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Effect of silo management factors on aerobic Effect of silo

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					       International Silage Conference 2-4 July 2012 - Hämeenlinna, Finland




Effect of silo management factors on aerobic
        stability and extent of spoilage
             in f       i    il
             i farm maize silages



     Giorgio Borreani and Ernesto Tabacco
     Dip. di Agronomia, Selvicoltura e Gestione del Territorio
                   University of Turin - ITALY
           The aerobic deterioration of silages

   DM losses (various authors since 1964; McDonald et al., 1991)
                                     1964;             al. 1991)

   reduction in animal performance (Withlock et al., 2000)
                                                 al.

   risk for animal health due to mycotoxins and biogenic
amines (Woolford, 1990; Wilkinson, 1999)
                  1990;

   Listeria and other pathogens (Fenlon and Wilson, 1991)

    l t idi           t    th Vissers et all., 2007; T b
    clostridia spore outgrowth (Vi                              l
                                                             t al.
                                        t al. 2007; Tabacco et al.,

2009)

   Bacillus and Paenibacillus spores (Te Giffel et al., 2002)
                                                    al.
 What is the health status of the silage during
                consumption?

Visible          Spoiled with visible mould


                 spoiled with yeast or Acetobacter spp.
                 development
                 increase in silage temperature
Invisible
                                    g
                 well conserved silage
                 high feeding value
              Aim to identify the extent of
            aerobic deterioration in farm silos
  Invisible                                            Visible
spoiled areas                                       moulded areas




                        Well conserved
                             silage




                                  Line of increased temperature
                                     due to microbial activity
Yeast count and silage temperature at the silo face




                  Yeast
                  Yeast count

                  Visible moulded areas




                    Temperature
                       Aims



     q      y
• to quantify the extent of aerobic deterioration of

maize silages on commercial farms in Northern

Italy

• to define good management practices that

should be applied as the basis for safe silage

production
               Materials and Methods

•              2005-2010)
    six years (2005-2010) of data collection in 107 farms

           g
    breeding Italian Friesian cows

•   winter and summer maize silage sampling

•   representative samples from silage core, peripheral

    areas and visible moulded spots (if present)

•   silage analyses for pH, lactic acid, VFA, yeast and

    mould
            Materials and Methods

•                     feed-
    measure of linear feed-out rate of the working

    face

•   measure of temperatures at various depths into

    the working face

•    easu e o e e e s o o e s b e ou ded
    measure of the extension of the visible moulded

                      feed-
    areas on the silo feed-out face
Extent of mouldy spoilage in farm maize silages
                 in Northern Italy

      Winter season            Summer season
                                              10%
      29%                    46%




29%                   42%
                                             44%


      More 10%        2-10% spoiled    Less 2% spoiled
     DM losses and mould count in maize silage
                   at farm level

              100
                                                   Visible mould on silage

              80
          )
DM loss (%)
      ses




              60

              40
D




              20
                                                                  R2 = 0.8629
               0
                    1.0   2.0   3.0   4.0    5.0   6.0     7.0      8.0         9.0

                                Mould count (log CFU/g silage)
Removal rates from bunkers and piles




      Measured in meters per week ranged
        from 0.32 to 2.69 m in summer
         from 0.24 to 3.15 m in winter
                                           feed-
Silo face visibly moulded in relation with feed-out rate:

                                               WINTER CONSUMPTION

                                                                  Mouldy areas below 2%
Silo fac visibly moulde (%)




                              20
                      ed




                              16

                              12
               y




                              8

                              4
       ce




                              0
                                   0.0   0.4     0.8    1.0 1.2       1.6       2.0          2.4   2.8   3.2

                                                      feed-
                                               Weekly feed-out rate from the silo face (m)
                                           feed-
Silo face visibly moulded in relation with feed-out rate:

                                               SUMMER CONSUMPTION

                                                                               Mouldy areas below 2%
Silo fac visibly moulde (%)




                              20
                      ed




                              16

                              12
               y




                              8

                              4
       ce




                              0
                                   0.0   0.4     0.8      1.2       1.6        2.0       2.4    2.8    3.2


                                                        feed-
                                                 Weekly feed-out rate from the silo face (m)
                                        Some further considerations
                             20
                                                                            Summer consumption

                                                                            Winter consumption
                             16
Silo fa visibly moulde (%)



                                                    Minimum feed-out rate
                     ed




                             12

                                                                      Good silo management
                                                                            practices!
                              8
      ace




                              4



                              0
                                  00
                                  0.0    0.5
                                         05         1.0
                                                    10      1.5
                                                            15      2.0
                                                                    20       2.5
                                                                             25      3.0
                                                                                     30      3.5
                                                                                             35
                                               Weekly removal rate from the silo face (m)
Strategies to prevent aerobic deterioration
               at farm level

   Packing down fresh forage when filling the silo

   Oxygen barrier films to cover silage

   Weigh down shoulder and top sheets

   Additives and inoculum types
  Type of plastic cover: Oxygen barrier films
                 (temperature profile)

     Barrier film (120 m)                 PE film (150 m)




                                      Maize silage:
                                      summer consumption
                                                  1 26
                                      18 cm/day = 1.26 m/wk
See Poster no. 66 (Borreani and Tabacco)
Weigh down shoulder and top sheets
gravel (150 kg/m2)    tyres (30 kg/m2)




                          Maize silage:
                          summer consumption
                          15 cm/day = 1.05 m/wk
Silo wall and packing density effect




                            Maize silage:
                            summer consumption
                            17 cm/day = 1.19 m/wk
                                 feed-
        Seasonal recommended feed-out rates
       (m/week) in dairy areas around the world

                                    Latitude   Winter   Summer

The NetherlandsVissers al., 2007)
               (    et               51°N       1.00     1.50

North Dakota(Schroeder,, 2004))
            (Sc oede 00              47 N
                                     47°N       1.05
                                                1 05     2.10
                                                         2 10

 Italy                               45°N       1.05     1.60

Wisconsin and Pitt, 1993)
         (Muck                       44°N       1.10     2.10
Kansas(Berger and Bolsen, 2006)      38°N       1.35     2.15

 Israel (Weinberg, 2003)             31°N       1.40     2.10
                   feed-
Recommended silage feed-out rates in relation
     with environmental temperatures
  Week feed-out rate (m)   2.5


                                                                          Present survey
                           2.0
                                                                          International data


                           15
                           1.5
     kly  d




                           1.0
                                                           2
                                                          R = 0.84
                           0.5
                              -10     -2     6      14      22       30
                                                              (°
                                    Seasonal mean temperature (°C)
                        co c us o
                     In conclusion

•                       silages,
    This study on maize silages underlines the importance

          p g     g feed-
    of coupling high feed-out rates with careful silo

    management in order to control aerobic deterioration

•   Defining the correct size of silos at farm level is the

    main factor that could prevent aerobic spoilage

•   The   i      t l temperature seems t b th
    Th environmental t      t          to be the

    driving factor in sizing silos for different areas and

    seasons
Thank you for your attention!

				
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