Social Studies and Alignment.ppt - Wikispaces

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					Social Studies and Alignment
      Making the Pieces Fit




                    Robert Sox
                   Wake County Public School System
                     Senior Administrator Title I




    October 25, 2010
  What is an EXPERT?
Pronounced: “ex-spurt”
Ex: Former
Spurt: A drip under pressure
Our level of depth for this topic is:
• Water Skiing          • Deep Diving



                 Not
What helped this tree get this
           TALL?
            The Big Five
• Beginning with the class of 2010
  students must pass five End of Course
  Tests
• Algebra I
• Biology
• English I
• Civics & Economics
• U.S. History
      Tiny Acorn : Mighty Oak
• Kindergarten:             • Elaborate on the cycle
  Distinguish between         of economic boom and
  wants and needs             bust in the 1920’s and
                              1930’s
• Third Grade: Define and   • Analyze the extent of
  identify examples of        prosperity for different
  scarcity                    segments of society
                              during this period
• Third Grade: Explain      • Examine the impact of
  the impact of scarcity      technological innovations
  on the production,          on American Life
  distribution and
  consumption of goods
  and services
  The Elementary Connection
 Grade     Objectives     In C&E       % C&E      In US Hist   % US Hist


  K           29                                     29         100%
   1          35           21          60%           30          86%
  2           35           32          91%
  3           29           14          48%           27          93%
  4           35           19          54%           29          83%
  5           43           32          74%           34          79%
Percentages determined by groups of teachers from each given grade level
 The State of Elementary Social
            Studies
• North Carolina elementary teachers
  teach social studies about 30 minutes a
  week
                               Burroughs et al.,2005



• Teachers stated the main barrier to
  teaching social studies was loss of
  instructional time to the tested
  subjects
                     Heafner, Lipscomb, & Rock, 2006
        Even Greater Loss
• While high stakes testing has reduced
  the portion of time dedicated to social
  studies for all students, some students
  have even less access to social studies
  content
   – ESL
   – Special Education
   – Academically Gifted
            Simple Facts
• Social Studies accounts for 40% of this
  new “Graduation Gateway”
• While there is NO test for elementary
  social studies
  – Elementary teachers must plant the
    “seeds” early enough.
  – Elementary teachers must protect
    “seedlings” from harsh weather
 This Majestic tree is the legacy of
ALL who contributed to its presence
(Even those who weren't around the day the picture was snapped)
       What is Curriculum?
• Individually consider your personal
  definition of the term curriculum

• What words do you think of when you
  hear the term curriculum?
Look at Your List




Please work independently
Lets Take a Test




Please work independently
How Did You Do?




Why Were Some More Successful Than Others?
If We Believe All Kids Can Learn…

• What is it we expect them to learn?
• How will we know when they have
  learned it?
• How will we respond when they don’t
  learn it?
• How will we respond when they
  already know it?
          it
–just two letters
–a single syllable
–a simple word
  How Hard Can it Be?
                   The Definition of “it”
     it:  pronoun, nominative it, possessive its or (Obsolete or Dialect ) it, objective it; plural nominative they,
     possessive their or theirs, objective them; noun

–pronoun 1.(used to represent an inanimate thing understood, previously mentioned, about to be mentioned, or present
    in the immediate context): It has whitewall tires and red upholstery. You can't tell a book by its cover. 2.(used to
    represent a person or animal understood, previously mentioned, or about to be mentioned whose gender is
    unknown or disregarded): It was the largest ever caught off the Florida coast. Who was it? It was John. The horse
    had its saddle on. 3.(used to represent a group understood or previously mentioned): The judge told the jury it
    must decide two issues. 4.(used to represent a concept or abstract idea understood or previously stated): It all
    started with Adam and Eve. He has been taught to believe it all his life. 5.(used to represent an action or activity
    understood, previously mentioned, or about to be mentioned): Since you don't like it, you don't have to go skiing.
    6.(used as the impersonal subject of the verb to be, esp. to refer to time, distance, or the weather): It is six o'clock.
    It is five miles to town. It was foggy. 7.(used in statements expressing an action, condition, fact, circumstance, or
    situation without reference to an agent): If it weren't for Edna, I wouldn't go. 8.(used in referring to something as
    the origin or cause of pain, pleasure, etc.): Where does it hurt? It looks bad for the candidate. 9.(used in referring
    to a source not specifically named or described): It is said that love is blind. 10.(used in referring to the general
    state of affairs; circumstances, fate, or life in general): How's it going with you? 11.(used as an anticipatory subject
    or object to make a sentence more eloquent or suspenseful or to shift emphasis): It is necessary that you do your
    duty. It was a gun that he was carrying. 12.Informal. (used instead of the pronoun its before a gerund): It having
    rained for only one hour didn't help the crops. –noun 13.(in children's games) the player called upon to perform
    some task, as, in tag, the one who must catch the other players. 14.Slang. a.sex appeal. b.sexual intercourse. —
    Idioms 15.get with it, Slang. to become active or interested: He was warned to get with it or resign. 16.have it,
    Informal. a.to love someone: She really has it bad for him. b.to possess the requisite abilities for something; be
    talented, adept, or proficient: In this business youeither have it or you don't. 17.with it, Slang. a.aware of the latest
    fads, fashions, etc.; up-to-date. b.attentive or alert: I'm just not with it early in the morning. c.understanding or
    appreciative of something, as jazz. d.Carnival Slang. being a member of the carnival.

                          Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/it
  We know what to say
When someone asks:
“What is it you expect
them to learn?”

We typically reply:         it
“The North Carolina
Standard Course of Study”
        (Curriculum)




…Much more than a single simple word
         Three Dimensions of
             Curriculum
• Intended (DPI, LEA)
  – Identifies Critical Expectations
• Implemented (Teachers)
  – Defines Essential Outcomes
  – Presents Relevant Information
  – Develops Understanding
• Achieved (Students)
  – Assess Students’ Skills
     • Formative
     • Summative
         Three Dimensions of
             Curriculum
• Curriculum
  – Identifies Critical Expectations
• Instruction
  – Defines Essential Outcomes
  – Presents Relevant Information
  – Develops Understanding
• Assessment
  – Assess Students’ Skills
     • Formative
     • Summative
 Learning occurs best when
          there is:
• A purposeful process that aligns:
  – Curriculum
  – Instruction
  – Assessment
• Complete alignment:
  – External
  – Internal
Importance of Alignment
• Alignment is an even stronger predictor
  of student achievement on standardized
  tests than are socioeconomic status,
  gender, race, and teacher effect.
  (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)
  To significantly improve our core business of
              Teaching & Learning
• Curriculum learning tasks need to be
  clearly stated (More specifically than the DPI SCoS)
• There needs to be a plan to assess all
  areas taught (Even those the state doesn’t test)
• We need to close achievement gaps
   (At the current rate we’ll NEVER meet our goals)

• We need to instruct toward a higher
  level of thinking (Bloom/Marzano)
        In Other Words
• Collaboratively we must seek the most
  effective means to systematically
  – Define It (Curriculum learning tasks need to be
    clearly stated)
  – Measure It (There needs to be a plan to assess all
    areas taught)
  – Scaffold It (We need to close achievement gaps)
  – Extend It (We need to instruct toward a higher
    level of thinking)
  Professional Learning Communities
                Put Teachers on the Right Track

• Curriculum learning tasks     • What is it we expect them
  need to be clearly stated       to learn?

• There needs to be a plan to   • How will we know when they
  assess all areas taught         have learned it?

• We need to close              • How will we respond when
  achievement gaps                they don’t learn it?

• We need to instruct toward    • How will we respond when
  a higher level of thinking      they already know it?
  The Focus of Collaboration

• Collaborative cultures, which by
  definition have close relationships, are
  indeed powerful, but unless they are
  focusing on the right things they may
  end up being powerfully wrong.
We Must Start at the Right Place




                   Instructional
                    Planning




 AND Know Where We Are Headed
External Alignment

          “Does the
        teacher teach
         and test the
        topics listed in
       the curriculum?”
      Unwrapping the Standards
• To clearly identify the most critical content
  (essential learning)

• To ensure that teachers clearly understand
  the cognitive tasks implicit in the standard.

• To prepare for designing lessons
  –   Prerequisite skills
  –   Vocabulary
  –   Enrichment and intervention
  –   Assessment
Let’s Start With Something We
         All Understand



         Chocolate!
Why Unwrap?
The GOOD STUFF is INSIDE




 What’s Really in the Bag?
Each Bag is a Unique Collection
This is Half
This is Half
This is Half
        How Can I Reduce AND
Maintain the Integrity of the Collection?
Organizing What You Have
Did We Maintain the Integrity?
Did We Maintain the Integrity?
How much more can we reduce?
  To significantly improve our core business of
              Teaching & Learning
• Curriculum learning tasks need to be
  clearly stated (More specifically than the DPI SCoS)
• There needs to be a plan to assess all
  areas taught (Even those the state doesn’t test)
• We need to close achievement gaps
   (At the current rate we’ll NEVER meet our goals)

• We need to instruct toward a higher
  level of thinking (Bloom/Marzano)
Internal Alignment

       “Do the students
        get to work and
       think at the level
        the curriculum
          prescribes?”
Teaching for Higher Order Thinking


 The key to mastery of a standard
 is the teacher’s clear
 understanding of the level of
 cognition required and how to
 support students in reaching that
 level.
           Providing Context
• This story is set back
  in a time when there
  wasn’t any plumbing
  and life was more
  simplistic.
• It shares the
  childhood memories of
  a little girl living with
  her grandparents in
  the mountains.
      Consider this Standard
•   The learner will evaluate how the lives of
    individuals and families of the past are
    different from what they are today

     1. Describe the life of the mountain girl’s family.
     2. How was the life of the mountain girl’s family different
        from your family?




        Would these questions get to it?
  You Find It in the Nouns and the Verbs
Standard
     The learner will evaluate how the lives of
     individuals and families of the past are different
     from what they are today

     Verbs: Evaluate

     Nouns: Lives
            • Individuals (past & present)
            • Families (past & present)
Determining the Cognitive Demands of the Standards

     The learner will evaluate how the lives of individuals and families of
     the past are different from what they are today



The
                   The Cognitive Process Dimension (verbs)
Knowledge        1.          2.        3.          4.          5.          6.
Dimension     Remember   Understand   Apply      Analyze    Evaluate     Create
(nouns)
A.
Factual                                                        X
                                                            Individual
B.
Conceptual                                                     X
                                                           Family Life
C.
Procedural


D.
Meta-
Cognitive
    Describe the life of the mountain
X              girl’s family.

    The
                            The Cognitive Process Dimension
    Knowledge       1.          2.        3.       4.         5.           6.
    Dimension    Remember   Understand   Apply   Analyze   Evaluate      Create

    A.
    Factual                                                   X
                                                           Individual
    B.
    Conceptual                                                X
                                                           Family Life

    C.
    Procedural


    D.
    Meta-
    Cognitive
X   How was the life of the mountain girl’s
       family different from your family?

    The
                            The Cognitive Process Dimension
    Knowledge       1.          2.        3.       4.         5.           6.
    Dimension    Remember   Understand   Apply   Analyze   Evaluate      Create

    A.
    Factual                                                   X
                                                           Individual
    B.
    Conceptual                                                X
                                                           Family Life

    C.
    Procedural


    D.
    Meta-
    Cognitive
Sometimes We Miss the Mark

• If the teaching sequence is designed to
  support student learning at the
  knowledge level, but the standard is
  actually at the analysis level, we have
  taught to the wrong target.
    How might we get closer to the
                target?
The
                        The Cognitive Process Dimension
Knowledge       1.          2.        3.       4.         5.        6.
Dimension    Remember   Understand   Apply   Analyze   Evaluate   Create

A.
Factual


B.
Conceptual


C.
Procedural


D.
Meta-
Cognitive
Evaluating allows one to:
  assess, choose, decide, judge, justify, prioritize,
  rank, rate, select


         Craft a question closer to the target:

  The learner will evaluate how the lives of individuals and families of the past are
                         different from what they are today




This is a Kindergarten objective, so how do we say it in
terms a five year old can understand?
 Evidence of Higher Order Thinking
Subject            Knowledge and       Application          Analysis, Synthesis,
                   Comprehension                            and Evaluation

Language           73%                 10%                  17%
Arts
Math               84%                 11%                  6%
Science            79%                 7%                   14%
* Social           80%                 3%                   17%
  Studies
                                    15%                                   85%

    * NOTE: Social Studies represents grades 5-11, as there were no
      Social Studies artifacts collected K-4
   Standards Must be Unwrapped
• To clearly identify the most critical concepts
  (essential learning)

• To ensure that teachers clearly understand the
  cognitive tasks implicit in the standard.

• To prepare for designing lessons
   –   Prerequisite skills
   –   Vocabulary
   –   Enrichment and intervention
   –   Assessment
       Competency Goal 3:
The learner will recognize and understand the
  concept of change in various settings.
Objectives
3.01 Observe and describe how individuals and families
  grow and change.
3.02 Evaluate how the lives of individuals and families
  of the past are different from what they are today.
3.03 Observe and summarize changes within
  communities.
3.04 Recognize changes in the classroom and school
  environments.
               Unwrapping Change
    Verbs = Cognitive Skills     Nouns = Critical Concepts
•    Observe                     • Change/Growth in
•    Recognize                     various human
•    Describe                      contexts
•    Summarize                        •   Individuals
                                      •   Families
•    Evaluate                         •   Classroom
•    Understand                       •   School Environment
(change in individual, family,        •   Community
   school, and community)
         Assessment/Evaluation
         Change in individual, family, school, and community




Skills to teach                     Skills to evaluate
•   Observe                         • Describe
•   Recognize                       • Evaluate
•   Describe
•   Summarize
•   Evaluate
•   Understand
               Unwrapping Change
    Verbs = Cognitive Skills     Nouns = Critical Concepts
•    Observe                     • Change/Growth in
•    Recognize                     various human
•    Describe                      contexts
•    Summarize                        •   Individuals
                                      •   Families
•    Evaluate                         •   Classroom
•    Understand                       •   School Environment
(change in individual, family,        •   Community
   school, and community)
Government and Active Citizenship
            What pieces do you own?


Skills (Verbs)           Concepts (Nouns)
      Lets Look Vertically
• What do you notice?
• What is the advantage of knowing?
• How can this guide your work?
• What can you do, now that you’ve
  noticed?
• What would you do first?
 Well Worth Repeating!
• Alignment is an even stronger predictor
  of student achievement on standardized
  tests than are socioeconomic status,
  gender, race, and teacher effect.
  (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)
If We Believe All Kids Can Learn…

• What is it we expect them to learn?
• How will we know when they have
  learned it?
• How will we respond when they don’t
  learn it?
• How will we respond when they
  already know it?
             Collaboration helps

      Everyone Succeed




“All of our students belong to each of us…
         … each of our students belongs to all of us”
What do we REMEMBER?
What Stuck?




What made it last?
What Are You Thinking Now?

				
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