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					                               “Land, Sea, Air & Space…
                                       Together”


                               NASA/NOAA/DOE
                                Collaboration for
Towards an Integrated Global      Utilization of
                                Unmanned Aerial
    Observation System         Vehicles for Climate
                               Change and Global
                               Weather Research

                                  August 3rd, 2004


                                   John P. Sharkey@nasa.gov
                               NASA Dryden Flight Research Center
                                         (661) 276-3965
                                                               1
            Presentation Objectives
• Provide a framework for reference on the current
  state of UAV capabilities and technology investment
  strategies

• Suggest grounds rules and assumptions relevant to
  the scope and desired outcome of this workshop




                                                        2
3
     Aeronautics Research Mission
To pioneer and validate high-payoff aeronautical technologies


                To improve the quality of life
            To enable exploration and discovery
To extend the benefits of our innovation throughout society.




Our success is measured by the extent to which our results
   are used by others to improve the quality of life and
       enable exploration and scientific knowledge



                                                                4
           UAV Technology Investments:
            Relevance to NASA Mission
Supports four Agency Strategic Objectives:
Objective 1.1: Understand how Earth is changing,
better predict change, and understand the
consequences for life on Earth

Objective 1.2: Expand and accelerate the realization of
economic and societal benefits from Earth science,
information, and technology.

Objective 3.2: Enhance the Nation’s security through
aeronautical partnerships with DOD and other
Government agencies

Objective 10.5: Create novel aerospace concepts to
support Earth and space science mission

                                                          5
                              Aeronautics Research Comprises
                                Three Integrated Programs
                                      Airspace
                                      Capability

        Airspace Systems




Aviation Safety & Security
                                                                             Environment

                                                                              Cost

                                                                     Safety/Security

         Vehicle Systems
 Subsonic        Supersonic    Rotorcraft   Uninhabited     Personal          Extreme Vehicle
Transports        Aircraft                  Air Vehicles   Air Vehicles        STOL Capability



                                                                                             6
Current State of Science UAV Development
        Helios (RFC/LH2)    50,000 – 100,000 feet   30 KIAS
        RPV                 14 days to 6 months     5 crew
        $10M per vehicle    100 kg                  HALE

        Global Hawk         40,000-60,000 feet      250 KIAS
        Autonomous          36 hours                (large crew)
        $30M per vehicle    1000 kg

        Proteus             40,000-60,000 feet      200 KIAS
        OPV                 24 hours                2+ crew
        $10M per vehicle    1000 kg                 HALE


        Predator B/Altair   40,000-52,000 feet      170 KIAS
        RPV                 32 hours                2+ crew
        $4M per vehicle     400 kg                  MALE


        Aerosonde-Class     200 – 20,000 feet       35 KIAS
        RPV - Autonomous    20-30 hours             2-3 crew
        $75K per vehicle    2-5 kg                  (LALE)

                                                                   7
Examples of Other Mission-Unique
      UAV Developments
     High Altitude Airship 50,000 – 70,000 feet   30-50 KIAS
     RPV                   30 days to 6 months    5 crew
     $40M per vehicle      10,000 kg              HALE




     Golden-eye UAR      100-3,000 feet           140 KIAS
     Autonomous          1-4 hours                2+ crew
     $TBD per vehicle    20 kg                    LASE


     Power Beaming       10-1000 feet             15 KIAS
     RPV                 24 hours                 1 crew
     $5 K per vehicle    0.1 kg                   LALE



     Micro-UAV            200 - 2500 feet         35 KIAS
     RPV                  1-2 hours               1 crew
     $10 K per vehicle    0.1 kg                  LASE
                                                               8
                             HALE UAV Science Platform Capabilities
                                            Performance                     Performance              Performance                  Performance
                                           Objective #3:                    Objective #1:            Objective #2:                Objective #4:
                                           Global Ranger                      SOLEO                 Global Observer               Heavy-Lifter
  150                                          FY14                            FY09                      FY12                        FY20

                               Current
  125                                                                                                  17
                             HALE UAV                                                               1000 kg
                              Platforms
  100                                                                                                                                        10

                                                                                                                                            200 kg
                     50 kg
Altitude (kft)




                                                                            16 200kg
                                                                                                20 150kg
                                                                            15 10,000kg
          75                                                                                    18 150kg
                                                                   5 2000kg                     21 150kg
                                      2          6                8                                                       19   3000kg
                       Piloted      30kg
                                                         4
                                             10,000kg 1000kg      200kg
                                                                      12      13                              1
                                                             1000 kg
          50           Aircraft                              11       7 9
                                                                            150kg                           200kg                          200kg
                       Capability                             300 kg
                                           Current
                                           ROA
          25                               Capability                                                                SSMF
                                                                                   14
                                                                                   4 kg                           “Low & Slow”
                                                 200kg   3    1 kg
                 0
                 0.1         0.2           0.5       1.0                2.0               5.0        10             20              50      100
                 day         day           day       day                day               day        day            day             day     day
                                                                      Endurance
                                                                                                                                             9
            Current NASA UAV Program Elements
   HALE ROA           HALE ROA             Earth Science           Optionally            National
    Platform          Access to               Mission                Piloted             Security
  Development          the NAS              Capabilities            Vehicles           Partnerships




 Platform            Airspace             Mission               New Platform   Spiral
Capabilities        Capabilities         Capabilities            Operations Development
• Design tools      • Routine access   • Precision Trajectory   • UAV transitional   • DHS/Coast Guard
• Storm Tracker     to the NAS         • Precision Formations   capabilities         • OSD/Sensor Demo
• Global Observer   • Detect, See &                             • Integrated         • DARPA/J-UCAS
                                       • Global OTH & iNET
                    Avoid sensors                               science campaign      - X-45A/Spiral 0
• Global Ranger                        • Mission Demos
                    • Contingency                               elements              - X-45C/Spiral 1
• Heavy Lifter      management         - Altair                                       - Common Operating
                                       - Global Hawk            • Multi-agency       System
                    • HALE ROA
                                       - Proteus                business models       - Autonomous
                    Certification
                                       - Others                                      Refueling
                    Standards


                Aeronautics Research                            Earth Science            DoD/DHS
                                                                                                      10
       Key Enabling Technologies: HALE UAV’s
• Intelligent Mission Management
 - SOA: Remotely piloted contingency management with lost-link
  waypoint navigation
 - Goal: Intelligent Decision Executive Architecture for autonomous,
  multi-ship, tactical group plan, resource allocation and contingency
  management for flight safety and mission assurance
• Routine Access to the International Airspace
 - SOA: Ad hoc Certificates of Authorization with 30-60 day lead-time
 - Goal: Same day “file & fly”, initially for HALE UAV’s, by establishing
  equivalent levels of safety for manned flight; includes Detect, See &
  Avoid, Over-The-Horizon, and System Reliability technologies
• Endurance: Electric Propulsion
 - SOA: 10 kw solar array panels (h = 18%); Regenerative Fuel Cells =
  250 w*hr/kg @ 10 kw output
 - Goal: 20 kw thin film solar cells (h > 15%);Solid Oxide Fuel Cells =
  1200 w*hr/kg @ 1,000 kw;
• Ruggedized: All Weather Flight Operations
 - SOA: High altitude operations and clear weather launch & recovery
 - Goal: All weather launch, recovery and mission operation capabilities
  using intelligent anti-icing with electrically hardened, hail tolerant
  composite airframes                                                       11
            Key Enabling Technologies (con’t):
• Daughtership Launch, Deploy and Recovery Ops
 - SOA: Expendable dropsonde sensors @ 0.5 kg per dropsonde
 - Goal: HALE UAV mothership launch and recovery of smart
  daughtership dropsondes

• Miniaturized UAV Flight Systems and Science Sensors
 - SOA: Discrete PC-104 class boards: FCC, INS, GPS, and Comm
 - Goal: Integrated single-board MEMS-class flight systems;
  embedded MEMS atmospheric chemistry sensors


• Aerodynamics:Efficient low Reynolds number airframes
 - SOA: Re > 1e6 with fixed-geometry wing loading > 1.0
 - Goal: Re <<0.5e6 with deployable wing and airframe components


• Precision Trajectories and Formations
  - SOA: Integrated Differential GPS/INS for waypoint navigation and
landing systems for two aircraft formations
  - Goal: Precision trajectories and formations for multi-ship formations
    and swarms                                                              12
        Future Collaboration Opportunity
• Consider unconstrained science observation requirements
   – Mission-unique platform capabilities
   – Assume airspace issues will be resolved
   – Assume reliability and affordability issues will be resolved

• Think in terms of complete observation systems:
   – UAV-enabled and/or tailored science instruments
   – Integrated global networks of observation platforms
        • Land, sea, air, and space
   – Integrated Information Systems for research and operations

• Provide ammunition on why NASA should invest in “climate
  and weather” UAV’s instead of other competing priorities:
   –   Homeland Security
   –   Planetary flight vehicles
   –   UAV forest fire prevention, detection, and suppression
   –   Precision agriculture
• Identify why DOE/NOAA/NASA collaboration is essential             13
Back-ups




           14

				
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