is organic grain (mainly wheat, rye and oats). Two thirds of
these are used as animal foodstuff, and only one third is dedicated to human
consumption. As a contrast, reserves of organic pork and chicken meat are insufficient,
and the same happens with organic fruit and vegetables.
In Spain, some organic crops have a greater importance than others. Pastures take up
almost one third of the lands dedicated to organic farming, followed by olive groves
and grain fields.
The technologies applied to organic agriculture and livestock breeding exclude the use
of chemicals, while promoting soil fertility and high quality products. This has been
supported by European Union policies (and more specifically the Common Agricultural
Policy, CAP) and by a growing awareness among consumers and farmers.
Technologies applied to production and processing of food aim to develop standardised
analysis techniques, apart from developing control and certification mechanisms.
Organic farmers aim to reach a maximum level of recycling in crops, fertilising the soil
with compost or manure. If synthetic nitrogenous fertilisers are eliminated, the risk of
nitrogen pollution in water becomes much reduced.
In order to help maintain fertility, damaged by intensive production techniques, crop
rotation is widely used among organic farmers both on a small and on a large scale.
Biological nitrogen fixation is a powerful technique, but it requires some minerals to be
added to the soil (especially phosphorus). Most of the certification programmes limit
the use of mineral fertilisers, which can be necessary to complement organic manure.
There are some organic, natural fertilisers that are not used in agriculture: phosphate
rock, lime, potassium, guano, seaweed, waste products from slaughterhouses, etc.
Although most certification programmes forbid the use of sewage water and human
excreta, these are still used in some areas. Sewage waters can contain contaminants
with a presence of heavy metals, which can cause cumulative damage in the soil; as
for human excreta, they contain pathogens and must be carefully composed before
Crop rotation stimulates the diversity of crops from which fertilisers, animal foodstuff
and plants can be obtained. Agri-aquaculture can also contribute to this regeneration
It can be maintained, then, that organic farmers are not only moved by economic
motivations. On the opposite, they often seek to optimise their land, livestock and
plants, preserving natural nutrients and energy currents, and improve biodiversity.
That is, they contribute to sustainable agriculture so that natural resources and
ecosystems can be preserved for future generations.
Other element that must be taken into account concerning organic farming
technologies is the high level of specific knowledge required by each product and
region. Organic farmers must know local varieties, soil treatments, methods of organic
defence, and weeds, pests and diseases control. In Austria, for instance, farmers who
wish to undertake organic farming and have access to specific subsidies must follow a
course. In many cases, farmers need the technical support of specialised consultants;
that is the case for most fruit, pork and green vegetables producers.
THE MARKET FOR ORGANIC FARMING
In general terms, organic products are growing in the European market. Great
companies and multinational companies show an increasing interest in the sector, with
the creation of new lines of organic products.
The increase in farms and farmers is leading to a growing tendency of associationism
and marketing of companies. This can be observed in Italy, for instance; however, the
lack of an uninterrupted flow of inversions is hindering improvements in product
availability planning, establishment of low final prices and generalisation of standard
The prices of organic products are still relevant, especially in retail sales, although they
vary depending on the season and country of origin. Prices are also influenced by the
lack of competition among distribution chains and processed products.
Nonetheless, economic studies made in Italy show that due to bonus prices, organic
farmers obtain higher profits than conventional farmers. This analysis also states that
organic farming does not always imply more intensive work.
Agricultural fairs and markets also promote organic farming. In Italy, for instance, this
kind of fairs is held at a national, local and regional level.
Concerning product distribution, in many European countries organic products began
being sold in small, specialised shops. Nowadays, in several countries like Italy
distribution is mainly performed by large companies. In other countries like Germany,
on the other hand, individual shops are still playing an important role. Countries with a
tradition of co-operative companies like Sweden started with specialised shops, until
the first supermarket chain specialised in organic products appeared in 1983. This
chain was formed through the cooperation between Samodlarna (co-operative market
for organic farmers) and Konsum, a consumers’ cooperative chain. In Austria organic
products are mainly found in supermarkets (about 80% of total sales), although there
are particularities in some products. Fruit, vegetables, meat and sausages are mostly
sold outside the farms. Milk and dairy products are distributed between supermarkets
and farms. A significant percentage of the total sales of meat and sausages is also
delivered by the farmers themselves. Other products like cereals or pastry are mostly
sold in shelves dedicated to organic food, alternative shops or farmers’ markets.
In recent years catering companies and restaurants have also began distributing
organic products, and the same has happened with some hospitals and schools. In
Italy, more than 100 organic restaurants can be found in the north and centre of the
country, and organic products are also served in schools, universities and
kindergartens of metropolitan and small town areas. In Sweden these products are
served in schools and hospitals, McDonald’s restaurants (organic milk and coffee),
railway station restaurants (milk, coffee and at least one organic meal), airports, etc.
This fact is linked to an increase in the interest and demand for organic products that
can be observed among a sector of the population. According to an Italian study on
the subject, 70% of the consumers know organic agriculture; 40% is consuming an
increasing amount of this kind of products; and 4% are regular consumers.
Nevertheless, this figures are not relevant for the rest of the countries, where
consumers are still confused or have little knowledge about organic farming.
The average Italian consumer is aged between 30 and 45, has a medium-high
educational level and income over average, and lives in a city or urban area with solid
economic and industrial structure. These consumers maintain a responsible attitude,
valuing careful production methods; the presence of children in their families
represents a further incentive for the consumption of organic products. The average
Swedish consumer differs from this profile, being married women with no children
and aged over 50. These consumers are aware of the composition of product
wrappings and the origin of products, are keen on cooking and usually eat healthy
At a general level, though, the public still lacks a great deal of information, something
that influences consumption. An exception can be found in Italy, with an offer of “bio”
products branded by distribution companies, that also present a certification issued by
the farmer and a certification of future processes; all these measures are a guarantee
for consumers. In Sweden, the implantation of certification mechanisms and a logo
(KRAV) in 1985 gave rise to the expansion of organic products.
The main products in each country can be found in the following table:
Germany Austria Spain Italy Portugal Sweden
Pastures Potatoes Fodder Fruit Olive oil Grain
Pulses Vegetable Pastures Vegetables Pastures Milk
Fruit s Forage Olive oil Eggs
Vegetable Milk Olives Wine Vegetables
s Milk Cereals Cheese Pork
Sheep products Pulses Pasta Veal
Goats Meat Forestry Sauces Mutton
Sausages and wild Ice creams Chips
products Nuts Baby food
picking Pulses Wheat flour
Organic farming within the social frame
Among the motives related to the promotion and development of organic farming, the
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) mentions the environment and rural development
strategy. This text states that some methods of agricultural production, like organic
farming, give rise to positive ecological, social and economic effects.
From then on, several Community meetings studied the possibilities of a more
environmentally friendly type of farming. An example of this was the presentation of
the European Union strategy for sustainable development at the Gothenburg European
Council, a strategy that rewarded quality over quantity. This tendency was further
elaborated by means of the Sixth Environment Action Programme, issued in 2001, or
the World Summit for Sustainable Development that took place in 2002. In this same
year Europe promoted a set of initiatives that was compatible with the World Trade
Organisation (WTO), for the creation and expansion of domestic and exterior markets
of environmentally friendly goods and services; organic products were included in this
initiative, since they maximise benefits for the environment and socioeconomic
It is then clear that rural development constitutes one of the key elements in the
European agricultural policy. This is reflected in a collection of measures that help
reinforce the economic development in rural regions, with the main objective of
promoting a viable rural economy. Organic farming can contribute to this objective,
increasing economic activity by means of its added value and the intensive labour force
Organic farming can also be considered as an essential element of the commitment
towards environmental improvement. As such, it helps increasing the appeal of rural
regions, encouraging the affluence of tourism and attracting business activity.
Therefore, organic farming, an activity that promotes sustainability and improves
environmental well being, is compatible with the objectives of the new policies for the
improvement of resources management. In several European countries where the
organic farming market has grown steeply (like Italy, Spain, Austria, Sweden,
Germany, etc), organic farming is also considered as a powerful tool for the
promotion of local and regional economic growth. This is achieved through productive
diversification and improvement both of local designations and marketing, all of which
help revitalising rural areas.
As a consequence of all these factors, organic production is increasingly considered as
an interesting alternative market. It must be said, though, that the certification of
ecological production is not high, which is perceived as a partial failure. This is due, to
some extent, to the low support given to the participation of pro-environment
associations and to the insufficient development of the market. In this context, a
stronger support for marketing is being demanded in order to improve the penetration
of these products in the market.
In countries like Italy, a new model of rural policy is beginning to be implemented.
The intention behind this is to readjust the previous effort towards the support of
structures into a set of objectives apt to be extended to the social and environmental
levels. This new policy aims at improving rural areas sustainability and well being,
while at the same time addressing the interests of external decision groups.
The potential of organic systems acts as a base or catalyst for the regeneration of rural
landscapes and economy. In this sense, there are interesting actions like the organic
marketing initiatives (OMIs) that are beginning to be implemented in countries like
Italy. This marketing initiatives link farmers, consumers and markets. In spite of their
specific role in the organic industry and their wide impact in local and regional
development, there is little information available about these organic companies.
The role of organic farming in a sustainable environment
One of the main objectives set by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is to achieve
sustainability in environmental and agricultural issues. For this policy, sustainable
development must reconcile food production with the preservation of natural resources
and the protection of natural environment, so that the needs of the population of
today’s world are satisfied without damaging the self-sufficiency of tomorrow’s
Organic farming pursues sustainable development in an easy and descriptive way,
protecting natural resources and achieving a positive environmental impact by means
Water pollution prevention
Protection of animal and plant species
Therefore, organic farming integrates conservation techniques developed by
sustainable agriculture to prevent erosion, surface sealing, salinisation and other types
of soil deterioration produced by traditional farming.
The employment of organic rotation crops and fertilisers and the improvement of the
soil structure stimulates the development of soil microorganisms. The variety and
periodicity of the crops provides greater protection to the soil surface than it would
have if totally occupied or exposed to rain, wind and sun erosion.
Fallow land, unknown in the north and centre of Europe, are well known in the
Mediterranean southern countries: Spain, Italy and Portugal. These lands are
characterised by their low crop intensity. They conform an extensive crop and livestock
farming system that has been formed throughout centuries of evolution. Their
importance does not only depend on direct production; fallow lands protect the
environment and help maintaining alive ecosystems that are unique in the European
continent. This system provides ideal conditions for a simultaneous combined
production of different products like pork, sheep, small game, firewood and coal, for
instance, preventing over-exploitation of the soil and excessive indoor keeping of
The experience in Sweden is quite different. There is a high level of familiarity with
environment concepts as well as ethic standards on the quality of food, especially
among the consumers of organic products. When the “mad cows” scandal broke out,
there was an immediate answer from the pro-environment movement with a campaign
of educational activities whose motto was “Society for the preservation of Nature”.
Organic farming associations
Associations play a very important role in the development of organic farming in most
countries. In countries with a strong associative tradition like Italy, Austria or
Germany, these entities have been crucial.
After Regulation EEC 2092/91 was enacted, some associations became certification
agencies. We can say, then, that the main associations of this sector have been
incorporated to this certifying function.
National general or environmental associations, associations in charge of inspections
and certifications, technical support associations, research associations, associations
composed of smaller associations (“umbrella entities”)
Germany Austria Spain Italy Portugal Sweden
ANOG AMAS UPA AIAB AGROBIO
Biokreis BIOLANDBAU COAG AMAB BIO-SANA
BIOLAND BIO ERNTE ASAJA DEMETER ATBM
BIOPARK DEMETER ICEA AJAMPS
DEMETER ORBI IMC ARABBI
ECOVIN ENNESTAL CODEX DA TERRA
GAEA BAF NATURA
NATURLAN FREILAND SALVA
LW ERDE UND
Inspection CAAE ECOCERT KRAV
and CAE SATIVA Svenska
certificatio SOHICER Demeterförb
n T undet
AGÖL ARGE FANEGA AGRIBIOME
Federation OeIG DITERRAN
Organic associations were created with the aim of promoting, supporting and
spreading organic farming. It must be remembered, though, that there are several
other entities involved in this processes: consumers associations, farmers associations,
certifying bodies, marketing professionals, consultants, etc.
Some of the main associations have helped defining organic standards, and have been
acknowledged by the Ministry in charge as certifying entities for production and
processing, in compliance with Regulation 2092/91. This is the case in Italy, where
the Ministry of Agriculture designated association AIAB as a certifying entity. In 2000
AIAB and several other entities created ICEA (Certification Institute for Environmental
In 2000 ICEA also became a certifying agency for organic farming. Nowadays ICEA has
expanded with SINCERT, an accredited certifying agency (EN 45011) and IFOAM,
another accredited certifying agency with the certification logo “guaranty AIAB”. AIAB
has become the most important organisation in this sector, and promotes initiatives
such as the Biomediterranean Consortium (a supporting structure for the exportation
of quality organic products).
In countries like Spain, organic associations were born with the aim of finding an
alternative to traditional farming methods. The main among these were: the Organic
Farming Associations Coordinating Entity, funded in 1983; Bioland, funded in 1985;
and the Biodynamic Farming Association, funded in 1986. All of them were created in
order to promote, support and spread organic farming. To this end, they lobbied the
government demanding legal status for organic farming and resources for its
In Sweden there is a wide range of organisations with different objectives: farmers
associations; certification and inspection agencies; marketing associations; consulting
and training agencies; research entities; governmental authorities; other organisations
for the support of organic farming, and governmental institutions relevant for the
organic farming sector.
In all countries studies except Spain and Portugal, there are technical consulting
services available to organic farmers. This is considered as a vital service for traditional
farmers that wish to undertake organic farming, and also for the daily production of
Finally, we must mention the so called “umbrella associations”, in which several smaller
organisations are gathered. In Germany, for instance, about 60% of all the organic
farmers belong to one of these entities. These organisations, widely known among
consumers, issue certificates of organic quality for farmers and processing companies;
consumers are very familiar with these logos, especially DEMETER, BIOLAND and
LABOUR MARKET ISSUES
The labour market in organic farming
Farming has been traditionally a sector where much labour force was needed. Modern
trends, though, together with new machinery and technologies, have considerably
reduced the volume of labour needed.
The farming sector is characterised by multifunctionality and by a high volume of
family labour that can lead to an underestimation of employment figures.
Most European countries are undergoing a process of diversification that is lessening
rural migration. Multifunctionalism has allowed farmers diversify their income, offering
additional services apart from farming productive activities. The case of Italy can be
put as an example.
There are about 400 Italian organic farmers that offer a nice atmosphere for holiday
seekers. The offer ranges from a simple meal or one-week stay to participation in
farming activities or traditional handcraft production. AIAB, the largest certification
agency in the country, has begun to establish national standards for ecoturism, as the
activity is called. Ecoturism organisers must follow organic farming rules, and maintain
a connection with local landscape and cultural heritage.
In contrast to conventional farming, organic farming seems to offer full-time jobs,
especially since organic livestock raising began and weeds control became most
needed. In the German organic farming sector there are 30% full-time employees.
There are other important differences between organic and conventional farming
concerning legal structure of the companies. Individual producers cope 91% of organic
farming, a slightly lower percentage than in conventional farming (95%). Associations
(5%) and other legal entities (4%) are not very important among organic producers;
the same happens with conventional producers (3% and 1% respectively)
At a general level, research published in documents such as the Guide on Community
Regulations, issued by the Directorate General of Agriculture, European Commission,
reveals that organic farming requires a higher level of labour. According to Padel and
Lampkin, the average organic farm employs more labour force (both measured in full-
time units and in working hours) than an equivalent traditional farm, at least in
Padel and Lampkin compare the needs of labour force at constant prices, using
farming statistics issued by the OECD. At a general level, labour force expressed in full-
time equivalents (1 FTE = 2,200 hours) is larger in organic farms. Labour earnings per
FTE are always higher in this type of farms, except in Switzerland where it is slightly
lower (-6%) in spite of its high value as a whole (11% higher than in Germany, 55%
higher than in Denmark)
Other analysis prove that organic farming needs more labour force than conventional
farming because of the unavoidable manual and mechanical tasks it requires. Product
processing before organic products are sold in farms or markets is also more laborious.
Many European countries lack an important professional category: organic farming
consultants that promote and support organic farming. There is a clear need for
professionals able to inform and advise farmers about the conditions, procedures and
requirements for a traditional farm to become an organic farm. This kind of
professionals exists in countries like Italy or Austria.
These are some profiles of organic farming labour force in European countries:
66% of the owners of organic companies are aged under 45
The average age of organic farmers is higher than in conventional farming
20,3% of the farmers are women
70% are satisfied with their job
A study carried out in Italy that could be applied to all European countries states that
the main hindrances of the sector are the following:
The greatest difficulty is bureaucracy
Followed by a general confusion with laws and regulations. This brings about
problems to compete with other countries in the market, difficulties to give
correct information to customers, etc.
The average size or farms is 21 hectares
Labour is mainly family-based
Organic farming has been advocating in the last 15 years for an alternative to
conventional farming in the European Community.
The European Parliament passed in 1986 a resolution on agriculture and
environment. This text expresses clearly the need to introduce a quality label
for the marketing of organic farm products. It also states that there must be
actions for the promotion of experimental organic lands and farms, and affirms
that the dissemination of information about this farming method must be
The European Council enacted in 1991 the first Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 on
organic farming processes and labelling of agricultural and food organic
products. This was the first legal Community framework defining the
characteristics that agricultural and food products must have in order to bear
some reference in their labels to organic farming methods. It was a complex
regulation that defined the production methods for the production of organic
products, their labelling, processing, inspection and marketing processes within
the Community, as well as exports to third countries.
This regulation was reformed several times until 1999, when the Council added to it
rules about livestock organic breeding. Now, the path towards a harmonic and
coincident understanding of the concepts “biological”, “ecological” and “organic” has
finally been achieved.
Regulation (EEC) 2092/91
The Council Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 on organic farming processes and labelling of
agricultural and food organic products, enacted on June 24th 1991, had two main
purposes: on one hand, it was the logical evolution of the legal recognition of organic
farming that had happened in some member states. On the other hand, it was due to
the will to inform consumers clearly about the concept of organic farming, in an
attempt to avoid the frequent frauds that had been happening thus far.
After this European Regulation was enacted, each country developed its own national
rules. These, in some cases (Austria or Germany, for instance) even exceed the
requirements contained in the general regulation.
This Regulation was conceived in order to establish common rules for the production of
plant organic products within the Community. It was reformed by the Council in 1992
and 1995, with the introduction of new rules that established the possibility of a logo
for the organic agricultural sector, as well as some technical regulations concerning
labelling and imports. After these reforms, the Commission has periodically enacted
other regulations to update or complement the technical annexes to Regulation (EEC)
Regulation (EC) 1804/1999, enacted in 1999, establishes Community rules concerning
the production of livestock organic products. This regulation completes the European
legal framework for organic farming, which comprises now regulations both on plant
and livestock organic production.
Finally, in 2000 a Community logo for organic farming was created. This contributes
both to protect plant and livestock organic products and to increase their value.
Organic farming as an element of quality policies
The legal framework for organic farming can be viewed within the larger context of
quality policies for farm products. This policy aims to fulfil the growing demand of
consumers for specific products, in an opposition to the increasing standardisation of
Farmers have the possibility of achieving quality products if they fulfil the conditions
established in European regulations.
Their geographical situation can give them the possibility to opt to one of these two
Protected designation of origin
Protected geographical indication
They can also opt to a certification of specific character that guarantees that their
products have been produced with traditional methods.
These protection regimes present a double advantage: on one hand, they offer an
economically viable option to farmers who suffer from severe structural limitations; on
the other hand, they offer certified specific products to consumers.
Application of Regulation 2092/91
Regulation 2092/91 is applicable to non processed plant and livestock products,
processed farm products for human consumption and animal foodstuffs that show on
their labels, advertisements or marketing documents some of the indications used in
any of the member states to suggest the consumers that this particular product has
been obtained by means of the organic farming methods defined by the abovesaid
Apart from being affected by the specifications contained in Regulation 2092/91,
organic products must also comply with the rules applicable to conventional products.
Therefore, all points of this Regulation must be at least as strict as the general
Community regulation concerning conventional farming and products for human
Regulations concerning organic farming
Organic plant production
Soil fertility and biological activity must be maintained or increased by means of crops
like pulses, green manure or deep-rooted plants, following an annual rotation
programme. This method can be complemented by adding manure produced in organic
livestock farms (providing the limits for this are not surpassed) or organic matter,
transformed into compost or not, produced in organic farms.
Sometimes these methods are not enough to feed the plants adequately or prepare the
soil for crops; then it may be necessary to add organic or mineral fertilisers. If this is
the case, the only fertilisers whose use is allowed are indicated in an Annex to the
Regulation, and most of them are natural minerals with low solubility obtained by
means different from chemical synthesis.
Microorganic products can also be used to improve the general state of the soil or the
amount of nutritive elements present in the soil or crops, providing they are not
genetically modified, and only if the member state in question considers it is necessary.
Plant protection against parasites and diseases, as well as weed control, must be
achieved using as few plant protection products as possible. Therefore, plant
protection must begin with the following measures: selection of hardy species and
varieties; crop rotation programmes; mechanic cultivation methods; weed burning; and
protection against parasites and natural enemies.
Nevertheless, if an immediate danger threatens the crop, the Regulation authorises the
use of plant protection products under certain conditions, provided that these products
are quoted in the Annex. This annex authorises four categories of products: products
with animal or plant origin; products obtained from microorganisms; substances
compulsorily used in delivery manifolds; and other substances which were traditionally
used in organic farming before the Regulation came into force.
The minimum conversion period needed to transform a conventional field into an
organic field is two years (before sowing) for annual crops, and three years (before the
first crop) in non-annual crops other than pastures. This period can be extended or
reduced depending on the previous use of the fields; the exact periods depend on each
The harvesting of plant products that grow spontaneously in natural areas, forests or
farming areas is equated to organic production, given two conditions: these areas
cannot have been treated with products banned in organic farming in the three
previous years; and collecting them must not affect the natural habitat stability or the
survival of local species.
Regulation 2092/91 was modified on July 19th 1999 by Regulation 1804/99, which
establishes minimum standards for organic livestock farming. According to Article 12 of
Regulation 2092/91, member states may establish stricter norms for livestock or
livestock products produced in their territory.
According to the general principles applicable to organic livestock farming, it is
compulsory to comply with the principle of land-animal complementarity; therefore,
production in closed barns is banned. The link between land and livestock also entails
that the animals must have open air space, and that their density per hectare is
The separation principle, which is also compulsory, entails that all animals in the same
farming unit must be raised following the rules established for organic farming.
Exceptions to this rule are only possible if there are enough guarantees that organic
production and conventional production cannot be mixed up.
The Annex to this Regulation establishes rules concerning the minimum period for
conversion from conventional to organic, and concerning origin of livestock. Conversion
periods are divided in two classes, since conversion involves both farming lands used in
livestock production and the livestock itself.
When forming a herd, the selected breeds must be hardy and adapted to the
environment. The animals must come from an organic farm, and they must be raised
according to the rules applicable to organic livestock farms during the rest of their
There are also rules concerning livestock feeding. Animals must be fed with organic
products, preferably grown in the farm itself. Natural feeding must be respected to a
great extent; this means that all mammals must be fed with milk during a minimum
period (these periods are established in the Annex to the Regulation, and their length
depends on each species). Daily rations must comply with very precise rules, and the
same happens with raw materials and other substances used for the production of
Concerning the principles applicable to prophylactics and animal health care,
prevention must be prioritised. This must be achieved through the selection of
appropriate breeds, the implementation of zootechnical practices to reinforce livestock
resistance, the maintenance of a suitable density of animals per hectare and quality
If in spite of these measures an animal contracts a disease, natural measures like
phytotherapeutic or homeopathic treatments must be prioritised over antibiotics or
allopathic treatments, since these could leave traces in the final products.
Notwithstanding that, under certain conditions these last kinds of treatments can be
prescribed if there is no other way to heal the animal. The use of substances devised
to stimulate growth (like hormones) or control reproduction is strictly forbidden.
Another regulated issue is animal welfare. Some practices like tail, tooth or claw
cutting and dehorning are subject to specific authorisations, which can only be
obtained because of security, hygiene, health or animal welfare reasons. As a general
principle, it is forbidden to tie animals up, and their stables must be appropriated in
general terms to their physiological and ethologycal conditions. To this effect, specific
rules about breeding stables have been established. About animal transportation, it
must be always performed taking animal welfare into account and making sure that
animals do not become too stressed.
Labelling and Community logo
Labels and advertisements can only refer to organic production if the conditions in
which the product was obtained are clearly originated in organic farming production.
Products must also comply with Regulation 2092/91; the economic operator must
comply with the control measures established in this Regulation; and finally, the name
or code number of the inspection body must be indicated.
This Regulation takes into account the percentage of ingredients obtained from organic
farming within each product, in order to determine whether it is legal to allude to
organic production or not.
The labels and advertisement of food products may only allude to organic production in
their trade name when at least 95% of the product’s ingredients have been organically
produced. This means that a given product may include up to 5% of ingredients
obtained through conventional methods; but this is only applicable if these ingredients
cannot be found in the Community market of organic products (some tropical fruits, for
instance), or when they can be obtained but are too scarce. The list of these
authorised ingredients is included in section C of the Annex to the Regulation.
Products with a percentage of organic ingredients ranging between 70 and 95% may
only allude to this method of production in their list of ingredients (but not in their
trade name). Indications about organic production methods included in the list of
ingredients cannot be more visible than the rest of the list, and it is compulsory to
indicate the percentage of ingredients obtained with organic methods.
If the percentage of organic ingredients within a product is lower than 70%, it is
forbidden to include any indication concerning organic production methods on the
labels or advertisements of the product.
Nonetheless, Community regulations foresee the possibility of alluding to the
conversion period. This means that plant products that comply with the requirements
included in Regulation 2092/91, and whose farm of origin has passed through control
measures to certify its conversion to organic production, may include in their labels the
expression “Product under conversion to organic farming”.
In order to do this, the farms involved must have begun conversion at least 12 months
before, and the indications on the label must not lead consumers to any confusion.
The possibility of alluding to the conversion period has been devised with the intention
to help farmers in their transition from conventional to organic farming, given the great
expenses this process usually involves. With this possibility, farmers can begin adding
value to their production after only one year.
Logo and control stamp
Regulation 2092/91, after being modified in 1995 by the European Council, offered the
Commission the possibility to establish a specific logo for organic production, as well as
a control stamp indicating explicitly that products are subjected to control procedures.
In March 2000 the Commission passed Regulation 331/2000 introducing the
abovementioned logo, with the aim of improving the reliability of organic products
among consumers and their identification in the market.
This logo can be used on a voluntary basis by producers whose systems and products
have been found on inspection to satisfy some requirements.
The products bearing this logo and control stamp must comply with Regulation
2092/91, and they must specifically adjust to the following characteristics:
At least 95% of the product's ingredients have been organically produced.
The product has been subjected to the official inspection scheme foreseen in
Regulation 2092/91 during its production and processing. This implies that all
the economic operators involved in the production, processing, packaging and
labelling are subjected to this inspection scheme.
The product comes directly from the producer in a sealed package or is
marketed as a pre-packed prepared meal.
The product bears the name of the producer, the preparer or vendor and the
name or code of the inspection body.
Regulation 331/2000 establishes the conditions for the presentation and use of the
Community organic logo. These conditions stipulate that reproductions of the logo
must respect the models indicated in the Annex.
This means that the both the logo and the indications it bears must be reproduced
following the technical indications contained in the graphic manual.
In order to achieve maximum reliability for organic products, the regulations establish
inspection schemes for producers and processing companies.
Any economic operator that produces, processes or imports organic products must
previously notify the competent authorities of the member state of this activity.
Establishing of a specific control scheme by the member states
The Regulation establishes that each of the member states must introduce a control
scheme supervised by one or more public institutions and/or authorised private
organisms. The states must also designate one entity in charge of authorising and
supervising the private entities in charge of the control scheme, if that system has
been chosen. This supervising entity must inspect such private organisms to make sure
that they are able to perform the established control procedures, and that they
perform these in an objective way. Member states must also make sure (through the
above mentioned supervising authority or through the authorising system) that private
organisms comply with rule EN 45011 (or ISO 65) established by the European
Committee for Standardisation, that stipulates the conditions that inspection organisms
must fulfil in order to issue solid and credible certifications.
Training in organic agriculture offered by most member states within the different
educational systems (official and continuing education) is not much developed, except
in certain countries like Italy or France.
Italy is an example of a developed and specific training offer for organic farmers.
Within the educational system there are Agriculture technical colleges (for students
aged between 14 and 18) and centres for vocational training in Agriculture (with two
different cycles comprising two and three years respectively).
At University level, we must remark that organic farming has met a strong opposition.
Only recently have some universities included this subject in their training schemes,
following the demands of the new generations of students.
As an orientation of the kind of cycles offered, these are some of the training schemes
on organic farming developed in Italy:
ORGANIC AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE - 3 years general degree
180 credits– University of Pisa.
ORGANIC AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE - 2 years specialistic degree
120 credits– University of Pisa.
DOCTORATE IN SCIENCE OF SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION – 3 years PhD
Course - 180 credits – University of Pisa
ECOLOGICAL FARMING – 3 years general degree - 180 credits – University of
ECOLOGICAL FARMING AND ENVIRONMENT – 2 years specialistic degree - 120
credits – University of Florence
THE INTERNATIONAL CURRICULUM IN AGROECOLOGY- is 2 year long,
corresponding to 120 credits (ECTS). As a second level study programme (MSc), it
completes logically and consistently the Bachelor’s Degrees in Ecological Agriculture,
Organic Production and Farming, Protection of Horticultural Crops, Agricultural cience
and Technology. University of Tuscia – Viterbo.
ECOLOGICAL FARMING AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT -3 years general degree
180 credits– University of Tuscia – Viterbo.
MASTER IN ECOLOGICAL FARMING (1th level) – 1 year - 60 credits, University
Federico II of Naples.
MASTER IN MEDITERRANEAN ORGANIC ARICULTURE (1th level) – 1 year - 60
credits - CIHEAM- IAMB Valenzano (BA).
MASTER IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (1th level) – 1 year - 60 credits –
University of Bologna.
MASTER IN ECOLOGICAL FARMING (1th level) – 1 year - 60 credits – University of
MASTER IN ECOLOGICAL AND BYODINAMIC FARMING (1th level) – 1 year - 60
credits – University of Florence.
MASTER IN “ENOLOGY, GASTRONOMY, TIPÌCAL AGRO – FOOD INDUSTRY
AND ORGANIC PRODUCTION: THE TUSCANY EXPERIENCE” (1th level) – 1 year
- 60 credits – University of Siena.
MASTER IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION: MANAGEMENT, CONTROL AND
MARKETING (1th level) – 1 year - 60 credits – University of Milano.
MASTER IN ECOLOGICAL FARMING (1th level) – 1 year - 60 credits – University of
MASTER FIRST LEVEL ON VALORISATION AND CONTROL OF QUALITY AGRO
– FOOD PRODUCTIONS (1th level) – 1 year - 60 credits – Scuola superiore di studi
universitari e di perfezionamento sant'Anna, Pisa.
The Italian Ministry of Agriculture has actually created a National Official School of
Organic Farming. As for vocational training, it has been offered by regional
governments since 1972, and also by several governmental institutions that have
created different training cycles depending on the demands of the labour market.
Associations also play an important role offering specific training within the formal
educational system. Germany is an example of this.
Training in organic farming can also be presented in short courses adapted to the
previous technical and administrative knowledge of civil servants within this sector and
agricultural trade union workers. In the late 80s, short courses on organic farming,
mainly organised by NGOs or associations, were occasionally held in some regions.
These courses were mainly aimed at transmitting the basic principles of organic
farming, and very seldom included specific aspects of farming practices.
In 1990, opportunities for training began to consolidate. In some regions, these short
courses were a boost for farmers who tried to benefit from regional aids for
conversion. Most of these courses were limited to training on organic crops, leaving
aside other aspects like livestock breeding, food processing, marketing and inspection
The topics included in these courses during that period varied depending on the
geographical situation. Considering the changes that have happened between the
beginning of the 90s and our times, the following differences can be observed:
Topic 1990 200
Basic principles *** **
ecology ** *
Agro-ecology ** *
Soil fertility *** **
Plant protection *** ***
Weed management ** ***
Machinery * **
Animal husbandry * **
processing * **
Certification * ***
***= highly relevant; **=relevant; *=occasional
This change in topics, as well as the development of the training offer in Italy, was
clearly influenced by the following facts:
An increase in the number of livestock farmers and an improvement in the
farmer’s professional knowledge, which placed marketing problems on the
The increase in the number of farmers brought about an increase in needs,
especially for inspecting and certifying bodies. This can partly account for the
many hours dedicated in the different courses to certification topics.
Geographical differences influence the weight of the training offer in the different
regions (20 in Italy). Regions with “organic” traditional farming methods offer more
training opportunities than other regions, and their training deals with specific aspects,
as shown in the table below:
main topic Northern Central Southern
Regions regions regions
Horticulture ** ** ***
Protected crops ** ** ***
Olive oil production * *** ***
Citrus production ***
Apple production *** **
Cereals and pulses *** *** ***
Fodder production *** ** *
Beef ** **
Dairy cows *** ** *
Pork production ** **
Sheep and goat * *** **
Poultry ** **
Processing of plant *** ** *
Processing of animal *** *
Certification ** ** ***
Marketing *** ** **
***= highly relevant; **=relevant; *=occasional
The main objective of AIAB’s training programme, called EUDIBio, is promoting organic
farming both from the point of view of a sustainable model for land conversion and
from the consumers’ point of view, supporting their involvement through information
and responsible choices. The aim is to create a model of rural development that
involves all elements and gives them a specific role.
This programme does not only consider training topics, since it also stresses teaching
methods. It also offers courses using modern technological advances in order to
implement distance education by e learning.
Training activities in EUDIBio programme
Formación a los productores
Formación a los consumidores
Formadores a los técnicos
Formación directa a los operadores de
Formación para nutricionistas
Formación para los directivos públicos
Formación para operadores de restaurantes y
Organic farming within the Community framework presents the following outlines:
Stable growth due to its importance as an alternative to other production
methods, in spite of the feeble economic and technical support.
Increasing demands concerning higher food quality are leading to the
introduction of organic products into the market.
Control and certification requirements for environmentally friendly products.
Regeneration of rural areas; this entails an increase in employment, among
Scarce training offer in all educational models, and especially in continuing
ANNEX: GENERAL STATISTICS OF ORGANIC FARMING IN EUROPE
Land Under Organic Management and Number og Organic Farms in Europe
(SOEL/FiBL-survey February 2004; for up-dates please check www.organic-
ORGANIC % OF ALL ORGANIC
COUNTRY DATE AGRICULT
FARMS FARMS HECTARES
Austria 2002 18,576 9.20 297,000 11.60
Belgium 2002 700 1.23 20,241 1.45
Bulgaria 2000 50 500
Bosnia- 2002 92 1,113
Croatia 1998 18 120
Cyprus 2002 45 0.09 166 0.12
Czech 2002 654 2.37 253,136 5.09
Denmark 2002 3,714 5.88 178,360 6.65
Estonia 2002 583 0.20 30,552 3.00
Finland 2002 5,071 6.80 156,692 7.00
France 2002 11,177 1.55 509,000 1.70
Germany 2002 15,628 4.00 696,978 4.10
Greece 2002 6,047 0.69 28,944 0.86
Hungary 2002 1,116 0.26 103,672 1.70
Iceland 2002 20 0.80 6,000 0.70
Ireland 2002 923 0.70 29,850 0.70
Italy 2002 49,489 2.14 1,168,212 8.00
Latvia 2002 350 16,934 0.81
Lietchtenstei 2002 41 20.50 984 26.40
Lithuania 2002 393 8,780 0.25
Luxembourg 2002 48 2.00 2,004 2.00
Malta 2002 + 2.00 +
Netherlands 2002 1,560 1.70 42,610 2.19
Norway 2002 2,303 3.90 32,546 3.13
Poland 2002 1,977 53,515 0.36
Portugal 2002 1,059 0.25 85,912 2.20
Romania 2001 1,200 40,000 0.27
Slovakia 2002 84 1.10 49,999 2.20
Slovenia 2002 1,150 0.15 15,000
Spain 2002 17,751 1.47 665,055 2.28
Sweden 2002 3,530 3.94 187,000 6.09
Switzerland 2002 6,466 10.80 107,000 10.00
Turkey 2001 18,385 0.09 57,001 0.14
U.K 2002 4,057 1.74 724,523 4.22
Yugoslavia 2001 15,200 0.30
SUM 174,257 5,566,599
+: In this country organic farming exists, but we do not have any figures.
Austria: Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Foerderung des biologischen Landbaus, (ARGE-
Biolandbau), Wickenburggasse 14/9, 1080 Vienna, Austria, tel. +43-1-4037050, fax
+43-1-4027800, e-mail email@example.com, web site:
Belgium: BLIK and Ecocert
Bosnia and Herzegowina: Eldina Muftic, ECON, e-mail econ firstname.lastname@example.org, KRAV
Kontroll AB, Box 1940, 751 49 Uppsala, Sweden, tel. +46-18-138040, fax +46-18-
138041, e-mail email@example.com
Bulgaria: Ecology & Farming, May / Au gust 2001
Croatia: International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, Organic food and beverages:
World supp ly and major European markets, Geneva 1999
Cyprus: http://www.organic-europe.net/europe_eu/statistics.asp; Ministry of
Agriculture, written comment
Czech Republic: Organic Research.com, 16.04.2003
Denmark: Ministeriet for Fødevarer, Landbrug og Fiskeri,
Estonia: Merit Mikk, Centre for Ecological Engineering, J. V. Jannseni 4, EE-51005 Tar
tu, tel. +372 7 422 051, fax +372 7 422 746, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Finland: Sampsa Heinonen, Country report Finland 2002, Ministry of Agriculture and
Forestry, Plant Production Inspection Centre, P.O. Box 111, FIN- 32201 Loima, tel.
00358-2-76056436, fax 358-2-760 56 220, e-mail email@example.com
France: http://www.agricultu re.gouv.fr/spip/IMG/pdf/dossier_presse_2002.pdf
Greece: Nicoletta van der Smissen, DIO, Skra 7, 68100 Alexandroupoli, Greece, tel.
+30-551-25625, fax +30-551-31769
Iceland: Dyrmundsson, Ólafur, The Farmers Association of Ice land, P.O. Box 7080,
Baendahoellin, 127 Reykja vik, Iceland, tel. +354-563-0300, fax +354-562-3058, e-
Ireland: The Organic Unit, written communica tion September 2003. See as Annual
review and Outlook, Ministry of Agriculture,
Italy: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry,
Latvia: Angelika Müller
Liechtenstein: Bio Suisse, March 2003
Lithuania: BioFach Newsletter, 12.05.2003
Luxemburg: Raymond Aendekerk, Biolabel – Verenegung fir Biologesche Landbau
Letzebuerg, Haus vun der Natur, Kraeizhaff, route de Luxembourg, 1899
Kockelscheuer, Luxembourg, tel. +352-290404, fax +352290504, e-mail se
Malta: Nature Trust, Mal ta
Netherlands: Francesco Melita, Platform Biologica – Federatie van Biologische
Boeren, Nieuwegracht 15, 3501 AA Utrecht, Netherlands, tel. +31-30-2339970,
fax+31-30-2304423, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Norway: Kaare K. John son, DE BIO, Post boks 50, 1940 Bjorkelangen, Nor way, tel.
+47-63856305, fax +47-63856985, e-mail ge email@example.com
Poland: Dorota Metera, Fundacja IUCN-Poland, Narbutta 40/21, 02-54 Warszawa,
Poland, tel. +48 22 849 34 91, fax +48 22 646 87 67, e-mail Iucn@iucn-ce.org.pl
Portugal: USDA, FAS Gain Report.
Romania: ZMP Ökomarkt Forum, Nr. 17, page 7, 25.04.2003
Slovakia: Ing. Zuzana Lehocka, Ing. Marta Klimekovam Research Institute of Plant
Production, Bratislavska 122, 921 68 Piestany, Slovakia, tel. +421 33 7722 311, fax
+421 33 7726 306, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Slovenia: Anamarija Slabe, Institute for Sustainable Development - Institutza
trajnostnirazvoj, Me telkova 6, 1000, Lubljana, Slo venia, tel. +386-41-725991, fax
+386 61 1337 029, e-mail ana-ma ri email@example.com
Spain: http://www.ma pya.es/alimenta cion/pags/ecologica/introducci on.htm
KRAV– konomisk foerening, Box 1940, 751 49, Uppsala, Sweden, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Switzerland: BioSwisse, 2003
Turkey: IAMB-MOAN, Mediterreanean Organic Agriculture Network. In: Vincenzo
Fersino, 2001: „Organic Agriculture in Mediterranean Area“, Coordination Commitee
Organic Agriculture, C.I.H.E.A.M – Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo, Bari Via Ceglie 9,
70010 Valenzano (Bari), Italy, e-mail email@example.com,
United Kingdom: UKOFS at www.de fra.gov.uk/farm/organic/stat.htm
Yugoslavia: Ing. Goran Pastrovic, Ministry of Agriculture, Bul. Arsenija Carnojevica
27, 11070 Novi Beograd, Yugoslavia, tel. +381-11-311-3247, e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org Hlt619653970o Hlt61965397p