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					Focus on: the Basel Convention

     Control of trans-boundary
  movements of hazardous waste and
           their disposal

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  Using Cleaner Production to
facilitate implementation of the
        Basel Convention

   Activities for National Cleaner
        Production Centres


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            Basel Convention - Overview

   A global legal instrument on the control and the management
    of hazardous wastes
   Adopted: 1989; Entered into force: 1992
   Status of participation:147 Parties
   Affiliated instruments:
     –   Amendment on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
         Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
     –   Basel Protocol on Liability and Compensation for Damage Resulting
         from Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their
         Disposal
     –   The Basel Ministerial Declaration on Environmentally Sound
         Management of Hazardous Wastes
   The Convention requires environmentally sound management for ALL wastes
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           Affiliated Instruments - Detail
   Amendment on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
    Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
    –   Objective: to ban exports of hazardous wastes for final disposal, recovery,
        or recycling from developed countries to developing countries.
        (Amendment not yet in force)
   Basel Protocol on Liability and Compensation for Damage
    Resulting from Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
    and their Disposal
    –   Objective: to provide for a comprehensive regime for liability as well as
        adequate and prompt compensation for damage resulting from the
        transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and other wastes, including
        incidents occurring because of illegal traffic in those wastes (Not yet in
        force)
   The Basel Ministerial Declaration on Environmentally Sound
    Management of Hazardous Wastes

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                                 Definitions
   Waste is hazardous if it exhibits the following characteristics:
      –   toxic, poisonous, explosive, corrosive, flammable, eco-toxic, and infectious, or if
          waste is considered hazardous by the national legislation of the Party of the
          Convention
Waste classification is provided for in Annex I and II of the Convention:
   Annex I: wastes subject to control are classified into two general categories:
      –   18 waste streams (clinical wastes, waste mineral oil, etc.)
      –    27 wastes having as constituents certain enumerated substances (copper
          compounds, arsenic, organic cyanides, etc.).
   Annex II: lists two categories of "other wastes” requiring special
    consideration - wastes collected from households and residues arising from
    incineration of household wastes.
   Annex III: contains the hazard classes for the wastes listed in Annex I.

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                      Goal and objectives
   Overall goal: To protect, by strict control, human health and
    the environment against the adverse effects that may result
    from the generation, transboundary movement and
    management of hazardous and other wastes.
   Further objectives:
    –   to reduce trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes to a minimum
    –   to dispose of these wastes as close as possible to where they are generated
        (proximity principle)
    –   to minimise their generation (prevention at source principle)
    –   to ensure their environmentally sound management
    –   to assist developing countries in environmentally sound management of
        hazardous and other wastes they generate
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                Implementation actors
   Conference of Parties: Main governing and decision-making body.
    Meetings are held every other year. COP-6 held in May 2002
   Expanded Bureau: Provides general policy and general operational
    directions to the Secretariat between meetings of the COP
   Working Group for the Implementation of the Basel Convention:
    Facilitates the implementation of the Convention and prepares work
    for consideration of the COP. Meets between the meetings of the
    COP
   Technical Working Group (TWG): Prepares technical guidelines,
    develops criteria on hazard characteristics of hazardous wastes,
    provides guidance on technical matters to the COP
   Legal Working Group (LWG): Studies the issues related to the
    establishment of a mechanism for monitoring the implementation of
    and compliance with the Convention, the establishment of an
    emergency fund, and prevention and monitoring of illegal traffic in
    hazardous wastes.

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            Implementation actors (contd.)

   The Secretariat: Cooperates with national authorities in developing national
    legislation, setting up inventories of hazardous wastes, strengthening national
    institutions, assessing the hazardous waste management situation, and
    preparing hazardous waste management plans and policy tools. Provides
    legal and technical advice to countries
   The Committee on Partnership with industry: Will advise on the development
    of the strategy on co-operation with industry in priority waste streams
   Actors on national and regional levels:
     –   Competent Authority: Designated by a Party, responsible for receiving the
         notifications of a transboundary movements of wastes
     –   The Focal Point: An entity responsible for receiving and transmitting information as
         required by the Convention to and from the COP
     –   Regional and Sub-Regional Training Centres: Provide guidance on technical and
         technological issues as well as advice on enforcement aspects of the Convention,
         encourage the introduction of cleaner production technologies and the use of
         environmentally sound waste management practices.

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Compliance and enforcement mechanisms

   Control the movement of hazardous waste
   National reporting of hazardous wastes
   Source of technical assistance
   Training and technology transfer
   Financial assistance:
    –   Trust Fund of the Basel Convention (BC), the Technical
        Co-operation Trust Fund (BD), the Basel Declaration
        Trust Fund


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      Cleaner Production in the Basel Convention


The preamble:
“The most effective way of protecting human health and environment is the reduction of
their (hazardous wastes) generation to a minimum in terms of quantity and/or hazard
potential.”
Obligations (Article 4):
“ensure that the generation of hazardous wastes and other wastes is reduced to a minimum,
taking into account social, technological and economic aspects.”
International co-operation (Article 10) :
Co-operate in developing of environmentally sound technologies with a view to eliminating
the generation of wastes.
Capacity building:
The Secretariat is to assist Parties in waste minimisation efforts. (Article 16).
Regional Training Centres are to promote waste minimisation and cleaner production in
developing countries (Article 14).

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                Next step

“Our next step is not only to block the export of
hazardous waste, but also to change the
production forces that are linked with their
generation because we have to consider that
developing countries are also undergoing
industrial growth and are themselves producing
hazardous waste”.


         UNEP Executive Director, Klaus Toepfer

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    Cleaner Production: Renewed Attention
   Basel Ministerial Declaration on Environmentally Sound Management
    (ESM) of Hazardous Wastes - 1999
     –   Reaffirms the prevention and minimisation of wastes generation, and the active
         promotion of the transfer and use of cleaner technologies as the Convention’s
         fundamental goals. It calls for:
     –   “elaboration of a concept and a programme for the environmentally sound
         management of hazardous and other wastes, with an emphasis on waste prevention
         and minimisation”
   Draft Strategic Plan for the Basel Convention - 2001
     –   New Mission Statement:
     –   ‘to protect human health and the environmental from the harmful effects of hazardous
         wastes by promoting the environmentally sound management of such wastes through
         effective partnership and awareness-rising”
     –   Vision:
         The Basel Convention is leading in promoting the life cycle management approach for
         the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes and their effective
         reduction in transboundary movements of hazardous wastes.

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Potential Activities for CP Centres
  to facilitate implementation of
    the Stockholm Convention




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                 The Basel Convention
              Priorities of the next decade
   Partnerships to increase co-operation and strategic alliances
   Environmentally sound management and active promotion and
    use of cleaner technologies and production methods
   Further reduction of the movement of hazardous and other
    wastes
   Prevention and monitoring of illegal traffic
   Improvement of institutional and technical capabilities - through
    technology when appropriate - especially for developing
    countries and countries with economies in transition
   Further development of regional and subregional centres for
    training and technology transfer

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                     Partnerships:
Increased co-operation and strategic alliances
Cleaner Production practitioners can:
   promote UNEP Cleaner Production Declaration as a
    way to strengthen commitments
   help create links from the Convention to private sector
   invite the Basel Convention implementation actors to
    participate in the existing Cleaner Production
    partnerships
   assist in creating multi-stakeholder dialogues


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    Environmentally sound management (ESM)

    “...taking of all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous
     wastes or other wastes are managed in a manner, which
     will protect human health and the environment against
     the adverse effects, which may result from such wastes.”
    Key principles: Prevention and minimisation of generation of wastes
    Requires capacity building, policy reforms and promotion and use of
     cleaner technologies and production methods.
    Priority waste streams:
      –   Used lead-acid batteries
      –   used oils
      –   metal wastes
      –   pesticide wastes


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            Capacity building and ESM

   Cleaner Production practitioners can:
    –   Promote existing relevant Cleaner Production guidelines and
        manuals for tackling priority waste streams. Develop new
        materials tailored to the needs of the Convention
    –   Offer knowledge of the information sources on ESM for the
        relevant waste streams
    –   Conduct demonstration projects for ESM in your countries in
        the priority waste generating sectors
    –   Conduct training on ESM tailored to local conditions
    –   Provide technical assistance services
    –   Provide policy advice and lobby for Cleaner Production
        policies and legislation in your country
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NCPC Technical Assistance: Case Study
    Lead-Acid Batteries in Central America and Caribbean

   AIM
    –   bridge the information gap that national authorities
        and industry have for the recycling and
        management of used batteries regarding:
           appropriate policy tools
           use of economic instruments
           national and regional approaches toward waste
            minimisation
           use of technically sound and socially acceptable
            technologies and practices

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NCPC Technical Assistance: Case Study
     Lead-Acid Batteries in Central America and Caribbean

   NCPC Activities (Bogota, San Jose, San Salvador, Mexico):
       Plant assessments and field visits
       Collection of information on annual scrap generation, scrap battery
        collection and recycling schemes and recycling facilities, as well as their
        environmental and occupational performance
       Assessment of the requirements for implementing ESM, recommendations
        for waste prevention at national and sub-regional level
       Conducting the regional workshops on battery recycling
       Evaluation of technically sound, economically affordable and socially
        acceptable technologies in relation to the specific situation
       Facilitation of the access to these technologies and providing continuous
        technical assistance to the involved enterprises
       Identification of opportunities for regional co-operation, including public-
        private partnerships
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    Regional Training Centres and NCPCs
   RTCs focus on specific for the Convention services and
    operate on regional level
   high potential for co-operation even though NCPCs and
    RTCs have different geographical and service scope
   NCPCs can implement some of the RTC mandate on local
    level




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    Regional Training Centres and NCPCs
   High Potential for Cooperation between NCPCs and RTCs
    –   Training courses, workshops, seminars, training the trainers on
        ESM and minimisation of generation of hazardous wastes.
    –   Collecting information new or proven environmentally sound
        technologies and know-how on ESM and disseminating these info
        to the Parties of the Region; strengthening transfer mechanisms
    –   Developing financial strategies for the operation of centres
    –   Establishing and maintaining regular exchange of information
        and networking among the parties relevant to Basel Convention
        provisions
    –   Promoting case studies and pilot projects demonstrating best
        approaches, practices and methodologies for the environmentally
        sound management and minimisation of wastes

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    Regional Training Centres and NCPCs
   Medium Potential for Cooperation between NCPCs
    and RTCs
    –   Scientific, technical and legal assistance to the
        Parties on matters relevant to ESM or minimisation
        of wastes
    –   Gathering, assessing and disseminating data on
        hazardous wastes and other wastes to Parties of the
        Region and the Secretariat




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              Explore opportunities

   What are your country’s obligations under the
    Convention?
   What are your nation’s priority waste streams and
    industry sectors?
   What kind of expertise/services do you have to
    offer in regard to your country’s implementation
    priorities?
   What kind of necessary expertise/services you can
    obtain from the NCPC network?
   What kind of financial assistance can your country
    qualify for in order to implement projects under
    the Convention?
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            Information sources

   Basel Convention website: www.basel.int
   UNEP DTIE
   The Basel Convention Secretariat
   National focal points and designated
    authorities in your country
   RTC in your region
   Ministry of Environment

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                    Develop action plan
   Collect information
   Define competitive advantages
    –   experience of work in the priority sectors, existence of developed
        methodologies for addressing the priority waste streams, successful
        training initiatives, trust of the main industry actors,etc.
   Organise meetings/seminars/workshops
    –   co-ordinate with the Convention implementation bodies to exchange
        information and experiences
   Develop joint projects and training programs
    –   relate to national priorities under the Convention
   Explore funding opportunities
    –   obtain financing

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